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Lan, T.T. Space Frame Structures Structural Engineering Handbook Ed.

Chen Wai-Fah Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999

Space Frame Structures 13.1 Introduction to Space Frame Structures General Introduction De nition of the Space Frame Basic Concepts Advantages of Spa ce Frames Preliminary Planning Guidelines Types and Geometry Type Choosing Metho d of Support Design Parameters Cambering and Slope Methods of Erection Form and Layer Braced Barrel Vaults Braced Domes Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells Intersectio n and Combination Design Loads Static Analysis Earthquake Resistance Stability G eneral Description Proprietary System Bearing Joints 13.2 Double Layer Grids 13.3 Latticed Shells 13.4 Structural Analysis 13.5 Jointing Systems 13.6 De ning Terms References Furth er Reading Tien T. Lan Department of Civil Engineering, Chinese Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China 13.1 Introductio to Spac Fram Structures n e e 13.1.1 Genera Introduction l A growing interest in space frame structures has been witnessed worldwide over t he last half century. The search for new structural forms to accommodate large u nobstructed areas has always been the main objective of architects and engineers . With the advent of new building techniques and construction materials, space f rames frequently provide the right answer and satisfy the requirements for light ness, economy, and speedy construction. Signi cant progress has been made in the p rocess of the development of the space frame. A large amount of theoretical and experimental research programs was carried out by many universities and research institutions in various countries. As a result, a great deal of useful informat ion has been disseminated and fruitful results have been put into practice. In t he past few decades, the proliferation of the space frame was mainly due to its great structural potential and visual beauty. New and imaginative applications o f space frames are being demonstrated in the total range of building types, such as sports arenas, exhibition pavilions, assembly halls, transportation terminal s, airplane hangars, workshops, and warehouses. They have been used not only on long-span roofs, but also on mid- and short-span enclosures as roofs, oors, exter ior walls, c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

and canopies. Many interesting projects have been designed and constructed all o ver the world using a variety of con gurations. Some important factors that in uence the rapid development of the space frame can be cited as follows. First, the se arch for large indoor space has always been the focus of human activities. Conse quently, sports tournaments, cultural performances, mass assemblies, and exhibit ions can be held under one roof. The modern production and the needs of greater operational ef ciency also created demand for large space with a minimum interfere nce from internal supports. The space frame provides the bene t that the interior space can be used in a variety of ways and thus is ideally suited for such requi rements. Space frames are highly statically indeterminate and their analysis lea ds to extremely tedious computation if by hand. The dif culty of the complicated a nalysis of such systems contributed to their limited use. The introduction of el ectronic computers has radically changed the whole approach to the analysis of s pace frames. By using computer programs, it is possible to analyze very complex space structures with great accuracy and less time involved. Lastly, the space f rame also has the problem of connecting a large number of members (sometimes up to 20) in space through different angles at a single point. The emergence of sev eral connecting methods of proprietary systems has made great improvement in the construction of the space frame, which offered simple and ef cient means for maki ng connection of members. The exact tolerances required by these jointing system s can be achieved in the fabrication of the members and joints. 13.1.2 De nition of the Space Frame If one looks at technical literature on structural engineering, one will nd that the meaning of the space frame has been very diverse or even confusing. In a ver y broad sense, the de nition of the space frame is literally a three-dimensional s tructure. However, in a more restricted sense, space frame means some type of sp ecial structure action in three dimensions. Sometimes structural engineers and a rchitects seem to fail to convey with it what they really want to communicate. T hus, it is appropriate to de ne here the term space frame as understood throughout this section. It is best to quote a de nition given by a Working Group on Spatial Steel Structures of the International Association [11]. A space frame is a stru cture system assembled of linear elements so arranged that forces are transferre d in a three-dimensional manner. In some cases, the constituent element may be t wo-dimensional. Macroscopically a space frame often takes the form of a at or cur ved surface. It should be noted that virtually the same structure de ned as a spac e frame here is referred to as latticed structures in a State-of-the-Art Report prepared by the ASCE Task Committee on Latticed Structures [2] which states: A l atticed structure is a structure system in the form of a network of elements (as opposed to a continuous surface). Rolled, extruded or fabricated sections compr ise the member elements. Another characteristic of latticed structural system is that their load-carrying mechanism is three dimensional in nature. The ASCE Rep ort also speci es that the three-dimensional character includes at surfaces with lo ading perpendicular to the plane as well as curved surfaces. The Report excludes structural systems such as common trusses or building frames, which can appropr iately be divided into a series of planar frameworks with loading in the plane o f the framework. In this section the terms space frames and latticed structures are considered synonymous. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

A space frame is usually arranged in an array of single, double, or multiple lay ers of intersecting members. Some authors de ne space frames only as double layer grids. A single layer space frame that has the form of a curved surface is terme d as braced vault, braced dome, or latticed shell. Occasionally the term space t russ appears in the technical literature. According to the structural analysis a pproach, a space frame is analyzed by assuming rigid joints that cause internal torsions and moments in the members, whereas a space truss is assumed as hinged joints and therefore has no internal member moments. The choice between space fr ame and space truss action is mainly determined by the joint-connection detailin g and the member geometry is no different for both. However, in engineering prac tice, there is no absolutely rigid or hinged joints. For example, a double layer at surface space frame is usually analyzed as hinged connections, while a single layer curved surface space frame may be analyzed either as hinged or rigid conn ections. The term space frame will be used to refer to both space frames and spa ce trusses. 13.1.3 Basic Concepts The space frame can be formed either in a at or a curved surface. The earliest fo rm of space frame structures is a single layer grid. By adding intermediate grid s and including rigid connecting to the joist and girder framing system, the sin gle layer grid is formed. The major characteristic of grid construction is the o mni-directional spreading of the load as opposed to the linear transfer of the l oad in an ordinary framing system. Since such load transfer is mainly by bending , for larger spans, the bending stiffness is increased most ef ciently by going to a double layer system. The load transfer mechanism of curved surface space fram e is essentially different from the grid system that is primarily membrane-like action. The concept of a space frame can be best explained by the following exam ple. EXAMPLE 13.1: It is necessary to design a roof structure for a square building. Figure 13.1a a nd b show two different ways of roof framing. The roof system shown in Figure 13 .1a is a complex roof comprised of planar latticed trusses. Each truss will resi st the load acting on it independently and transfer the load to the columns on e ach end. To ensure the integrity of the roof system, usually purlins and bracing s are used between trusses. In Figure 13.1b, latticed trusses are laid orthogona lly to form a system of space latticed grids that will resist the roof load thro ugh its integrated action as a whole and transfer the loads to the columns along the perimeters.Since the loads can be taken by the members in three dimensions, the corresponding forces in space latticed grids are usually less than that in planar trusses, and hence the depth can be decreased in a space frame. The same concept can be observed in the design of a circular dome. Again, there are two d ifferent ways of framing a dome. The dome shown in Figure 13.2a is a complex dom e comprised of elements such as arches, primary and secondary beams, and purlins , which all lie in a plane. Each of these elements constitutes a system that is stable by itself. In contrast, the dome shown in Figure 13.2b is an assembly of a series of longitudinal, meridional, and diagonal members, which is a certain f orm of latticed shell. It is a system whose resisting capacity is ensured only t hrough its integral action as a whole. The difference between planar structures and space frames can be understood also by examining the sequence of ow of forces . In a planar system, the force due to the roof load is transferred successively through the secondary elements, the primary elements, and then nally the foundat ion. In each case, loads are transferred from the elements of a lighter class to the elements of a heavier class. As the sequence proceeds, the magnitude of the load to be transferred increases, as does the span of the element. Thus, elemen ts in a planar structure are characterized by their distinctive ranks, not only

judging by the size of their cross-sections, but also by the importance of the t ask assigned c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.1: Roof framing for a square plan. to them. In contrast, in a space frame system, there is no sequence of load tran sfer and all elements contribute to the task of resisting the roof load in accor dance with the three-dimensional geometry of the structure. For this reason, the ranking of the constituent elements similar to planar structures is not observe d in a space frame. 13.1.4 Advantages of Space Frames 1. One of the most important advantages of a space frame structure is its light weight. It is mainly due to fact that material is distributed spatially in such a way that the load transfer mechanism is primarily axialtension or compression. Consequently, all material in any given element is utilized to its full extent. Furthermore, most space frames are now constructed with steel or aluminum, which decreases considerably their self-weight. This is especially important in the c ase of long span roofs that led to a number of notable examples of applications. 2. The units of space frames are usually mass produced in the factory so that t hey can take full advantage of an industrialized system of construction. Space f rames can be built from simple prefabricated units, which are often of standard size and shape. Such units can be easily transported and rapidly assembled on si te by semi-skilled labor. Consequently, space frames can be built at a lower cos t. 3. A space frame is usually suf ciently stiff in spite of its lightness. This i s due to its threedimensional character and to the full participation of its con stituent elements. Engineers appreciate the inherent rigidity and great stiffnes s of space frames and their exceptional ability to resist unsymmetrical or heavy concentrated load. Possessing greater rigidity, c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.2: Roof framing for a circular dome. the space frames also allow greater exibility in layout and positioning of column s. 4. Space frames possess a versatility of shape and form and can utilize a sta ndard module to generate various at space grids, latticed shell, or even free-for m shapes. Architects appreciate the visual beauty and the impressive simplicity of lines in space frames. A trend is very noticeable in which the structural mem bers are left exposed as a part of the architectural expression. Desire for open ness for both visual impact as well as the ability to accommodate variable space requirements always calls for space frames as the most favorable solution. 13.1.5 Preliminary Planning Guidelines In the preliminary stage of planning a space frame to cover a speci c building, a number of factors should be studied and evaluated before proceeding to structura l analysis and design. These include not only structural adequacy and functional requirements, but also the aesthetic effect desired. 1. In its initial phase, s tructural design consists of choosing the general form of the building and the t ype of space frame appropriate to this form. Since a space frame is assembled fr om straight, linear elements connected at nodes, the geometrical arrangement of the elementssurface shape, number of layers, grid pattern, etc.needs to be studied carefully in the light of various pertinent requirements. 2. The geometry of th e space frame is an important factor to be planned which will in uence both the be aring capacity and weight of the structure. The module size is developed from th e overall building dimensions, while the depth of the grid (in case of a double layer), the size of cladding, and the position of supports will also have a pron ounced effect upon it. For a curved surface, the geometry is also related to the curvature or, more speci cally, to the rise of the span. A compromise between the se various aspects usually has to be made to achieve a satisfactory solution. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

