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JULY 2011

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INTRODUCTION This document presents a summary of commonly applied engineering equations for the design of shallow and deep foundations.

2.0

FOUNDATION DESIGN EQUATIONS SUMMARY Definitions of variables are as follows:Allowable (safe) net effective bearing capacity, qfnet Allowable (safe) net bearing capacity, qfnet Gross effective bearing capacity, qf' Gross bearing capacity, qf Net (effective) working pressure, qwnet' Effective surcharge above founding level, p0' Total surcharge above founding level, p0 Standard penetration test, SPT, N Factor of safety, FOS Water table, WT Depth of water table from ground level, zu Depth of foundation founding level from ground level, D Width of foundation, B Length of foundation, L Influence factor, Is = fs.fd Shape and rigidity factor, fs Depth factor, fd SLS pile axial compression capacity, Ncap,pile,comp,sls Base effective bearing capacity, Qb' Gross effective bearing capacity, qf'(z=L-L0) Shaft effective friction capacity, Qs' Average shaft effective stress, a' Pile weight minus soil weight removed, Fpile Combined base effective bearing and shaft effective friction capacity, Pf' Overall pile effective capacity for vertical (compressive) load, Pcap

Foundation Type

Geotechnical Capacity Structural Capacity Cohesionless Soils ULS Empirical Cohesive Soils Empirical Rocks Empirical Cohesionless Soils Elastic = qwnet'.B.(1- ).Is/E = 0.15-0.25 Is = fs.fd 0.39 fs = 1.12(L/B) Flexible Rectangular 0.38 fs = 0.90(L/B) Rigid Rectangular fs = 1.0 Flexible Circular fs = 0.79 Rigid Circular fd = 1-0.08(D/B).[1+(4/3).(B/L)] E = 1000N Normally Consolidated E = 2000N Over Consolidated Excluding soil-structure interaction, the pad footing is designed to resist the ULS pressure stemming from the ULS column loads. Note that the DL of the pad is NOT included in the analysis.

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Geotechnical Settlement Cohesive Soils Elastic = qwnet'.B.(1- ).Is/E = 0.30-0.50 Is = fs.fd 0.39 fs = 1.12(L/B) Flexible Rectangular 0.38 fs = 0.90(L/B) Rigid Rectangular fs = 1.0 Flexible Circular fs = 0.79 Rigid Circular fd = 1-0.08(D/B).[1+(4/3).(B/L)] E = 200Su Elastic and 1D Consolidation

2

Rocks Elastic

= qwnet'.(B/E) .Ip.FB.FD

Pad

Terzaghi qfnet' = (qf'-p0')/FOS qf' = sc.dc.Nc,strip.c' + sq.dq.Nq,strip.p0' + s.d.N,strip.B/2.' sc=(sq.Nq-1)/(Nq-1) -1 dc=1+0.4tan (D/B) Prandtl, Nc,strip = (Nq,strip-1).cot' sq=1+(B/L)sin 2 -1 dq=1+2tan(1-sin) .tan (D/B) Reissner, tan 2 Nq,strip = e .tan (45+/2) s=1-0.3(B/L) d=1.0 Hansen, N,strip = 2.0(Nq,strip-1).tan'

Terzaghi

Terzaghi

qfnet' = (qf'-p0')/FOS qf' = sc.dc.Nc,strip.c' + sq.dq.Nq,strip.p0' + s.d.N,strip.B/2.' qfnet = (qf-p0)/FOS qf = sc.dc.Nc,strip.Su + p0 sc = 1+0.2(B/L) 0.5 dc = 1+(0.053D/B) for D/B 4.0 Skempton, Nc,strip = (2+) sc=(sq.Nq-1)/(Nq-1) -1 dc=1+0.4tan (D/B) Tomlinson, Nc,strip sq=1+(B/L)sin 2 -1 dq=1+2tan(1-sin) .tan (D/B) Tomlinson, Nq,strip s=1-0.3(B/L) d=1.0 Tomlinson, N,strip

= 1.71qwnet'.B /N

0.7

1.4

Rectangular = = [mv.v'.H] v' = 4.qwnet'.I m = (B/2)/z n = (L/2)/z Circular = = [mv.v'.H] v' = 1.qwnet'.I

