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13 INTRODUCTION WHEN individual enters presence others they commonly seek acquire information about him bring into

play information about him already possessed They will interested general socio economic status conception self attitude towards competence trustworthiness etc Although some information seems sought almost end itself there usually quite

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practical reasons acquiring Information about individual helps define situation enabling others know advance what will expect what they may expect him Informed ways others will know best act order call forth desired response him those present many sources information become accessible many carriers sign vehicles )

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become available conveying information If unacquainted individual observers can glean clues conduct appearance allow apply their previous experience individuals roughly similar one before more important apply untested stereotypes him They can also assume past experience only individuals particular kind likely found given social setting They can rely

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what individual says about himself documentary evidence provides who what If they know know individual virtue experience prior interaction they can rely assumptions persistence generality psychological traits means predicting present future behaviour However during period individual immediate presence others few events may occur directly provide others conclusive

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information they will need if they direct wisely their own activity Many crucial facts lie beyond time place interaction lie concealed within example true real attitudes beliefs emotions individual can ascertained only 14 indirectly through avowals through what appears involuntary expressive behaviour Similarly

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if individual offers others product service they will often find during interaction there will no time place immediately available eating pudding proof can found They will forced accept some events conventional natural signs something directly available senses Ichheiser terms
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individual will have act intentionally unintentionally expresses

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himself others will turn have impressed some way him expressiveness individual therefore capacity give impressions appears involve two radically different kinds sign activity expression gives expression gives off first involves verbal symbols their substitutes uses admittedly solely convey information others known attach symbols communication traditional narrow sense

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second involves wide range action others can treat symptomatic actor expectation being action performed reasons other than information conveyed way shall have see distinction only initial validity individual does course intentionally convey misinformation means both types communication first involving deceit second feigning Taking communication both narrow broad

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sense one finds individual immediate presence others activity will have promissory character others likely find they must accept individual faith offering him just return while present before exchange something whose true value will established until after left their presence Of course others also live inference their dealings

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physical world only world social interaction objects about they make inferences will purposely facilitate 15 hinder inferential process .) security they justifiably feel making inferences about individual will vary course depending factors amount information they already possess about him no amount past evidence can entirely obviate necessity

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acting basis inferences William Thomas suggested also highly important us realize do matter fact lead our lives make our decisions reach our goals everyday life either statistically scientifically live inference let us say your guest You do know you cannot determine scientifically will steal your money your

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spoons inferentially will inferentially you have me guest


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Let us now turn others point view individual who presents himself before He may wish think highly him think thinks highly perceive fact feels towards obtain no clear cut impression may wish ensure sufficient harmony interaction can sustained defraud

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get rid confuse mislead antagonize insult Regardless particular objective individual mind motive having objective will interests control conduct others especially their responsive treatment him 5 control achieved largely influencing definition situation others come formulate can influence definition expressing himself way give kind impression will lead act voluntarily

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accordance own plan Thus individual appears 2 Quoted Volkart editor Social Behavior Personality Contributions Thomas Theory Social Research New York Social Science Research Council 1951 ), page 5 3 Here owe much unpublished paper Tom Burns University Edinburgh He presents argument all interaction basic underlying theme desire

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each participant guide control responses made others present similar argument been advanced Jay Haley recent unpublished paper regard special kind control having do defining nature relationship those involved interaction 16 presence others there will usually some reason him mobilize activity will convey impression others interests convey Since

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girl dormitory mates will glean evidence her popularity calls she receives phone can suspect some girls will arrange calls made Willard Wailer finding can anticipated been reported many observers girl who called telephone dormitories will often allow herself called several times order give all other

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girls ample opportunity hear her paged


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Of two kinds communication expressions given expressions given off report will primarily concerned latter more theatrical contextual kind non verbal presumably unintentional kind whether com munication purposely engineered example what must try examine would like cite length novelistic incident

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Preedy vacationing Englishman makes first appearance beach summer hotel Spain any case took care avoid catching anyone eye First all had make clear those potential companions holiday they were no concern him whatsoever He stared through round over eyes lost space beach might have been

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empty If chance ball thrown way looked surprised then let smile amusement lighten face Kindly Preedy ), looked round dazed see there were people beach tossed back smile himself smile people then resumed carelessly nonchalant survey space time institute little parade parade Ideal Preedy By devious handlings