3. In a space frame, connecting joints play an important role, both functional a nd aesthetic, which is derived from their rationality during construction and af ter completion. Since joints have a decisive effect on the strength and stiffnes s of the structure and compose around 20 to 30% of the total weight, joint desig n is critical to space frame economy and safety. There are a number of proprieta ry systems that are used for space frame structures. A system should be selected on the basis of quality, cost, and erection ef ciency. In addition, custom-design ed space frames have been developed, especially for long span roofs. Regardless of the type of space frame, the essence of any system is the jointing system. 4. At the preliminary stage of design, choosing the type of space frame has to be closely related to the constructional technology. The space frames do not have s uch sequential order of erection for planar structures and require special consi deration on the method of construction. Usually a complete falsework has to be p rovided so that the structure can be assembled in the high place. Alternatively, the structure can be assembled on the ground, and certain techniques can be ado pted to lift the whole structure, or its large part, to the nal position. 13.2 Double Layer Grids 13.2.1 Types and Geometry Double layer grids, or at surface space frames, consist of two planar networks of members forming the top and bottom layers parallel to each other and interconne cted by vertical and inclined web members. Double layer grids are characterized by the hinged joints with no moment or torsional resistance; therefore, all memb ers can only resist tension or compression. Even in the case of connection by co mparatively rigid joints, the in uence of bending or torsional moment is insigni can t. Double layer grids are usually composed of basic elements such as: a planar l atticed truss a pyramid with a square base that is essentially a part of an octa hedron a pyramid with a triangular base (tetrahedron) These basic elements used for various types of double-layer grids are shown in in Figure 13.3. FIGURE 13.3: Basic elements of double layer grids. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

A large number of types of double layer grids can be formed by these basic eleme nts. They are developed by varying the direction of the top and bottom layers wi th respect to each other and also by the positioning of the top layer nodal poin ts with respect to the bottom layer nodal points. Additional variations can be i ntroduced by changing the size of the top layer grid with respect to the bottom layer grid. Thus, internal openings can be formed by omitting every second eleme nt in a normal con guration. According to the form of basic elements, double layer grids can be divided in two groups, i.e., latticed grids and space grids. The l atticed grids consist of intersecting vertical latticed trusses and form a regul ar grid. Two parallel grids are similar in design, with one layer directly over the top of another. Both top and bottom grids are directionally the same. The sp ace grids consist of a combination of square or triangular pyramids. This group covers the so-called offset grids, which consist of parallel grids having an ide ntical layout with one grid offset from the other in plane but remaining directi onally the same, as well as the so-called differential grids in which two parall el top and bottom grids are of a different layout but are chosen to coordinate a nd form a regular pattern [20]. The type of double layer grid can be chosen from the following most commonly used framing systems that are shown in Figure 13.4a through j. In Figure 13.4, top chord members are depicted with heavy solid line s, bottom chords are depicted with light solid lines and web members with dashed lines, while the upper joints are depicted by hollow circles and bottom joints by solid circles. Different types of double layer grids are grouped and named ac cording to their composition and the names in the parenthesis indicate those sug gested by other authors. Group 1. Composed of latticed trusses 1. Two-way orthog onal latticed grids (square on square) (Figure 13.4a). This type of latticed gri d has the advantage of simplicity in con guration and joint detail. All chord memb ers are of the same length and lie in two planes that intersect at 90 to each oth er. Because of its weak torsional strength, horizontal bracings are usually esta blished along the perimeters. 2. Two-way diagonal latticed grids (Figure 13.4b). The layout of the latticed grids is exactly the same as Type 1 except it is off set by 45 from the edges. The latticed trusses have different spans along two dir ections at each intersecting joint. Since the depth is all the same, the stiffne ss of each latticed truss varies according to its span. The latticed trusses of shorter spans may be considered as a certain kind of support for latticed trusse s of longer span, hence more spatial action is obtained. 3. Three-way latticed g rids (Figure 13.4c). All chord members intersect at 60 to each other and form equ ilateral triangular grids. It is a stiff and ef cient system that is adaptable to those odd shapes such as circular and hexagonal plans. The joint detail is compl icated by numerous members intersecting at one point, with 13 members in an extr eme case. 4. One-way latticed grids (Figure 13.4d). It is composed of a series o f mutually inclined latticed trusses to form a folded shape. There are only chor d members along the spanning direction; therefore, one-way action is predominant . Like Type 1, horizontal bracings are necessary along the perimeters to increas e the integral stiffness. Group 2A. Composed of square pyramids 5. Orthogonal sq uare pyramid space grids (square on square offset) (Figure 13.4e). This is one o f the most commonly used framing patterns with top layer square grids offset ove r bottom layer grids. In addition to the equal length of both top and bottom cho rd members, if the angle between the diagonal and chord members is 45 , then all members in the space grids will have the same length. The basic element is a squ are pyramid that is used in some proprietary systems as prefabricated units to f orm this type of space grid. 6. Orthogonal square pyramid space grids with openi ngs (square on square offset with internal openings, square on larger square) (F igure 13.4f). The framing pattern is similar c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

to Type 5 except the inner square pyramids are removed alternatively to form lar ger grids in the bottom layer. Such modi cation will reduce the total number of me mbers and consequently the weight. It is also visually affective as the extra op enness of the space grids network produces an impressive architectural effect. S kylights can be used with this system. 7. Differential square pyramid space grid s (square on diagonal) (Figure 13.4g). This is a typical example of differential grids. The two planes of the space grids are at 45 to each other which will incr ease the torsional stiffness effectively. The grids are arranged orthogonally in the top layer and diagonally in the bottom layer. It is one of the most ef cient framing systems with shorter top chord members to resist compression and longer bottom chords to resist tension. Even with the removal of a large number of memb ers, the system is still structurally stable and aesthetically pleasing. 8. Diag onal square pyramid space grids (diagonal square on square with internal opening s, diagonal on square) (Figure 13.4h). This type of space grid is also of the di fferential layout, but with a reverse pattern from Type 7. It is composed with s quare pyramids connected at their apices with fewer members intersecting at the node. The joint detail is relatively simple because there are only six members c onnecting at the top chord joint and eight members at the bottom chord joint. Gr oup 2B. Composed of triangular pyramids 9. Triangular pyramid space grids (trian gle on triangle offset) (Figure 13.4i). Triangular pyramids are used as basic el ements and are connected at their apices, thus forming a pattern of top layer tr iangular grids offset over bottom layer grids. If the depth of the space grids i s equal to 2/3 chord length, then all members will have the same length. 10. Tri angular pyramid space grids with openings (triangle on triangle offset with inte rnal openings) (Figure 13.4j). Like Type 6, the inner triangular pyramids may al so be removed alternatively. As the gure shown, triangular grids are formed in th e top layer while triangular and hexagonal grids are formed in the bottom layer. The pattern in the bottom layer may be varied depending on the ways of removal. Such types of space grids have a good open feeling and the contrast of the patt erns is effective. 13.2.2 Type Choosing In the preliminary stage of design, it is most important to choose an appropriat e type of double layer grid that will have direct in uence on the overall cost and speed of construction. It should be determined comprehensively by considering t he shape of the building plan, the size of the span, supporting conditions, magn itude of loading, roof construction, and architectural requirements. In general, the system should be chosen so that the space grid is built of relatively long tension members and short compression members. In choosing the type, the steel w eight is one of the important factors for comparison. If possible, the cost of t he structure should also be taken into account, which is complicated by the diff erent costs of joints and members. By comparing the steel consumption of various types of double layer grids with rectangular plans and supported along perimete rs, it was found that the aspect ratio of the plan, de ned here as the ratio of a longer span to a shorter span, has more in uence than the span of the double layer grids. When the plan is square or nearly square (aspect ratio = 1 to 1.5), twoway latticed grids and all space grids of Group 2A, i.e., Type 1, 2, and 5 throu gh 8, could be chosen. Of these types, the diagonal square pyramid space grids o r differential square pyramid space grids have the minimum steel weight. When th e plan is comparatively narrow (aspect ratio = 1.5 to 2), then those double laye r grids with orthogonal gird systems in the top layer will consume less steel th an c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.4: Framing system of double layer grids. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.4: (Continued) Framing system of double layer grids. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.4: (Continued) Framing system of double layer grids. those with a diagonal grid system. Therefore, two-way orthogonal latticed grids, orthogonal square pyramid space grids, and also those with openings and differe ntial square pyramid space grids, i.e., Types 1, 5, 6, and 7, could be chosen. W hen the plan is long and narrow, the type of one-way latticed grid is the only s election. For square or rectangular double layer grids supported along perimeter s on three sides and free on the other side, the selection of the appropriate ty pes for different cases is essentially the same. The boundary along the free sid e should be strengthened either by increasing the depth or number of layers. Ind ividual supporting structures such as trusses or girders along the free side are not necessary. In case the double layer grids are supported on intermediate col umns, type could be chosen from two-way orthogonal latticed grids, orthogonal sq uare pyramid space grids, and also those with openings, i.e., Types 1, 5, and 6. If the supports for multi-span double layer grids are combined with those along perimeters, then two-way diagonal latticed grids and diagonal square pyramid sp ace grids, i.e., Types 2 and 8, could also be used. For double layer grids with circular, triangular, hexagonal, and other odd shapes supporting along perimeter s, types with triangular grids in the top layer, i.e., Types 3, 9, and 10, are a ppropriate for use. The recommended types of double layer grids are summarized i n Table 13.1 according to the shape of the plan and their supporting conditions. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

TABLE 13.1 Type Choosing for Double Layer Grids Supporting condition Along perimeters Along perimeters Along perimeters Intermed iate support Intermediate support combined with support along perimeters Along p erimeters Recommended types 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 1, 5, 6, 7 4 1, 5, 6 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 3, 9, 10 Shape of the plan Square, rectangular (aspect ratio = 1 to 1.5) Rectangular (asp ect ratio = 1.5 to 2) Long strip (aspect ratio > 2) Square, rectangular Square, rectangular Circular, triangular, hexagonal, and other odd shapes 13.2.3 Method of Support Ideal double layer grids would be square, circular, or other polygonal shapes wi th overhanging and continuous supports along the perimeters. This will approach more of a plate type of design which minimizes the maximum bending moment. Howev er, the con guration of the building has a great number of varieties and the suppo rt of the double layer grids can take the following locations: 1. Support along perimetersThis is the most commonly used support location. The supports of double layer grids may directly rest on the columns or on ring beams connecting the co lumns or exterior walls. Care should be taken that the module size of grids matc hes the column spacing. 2. Multi-column supportsFor single-span buildings, such a s a sports hall, double layer grids can be supported on four intermediate column s as shown in Figure 13.5a. For buildings such as workshops, usually multi-span columns in the form of grids as shown in Figure 13.5b are used. Sometimes the co lumn grids are used in combination with supports along perimeters as shown in Fi gure 13.5c. Overhangs should be employed where possible in order to provide some amount of stress reversal to reduce the interior chord forces and de ections. For those double layer grids supported on intermediate columns, it is best to desig n with overhangs, which are taken as 1/4 to 1/3 of the midspan. Corner supports should be avoided if possible because they cause large forces in the edge chords . If only four supports are to be provided, then it is more desirable to locate them in the middle of the sides rather than at the corners of the building. 3. S upport along perimeters on three sides and free on the other sideFor buildings of a rectangular shape, it is necessary to have one side open, such as in the case of an airplane hanger or for future extension. Instead of establishing the supp orting girder or truss on the free side, triple layer grids can be formed by sim ply adding another layer of several module widths (Figure 13.6). For shorter spa ns, it can also be solved by increasing the depth of the double layer grids. The sectional area of the members along the free side will increase accordingly. Th e columns for double layer grids must support gravity loads and possible lateral forces. Typical types of support on multi-columns are shown in Figure 13.7. Usu ally the member forces around the support will be excessively large, and some me ans of transferring the loads to columns are necessary. It may carry the space g rids down to the column top by an inverted pyramid as shown in Figure 13.7a or b y triple layer grids as shown in Figure 13.7b, which can be employed to carry sk ylights. If necessary, the inverted pyramids may be extended down to the ground level as shown in Figure 13.7c. The spreading out of the concentrated column rea ction on the space grids reduces the maximum chord and web member forces adjacen t to the column supports and reduces the effective spans. The use of a vertical strut on column tops as shown in Figure 13.7d enables the space grids to be supp orted on top chords, but the vertical strut and the connecting joint have to be very strong. The use of c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.5: Multi-column supports. FIGURE 13.6: Triple layer grids on the free side. crosshead beams on column tops as shown in Figure 13.7e produces the same effect as the inverted pyramid, but usually costs more in material and special fabrica tion. FIGURE 13.7: Supporting columns. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