Foundation Type

Geotechnical Capacity Structural Capacity Cohesionless Soils ULS Empirical qfnet k.21N/FOS = k.7N, k = 0.5 if WT above depth of B Terzaghi as that for pads Cohesive Soils Empirical qfnet k.35.5N/FOS = k.11.8N, k = 0.67 if WT above ground level Terzaghi as that for pads Rocks Empirical qfnet k.21N/FOS = k.7N, k = 1.0 if WT above depth of B Terzaghi as that for pads Cohesionless Soils Elastic as that for pads Burland and Burbidge as that for pads

Geotechnical Settlement Cohesive Soils Elastic as that for pads Elastic and 1D Consolidation as that for pads Rocks Elastic as that for pads

Strip

Foundation Type

Geotechnical Capacity Structural Capacity Cohesionless Soils ULS Excluding soil-structure interaction, raft designed as series of pad footings, strip footings, multi-column footings, combined footings and strap footings culminating in an inverted flat slab (in the case of a solid raft) or an inverted one- or two-way spanning slab (in the case of a stripped raft) to resist the ULS pressure stemming from the ULS column loads. Note that as with the pad, strip, multi-column and combined footings the DL of the raft is NOT included in the inverted flat, one- or two-way spanning slab analysis. Including soil-structure interaction, raft analysed and designed to the ULS column loads with soil stiffness modelled beneath the raft as springs based on the modulus of the subgrade reaction over the pressure bulb, each sub-soil layer contributing a spring stiffness connected in series. SLS Including soil-structure interaction, raft analysed to the SLS column loads with soil stiffness modelled beneath the raft as springs based on the modulus of the subgrade reaction over the pressure bulb, each sub-soil layer contributing a spring stiffness connected in series. Raft stiffness modified to limit angular distortion to distance/350. Terzaghi Terzaghi Terzaghi Burland and Burbidge Empirical Cohesive Soils Empirical Rocks Empirical Cohesionless Soils Elastic

Raft

Foundation Type

Geotechnical Capacity Structural Capacity Cohesionless Soils ULS Empirical Cohesive Soils Empirical Rocks Empirical Cohesionless Soils Elastic

Piled Raft (note that the piled raft may be a solid raft or a stripped one- or two-way spanning raft)

Including soil-structure interaction, piled raft analysed and designed to the ULS column loads with soil stiffness modelled beneath the piled raft, along and beneath the piles as springs based on the modulus of the subgrade reaction over the pressure bulb, each sub-soil layer contributing a spring stiffness connected in series. SLS Including soil-structure interaction, piled raft analysed to the SLS column loads with soil stiffness modelled beneath the piled raft, along and beneath the piles as springs based on the modulus of the subgrade reaction over the pressure bulb, each sub-soil layer contributing a spring stiffness connected in series. Raft stiffness, pile size, pile spacing and pile depth modified to limit angular distortion to distance/350.

Terzaghi

Terzaghi

Terzaghi

Foundation Type

Geotechnical Capacity Structural Capacity Cohesionless Soils ULS Empirical Pcap = MIN (Qb'/3.0 + Qs'/1.5, Pf'/2.0)-Fpile Pile cap designed employing well proportioned span to depth truss analogy method and sufficient pile cap and pile rebar anchorages. Solid or stripped one- or two-way spanning slab designed to suspend between the pile points. Qb' = (Db /4 or Db ).qf'(z=L-L0) qf'(z=L-L0)=250.N(z=L-L0) (<=qflimit'(z=L-L0)) Qs' = (D or 4D).(L-L0).a' a'=[a'(z=0)+a'(z=L-L0)]/2 a'(z=0)=2.0.N(z=0) (<=alimit'(z)) a'(z=L-L0) = 2.0.N(z=L-L0) (<=alimit'(z)) Fpile = Aps.L.(c-dry) Pf' = Qb' + Qs' SLS Terzaghi Pcap = MIN (Qb'/3.0 + Qs'/1.5, Pf'/2.0)-Fpile Qb' = (Db /4 or Db ).qf'(z=L-L0) qf'(z=L-L0)= sc.dc.Nc,strip.c'+ sq.dq.Nq,strip.v'(z=L-L0)+ s.d.N,strip.Db/2.' (<=qflimit'(z=L-L0)) sc=(sq.Nq-1)/(Nq-1) -1 dc=1+0.4tan ((Lc+L)/Db) Prandtl, Nc,strip = (Nq,strip-1).cot' sq=1+(Db/Db)sin 2 dq=1+2tan(1-sin) .tan 1 ((Lc+L)/Db) Reissner, tan 2 Nq,strip = e .tan (45+/2) s=1-0.3(Db/Db) d=1.0 Hansen, N,strip = 2.0(Nq,strip-1).tan' Qs' = (D or 4D).(L-L0).a' a'=[a'(z=0)+a'(z=L-L0)]/2 a'(z=0)= Ks.tan'.v'(z=0) (<=alimit'(z)) a'(z=L-L0) = Ks.tan'.v'(z=L-L0) (<=alimit'(z)) a' = h'.tan' = Ksv'.tan' Ks.tan' = kKs.K0.tan' = kKs.(1sin').tan' Fpile = Aps.L.(c-dry) Pf' = Qb' + Qs'

