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Copy a1.Introduction 2 Uses 2.1 Multiple phones 2.2 Sharing 3 Handsets 3.1 Features 3.

2 Software and applications 3.3 Power supply 3.4 SIM card 3.5 Market 3.6 Media 4 Privacy 5 Restriction on usage 5.1 Use while driving 5.2 Schools 6 Comparison to similar systems INTRODUCTION A mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone[1]) is an electron ic device used for mobile telecommunications (mobile telephone, text messaging o r data transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer t elephone service within limited range, e.g. within a home or an office, through a fixed line and a base station owned by the subscriber and also from satellite phones and radio telephones. As opposed to a radio telephone, a cell phone offer s full duplex communication, automates calling to and paging from a public land mobile network (PLMN), and handoff (handover) during a phone call when the user moves from one cell (base station coverage area) to another. Most current cell p hones connect to a cellular network consisting of switching points and base stat ions (cell sites) owned by a mobile network operator. In addition to the standar d voice function, current mobile phones may support many additional services, an d accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for acces s to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and M MS for sending and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS. Uses Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch wit h family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the e vent of an emergency. Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence may offer a cell phone to po tential victims without the abuser's knowledge. These devices are often old phon es that are donated and refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs. Child predators have taken advantage of cell phones to secretly communicate with children without the knowledge of their parents or teachers. The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; th e first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a w ebsite that collects the novels as a whole.[20] Paul Levinson, in Information on the Move (2004), says "...nowadays, a writer can write just about as easily, an ywhere, as a reader can read" and they are "not only personal but portable". 1.Multiple phones Individuals may have multiple cell phones for separate purposes, such as for bus iness and personal use. Multiple phones (or multiple SIM cards) may be used to t ake advantage of the benefits of different calling plans a particular plan might pro vide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second p hone that often is kept secret from other family members. These phones may be us ed to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine busines s dealings. 2.Sharing Cell phone sharing is a phenomenon which exists around the world. It is prevalen

t in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobi les among their members. Two types of sharing which exist are "conspicuous" and "stealthy" sharing. An example of conspicuous sharing takes place when someone c alls the friend of the person they are trying to reach in hopes of being able to talk to that individual; the latter type of sharing occurs when an individual u ses another's cell phone without their knowledge. Phone sharing does not only ta ke place because of its economic benefits, but also often due to familial custom s and traditional gender roles. Another example of cell phone sharing occurs in Burkina Faso. There it is not un common for a village to only have access to one cell phone. This cell phone is t ypically owned by a person who is not natively from the village, such as a teach er or missionary. Although the cell phone is the sole property of one individual , it is the expectation that other members of the village are allowed to use the cell phone to make necessary calls. Although some may consider this a burden, i t can actually be an opportunity to engage in reciprocal obligations. This type of cell phone sharing is an important for the small villages in Burkina Faso bec ause it allows them to keep up with the expectations of the globalizing world.[2 3] Handsets There are several categories of mobile phones, from basic phones to feature phon es such as musicphones and cameraphones. There are also smartphones, the first s martphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functio nality to the basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturisation and increased p rocessing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phon es, the concept of the smartphone has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphon e five years ago, is a standard phone today. Several phone series have been intr oduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of m usicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone. 1.Features Mobile phone features and Smartphone Mobile phones often have beyond sending text messages and making voice calls, in cluding call registers, GPS navigation, music (MP3) and video (MP4) playback, RD S radio receiver, alarms, memo and document recording, personal organiser and pe rsonal digital assistant functions, ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing, video calling, built-in cameras (1.0+ Mpx) and camcord ers (video recording), with autofocus and flash, ringtones, games, PTT, memory c ard reader (SD), USB (2.0), infrared, Bluetooth (2.0) and WiFi connectivity, ins tant messaging, Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem for a PC, and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games. Some phones also include a touchscreen. Nokia and the University of Cambridge are demonstrating a bendable cell phone ca lled the Morph. 2.Software and applications A phone with touchscreen feature. Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997 2007 The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging, with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007). SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of mes saging use is 2.6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subs criber base (source Informa 2007). The first SMS text message was sent from a co mputer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 billion doll ars in 2007, and were led by mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gami ng, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). The fi rst downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, w