13.2.4 Design Parameters Before any work can proceed on the analysis of a double layer grid, it is necess ary to determine the depth and the module size. The depth is the distance betwee n the top and bottom layers and the module is the distance between two joints in the layer of the grid (see Figure 13.8). Although these two parameters seem sim ple enough to determine, they will play an important role on the economy of the roof design. There are many factors in uencing these parameters, such as the type of double layer grid, the span between the supports, the roof cladding, and also the proprietary system used. In fact, the depth and module size are mutually de pendent which is related by the permissible angle between the center line of web members and the plane of the top and bottom chord members. This should be less than 30 or the forces in the web members and the length will be relatively excess ive, but not greater than 60 or the density of the web members in the grid will b ecome too high. For some of the proprietary systems, the depth and/or module are all standardized. FIGURE 13.8: Depth and module. The depth and module size of double layer grids are usually determined by practi cal experience. In some of the paper and handbooks, gures on these parameters are recommended and one may nd the difference is quite large. For example, the spandepth ratio varies from 12.5 to 25, or even more. It is usually considered that the depth of the space frame can be relatively small when compared with more con ventional structures. This is generally true because double layer grids produce smaller de ections under load. However, depths that are small in relation to span will tend to use smaller modules and hence a heavier structure will result. In t he design, almost unlimited possibilities exist in practice for the choice of ge ometry. It is best to determine these parameters through structural optimization . Works have been done on the optimum design of double layer grids supported alo ng perimeters. In an investigation by Lan [14], seven types of double layer grid s were studied. The module dimension and depth of the space frame are chosen as the design variables. The total cost is taken as the objective function which in cludes the cost of members and joints as well as the roo ng systems and enclosing walls. Such assumption makes the results realistic to a practical design. A seri es of double layer grids of different types spanning from 24 to 72 m was analyze d by optimization. It was found that the optimum design parameters were differen t for different types of roof systems. The module number generally increases wit h the span, and the steel purlin roo ng system allows larger module sizes than tha t of reinforced concrete. The optimum depth is less dependent on the span and sm aller depth can be used for a steel purlin roo ng system. It should be observed th at a smaller member density will lead to a grid with relatively few nodal points and thus the least possible production costs for nodes, erection expense, etc. Through regression analysis of the calculated values by optimization method wher e the costs are within 3% optimum, the following empirical formulas for optimum span-depth ratios are obtained. It was found that the optimum depths are distrib uted in a belt and all the span-depth ratios within such range will give optimum effect in construction. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

For a roo ng system composed of reinforced concrete slabs L/d = 12 2 For a roo ng sy stem composed of steel purlins and metal decks L/d = (510 L)/34 2 (13.2) (13.1) where L is the short span and d is the depth of the double layer grids. Few data could be obtained from the past works. Regarding the optimum depth for steel pu rlin roo ng systems, Geiger suggested the span depth ratio to be varied from 10 to 20 with less than 10% variation in cost. Motro recommended a span depth ratio o f 15. Curves for diagonal square pyramid space grids (diagonal on square) were g iven by Hirata et al. and an optimum ratio of 10 was suggested. In the earlier e dition of the Speci cations for the Design and Construction of Space Trusses issue d in China, the span depth ratio is speci ed according to the span. These gures wer e obtained through the analysis of the parameters used in numerous design projec ts. A design handbook for double layer grids also gives graphs for determining u pper and lower bounds of module dimension and depth. The relation between depth and span obtained from Equation 13.2 and relevant source is shown in Figure 13.9 . For short and medium spans, the optimum values are in good agreement with thos e obtained from experience. It is noticeable that the span depth ratio should de crease with the span, yet an increasing tendency is found from experience which gives irrationally large values for long spans. FIGURE 13.9: Relation between depth and span of double layer grids. In the revised edition of the Speci cation for the Design and Construction of Spac e Trusses issued in China, appropriate values of module size and depth for commo nly used double layer grids simply supported along the perimeters are given. Tab le 13.2 shows the range of module numbers of the top chord and the span depth ra tios prescribed by the Speci cations. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

TABLE 13.2 Type of double layer grids 1, 5, 6 2, 7, 8 Module Number and Span Depth Ratio R.C. slab roo ng system Module number (2 4) + 0.2L Steel purlin roo ng system Module number Span depth ratio Span depth ratio 10 14 (68)+0.08L (68)+0.7L (1317)0.03L Note: 1. L Denotes the shorter span in meters. 2. When the span is less than 18 m, the number of the module may be decreased. 13.2.5 Cambering and Slope Most double layer grids are suf ciently stiff, so cambering is often not required. Cambering is considered when the structure under load appears to be sagging and the de ection might be visually undesirable. It is suggested that the cambering b e limited to 1/300 of the shorter span. As shown in Figure 13.10, cambering is u sually done in (a) cylindrical, (b) ridge or (c, d) spherical shape. If the grid is being fabricated on site by welding, then almost any type of camber can be o btained as this is just a matter of setting the joint nodes at the appropriate l evels. If the grid components are fabricated in the factory, then it is necessar y to standardize the length of the members. This can be done by keeping either t he top or bottom layer chords at the standard length, and altering the other eit her by adding a small amount to the length of each member or subtracting a small amount from it to generate the camber required. FIGURE 13.10: Ways of cambering. Sometimes cambering is suggested so as to ensure that the rainwater drains off t he roof quickly to avoid ponding. This does not seem to be effective especially when cambering is limited. To solve the water run off problem in those locations with heavy rains, it is best to form a roof slope by the following methods (Fig ure 13.11): 1. 2. 3. 4. Establishing short posts of different height on the join ts of top layer grids. Varying the depth of grids. Forming a slope for the whole grid. Varying the height of supporting columns. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.11: Ways of forming roof slope. 13.2.6 Methods of Erection The method chosen for erection of a space frame depends on its behavior of load transmission and constructional details, so that it will meet the overall requir ements of quality, safety, speed of construction, and economy. The scale of the structure being built, the method of jointing the individual elements, and the s trength and rigidity of the space frame until its form is closed must all be con sidered. The general methods of erecting double layer grids are as follows. Most of them can also be applied to the construction of latticed shells. 1. Assembly of space frame elements in the airMembers and joints or prefabricated subassembl y elements are assembled directly on their nal position. Full scaffoldings are us ually required for such types of erection. Sometimes only partial scaffoldings a re used if cantilever erection of a space frame can be executed. The elements ar e fabricated at the shop and transported to the construction site and no heavy l ifting equipment is required. It is suitable for all types of space frame with b olted connections. 2. Erection of space frames by strips or blocksThe space frame is divided on its plane into individual strips or blocks. These units are fabri cated on the ground level, then hoisted up into the nal position and assembled on the temporary supports. With more work being done on the ground, the amount of assembling work at high elevation is reduced. This method is suitable for those double layer grids where the stiffness and load resisting behavior will not chan ge considerably after dividing into strips or blocks, such as twoway orthogonal latticed grids, orthogonal square pyramid space grids, and the those with openin gs. The size of each unit will depend on the hoisting capacity available. 3. Ass embly of space frames by sliding element in the airSeparate strips of space frame are assembled on the roof level by sliding along the rails established on each side of the building. The sliding units may either slide one after another to th e nal position and then assembled together or assembled successively during the p rocess of sliding. Thus, the erection of a space frame can be carried out simult aneously with the construction work underneath, which leads to savings of constr uction time and cost of scaffoldings. The sliding technique is relatively simple , requiring no special lifting equipment. It is suitable for orthogonal grid sys tems where each sliding unit will remain geometrically non deferrable. 4. Hoisti ng of whole space frames by derrick masts or cranesThe whole space frame is assem bled on the ground level so that most of the assembling work can be done before hoisting. This will result in an increased ef ciency and better quality. For short and medium spans, the space frame can be hoisted up by several cranes. For long span space frames, derrick masts are used as the support and electric winches a s the lifting power. The whole space frame can be translated or rotated in the a ir and then seated on its nal position. This method can be employed to all types of double layer grids. 5. Lifting up the whole space frameThis method also has th e bene t or assembling space frames on the ground level, but the structure cannot move horizontally during lifting. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Conventional equipment used is hydraulic jacks or lifting machines for lift slab construction. An innovative method has been developed by using the center hole hydraulic jacks for slipforming.The space frame is lifted up simultaneously with the slipforms for r.c. columns or walls. This lifting method is suitable for do uble layer grids supported along perimeters or on multi point supports. 6. Jacki ng up the whole space frameHeavy hydraulic jacks are established on the position of columns that are used as supports for jacking up. Occasionally roof claddings , ceilings, and mechanical installations are also completed with the space frame on the ground level. It is appropriate for use in space frames with multi point supports, the number of which is usually limited. 13.3 Latticed Shells 13.3.1 Form and Layer The main difference between double layer grids and latticed shells is the form. For a double layer grid, it is simply a at surface. For latticed shell, the varie ty of forms is almost unlimited. A common approach to the design of latticed she lls is to start with the consideration of the forma surface curved in space. The geometry of basic surfaces can be identi ed, according to the method of generation , as the surface of translation and the surface of rotation. A number of variati ons of form can be obtained by taking segments of the basic surfaces or by combi ning or adding them. In general, the geometry of surface has a decisive in uence o n essentially all characteristics of the structure: the manner in which it trans fers loads, its strength and stiffness, the economy of construction, and nally th e aesthetic quality of the completed project. Latticed shells can be divided int o three distinct groups forming singly curved, synclastic, and anticlastic surfa ces. A barrel vault (cylindrical shell) represents a typical developable surface , having a zero curvature in the direction of generatrices. A spherical or ellip tical dome (spheroid or elliptic paraboloid) is a typical example of a synclasti c shell. A hyperbolic paraboloid is a typical example of an anticlastic shell. B esides the mathematical generation of surface systems, there are other methods f or nding shapes of latticed shells. Mathematically the surface can be de ned by a h igh degree polynomial with the unknown coef cients determined from the known shape of the boundary and the known position of certain points at the interior requir ed by the functional and architectural properties of the space. Experimentally t he shape can be obtained by loading a net of chain wires, a rubber membrane, or a soap membrane in the desired manner. In each case the membrane is supported al ong a predetermined contour and at predetermined points. The resulting shape wil l produce a minimal surface that is characterized by a least surface area for a given boundary and also constant skin stress. Such experimental models help to d evelop an understanding about the nature of structural forms. The inherent curva ture in a latticed shell will give the structure greater stiffness. Hence, latti ced shells can be built in single layer grids, which is a major difference from double layer grid. Of course, latticed shells may also be built in double layer grids. Although single layer and double layer latticed shells are similar in sha pe, the structural analysis and connecting detail are quite different. The singl e layer latticed shell is a structural system with rigid joints, while the doubl e layer latticed shell has hinged joints. In practice, single layer latticed she lls of short span with lightweight roo ng may also be built with hinged joints. Th e members and connecting joints in a single layer shell of large span will resis t not only axial forces as in a double layer shell, but also the internal moment s and torsions. Since the single layer latticed shells are easily liable to buck ling, the span should not be too large. There is no distinct limit between singl e and double layer, which will depend on the type of shell, the geometry and siz e of the framework, and the section of members. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