2 2 2 2

Geotechnical Settlement Rocks Empirical Cohesionless Soils Empirical Cohesive Soils Empirical Rocks Empirical

Pile Cap and Pile (note that the pile cap may be disconnected individual pile caps, connected solid slab or a connected stripped one- or two-way spanning slab)

Terzaghi

Terzaghi Pcap = MIN (Qb'/3.0 + Qs'/1.5, Pf'/2.0)-Fpile Qb' = (Db /4 or Db ).qf'(z=L-L0) qf'(z=L-L0)= sc.dc.Nc,strip.c'+ sq.dq.Nq,strip.v'(z=L-L0)+ s.d.N,strip.Db/2.' (<=qflimit'(z=L-L0)) sc=(sq.Nq-1)/(Nq-1) -1 dc=1+0.4tan ((Lc+L)/Db) Kulhawy and Goodman, 1/2 Nc,strip = 2N (N+1), 2 N=tan (45+/2) sq=1+(Db/Db)sin 2 dq=1+2tan(1-sin) .tan 1 ((Lc+L)/Db) Kulhawy and Goodman, 2 2 Nq,strip = N , N=tan (45+/2) s=1-0.3(Db/Db) d=1.0 Kulhawy and Goodman, 1/2 2 N,strip = N (N -1), 2 N=tan (45+/2) Qs' = (D or 4D).(L-L0).a' a'=[a'(z=0)+a'(z=L-L0)]/2 a'(z=0)= Ks.tan'.v'(z=0) (<=alimit'(z)) a'(z=L-L0) = Ks.tan'.v'(z=L-L0) (<=alimit'(z)) a' = h'.tan' = Ksv'.tan' Ks.tan' = kKs.K0.tan' = kKs.(1sin').tan' Fpile = Aps.L.(c-dry) Pf' = Qb' + Qs'

2 2

Precast driven square RC pile or insitu bored circular RC pile, Ncap,pile,comp,sls =0.25fcu.Aps Precast (pretensioned spun) driven circular RC pile, Ncap,pile,comp,sls =0.25(fcu-fpe).Ap Insitu bored circular RC pile (API Micropile), Ncap,pile,comp,sls =fy,API.AAPI/2.0 (reinforcement only) =0.5fy,API.(AAPI+Ac,API.Ec/Es)/2.0 (composite section (strain compatibility)) =(0.91fy,API.AAPI+0.45fcu.Ac,API)/2.0 (concrete filled CHS)

Pcap = MIN (Qb/3.0 + Qs/1.5, Pf/2.0)-Fpile Qb = (Db /4 or Db ).qf(z=L-L0) qf(z=L-L0)= Nc.Su(z=L-L0) (<=qflimit(z=L-L0)) Nc = 9.0 Qs = (D or 4D).(L-L0).Sa Sa=[Sa(z=0)+Sa(z=L-L0)]/2 Sa(z=0) = F..Su(z=0) (<=Salimit(z)) Sa(z=L-L0) = F..Su(z=L-L0) (<=Salimit(z)) Fpile = Aps.L.(c-dry) Pf = Qb + Qs

2 2

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