hen Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone service. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as Google in annual revenues. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 200 0. Mobile news services are expanding with many organisations providing "on-dema nd" news services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mo bile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo![25] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine New s in Sri Lanka. Companies are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career ad vice. Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from informat ion guides on local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for mob ile phones are increasingly becoming available. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vendin g machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely u sed in Asia and Africa, and in selected European markets. For example in the Phi lippines it is not unusual to have one's entire paycheck paid to the mobile acco unt. In Kenya the limit of money transfers from one mobile banking account to an other is one million US dollars. In India paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. In Estonia mobile phones are the most popular method of paying f or public parking. Mobile phone charging service in Uganda Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries. There are a va riety of ways used to charge cell phones, including USB, portable batteries, mai ns power (using an AC adapter), cigarette lighters (using an adapter), or a dyna mo. In 2009, wireless charging became a reality, and the first wireless charger was released for consumer use. Standardization of Micro-USB connector for charging Starting from 2010, many mobile phone manufacturers have agreed to use the Micro -USB connector for charging their phones.[27] The mobile phone manufacturers who have agreed to this standard include: Apple LG Motorola Nokia Research In Motion Samsung Sony Ericsson On 17 February 2009, the GSM Association announced[28] that they had agreed on a standard charger for mobile phones. The standard connector to be adopted by 17 manufacturers in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform including Nokia, Motorola and Samsung is to be the micro-USB connector (several media reports erroneously rep orted this as the mini-USB). The new chargers will be much more efficient than e xisting chargers. Having a standard charger for all phones, means that manufactu rers will no longer have to supply a charger with every new phone. In addition, on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solution its " energy-efficient one-charger-fits-all new mobile phone solution", and added: "Ba sed on the Micro-USB interface, UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or highe

r efficiency rating up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charge r." Charger efficiency The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in Novemb er 2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient charger s The majority of energy lost in a mobile phone charger is in its no load conditio n, when the mobile phone is not connected but the charger has been left plugged in and using power. To combat this in November 2008 the top five mobile phone ma nufacturers Nokia, Samsung, LG Electronics, Sony Ericsson and Motorola set up a star rating system to rate the efficiency of their chargers in the no-load condi tion. Starting at zero stars for >0.5 W and going up to the top five star rating for <0.03 W (30 mW) no load power. A number of semiconductor companies offering flyback controllers, such as Power Integrations and CamSemi, now claim that the five star standard can be achieved with use of their product. Battery Formerly, the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydri de, as they have a low size and weight. lithium ion batteries are sometimes used , as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-h ydride batteries do. Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion, the main advantag es of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a sha pe other than strict cuboid. Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources, including solar cells and Coca Cola.[30] SIM card Typical mobile phone SIM card In addition to the battery, GSM mobile phones require a small microchip, called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. Approximately the size of a small postage stamp, the SIM Card is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit, and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configur ation data, and information about the phone itself, such as which calling plan t he subscriber is using. When the subscriber removes the SIM Card, it can be re-i nserted into another phone that is configured to accept the SIM card and used as normal. Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier; once activat ed, the identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the a ctivating network. For this reason, most retailers refuse to accept the return o f an activated SIM Card. Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to thei r memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. From here, one can add informatio n such as a new number for the phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergenc y numbers, change their Authentication Key or A-Key code, and update their Prefe rred Roaming List or PRL. However, to prevent someone from accidentally disablin g their phone or removing it from the network, the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL. The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that w as purchased or "leased". For example, the Motorola RAZR V9C costs upwards of CA D $500. Depending on the carrier, such a phone may be available for as little as $200. The difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill. If the carrier did not use an MSL, then they may lose the $300 $400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill, since some customers would cancel their service and ta ke the phone to another carrier. The MSL applies to the SIM only so once the contract has been completed the MSL still applies to the SIM. The phone however, is also initially locked by the man ufacturer into the Service Providers MSL. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other Service Providers SIM cards. Most phones purchased outside t

he US are unlocked phones because there are numerous Service Providers in close proximity to one another or have overlapping coverage. The cost to unlock a phon e varies but is usually very cheap and is sometimes provided by independent phon e vendors. Having an unlocked phone is extremely useful for travelers due to the high cost of using the MSL Service Providers access when outside the normal coverage areas . It can cost sometimes up to 10 times as much to use a locked phone overseas as in the normal service area, even with discounted rates. T-Mobile will provide a SIM unlock code to account holders in good standing after 90 days according to their FAQ. For example, in Jamaica, an AT&T subscriber might pay in excess of US$1.65 per m inute for discounted international service while a B-Mobile (Jamaican) customer would pay US$0.20 per minute for the same international service. Some Service Pr oviders focus sales on international sales while others focus on regional sales. For example, the same B-Mobile customer might pay more for local calls but less for international calls than a subscriber to the Jamaican national phone C&W (C able & Wireless) company. These rate differences are mainly due to currency vari ations because SIM purchases are made in the local currency. In the US, this typ e of service competition does not exist because some of the major Service Provid ers do not offer Pay-As-You-Go services. [Needs Pay-As-You-Go references, rumore d T-Mobile, Verizon provide one, AT&T does not as of 12/2008] Market Mobile phone manufacturers' market share in Q3/2008 The world's largest individual mobile operator is China Mobile with over 500 mil lion mobile phone subcribers. The world's largest mobile operator group by subsc ribers is UK based Vodafone. There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscr ibers by the end of 2008 (source wireless intelligence). In mobile phone handsets, in Q3/2008, Nokia was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones, with a global device market share of 39.4%, followed by Samsu ng (17.3%), Sony Ericsson (8.6%), Motorola (8.5%) and LG Electronics (7.7%). The se manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all mobile phones sold at that time.[ 32] Other manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQSiemens, CECT, HTC Corporation, Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC, Neon ode, Panasonic, Palm, Matsushita, Pantech Wireless Inc., Philips, Qualcomm Inc., Research In Motion Ltd. (RIM), Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sendo, Sierra Wire less, SK Teletech, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium, Toshiba[citation needed] and Vida lco. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct fr om) mobile phones. Media The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringtones we re sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon other media content appe ared such as news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). The value of music on phones was worth 9.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth ov er 5 billion dollars in 2007. The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema, TV and P C screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). [weasel words] It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Reco rdings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet the first six). Most early content for mo bile tended to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisement or th e TV news highlight video clip. Recently unique content for mobile has been emer ging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes," video c ontent that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones. The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to ide ntify and track Alpha Users or Hubs, the most influential members of any social community. AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass med