13.3.2 Braced Barrel Vaults The braced barrel vault is composed of member elements arranged on a cylindrical surface. The basic curve is a circular segment; however, occasionally a parabol a, ellipse, or funicular line may also be used. Figure 13.12 shows the typical a rrangement of a braced barrel vault. Its structural behavior depends mainly on t he type and location of supports, which can be expressed as L/R, where L is the distance between the supports in longitudinal direction and R is the radius of c urvature of the transverse curve. If the distance between the supports is long a nd usually edge beams are used in the longitudinal direction (Figure 13.12a), th e primary response will be beam action. For 1.67 < L/R < 5, the barrel vaults ar e called long shells, which can be visualized as beams with curvilinear cross se ctions. The beam theory with the assumption of linear stress distribution may be applied to barrel vaults that are of symmetrical cross section and under unifor m loading if L/R > 3. This class of barrel vault will have longitudinal compress ive stresses near the crown of the vault, longitudinal tensile stresses towards the free edges, and shear stresses towards the supports. As the distance between transverse supports becomes closer, or as the dimension of the longitudinal spa n becomes smaller than the dimension of the shell width such that 0.25 < L/R < 1 .67, then the primary response will be arch action in the transverse direction ( Figure 13.12b). The barrel vaults are called short shells. Their structural beha vior is rather complex and dependent on their geometrical proportions. The force distribution in the longitudinal direction is no longer linear, but in a curvil inear manner, trusses or arches are usually used as the transverse supports. Whe n a single braced barrel vault is supported continuously along its longitudinal edges on foundation blocks, or the ratio of L/R becomes very small, i.e., < 0.25 (Figure 13.12c), the forces are carried directly in the transverse direction to the edge supports. Its behavior may be visualized as the response of parallel a rches. Displacement in the radial direction is resisted by cicumferential bendin g stiffness. Such type of barrel vault can be applied to buildings such as airpl ane hangars or gymnasia where the wall and roof are combined together. FIGURE 13.12: Braced barrel vaults. There are several possible types of bracing that have been used in the construction of single layer braced barrel vaults. Fi gure 13.13 shows ve principle types: 1. Orthogonal grid with single bracing of Wa rren truss (a) 2. Orthogonal grid with single bracing of Pratt truss (b) 3. Orth ogonal grid with double bracing (c) c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

4. Lamella (d) 5. Three way (e) FIGURE 13.13: Types of bracing for braced barrel vaults. The rst three types of braced barrel vaults can be formed by composing latticed t russes with the difference in the arrangement of bracings (Figures 13.13a, b, an d c). In fact, the original barrel vault was introduced by Foppl. It consists of several latticed trusses, spanning the length of the barrel and supported on th e gables. After connection of the longitudinal booms of the latticed trusses, th ey became a part of the braced barrel vault of the single layer type. The popula r diamond patterned lamella type of braced barrel vault consists of a number of interconnected modular units forming a rhombus shaped grid pattern (Figure 13.13 d). Each unit, which is twice the length of the side of a diamond, is called a l amella. Lamella roofs proved ideal for prefabricated construction as all the uni ts are of standard size. They were originally constructed of timber, but with th e increase of span, steel soon became the most frequently used material. To incr ease the stability of the structure and to reduce the de ections under unsymmetric al loads, purlins were employed for large span lamella barrel vaults. This creat ed the three way grid type of bracing and became very popular (Figure 13.13e). T he three way grid enables the construction of such systems using equilateral tri angles composed of modular units, which are of identical length and can be conne cted with simple nodes. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Research investigations have been carried out on braced barrel vaults. One aspec t of this research referred to the in uence of different types of bracing on the r esulting stress distribution. The experimental tests on the models proved that t here are signi cant differences in the behavior of the structures, and the type of bracing has a fundamental in uence upon the strength and load carrying capacity o f the braced barrel vaults. The three way single layer barrel vaults exhibited a very uniform stress distribution under uniformly distributed load, and much sma ller de ections in the case of unsymmetrical loading than for any of the other typ es of bracing. The experiments also showed that large span single layer braced b arrel vaults are prone to instability, especially under the action of heavy unsy mmetrical loads and that the rigidity of joints can exert an important in uence on the overall stability of the structure. For double layer braced barrel vaults, if two or three way latticed trusses are used to form the top and bottom layers of the latticed shell, the grid pattern is identical as shown in Figure 13.13 f or single layer shells. If square or triangular pyramids are used, either the to p or bottom layer grid may follow the same pattern as shown in Figure 13.13. The usual height to width ratio for long shells varies from 1/5 to 1/7.5. When the barrel vault is supported along the longitudinal edges, then the height can be i ncreased to 1/3 chord width. For long shells, if the longitudinal span is larger than 30 m, or for barrel vaults supported along longitudinal edges with a trans verse span larger than 25 m, double layer grids are recommended. The thickness o f the double layer barrel vault is usually taken from 1/20 to 1/40 of the chord width. 13.3.3 Braced Domes Domes are one of the oldest and well established structural forms and have been used in architecture since the earliest times. They are of special interest to e ngineers as they enclose a maximum amount of space with a minimum surface and ha ve proved to be very economical in terms of consumption of constructional materi als. The stresses in a dome are generally membrane and compressive in the most p art of the shell except circumferential tensile stresses near the edge and small bending moments at the junction of the shell and the ring beam. Most domes are surfaces of revolution. The curves used to form the synclastic shell are spheric al, parabolic, or elliptical covering circular or polygonal areas. Out of a larg e variety of possible types of braced domes, only four or ve types proved to be f requently used in practice. They are shown in Figure 13.14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ribbe d domes (a) Schwedler domes (b) Three way grid domes (c) Lamella domes (d, e) Ge odesic domes (f) Ribbed domes are the earliest type of braced domes that were constructed (Figure 13.14a). A ribbed dome consists of a number of identical meridional solid girde rs or trusses, interconnected at the crown by a compression ring. The ribs are a lso connected by concentric rings to form grids in a trapezium shape. The ribbed dome is usually stiffened by a steel or reinforced concrete tension ring at its base. A Schwedler dome also consists of meridional ribs connected together to a number of horizontal polygonal rings to stiffen the resulting structure so that it will be able to take unsymmetrical loads (Figure 13.14b). Each trapezium for med by intersecting meridional ribs with horizontal rings is subdivided into two triangles by a diagonal member. Sometimes the trapezium may also be subdivided by two cross diagonal members. This type of dome was introduced by a German engi neer, J.W. Schwedler, in 1863. The great popularity of Schwedler domes is due to the fact that, on the assumption of pin connected joints, the structure can be analyzed as statically determinate. In practice, in addition c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

to axial forces, all the members are also under the action of bending and torsio nal moments. Many attempts have been made in the past to simplify their analysis , but precise methods of analysis using computers have nally been applied to nd th e actual stress distribution. The construction of a three way grid dome is self explanatory. It may be imagined as a curved form of three way double layer grids (Figure 13.14c). It can also be constructed in single layer for the dome. The J apanese Diamond Dome system by Tomoegumi Iron Works belongs to this category. The theoretical analysis of three way grid domes shows that even under unsymmetrical loading the forces in this con guration are very evenly distributed leading to ec onomy in material consumption. A Lamella dome is formed by intersecting two way ribs diagonally to form a rhombus shaped grid pattern. As in a lamella braced ba rrel vault, each lamella element has a length that is twice the length of the si de of a diamond. The lamella dome can be distinguished further from parallel and curved domes. For a parallel lamella as shown in Figure 13.14d, the circular pl an is divided into several sectors (usually six or eight), and each sector is su bdivided by parallel ribs into rhombus grids of the same size. This type of lame lla dome is very popular in the U.S. It is sometimes called a Kiewitt dome, name d after its developer. For a curved lamella as shown in Figure 13.14e, rhombus g rids of different size, gradually increasing from the center of the dome, are fo rmed by diagonal ribs along the radial lines. Sometimes, for the purpose of esta blishing purlins for roof decks, concentric rings are introduced and a triangula r network is generated. FIGURE 13.14: Braced domes. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