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gave any who wanted look chance see title book Spanish translation Homer classic thus daring cosmopolitan too then gathered together beach wrap bag into neat sand resistant pile Methodical Sensible Preedy ), rose slowly stretch ease 17 huge frame Big Cat Preedy ), tossed aside

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sandals Carefree Preedy after all ). marriage Preedy sea ! There were alternative rituals first involved stroll turns into run dive straight into water thereafter smoothing into strong splashless crawl towards horizon course really horizon Quite suddenly would turn back thrash great white splashes legs somehow thus

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showing could have swum further had wanted then would stand up quarter out water all see who alternative course simpler avoided cold water shock avoided risk appearing too high spirited point appear used sea Mediterranean particular beach one might well sea out involved slow stroll down into

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edge water even noticing toes were wet land water all same him ! eyes up sky gravely surveying portents invisible others weather Local Fisherman Preedy ). 5 novelist means us see Preedy improperly concerned extensive impressions feels sheer bodily action giving off those around him

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can malign Preedy further assuming acted merely order give particular impression false impression others present receive either no impression all worse still impression Preedy affectedly trying cause receive particular impression important point us here kind impression Preedy thinks making fact kind impression others correctly incorrectly glean someone

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their midst have said individual appears before others actions will influence definition situation they come have Sometimes individual will act thoroughly calculating manner expressing himself given way solely order give kind impression others likely evoke specific response concerned obtain Sometimes individual will calculating activity relatively unaware case

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Sometimes will 18 intentionally consciously express himself particular way ,, chiefly because tradition group social status require kind expression because any particular response other than vague acceptance approval likely evoked those impressed expression Sometimes traditions individual role will lead him give well designed impression particular kind

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yet may neither consciously nor unconsciously disposed create impression others their turn may suitably impressed individual efforts convey something may misunderstand situation come conclusions warranted neither individual intent nor facts any case far others act if individual had conveyed particular impression may take functional pragmatic

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view say individual effectively projected given definition situation effectively fostered understanding given state affairs obtains There one aspect others response bears special comment here Knowing individual likely present himself light favourable him others may divide what they witness into two parts part

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relatively easy individual manipulate will being chiefly verbal assertions part regard seems have little concern control being chiefly derived expressions gives off others may then use what con sidered ungovernable aspects expressive behaviour check validity what conveyed governable aspects fundamental asymmetry demonstrated communication process individual presumably being

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aware only one stream communication witnesses stream one other example Shetland Isle one crofter wife serving native dishes visitor mainland Britain would listen polite smile polite claims liking what eating same time she would take note rapidity visitor lifted fork spoon mouth eagerness passed food into

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mouth gusto expressed 19 chewing food using signs check stated feelings eater same woman order discover what one acquaintance A actually thought another acquaintance ), would wait until B presence engaged conversation still another person C ). She would then covertly examine facial expressions regarded

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B conversation C being conversation being directly observed him would sometimes relax usual constraints tactful deceptions freely express what actually feeling about Shetlander short would observe unobserved observer Now given fact others likely check up more controllable aspects behaviour means less controllable one can

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expect sometimes individual will try exploit very possibility guiding impression makes through behaviour felt reliably informing
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example gaining admission tight social circle participant observer may only wear accepting look while listening informant may also careful wear same look observing informant talking others observers observer will then easily

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discover where actually stands specific illustration may cited Shetland Isle neighbour dropped have cup tea would ordinarily wear least hint expectant warm smile passed through door into cottage Since lack physical obstructions outside cottage lack light within usually made possible observe visitor unobserved approached house islanders sometimes

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took pleasure watching visitor drop whatever expression manifesting replace sociable one just before reaching door However some visitors appreciating examination occurring would blindly adopt social face long distance house thus ensuring projection constant image 6 widely read rather sound writings Stephen Potter concerned part signs can engineered

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give shrewd observer apparently incidental cues needs discover concealed virtues games man does fact possess 20 kind control part individual reinstates symmetry communication process sets stage kind information game potentially infinite cycle concealment discovery false revelation rediscovery should added since others likely relatively unsuspicious presumably unguided

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aspect individual conduct can gain much controlling others course may sense individual manipulating presumably spontaneous aspects behaviour seek very act manipulation some shading conduct individual managed control again provides check individual behaviour time presumably uncalculated behaviour thus establishing asymmetry communication process Here would like only