ia, and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate tha n on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV.[original research?] Privacy Cell phones have numerous privacy issues associated with them, and are regularly used by governments to perform surveillance. Law enforcement and intelligence services in the UK and the US possess technolog y to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones in order to listen to conv ersations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone.[34][35] Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not), using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in t ime for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers ne ar the owner of the phone. Restriction on usage There exists a growing body within the scientific community which believes mobil e phone use represents a long-term health risk, particularly to young children. Certain countries, including France, restrict the use and sale of cell phones to minors for this reason. The telecommunications insdustry rejects such claims, c laming there is no proof of long-term adverse health effects. Groups of scientis ts, however, such as the U.S. - based group "Bioinitiative argue that because m obile phone use is recently-introduced technology, long-term 'proof' has been im possible - and use should be restricted, or monitored closely, while the technol ogy is still new. The very first generation of cell-phone users, for example, ar e only now entering middle-age. Studies in Europe, for example, are only now eme rging which link long-term cell phone use to brain tumours. Other studies link c ell-phone use to child-diabetes, concentration difficulty, and sleep disorders. Use while driving Mobile phones and driving safety Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Being distracted whi le operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. Be cause of this, many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while drivin g. Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore ban both hand-held and hands-fre e use of a mobile phone whilst many other countries including the UK, France, and m any US states ban hand-held phone use only, allowing hands-free use. Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones often more like mobile computers in their available uses it has introduced additional difficulties for law enforceme nt officials in being able to tell one usage from another as drivers use their d evices. This is more apparent in those countries who ban both hand-held and hand s-free usage, rather those who have banned hand-held use only, as officials cann ot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by visual ly looking at the driver. This can mean that drivers may be stopped for using th eir device illegally on a phone call, when in fact they were not; instead using the device for a legal purpose such as the phones' incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav usage either as part of the cars' own device or directly on the mobile phone itself. Cases like these can often only be proved otherwise by a check of the mobile ope rators phone call records to see if a call was taking place during the journey c oncerned. Although in many countries the law enforcement official may have stopp ed the driver for a differing offence, for example, for lack of due care and att ention in relation to their driving. Schools Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. Schools set restriction s on the use of mobile phones because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests, harassment and bullying, causing threats to the schools security, distrac tions to the students and facilitating gossip and other social activity in schoo l. Many mobile phones are banned in school locker room facilities, public restro oms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now feature, though some countries and manufacturers have taken steps to protect privacy in such areas by giving their products audible 'shutter noises', that cannot be dis abled.[citation needed]

A recently published study has reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety. Comparison to similar systems Car phone A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle, these often have more powe rful transmitters, an external antenna and loudspeaker for hands free use. They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones. Cordless telephone (portable phone) Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of a wired handset. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station, which in tur n connects to a conventional land line for calling. Unlike mobile phones, cordle ss phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber), whi ch are not shared. Professional Mobile Radio Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone s ystems. Notably, the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Similar at tempts have even been made to use TETRA, the European digital PMR standard, to i mplement public mobile networks. Radio phone This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone networ k. These phones may not be mobile; for example, they may require a mains power s upply, or they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN p hone call. Satellite phone This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite, which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satelli te can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. S ince satellite phones are costly, their use is typically limited to people in re mote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists, such as mountain climbers, mar iners in the open sea, and news reporters at disaster sites. IP Phone This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet, LAN or WAN networks using VoIP as opposed to traditional CDMA and GSM networks. In business, the ma jority of these IP Phones tend to be connected via wired Ethernet, however wirel ess varieties do exist. Several vendors have developed standalone WiFi phones. A dditionally, some cellular mobile phones include the ability to place VoIP calls over cellular s and/or wireless internet.[39] nd paste to create a document