The geodesic dome was developed by the American designer Buckminster Fuller, who turned architects attention to the advantages of braced domes in which the eleme nts forming the framework of the structure are lying on the great circle of a sp here. This is where the name geodesic came from (Figure 13.14f). The framework of these intersecting elements forms a three way grid comprising virtually equilate ral spherical triangles. In Fullers original geodesic domes, he used an icosahedr on as the basis for the geodesic subdivision of a sphere, then the spherical sur face is divided into 20 equilateral triangles as shown in Figure 13.15a. This is the maximum number of equilateral triangles into which a sphere can be divided. For domes of larger span, each of these triangles can be subdivided into six tr iangles by drawing medians and bisecting the sides of each triangle. It is there fore possible to form 15 complete great circles regularly arranged on the surfac e of a sphere (see Figure 13.15b). Practice shows that the primary type of braci ng, which is truly geodesic, is not suf cient because it would lead to an excessiv e length for members in a geodesic dome. Therefore, a secondary bracing has to b e introduced. To obtain a more or less regular network of the bracing bars, the edges of the basic triangle are divided modularly. The number of modules into wh ich each edge of the spherical icosahedron is divided depends mainly on the size of the dome, its span, and the type of roof cladding. This subdivision is usual ly referred to as frequency as depicted in Figure 13.15c. It must be pointed out t hat during such a subdivision, the resulting triangles are no longer equilateral . The members forming the skeleton of the dome show slight variation in their le ngth. As the frequency of the subdivision increases, the member length reduces, and the number of components as well as the types of connecting joints increases . Consequently, this re ects in the increase of the nal price of the geodesic dome, and is one of the reasons why geodesic domes, in spite of their undoubted advan tages for smaller spans, do not compare equally well with other types of braced domes for larger spans. The rise of a braced dome can be as at as 1/6 of the diam eter or as high as 3/4 of the diameter which will constitute a greater part of a sphere. For diameter of braced domes larger than 60 m, double layer grids are r ecommended. The ratio of the depth to the diameter is in the range of 1/30 to 1/ 50. For long spans, the depth can be taken as small as 1/100 of diameter. The su bdivision of the surface of a braced dome can also be considered by using one of the following three methods. The rst method is based on the surface of revolutio n. The rst set of lines of division is drawn as the meridional lines from the ape x. Next, circumferential rings are added. This results in a ribbed dome and furt her a Schwedler dome. Alternately, the initial set may be taken as a series of s piral arcs, resulting in a division of the surface into triangular units as unif orm as possible. This is achieved by drawing great circles in three directions a s show in the case of a grid dome. A noteworthy type of division of a braced dom e is the parallel lamella dome which is obtained by combining the rst and second methods described above. The third method of subdivision results from projecting the edges of in polyhedra onto the spherical surface, and then inscribing a tri angular network of random frequency into this basic grid. A geodesic dome repres ents an application of this method, with the basic eld derived from the isosahedr on further subdivided with equilateral triangles. 13.3.4 Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells The hyperbolic paraboloid or hypar is a translational surface formed by sliding a concave paraboloid, called a generatrix, parallel to itself along a convex par abola, called a directrix, which is perpendicular to the generatrix (Figure 13.1 6a). By cutting the surface vertically, parabolas can be obtained and by cutting horizontally hyperbolas can be obtained. Such surfaces can also be formed by sl iding a straight line along two other straight lines skewed with respect to each other (Figure 13.16b). The hyperbolic paraboloid is a doubly ruled surface; it can be de ned by two families of intersecting straight lines that form in plan pro jection a rhombic grid. This is one of the main advantages of a hyperbolic parab

oloid shell. Although it has a double curvature anticlastic surface, it can be b uilt by using linear structural members only. Thus, single layer hypar shells ca n be fabricated from straight beams and double layer hypar shells from linear la tticed trusses. The single hypar unit shown in c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.15: Geodesic subdivision. Figure 13.16 is suitable for use in building of square, rectangular, or elliptic plan. In practice, there exist an in nite number of ways of combining hypar units to enclose a given building space. FIGURE 13.16: Hyperbolic paraboloid shells. A shallow hyperbolic paraboloid under uniform loading acts primarily as a shear system, where the shear forces, in turn, causes diagonal tension and compression . The behavior of the surface can c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

be visualized as thin compression arches in one direction and tension cables in the perpendicular direction. In reality, additional shear and bending may occur along the vicinity of the edges. 13.3.5 Intersection and Combination The basic forms of latticed shells are single curvature cylinders, double curvat ure spheres, and hyperbolic paraboloids. Many interesting new shapes can be gene rated by intersecting and combining these basic forms. The art of intersection a nd combination is one of the important tools in the design of latticed shells. I n order to ful ll the architectural and functional requirements, the load resistin g behavior of the structure as a whole and also its relation to the supporting s tructure should be taken into consideration. For cylindrical shells, a simply wa y is to intersect through the diagonal as shown in Figure 13.17a. Two types of g roined vaults on a square plane can be formed by combining the corresponding int ersected curve surfaces as shown in Figures 13.17b and c. Likewise, combination of curved surfaces intersected from a cylinder produce a latticed shell on a hex agonal plan as shown in Figure 13.17d. FIGURE 13.17: Intersection and combination of cylindrical shells. For spherical shells, segments of the surface are used to cover planes other tha n circular, such as triangular, square, and polygonal as shown in Figure 13.18a, b, and c, respectively. Figure 13.18d shows a latticed shell on a square plane by combining the intersected curved surface from a sphere. It is usual to combin e a segment of a cylindrical shell with hemispherical shells at two ends as show n in Figure 13.19. This form of latticed shell is an ideal plan for indoor track elds and ice skating rinks. Different solutions for assembling single hyperbolic paraboloid units to cover a square plane are shown in Figure 13.20. The combina tion of four equal hypar units produces different types of latticed shells suppo rted on a central column as well as two or four columns along the outside perime ter. These basic blocks, in turn, can be added in various ways to form the multi bay buildings. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.18: Intersection and combination of spherical shells. 13.4 Structural Analysis 13.4.1 Design Loads 1. Dead loadThe design dead load is established on the basis of the actual loads which may be expected to act on the structure of constant magnitude. The weight of various accessoriescladding, supported lighting, heat and ventilation equipmen tand the weight of the space frame comprise the total dead load. An empirical for mula is suggested to estimate the dead weight g of double layer grids. g = 1/200 qw L kN/m2 (13.3) where qw = all dead and live loads acting on a double layer grid except its self -weight in kN/m2 L = shorter span in m = coef cient, 1.0 for steel tubes, 1.2 for mill sections 2. Live load, snow or rain loadLive load is speci ed by the local bui lding code and compared with the possible snow or rain load. The larger one shou ld be used as the design load. Each space frame is designed with a uniformly dis tributed snow load and further allowed for drifting depending upon the shape and slope of the structure. Often more than one assumed distribution of snow load i s considered. Very little information can be found on this subject although a pr oposal was given by ISO for the determination of snow c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.19: Combination of cylindrical and spherical shells. FIGURE 13.20: Combination of hyperbolic paraboloids. loads on simple curved roofs. The intensity of snow load as speci ed in Basis for Design of Structures: Determination of Snow Loads on Roofs [12] is reproduced as Figure 13.21. Rain load may be important in a tropical climate especially if th e drainage provisions are insuf cient. Ponding results when water on a double laye r grid at roof accumulates faster than it runs off, thus causing excessive load o n the roof. 3. Wind loadThe wind loads usually represent a signi cant proportion of the overall forces acting on barrel vaults and domes. A detailed comparison of the available codes concerning wind loads has revealed quite a large difference between the practices adopted by various countries. Pressure coef cients for an ar ched roof springing from a ground surface that can be used for barrel vault desi gns are shown in Figure 13.22 and Table 13.3. For an arched roof resting on an e levated structure such as enclosure walls, the pressure coef cients are shown in T able 13.4. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.21: Snow loads on simple curved roof. The wind pressure distribution on buildings is also recommended by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. The pressure coef cients for an arched ro of and spherical domes, either resting on the ground or on an elevated structure are presented in graphical forms as shown in Figure 13.23 and 13.24, respective ly. It can be seen that signi cant variations in pressure coef cients from different codes of practice exist for three-dimensional curved space frames. This is due to the fact that these coef cients are highly dependent on Reynolds number, surfac e roughness, wind velocity pro le, and turbulence. It may be concluded that the co des of practice are only suitable for preliminary design purposes, especially fo r those important long span space structures and latticed shells with peculiar s hapes. It is therefore necessary to undertake further wind tunnel tests in an at tempt to more accurately establish the pressure distribution over the c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.22: Wind pressure on an arched roof. TABLE 13.3 Ground Country code U.S. ANSI A 58.1-1982 U.S.S.R. BC&R 2.01.07-85 Windward quarter 1.4 r 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 China GBJ 9-87-1987 0.1 0.2 0.6 Central half 0.7 r 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 Pressure Coef cient for an Arched Roof on the Leeward quarter 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 Rise/span r 0 < r < 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 roof surface. For such tests, it is essential to simulate the velocity pro le and turbulence of the natural wind and the Reynolds number effects associated with t he curved surface. 4. Temperature effectMost space frames are subject to thermal expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature, and thus may be subject to axial loads if restrained. Potential temperature effect must be considered i n the design especially when the span is comparatively large. The choice of supp ort locationsperimeter, intermediate columns and types of support xed, slid or free r otation and translationas well as the geometry of members adjacent to the support , all contribute to minimizing the effect of thermal expansion. The temperature effect of a space frame may be calculated by the ordinary matrix displacement me thod of analysis and most computer programs provide such a function. For a doubl e layer grid, if it satis es one of the following requirements, the calculation fo r temperature effect may be exempted. (a) The joints on supports allow the doubl e layer grid to move horizontally. (b) Double layer grids of less than 40 m span are supported along perimeters by independent reinforced concrete columns or br ick pilasters. (c) The displacement at the top of the column due to a unit force is greater or equal to the value calculated according to the following formula: = L 2 EA E t 1 0.05 [ ] (13.4) c

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TABLE 13.4 Structure Country co e Pre ure Coef cient for n Arche Roof on n Elev te Win w r qu rter 0.9 1.5r 0.3 2.75r 0.7 he /b = 0.2b 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.7 he /b > 1 0.8 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.8 0 0.6 Centr l h lf 0.7 r 0.7 r 0.7 r 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 Leew r qu rter 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 Ri e/ p n r 0 < r < 0.2 0.2 r < 0.3 0.3 r 0.6 U.S. ANSI A 58.1 1982 U.S.S.R. BC&R 2.01.07 85 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 Chin GBJ 9 87 1987

where L = p n of ouble l yer gri in the irection of checking temper ture eff ect E = mo ulu of el ticity A = rithmetic me n v lue of the cro ection l re of member in the upporting pl ne (top or bottom l yer) = coef cient of therm l e p n ion = temper ture ifference t [ ] = llow ble tre of teel = coef cien t, when the chor in the upporting pl ne re rr nge in orthogon l gri = 1, in i gon l gri = 2, n in three w y gri =2 5. Con truction lo During con truction, tructure m y be ubjecte to lo ifferent from the e ign lo fter completion, epen ing on the equence of con truction n metho of c ffo l ing . For e mple, p ce fr me m y be lifte up t point ifferent from the n l upport , or it m y be con tructe in block or trip . Therefore, the whole tructure, or portion of it, houl be checke uring v riou t ge of con t ruction. 13.4.2

There re gener lly two ifferent ppro che in u e for the n ly i of p ce fr me . In the r t ppro ch, the tructure i n lyze irectly gener l emb ly of i crete member , i.e., i crete metho . In the econ ppro ch, the truc ture i repre ente by n equiv lent continuum like pl te or hell, i.e., cont inuum n logy metho . The vent of computer h r ic lly ch nge the whole p pro ch to the n ly i n e ign of p ce fr me . It h l o been re lize th t m tri metho of n ly i provi e n e tremely ef cient me n for r pi n cc ur te tre tment of m ny type of p ce tructure . In the m tri n ly i , tr ucture i repre ente i crete y tem n ll the u u l equ tion of truct ur l mech nic re written conveniently in m tri form. Thu , m tri n ly i i p rticul rly uit ble to computer c