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add suggestion arts piercing individual effort calculated unintentionality seem better developed than our ca pacity manipulate our own behaviour regardless many steps have occurred information game witness likely have advantage over actor initial asymmetry communication process likely retained allow individual projects definition situation appears before others

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must also see others however passive their role may seem will themselves effectively project definition situation virtue their response individual virtue any lines action they initiate him Ordinarily definitions situation projected several different participants sufficiently attuned one another open contradiction will occur do mean there will kind

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consensus arises each individual present candidly expresses what really feels honestly agrees expressed feelings others present kind harmony optimistic ideal any case necessary smooth working society Rather each participant expected suppress immediate heartfelt feelings conveying view situation feels others will able find least temporarily acceptable maintenance surface

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21 agreement veneer consensus facilitated each participant concealing own wants behind statements assert values everyone present feels obliged give lip service Further there usually kind division definitional labour Each participant allowed establish tentative official rule regarding matters vital him immediately important others g ., rationalizations justifications accounts

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past activity exchange courtesy remains silent noncommittal matters important others immediately important him have then kind interactional modus vivendi Together participants contribute single over all definition situation involves much real agreement what exists rather real agreement whose claims concerning what issues will temporarily honoured Real agreement will

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also exist concerning desirability avoiding open conflict definitions situation


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will refer level agreement working consensus . understood working consensus established one interaction setting will quite different content working consensus established different type setting Thus between two friends lunch reciprocal show affection respect concern other maintained service

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occupations other hand specialist often maintains image disinterested involvement problem client while client responds show respect competence integrity specialist Regardless differences content however general form working arrangements same noting tendency participant accept 7 interaction can purposely set up time place voicing differences opinion cases participants must careful

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agree disagree proper tone voice vocabulary degree seriousness all arguments phrased mutual respect disagreeing participants must carefully continue express toward one another debaters academic definition situation may also invoked suddenly judiciously way translating serious conflict views into one can handled within framework acceptable all present 22

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definitional claims made others present can appreciate crucial importance information individual initially possesses acquires concerning fellow participants basis initial information individual starts define situation starts build up lines responsive action individual initial projection commits him what proposing requires him drop all pretences being other things interaction

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among participants progresses additions modifications initial informational state will course occur essential later developments related without contradiction even built up initial positions taken several participants would seem individual can more easily make choice what line treatment demand extend others present beginning encounter than can alter line treatment

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being pursued once interaction under way everyday life course there clear understanding first impressions important Thus work adjustment those service occupations will often hinge capacity seize hold initiative service relation capacity will require subtle aggressiveness part server lower socio economic status than client Whyte suggests waitress example

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first point stands out waitress who bears up under pressure does simply respond her customers She acts some skill control their behavior first question ask look customer relationship Does waitress get jump customer does customer get jump waitress ? skilled waitress realizes crucial nature question skilled

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waitress tackles customer confidence without hesitation example she may find new customer seated himself before she could clear off dirty dishes change cloth He now leaning table studying menu She greets him says May change cover please ? without waiting answer takes menu away him moves

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back table she goes about her work relationship 23 handled politely firmly there never any question who charge
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interaction initiated first impressions itself merely initial interaction extended series interactions involving same participants speak getting off right foot feel crucial do Thus one learns

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some teachers take following view You can ever let get upper hand you you through start out tough first day get new class let know who boss You ve got start off tough then you can ease up you go along If you

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start out easy going you try get tough they ll just look you laugh
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Similarly attendants mental institutions may feel if new patient sharply put place first day ward made see who boss much future difficulty will prevented 10 Given fact individual effectively projects definition situation

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enters presence others can assume events may occur within interaction contradict discredit otherwise throw doubt projection disruptive events occur interaction itself may come confused embarrassed halt Some assumptions responses participants bad been predicated become untenable participants find themselves lodged interaction situation been wrongly defined now no longer

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defined moments individual whose presentation been discredited may feel ashamed while others present may feel hostile all participants may come feel ill ease nonplussed out 8 Whyte Workers Customers Meet , chap vu Industry Society edited Whyte New York McGraw Hill 1946 ), pages 132 3

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9 Teacher interview quoted Howard Becker Social Class Variations Teacher Pupil Relationship , Journal Educational Sociology xxv page 459 10 Harold Taxel Authority Structure Mental Hospital Ward unpublished Master thesis Department Sociology University Chicago 1953 ). 24 countenance embarrassed experiencing kind anomaly generated

