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Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
This is a study of the use of service manuals in the workshop, and its importance. It also shows how the use of service manuals could affect the business, the vehicle, and the mechanic in the workshops and the problem that those who arent using the manuals. This chapter is a prelude of the background, the purpose, the objectives, and the focus of the study. It state the issue of the study related to the field of automotive, the aim, the reasons, and the focal point of the study.

1.2 Background of Study

The main task of automotive industries is to offer quick and quality of service for transportation of goods and passengers. The main measure toward servicing vehicle is to use the workshop manual while undergo repairs and maintenance on vehicle. The good design of a service manual is to help in providing procedures for repairs work, vehicle maintenance. My motivation for researching the use of workshop manual in service center is based on the following: Expensive and sometimes inefficient service centres. The study of automotive technology has taught me that by following the precaution, diagrams and procedures in the workshop manual can help save life from risk that may not be visible while working on some parts of the vehicle, and save time in finishing the repair job which the salary is based on (Flat Rate).

1.3 Statement of Problem

In Petaling Jaya, most of the non-dealership service centres dont use the service manual while servicing the vehicle. This could result in further damage to other components of the vehicle which might be expensive to repair. For most of the time, customers have to return for a couple of times to fix the car, which would have been a waste of time and money. And in some rare cases, the vehicle breaks down completely because of not following the specification in the manual while doing some adjustment to the components of the vehicle.

1.4 Purpose of Study

To determine what (tools, heavy equipment and office etc.) is necessary while performing vehicle maintenance. To explore the procedures in the workshop manual. To compare the quality of repairs between using the manual and not using it. To investigate how to give a better service, how to keep the work done fast, and how to work safely. To predict which part of vehicle needs to be replaced due to excessive wear.

1.5 Objective of Study

The prime objective of this study is to provide an awareness to use the service manuals that gives: Physical layout of the vehicle parts and component to refer to Precaution of danger in certain contact with chemical, fire and rotating object. Organizational structures and service procedures

1.6 Focus of Study

The spotlight of this study is to create a competitive service center that is capable of handling difficult task smoothly with particular reference to the service centers. All participants are located in the suburban area of Petaling Jaya, along the busiest street and close to each other.

1.7 Conclusion
Service manuals are a fundamental part of every service center wishing to provide quality service to vehicle. Following procedure on the manual is to ensure that we can reassemble it back the way it was without missing a part, and also to balance the whole mechanic body so that there wont be any severe vibration which could cause the parts to fell off its attachment. Safety precautions are provided to allow the technician to realize the danger and to be prepared of it in case of an emergency.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction
The purpose of literature is to provide the background to and justification for the research undertaken. It describes, summaries, evaluate, clarify and integrate the content of the study of services manuals. Through this chapter, the literature review will provide information about service manuals, identify the types of manuals, and to put my work into perspectives.

2.2 Service Manuals

Many procedures had to be learned to successfully service and repair automobiles. Repair manuals in 1965 were relatively small, and was about only 5000 pages comparing to todays which about 1.6 billion of pages and still continuing to grow. Service information for only one make of todays make of vehicle is usually consists of more than one manual, or information store on compact disc, computer hard drives, networks and on the internet.[1] Service manuals explain how to carry out maintenance, restoration and servicing cars. Before working on any make of vehicle for the first time, it is a good idea to consult the service manuals for any helpful hints and precautions that will make the task easier. [1]

Information contained in the Service Manual typically includes:

Safety instructions; for liability reasons these can be extensive, often including warnings against doing things that no intelligent person would consider doing.

Assembly instructions; for products that arrive in pieces for easier shipping. Installation instructions; for productions that need to be installed in a home or workplace. Setup instructions; for devices that keep track of time or which maintain user accessible state.

Programming instructions; for microprocessor controlled products such as VCRs, programmable calculators, and synthesizers.

Maintenance instructions. Troubleshooting instructions; for when the product does not work as expected. Service locations; for when the product requires repair by a factory authorized technician. Regulatory code compliance information; for example with respect to safety or electromagnetic interference.

Product technical specifications.


2.3 Types of Service Manuals

Manufacturers Service Manuals Generic Service Manuals Lubrication Service Manuals Owners Workshop Manuals Electronic Service Information Interchange Manuals [1]

2.3.1 Manufacturers Service Manuals

Service information contained in this shop manuals are usually: Diagnostic or troubleshooting information Step by step repair information Specification charts

Repair manuals will have a diagnostic tree that goes in a logical progression. It will ask a question, usually yes or no, and depending on the answer will branch off in two or more directions. The last box in the tree will have the problem and how to correct it. Repair Manuals offer step by step guidance throughout the entire repair with the help of diagrams and technical charts to make even the most difficult repair seem effortless. Repair Manuals contain specification charts for the amount of torque required for a bolt, and accompanied by diagram to help visualize which bolt it is referring to. [1]