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St tic An ly i

Altern te coef cient 6r 2.1 h ll ucture. e

l o be u e . b h = height of the elev te

tr

formul tion, with n utom tic equence of oper tion . A number of gener l purpo e computer progr m , uch STRUDL n SAP, h ve been evelope n re v il ble to e igner . The two common formul tion of the m tri n ly i re the ti ffne metho n e ibility metho . The tiffne metho i l o referre to t he i pl cement metho bec u e the i pl cement of the re un nt member re tr e te unknown . The e ibility metho (or force metho ) tre t the force in th e member unknown . Of the e two metho , the i pl cement metho i wi ely u e in mo t computer progr m . In the i pl cement metho , the tiffne m tri of the whole tructure i obt ine by ing ppropri tely the tiffne m tri e of the in ivi u l element . Support re then intro uce bec u e the i pl cem ent t the e point re known. A et of imult neou equ tion re olve for i pl cement . From the joint i pl cement the member elong tion c n be foun n hence the member force n re ction t upport . The m tri i pl cement meth o i by f r the mo t ccur te metho for the n ly i of p ce fr me . It c n b e u e without ny limit on the type n h pe of the tructure, the lo ing , t he upporting con ition , or the v ri tion of tiffne . The effect of temper tu re or uneven ettlement of upport l o c n be n lyze conveniently by thi me tho . For e ign work, peci l purpo e computer progr m for p ce fr me i pr eferre ; otherwi e the input of gener ting no l coor in te n member connecti vity plu lo ing inform tion will be tremen ou mount of work. Some c


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FIGURE 13.23: Win

pre ure coef cient

for

n rche roof.

ophi tic te computer progr m provi e the function of utom tic e ign, optim iz tion, n r fting. Double l yer gri c n be n lyze pin connecte n r igi ity of the joint oe not ch nge the tre by more th n 10 to 15%. In the i pl cement metho , b r element re u e with three unknown i pl cement in , y, n z irection t e ch en . For ingle l yer reticul te hell with rigi joint , b r element re u e n the unknown re ouble , i.e., three i pl cement n three rot tion . Un er peci c con ition , ingle l yer br ce ome m y be n lyze pin connection c

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FIGURE 13.24: Win

pre ure coef cient

for

pheric l ome .

joint with re on ble ccur cy if the ri e of the ome i comp r tively l rge n un er ymmetric lo ing. When u ing computer, the engineer mu t know the umption on which the progr m i b e , the p rticul r con ition for it u e ( boun ry con ition for e mple), n the m nner of intro ucing the input t . In the t tic n ly i of the p ce fr me , c re houl be t ken on the followin g i ue : 1. Support con ition A e upport (bolte or wel e ) in con truction h oul not be tre te liter lly completely e no e in n ly i . A m tter o f f ct, mo t p ce fr me re upporte on column or w ll th t h ve l ter l e ibility. Upon the cting of e tern l lo , there will be l ter l i pl cement on the top of column . Therefore, it i more re on ble to ume the upport horizont lly mov ble r ther th n e , or n el tic upport by con i ering t he tiffne of the upporting column. 2. Criterion for the number of re n lyze U u lly et of ection l re re ume for member n the computer will p rocee to n lyze the tructure to obt in et of member force . Then the membe r re checke to ee if the ume re re ppropri te. If not, the tructur e houl be re n lyze until the force n tiffne completely m tch e ch othe r. However, uch e ten e re n lyze by the tiffne metho will in uce high concentr tion of tiffne n , hence, gre t ifference of member ection whi ch i un ccept ble for pr ctic l u e. Therefore, it i nece ry to limit the nu mber of re n lyzi . In pr ctice, cert in criteri re peci e uch th t the re n ly i will termin te utom tic lly. One of the criterion i ugge te the num ber of the mo i e member le th n 5% of the tot l number of member . U u lly th ree or four run will pro uce ti f ctory re ult. 3. Checking of computer out putIt i ngerou for n engineer to rely on the computer output being inf ll ible. Alw y try to e tim te n nticip te re ult . A imple m nu l c lcul tion by ppro im te metho n comp ring it with computer output will be bene ci l. By oing o, n or er of m gnitu e for the re ult c n be obt ine . In thi oper t ion, intuition l o pl y n import nt role. At the me time, imple check ho ul be one to te t the reli bility of the computer progr m, uch the equilib rium of force t no e n the equilibrium of tot l lo ing with the umm tion of re ction . A check on the e ection long cert in e of the tructure woul l o be helpful. The ize n loc tion of ny l rge e ection houl be note . All e ection houl be c nne to look for po ible b olution c u e by imprope r mo eling of the tructure. Thi check i m e e ily if the progr m h the b ility to pro uce eforme geometry plot. A continuum n logy metho m y l o b e u e for the t tic n ly i of p ce fr me . Thi i to repl ce l ttice t ructure by n equiv lent continuum which e hibit equiv lent beh vior with re pe ct to trength n tiffne . The equiv lent rigi ity i u e for the tre n i pl cement n ly i in the el tic r nge, n p rticul rly o for t bility n yn mic n ly i . It i u eful well in or er to provi e n un er t n ing o f the over ll beh vior of the tructure by l rge. By u ing equiv lent rigi ity, the thickne , el tic mo uli, n Poi on r tio re etermine for the equiv len t continuum, n the fun ment l equ tion th t govern the beh vior of the equiv lent continuum re e t bli he in the u u l continuum theory. Therefore, the metho of olution n the re ult of the theory of pl te n hell re ire ctly pplic ble. Thu , cert in type of l ttice hell n ouble l yer gri c n be n lyze by tre ting them continuum n pplying the hell or pl te n logy. Thi metho h been foun to be ti f ctory where the lo ing i unifo rm n the lo tr n fer i pre omin ntly through membr ne ction. Some if cultie m y occur in the pplic tion of the continuum n logy metho . The boun ry con ition of the continuum c nnot be entirely n logou to the boun ry con ition of the i crete c


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prototype. Al o, ome of the effect th t re rel tively unimport nt in the c e of continu m y be igni c nt in the c e of p ce fr me . Two of the e merit men tion. The effect of he r eform tion in el tic pl te n hell i e enti ll y negligible, where the contribution of web member connecting the l yer of p ce fr me c n be igni c nt to the tot l eform tion. Simil rly, the correct c ontinuum mo el of rigi ly connecte p ce fr me mu t llow for the po ibility of rot tion of joint in epen ent of the rot tion of norm l ection . Such mo el re more comple th n the u u l one , n few olution of the governing equ tion e i t. It i u eful to comp re the i crete metho n continuum n logy metho . The continuum n logy metho c n only be pplie to regul r tructure w hile the i crete metho c n h n le rbitr ry tructur l con gur tion. The comput tion l time i much le for n equiv lent hell n ly i th n tiffne metho n ly i . The work involve in continuum n logy metho inclu e c lcul ting the equiv lent rigi ity, the force in the equiv lent continuum, n n lly the f orce in the member . Thi will go through i crete continuum i crete proce n , hence, involve further ppro im tion. To umm rize, the continuum n logy metho i mo t v lu ble t the t ge of conceptu l n prelimin ry e ign while the i crete metho houl be u e for working e ign. 13.4.3 E rthqu ke Re i t nce

One of the import nt i ue th t mu t be t ken into con i er tion in the n ly i n e ign of p ce fr me i the e rthqu ke e cit tion in c e the tructure i loc te in ei mic re . The re pon e of the tructure to e rthqu ke e cit tion i yn mic in n ture n u u lly yn mic n ly i i nece ry. The n ly i i complic te ue to the f ct th t the mplitu e of groun cceler tion , v elocitie , n motion i not cle rly etermine . Furthermore, the tiffne , m i tribution, n mping ch r cteri tic of the tructure will h ve profou n effect on it re pon e: the m gnitu e of intern l force n eform tion . Th e yn mic beh vior of p ce fr me c n be tu ie r t through the vibr tion ch r cteri tic of the tructure th t i repre ente by it n tur l frequencie . The e rthqu ke effect c n be re ecte in re pon e mpli c tion through inter ction wit h the n tur l yn mic ch r cteri tic of the tructure . Thu , ouble l yer gri c n be tre te pin connecte p ce tru y tem n their free vibr tion i formul te n equ tion of motion for freely vibr ting un mpe multi eg ree of free om y tem. By olving the gener lize eigenv lue problem , the frequ encie n vibr tion mo e re obt ine . A erie of ouble l yer gri of iffe rent type n p n were t ken for yn mic n ly i [23]. The c lcul tion re ul t how ome intere ting fe ture of the free vibr tion ch r cteri tic of the p ce fr me . The ifference between the frequencie of the r t 10 vibr tion mo e i o m ll th t the frequency pectrum of p ce fr me re r ther concentr te . The v ri tion of ny e ign p r meter will le to the ch nge of frequency. F or in t nce, the boun ry re tr int h igni c nt in uence on the fun ment l per io of the p ce fr me: the tronger the re tr int, the m ller the fun ment l perio . The fun ment l perio of mo t ouble l yer gri r nge from 0.37 to 0. 62 which re le th n th t of pl n r l ttice tru e of comp r ble ize. Thi f ct how cle rly th t the p ce fr me h ve rel tively higher tiffne . Inv e tig ting into the rel tion of fun ment l perio of ifferent type of ouble l yer gri with p n, it i foun th t the fun ment l perio incre e with t he p n, i.e., the p ce fr me will be more e ible for longer p n. The re pon e of p ce fr me with horter p n will be tronger. The vibr tion mo e of oub le l yer gri coul be cl i e m inly vertic l mo e n horizont l mo e th t ppe r ltern tely. In mo t c e , the r t vibr tion mo e re vertic l. The v ertic l mo e of ifferent type of ouble l yer gri emon tr te e enti lly t he me h pe n the vertic l frequencie for ifferent p ce fr me of equ l p n re very clo e to e ch other. It w foun th t the force in the p ce fr m e ue to vertic l e rthqu ke re m inly contribute by the c