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minute social system face face interaction breaks down stressing fact initial definition situation projected individual tends provide plan cooperative activity follows stressing action point view must overlook crucial fact any projected definition situation also distinctive moral character moral character projections will chiefly concern us report Society

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organized principle any individual who possesses certain social characteristics moral right expect others will value treat him appropriate way Connected principle second namely individual who implicitly explicitly signifies certain social characteristics ought fact what claims consequence individual projects definition situation thereby makes implicit explicit claim person particular

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kind automatically exerts moral demand others obliging value treat him manner persons kind have right expect He also implicitly forgoes all claims things does appear hence forgoes treatment would appropriate individuals others find then individual informed what what they ought see . One cannot judge

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importance definitional disruptions frequency they occur apparently they would occur more frequently were constant precautions taken find preventive practices constantly employed avoid embarrassments corrective practices constantly employed compensate discrediting occurrences have been successfully avoided individual employs strategies tactics protect own projections may refer defensive practices ;

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11 role witness limiting what individual can been stressed Existentialists who see basic threat individual freedom See Jean Paul Sartre Being Nothingness London Methuen 1957 ). 25 participant employs save definition situation projected another speak protective practices tact . Together defensive protective practices comprise

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techniques employed safeguard impression fostered individual during presence before others should added while may ready see no fostered impression would survive if defensive practices were employed less ready perhaps see few impressions could survive if those who received impression did exert tact their reception addition fact precautions

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taken prevent disruption projected definitions may also note intense interest disruptions comes play significant role social life group Practical jokes social games played embarrassments taken unseriously purposely engineered 12 Fantasies created devastating exposures occur Anecdotes past real embroidered fictitious told retold detailing disruptions occurred almost

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occurred occurred were admirably resolved There seems no grouping does have ready supply games reveries cautionary tales used source humour catharsis anxieties sanction inducing individuals modest their claims reasonable their projected expectations individual may tell himself through dreams getting into impossible positions Families tell time guest got

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dates mixed arrived neither house nor anyone ready him Journalists tell times all too meaningful misprint occurred paper assumption objectivity decorum humorously discredited Public servants tell times client ridiculously misunderstood form instructions giving answers implied unanticipated bizarre definition situation .
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12 Goffman Communication Conduct Island

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Community , pages 319 27 13 Peter Blau Dynamics Bureaucracy Ph dissertation Department Sociology Columbia University University Chicago Press 1900 ), pages 127 9 26 Seamen whose home away home rigorously man tell stories coming back home inadvertently asking mother pass fucking

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butter . 14 Diplomats tell time near sighted queen asked republican ambassador about health king
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summarize then assume individual appears before others will have many motives trying control impression they receive situation report concerned some common techniques persons employ sustain impressions some common contingencies associated employment techniques

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specific content any activity presented individual participant role plays interdependent activities going social system will issue shall concerned only participant dramaturgical problems presenting activity before others issues dealt stage craft stage management sometimes trivial they quite general they seem occur everywhere social life providing clear cut

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dimension formal sociological analysis will convenient end introduction some definitions implied what gone before required what follow purpose report interaction face face interaction may roughly defined reciprocal influence individuals one another actions one another immediate physical presence interaction may defined all interaction occurs throughout any

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one occasion given set individuals one another continuous presence term 'an encounter would do well performance may defined all activity given participant given occasion serves influence any way any other participants Taking particular participant performance basic point reference may refer those 14 Walter

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M Beattie Jr Merchant Seaman unpublished M A Report Department Sociology University Chicago 1950 ), page 35 15 Sir Frederick Ponsonby Recollections Three Reigns London Eyre & Spottiswoode 1951 ). 27 INTRODUCTION 27 who contribute other performances audience observers co participants pre established pattern action

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unfolded during performance may presented played through other occasions may called part routine .
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situational terms can easily related conventional structural ones individual performer plays same part same audience different occasions social relationship likely arise Defining social role enactment rights duties attached given status

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can say social role will involve one more parts each different parts may presented performer series occasions same kinds audience audience same persons 16 comments importance distinguishing between routine interaction any particular instance routine played through see John von Neumann Oskar Morgenstern Theory Games Economic Behaviour second

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edition Princeton University Press 1947 ), page 49

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