2.3.2 Generic Service Manuals

Generic service manuals which deal with all makes of either foreign or domestic cars are produced by several companies. There are two types of generic manuals: Manuals for mechanical repairs Fuel/emission/ignition/air-conditioning manuals

Comprehensive generic repair manuals include section for each makes of car arranged in alphabetical order by maker and is located in the front of the manual. Each first page of the sections is an index of service operations that can be used to locate a particular service procedure. Many manuals have separate sections for different component repair and a few pages of each page contain specifications for tune-up, electrical, wheel alignment, engine alignment, engine tightening, and valves. [1]

2.3.3 Lubrication Service Manuals

Lubrication service manuals have all of the most used specification. It is arranged in three basic sections: Lubrication and maintenance information Capacities Under hood Service Information

The Lubrication and maintenance section includes lube and maintenance instruction, lubrication diagrams and specification, vehicle lift points, and preventative maintenance intervals. The capacities section includes cooling and air-conditioning system capacities, cooling system air bleed locations wheel and tire specifications, and wheel lug torque specifications.

The under hood service information section includes under hood service instructions, specifications for engine tune-up; mechanical, electrical, and fuel system; diagrams; and belt tensions. [1]

2.3.4 Owners Workshop Manuals

Owners workshop manuals often sold by parts stores, cover several years of one model of car. It contains all essential information of that vehicle for repair, service and maintenance. [1]

2.3.5 Electronic Service Information

The predominant storage system for service information has to be the computer. Subscriptions to computerized information library like: AllData and Mitchell On Demand are available. The information is easy to access from selection on the screen, and read off directly from the screen or printed by computer printer and taken to the service bay or workbench. On single-user systems, information can be stored in CDs or DVDs that are updated quarterly. [1]

2.3.6 Interchange Manuals

Salvage yards use an interchange manual that lists parts that interchange from one vehicle to another. It is updated with new material each year, and is available for both domestic and imported vehicles [1]

2.4 Importance of Service Manuals

Quality of work By following the basic maintenance checks in the manuals, e.g. engine oil level check, we can help save fuel economy and prevent certain damage to the vehicle components that require periodic checks.[3] The timely detailed maintenance must be followed as per schedule to keep the vehicle running flawlessly without any troubles. If the same is ignored or delayed with time, your vehicle maybe in trouble. [2] Cheap With periodic maintenance, you could save up money spent on fuel and repairs that can be prevented if the vehicle is serviced according to the manual. [3]

2.5 How to Use a Service Manual

1. Get the right service manual for that vehicle. Manuals are specific to the make, model and year. 2. Consult the Table of Contents to determine which section contains the information you desire. 3. Consult the following table for description of symbols that maybe used on the vehicle or throughout this service manual. 4. Follow the step by step instructions to begin repair/service/maintain the vehicle, and diagram which help to locate all the vehicle parts. [1]

2.6 Conclusion
There are so many types of service manuals, each with a specific usage for different types of service centers. Sometimes service center might provide a number of services, for example: Lubrication service, more than one type of manual is needed in the workshop to get the information. I find that it is much better to use manuals obtain from internet services like AllData, if the service center handles different kinds of vehicle in a high volume, because its cheaper and information could be attain easily.


Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction
This research is to systematically solve the problem of this research by using scientific method to collect data, and interpret the data using diagrams and words. Various steps are adopted in the research along with the logic behind them.

3.2 Methods of Research

This research was conducted in order to determine whether personality questionnaire play a significant role in the servicing vehicle using manuals. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the reliability of this instrument were also part of the objectives. In order to answer these research goals, the researcher opted to obtain the view of human resource employees in line with this topic. Specifically, a total of 4 respondents from 3 service centre within Petaling Jaya were selected. Selected participants answered a survey questionnaire. Data gathered from this research instrument were then computed for interpretation. Along with primary data, the researcher also made use of secondary resources in the form of published articles and literatures to support the survey results.

3.2.1 Questionnaire
What method is being used? Answer: Quantitative method. Why is this method being used? Answer: Because it is able to show the objectives of my study clearly in the way it is meant for. What are the advantages of using this method? Answer: This method is useful as it helps to prevent bias in gathering and presenting research data, and also establish very specific research problem and terms.


3.3 Instrumentation
The survey questionnaire was used as the main data-gathering instrument for this study. The questionnaire was divided into two main sections: a profile and the survey proper. The profile contains socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, civil status, the number of years they had served the company as well as their assigned job position. The survey proper explored the perceptions of employees on personality questionnaire, particularly on its usability and reliability of the service manuals as a selection and appraisal tool. The questionnaire proper section also contains questions that identify the advantages and disadvantages of using service manuals in the service department.