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r t three ymmetric l vertic l mo e . Cert in rel tion coul be e t bli he betw een the r t three frequencie of the vertic l mo e follow : 2 3 = = (2 3.5) 1 (4 ) 2 (13.5) (13.6)

here 1 , 2 , a d 3 are the rst, seco d, a d third vertical freque cies, respectively. The simplest ay to estimate the earthquake effect is a quasi static model i h ich the dy amic actio of the grou d motio is simulated by a static actio of e quivale t loads. The ma er i hich the equivale t static loads are established is i troduced i ma y seismic desig codes of differe t cou tries. I the regio here the maximum vertical acceleratio is 0.05 g, usually the earthquake effe ct is ot the gover i g factor i desig a d it is ot ecessary to check the fo rces i duced by vertical or horizo tal earthquake. I the area here the maximum vertical acceleratio is 0.1 g or greater, a factor of 0.08 to 0.2, depe di g o differe t codes, is used to multiply the gravitatio al loads to represe t the equivale t vertical earthquake load. It should be oticed that i certai seismi c codes, the live load that forms a part of gravitatio al loads is reduced by 50 %. The values of vertical seismic forces i the members of double layer grids ar e higher ear the ce tral regio a d decrease gradually to ards the perimeters. Thus, the ratio bet ee the forces i each member due to vertical earthquake a d static load is ot co sta t over the hole structure. The method of employi g e quivale t static load serves o ly as a estimatio of the vertical earthquake ef fect a d provides a adequate level of safety. Due to the i here t horizo tal st iff ess of double layer grids, the forces i duced by horizo tal earthquake ca b e resisted effectively. I the regio of 0.1 g maximum acceleratio , if the spac e grids are supported alo g perimeters ith short or medium spa , it is ot requ ired to check the horizo tal earthquake. Ho ever, for double layer grids of lo g er spa or if the supporti g structure u der eath is rather exible, seismic a aly sis i the horizo tal directio should be take . I the case of latticed shells ith a curved surface, the respo se to horizo tal earthquake is much stro ger th a double layer grids depe di g o the shape a d supporti g co ditio . Eve i t he regio ith maximum vertical acceleratio of 0.05 g, the horizo tal earthquak e effect o latticed shells should be a alyzed. I such a alysis, coordi ati g t he actio of the space frame a d the supporti g structure should be co sidered. A simple ay of coordi atio is to i clude the elastic effect of the supporti g structure. This is represe ted by the elastic stiff ess provided by the support i the directio of restrai t. The space frame is a alyzed as if the supports ha ve horizo tally elastic restrai ts. For a more accurate a alysis, the supporti g colum s are take as member ith be di g a d axial stiff ess a d a alyzed toget her ith the space frame. I the a alysis, it is also importa t to i clude the i ertial effect of the supporti g structure, hich has i ue ce o the horizo tal e arthquake respo se of the space frame. I the case of more complex structures or large spa s, dy amic a alysis, such as the respo se spectrum method for modal a alysis, should be used. Such method gives a good estimate of the maximum respo se duri g hich the structure behaves elastically. For space frames, the vertica l seismic actio should be co sidered. Ho ever, fe recorded data o the behavio r of such structures u der vertical earthquake exist. I some aseismic desig co des, the mag itude of the vertical compo e t may be take as 50 to 65% of the ho rizo tal motio s. Use of 10 to 20 vibratio modes is recomme ded for the space f rames he applyi g the respo se spectrum method. For space frames ith irregula r a d complicated co guratio s or importa t lo g spa structures, the time histor y a alysis method should be used. The umber of acceleratio records or sy thesi zed acceleratio curves for the time history a alysis is selected accordi g to i te sity, locatio of earthquake, a d site category. I usual practice, at least three records are used for compariso . Such a method is a effective tool to ca lculate the earthquake respo se he large, i elastic deformatio s are expected. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

The behavior of latticed structures u der dy amic loads or, more speci cally, the performa ce of latticed structures due to earthquake, as the mai co cer of st ructural e gi eers. A ASCE Task Committee o Latticed Structures U der Extreme Dy amic Loads as formed to i vestigate this problem. O e of the objectives as to determi e if dy amic co ditio s have historically bee the critical factor i failure of lattice structures. A short report o Dy amic Co sideratio s i Latti ced Structures as submitted by the Task Committee i 1984. Eight major failures of latticed roof structures ere reported but otably o e of them as due to ea rthquake. Si ce the ASCE report as published, valuable i formatio o the behav ior of space frames duri g earthquake has bee obtai ed through t o seismic eve ts. I 1995, the Ha shi area of Japa suffered a stro g earthquake a d ma y str uctures ere heavily damaged or destroyed. Ho ever, he compared ith other typ es of structures, most of the damage to space frames located i that area as re latively mi or [13]. It is orth hile to me tio that t o lo g spa sport are as of space frame co structio ere built o a arti cial isla d i Kobe a d o majo r structural damage as fou d. O the other ha d, serious damage to a latticed s hell as fou d o the roof structure of a hippodrome sta d here ma y members e re buckled. The cause of the damage is ot due to the stre gth of the space fram e itself but the failure of the supporti g structure. A other example of serious damage to double layer grids for the roof structure of a theater occurred i 19 85 he a stro g earthquake struck the Kashigor District of Si kia g Uygur Auto omous Regio i Chi a [15]. Failure as caused by a a i the desig as the elast ic stiff ess a d i ertial effect of supporti g structures ere completely ig ore d. Behavior of space frame structures u der a stro g earthquake has ge erally be e satisfactory from a stre gth poi t of vie . Experie ces gai ed from stro g ea rthquakes sho s the space frames demo strate a effective spatial actio a d co seque tly a reaso ably good aseismic behavior. 13.4.4 Stability Although a great amou t of research has bee carried out to determi e the buckli g load of latticed shells, the available solutio s are ot satisfactory for pra ctical use. The problem is complicated by the effect of geometric o li earity o f the structure a d also the i ue ce of the joi t system accordi g to hich the m embers ca be co sidered as pi co ected or partially or completely restrai ed at the odes. The follo i g poi ts are importa t i the buckli g a alysis of lat ticed shells [7]: 1. Decisio o hich ki d of o li earity is ecessary to be u sedo ly geometrical o li earity ith the elastic a alysis, or geometrical a d ma terial o li earities ith the elastic plastic a alysis. 2. Choosi g the physica l modelequivale t co ti uum or discrete structure. 3. Choosi g the computer model a d umerical procedure for traci g the o li ear respo se for precritical beh avior, collapse ra ge, a d post critical behavior. 4. Study of factors i ue ce lo ad carryi g capacitybuckli g modes, de sity of et ork, geometrical a d mecha ica l imperfectio s, plastic deformatio s, rigidity of joi ts, load distributio s, e tc. 5. Experime tal i vestigatio s to provide data for a alysis (rigidity of joi ts, postbuckli g behavior of i dividual member, etc.) a d co rmatio of theoreti cal values. Ge erally speaki g, there are three types of buckli g that may occur i latticed shells: 1. member buckli g (Figure 13.25a) 2. local or dimple buckl i g at a joi t (Figure 13.25b) 3. ge eral or overall buckli g of the hole struc ture (Figure 13.25c) c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

where Ee = effective modulus of el sticity th t coincides with Youngs modulus in the el stic r nge I = moment of inerti of member l = length of the member The c oef cient t kes different v lues de ending on the r meter in the rentheses. Th e qu ntities ci nd cj ch r cterize the rot tion l stiffness of the joints, wo i s the initi l im erfection, e is the eccentricity of the end com ressive forces, nd m is the end she r forces nd moments. A reduced length lo should be used i n l ce of l when the r tio of the joint di meter to member length is rel tively l rge. On the b sis of Equ tion 13.7, the design code for steel structures in d ifferent countries rovides methods for estim ting member buckling, usu lly by i ntroducing the slenderness r tio = /r, where r is the radius of gyration of the members section. The oca buck ing of a space frame consists of a snap-through buck ing which takes p ace at one joint. Snap-through buck ing is characterized by a strong geometrica non- inearity. Loca buck ing is apt to occur when the r atio of t/R (where t is the equiva ent she thickness and R is the radius of cu rvature) is sma . Simi ar y, oca buck ing of a space frame is ike y to occur in sing e ayer atticed she s. Loca buck ing is great y affected by the stif fness of and the oads on the adjacent members. Consider the pin-connected struc ture shown in Figure 13.26. Buck ing oad qcr in terms of uniform norma oad pe r unit area can be expressed as AE AE qcr 3 12R 6R 3 (13.8) where A = cross-sectiona area of the member E = modu us of e asticity R = radiu s of an equiva ent spherica she through points B-A-B In practice, different t ypes of joints used in the design wi possess different exura strength; thus, t he actua behavior of the joint and member assemb y shou d be incorporated in de termining the oca buck ing oad. An approximate formu a was proposed by Lind [ 16] and is app icab e to triangu ar networks having a e ements of the same cro ss-sections. For the uniform oad, the critica oad is Qcr c = Et 1 + 2 /8 2 0.47 BI Al 3 +3 3 lR R 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.25: Differe t types of buckli g. Member buckli g occurs he a dual member becomes u stable, hile the rest of the space frame (members es) remai u affected. The buckli g load Pcr of a straight prismatic bar xial compressio is give by Pcr = 2 Ee I l2 = ci , cj , wo , e, (13.7)

i divi a d od u der a m

(13.9) where Et = t ngent modulus of el sticity R = r dius of curv ture of the fr mewor k mid-surf ce r = r dius of gyr tion B = non-dimension l bending stiffness of th e grid given in T ble 13.5 For the concentr ted lo d, the following two formul e re resented Wcr = which is v lid for > 9, nd Wcr = 0.0905EA for regul r i n-jointed tri ngul r network. TABLE 13.5 B 3EAh3 l3 8B 8B + 0.241 1 5.95 2 2 l R 3 (13.10) (13.11) Equiv lent Bending Stiffness B 1/16 0.873 1/8 0.886 1/4 0.950 1/2 1.176 1 1.85 2 3.15 4 4.83 8 6.48 16 7.35 32 7.80 64 7.90 1/32 0.868 The over ll buckling occurs when rel tively l rge re of the s ce fr me beco mes unst ble, nd rel tively l rge number of joints is involved in the buckle. For most c ses, in over ll buckling of s ce fr me, the w ve length is signi c ntly gre ter th n the member length. Loc l buckling often l ys the role of trig ger for over ll buckling. The ty e of buckling coll se of s ce fr me is gre tly in uenced by the following f ctors: its G ussi n curv ture, whether it is si ngle or double l yer system, the degree of st tic l indetermin cy, nd the m nne r of su orting nd lo ding. Gener lly s e king, sh llow shell of ositive G u ssi n c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.26: Loc l buckling of