3.3.1 Questionnaire
How many questions are there in the survey? Answer: There are 5 question in total used. What is the question about? Answer: the question is about the usage of service manuals in the participants workshop. How is the answer being laid out? Answer: It is in an ABCD multiple choice formats, along with a few subjective. The duration of time taken to answer the question. Answer: The estimated time taken would be around 5 to 10 minutes.


3.4 Target Group

The participants are: Autodoc Sdn. Bhd (67, Jalan Ss 2/72, 47300, Petaling Jaya, Selangor,) Specialize in all makes of vehicle servicing. Perodua Service Center (Lot 11, Jalan 19/1 Seksyen 19, 46300, Petaling Jaya, Selangor) Specialize in servicing Perodua vehicles. Camic Auto Service Center (Lot13, Jalan 19/1 Seksyen 19, 46300, Petaling Jaya, Selangor,) Specialize in servicing Mitsubishi lorry. All of the participant can be located near Rothmans Roundabout, where tons of vehicles are always passing by this suburban area.

3.5 Methodology
The method used in collecting data is quantitative. The quantitative research looks at the general case of this research and moves toward the specific. This deductive approach to research considers a potential cause of something and hopes to verify its effect. Statistical model is constructed based on the data collected from the survey and interpreted in the form of numbers and statistics.

3.5.1 Questionnaire
Hows the method being carried out? Answer: Survey questions are printed onto papers and distributed to the participants to answer. When did the surveys being carried out? Answer: The surveys are carried out in a Saturday morning, when the service centers have just open. How long is it to collect the surveys? Answer: Around an hour.


3.6 Conclusion
Survey questionnaire has been used to collect data from this research in order to find out whether Service Manuals is being used by technicians to undergo some work on the vehicle he or she is servicing. The questionnaires are given to three service centers to answer the questions. The survey is then collected back, and the data based on the answer which is answered by the personal of the service centers is then interpreted.


Chapter Four: Results and Discussions

4.1 Introduction
As research on the use of service centres have been made, the data collected is then show in the form of histogram. Discussion is then made based on that histogram to evaluate the data and to explain the reason.

4.2 Results of Findings


20 Service Manuals No. of Technicians 10 No. of Technician using the Service Manuals


0 Perodua Service Center Camic Auto Service Center Autodoc Sdn. Bhd

Based on the data from the histogram, Perodua service center and Camic Auto service center are using service manuals during vehicle inspection, diagnose and repair jobs. Autodoc Sdn. Bhd is the only one who doesnt use the manual. According to the supervisor from Perodua, the specific charts are the main reasons for the technicians in the workshop to inspect the components of the vehicle which they are servicing. And that the advantage in using the manual is a smoother task. According to the senior technician from Camic, some of the technicians in the workshop rely on the procedure in the manual to undertake repairs of heavy vehicles (Mitsubishi lorry),


which is very difficult to do. And the manual has helped them save time to perform difficult task that might take even several days to have the job done. According to Autodoc, there is no manual in the shop. This is because most of the vehicle they service is based on experiences that the technicians have, and that they dont rely on manual to perform repairs.

4.3 Conclusions
In conclusion, the reasons for the use of service manuals are different from service center to another, and that they are no well aware of the importance of the information in the service manuals. Certain danger of chemical that could cost them a life time of suffers, for example: brake fluid. And that certain bolt should be tightened according to the procedure to ensure that it is sealed properly.


Chapter Five: Conclusions

5.1 Introduction
In order to find out the importance of service manuals in a workshop, a research has been undergone and a report has been formulated to show the results of that research. In this report, the first chapter is used to familiarize with the main idea of the research, the reasons, the goal and where the research had taken place. On the second chapter, it shows the written materials from other author from various sources that is related to the topic of this research. On the third chapter, it shows how the walkthrough of this research, where specifically did it take place, and which method was used to collect the data. On the fourth chapter, all the data collected from the research was being formulated and analyzed. Results of this research are also presented in this chapter. On the final chapter, the conclusion of the research is written, the entire previous chapter is being summarize and further recommendation of study is also reckoned.


5.2 Summary
This research of service manuals in the workshop is to understand the importance about using the manuals while doing certain work on vehicles, so that technicians would know about the advantages of manuals and continue to recommend its uses to others, which will help to build a better automotive industry in Malaysia. Although there are many types of manual and each differs from the vehicle makes, model and year, but they are all design to make sure that the vehicle is working in tip top condition. By visiting the target groups, handing over the survey questionnaire to one of the employee to acquire information about the usage of service manuals in their workshop, the information collected differs from one another and is shown in the graph above (chapter 4). Overall, most of them use the manuals to refer to information written before they repair a vehicle.

5.3 Recommendation
To further this study, there should be a research on the education of auto repairing in this country to improve the services in this industry. This is because the skill and knowledge taught by teachers in college should include the use of manuals. Education is the foundation of all types of industry. To look for new and better ways to enhance one of the Malaysia largest industries, by first building the foundation.