in-connected structure. = l 2 /rR

curv ture, like dome, is more rone to over ll buckling th n cylindric l she ll of zero G ussi n curv ture. Recent rese rch reve ls th t hy erbolic r bol oid shell is less vulner ble to over ll buckling nd the rr ngement of the grid s h s consider ble in uence on the st bility nd stiffness of the shell. It is b est to rr nge the members long the direction of com ressive forces. A single l yer s ce fr me exhibits gre ter sensitivity to buckling th n double l yer st ructure. Moreover, v rious ty es of buckling beh vior m y t ke l ce simult neou sly in com lic ted rel tion. For double l yer grids, in most c ses, it is suf ci ent to ex mine the member coll se which m y occur in the com ressive chord memb ers. The theoretic l n lysis of buckling beh vior m y be ro ched by two meth ods: continuum n logy n lysis nd discrete n lysis. Since lmost ll s ce fr mes re constructed from ne rly identic l units rr nged in regul r ttern, it is gener lly cce ted th t the n lysis on the b sis of the equiv lent contin uum serves s n im ort nt tool in the investig tion of the buckling beh vior of s ce fr mes. Numerous n lytic l nd ex eriment l studies on the buckling of c ontinuous shells h ve been erformed nd the results c n be lied to the l tti ced shells. The buckling formul for s heric l shell subjected to uniformly distributed lo d norm l to the middle surf ce c n be ex ressed s t 2 (13.12) qc r = kE R where t is the thickness nd R is the r dius of the shell. Different v lues of the coef cient k were obt ined by v rious investig tors. k = 1.21 (Zoelly [1915], b sed on cl ssic l line r theory) = 0.7 (ex eriments on very c refully re red models) = 0.366 (K rm n nd Tsien [1939], b sed on nonline r el stic the ory) = 0.228, 0.246 (del Pozo [1979], for = 0 nd 0.3, res ectively) For tri n gul ted dome where n equiv lent thickness is used, Wright [22] derived the form ul by using E = AE/3rl t = 2 3r k = 0.4 Ar (13.13) qcr = 1.6E 2 lR The critic l lo d for over ll buckling m y lso be ex ressed s the following formul for co m rison qcr = k E 1/2 3/2 tm tb R2 (13.14) where tm = effective in- l ne thickness = effective bending thickness tb = 0.377 [22] k = 0.365 = 0.247 = 0.294 [8] Discrete n lysis is more owerful tool to study the whole rocess of inst bility for s ce fr mes. As shown in Figure 13. 27, structure m y lose its st bility when it h s re ched limit oint, where th e stiffness is lost com letely. On the other h nd, structure such s dome m y lose its st bility by sudden buckling into mode of deform tion before the limit oint, which occurs t distinct critic l ointbifurc tion oint on the lo d th. It should be noted th t the initi l im erfection of the structure will gr e tly reduce the v lue of critic l lo d, nd cert in ty es of s ce fr me re ve ry sensitive to the resent of im erfection. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

In the st bility n lysis, usu lly the ch r cteristic t cert in s eci l st tes is investig ted, i.e., the st bility mode nd critic l lo d re n lyzed s n e igenv lue roblem. Rese rchers re now more interested in studying the whole ro cess of nonline r st bility. As result of the develo ment of the com uter m tr ix method, numeric l n lyses of l rge systems h ve become str ightforw rd. Ther efore, the discrete n lysis of s ce fr me, itself discrete structure, is v ery suit ble for the study of st bility roblems. M jor roblems encountered in the nonline r st bility rocess re: the m them tic l nd mech nic l modeling of the structure, the numeric l technique for solving nonline r equ tions, nd the tr cing method for the nonline r equilibrium th. Much rese rch h s been c rri ed out in the bove re . The Newton-R hson method or the modi ed Newton-R hson method is the fund ment l method for solving the nonline r equilibrium equ tions nd h s roved to be one of the most effective methods. The ur ose of tr cing the nonline r equilibrium th is s follows: (1) to rovide equilibrium n lysi s for the re-buckling st te, (2) to determine the critic l oint, such s the l imit oint or bifurc tion oint on the lo d th nd its critic l lo d, (3) to t r ce the ost-buckling res onse. On the b sis of the increment-iter tion rocess for the nite element method, techniques for the n lysis of nonline r equilibriu m th nd its tr cing t ctics h ve m de signi c nt rogress in recent ye rs. Nume ric l methods used for the construction of equilibrium ths ssoci ted with non line r roblems, such s the lo d increment l method, const nt rc-length method , dis l cement control method, etc. were develo ed by different uthors. Bec use e ch of the techniques h s its dv nt ges nd dis dv nt ges in the deriv tion o f fund ment l equ tions, ccur cy of solution, com uting time, etc. the selectio n of the ro ri te method h s rofound in uence on the ef ciency of the com ut t ion. In the resent st ge of develo ment, com lic ted equilibrium ths c n be t r ced with the id of the bove technique. Com uter rogr ms h ve been develo ed for the whole rocess of nonline r st bility nd c n be used for the design of v rious ty es of l tticed shells. 13.5 Jointing Systems 13.5.1 Gener l Descri tion The jointing system is n extremely im ort nt rt of s ce fr me design. An e ffective solution of this roblem m y be s id to be fund ment l to successful de sign nd construction. The ty e of jointing de ends rim rily on the connecting technique, whether it is bolting, welding, or lying s eci l mech nic l connec tors. It is lso ffected by the sh e of the members. This usu lly involves d ifferent connecting technique de ending on whether the members re circul r or s qu re hollow c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.27: Inst bility

oints.

sections or rolled steel sections. The effort ex ended on rese rch nd develo me nt of jointing systems h s been enormous nd m ny different ty es of connectors h ve been ro osed in the st dec des. The joints for the s ce fr me re more im ort nt th n the ordin ry fr ming systems bec use more members re connected t o single joint. Furthermore, the members re loc ted in threedimension l s ce, nd hence the force tr nsfer mech nism is more com lex. The role of the join ts in s ce fr me is so signi c nt th t most of the successful commerci l s ce fr me systems utilize ro riet ry jointing systems. Thus, the joints in s ce fr me re usu lly more so histic ted th n the joints in l n r structures, where sim le gusset l tes will suf ce. In designing the jointing system, the following requirements should be considered. The joints must be strong nd stiff, sim le structur lly nd mech nic lly, nd yet e sy to f bric te without recourse to mor e dv nced technology. The eccentricity t joint should be ke t to minimum, yet the joint det iling should rovide for the necess ry toler nces th t m y be required during the construction. Fin lly, joints of s ce fr mes must be design ed to llow for e sy nd effective m inten nce. The cost of the roduction of jo ints is one of the most im ort nt f ctors ffecting the n l economy of the nished structure. Usu lly the steel consum tion of the connectors will constitute 15 to 30% of the tot l. Therefore, successful ref bric ted system requires joints th t must be re etitive, m ss roduced, sim le to f bric te, nd ble to tr nsmi t ll the forces in the members interconnected t the node. All connectors c n b e divided into two m in c tegories: the ur ose-m de joint nd the ro riet ry j oint used in the industri lized system of construction. The ur ose-m de joints re usu lly used for long s n structures where the lic tion of st nd rd ro riet ry joints is limited. An ex m le of such ty es of joints is the cruciform g usset l te for connecting rolled steel sections s shown in Figure 13.28.

A survey round the world will reve l th t there re over 250 different ty es of jointing systems suggested or used in r ctice, nd there re some 50 commerci l rms trying to s eci lize in the m nuf cture of ro riet ry jointing systems for s ce fr mes. Unfortun tely, m ny of these systems h ve not roved tt inment o f gre t success m inly bec use of the com lexity of the connecting method. T ble s 13.6 through 13.8 give com rehensive survey of the jointing systems ll over the world. All the connection techniques c n be divided into three m in grou s: (1) with node, (2) without node, nd (3) with ref bric ted units. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.28: Connecting joint with cruciform gusset

l te.

TABLE 13.6

c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Connection Ty es with

Node

TABLE 13.6

From Gerrits, J.M., The rchitectur l im ct of s ce fr me systems, Proc. Asi P ci c Conf. on Shell nd S ti l Structures 1996, Chin Civil Engineering Society , Beijing, Chin , 1996. With ermission. 13.5.2 Pro riet ry System Some of the most successful ref bric ted jointing systems re summ rized in T b le 13.9. This is followed by further descri tion of e ch system. 1. Mero The M ero connector, introduced some 50 ye rs go by Dr. Mengeringh usen, roved to be extremely o ul r nd h s been used for numerous tem or ry nd erm nent buildi ngs. Its joint consists of node th t is s heric l hot- ressed steel forging with t f cets nd t ed holes. Members re circul r hollow sections with cone-s h ed steel forgings welded t the ends which ccommod te connecting bolts. Bolt s re tightened by me ns of hex gon l sleeve nd dowel in rr ngement, result ing in com leted joint such s th t shown in Figure 13.29. U to 18 members c n be connected t joint with no eccentricity. The m nuf cturer c n roduce mod es of different size with di meter r nging from 46.5 mm to 350 mm, the corres on ding bolts r nging from M12 to M64 with m ximum ermissible force of 1413 kN. A ty ic l s ce-module of Mero system is squ re yr mid (1/2 Oct hedron) wit h both chord nd di gon l members of the s me length , ngles extended re 90 or 6 0 . Thus, the depth of the space-module is a/ 2 and the vertical angle between di agonal and chord member is 54.7 . The Mero connector has the advantage that the a xes of all members pass through the center of the node, eliminating eccentricity loading at the joint. Thus, the joint is only under the axial forces. Then tens ile forces are carried along the longitudinal axis of the bolts and resisted by the tube members through the end cones. The compressive forces do not produce an y stresses in the bolts; they are distributed to the node through the hexagonal sleeves. The size of the connecting bolt of compression members based on the dia meter calculated from its internal forces may be reduced by 6 to 9 mm. The diame ter of a steel node may be determined by the following equations (Figure 13.29). D d2 + (d1 ctg + 2 d1 ) sin 2 2 + 2 d1 (13.15) However, in order to satisfy t e re uirements of t e connecting face of t e slee ve, t e diameter s ould be c ecked by t e following e uation: c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Connection Ty es with

Node (continued)

TABLE 13.7 Connection Types wit out a Node From Gerrits, J.M., T e arc itectural impact of space frame systems, Proc. AsiaPaci c Conf. on S ell and Spatial Structures 1996, C ina Civil Engineering Society , Beijing, C ina, 1996. Wit permission. D w ere D d1 d2 d2 + d1 ctg sin 2 2 + 2 d1 (13.16) = = = =

and may be determined, respectively, by t e design tension values or compression strengt of bolt. Normally = 1.1 and = 1.8. T e diameter of a steel ball s ould be taken as t e larger value calculated from t e above two e uations. T e Mero connector was originally developed for double layer grids. Due to t e increasing usage of non-planar roof forms, it is re uired to construct t e load-bearing sp ace frame integrated wit cladding element. A new type of jointing system called Mero Plus System was developed so t at a variety of curved and folded structure s are possible. S uare or rectangular ollow sections are used to matc t e part icular re uirements of t e cladding so t at a us transition from member to conne cting node can be e ecuted. T e connector can transmit s ear force, resist torsi on, and in special cases can resist bending moment. T ere are four groups in t i s system w ic are described as follows. (a) Disc Node (Type TK) (Figure 13.31)T is is a planar ring-s aped node connecting c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

diameter of steel ball (mm) t e d) diameter of bolts (mm) ratio steel ball and t e diameter of cumscribed circle of t e sleeve

smaller intersecting angle between two bolts (ra between t e inserted lengt of t e bolt into t e t e bolt = ratio between t e diameter of t e cir and t e diameter of t e bolt

TABLE 13.8 Connection Types wit Prefabricated Units From Gerrits, J.M., T e arc itectural impact of space frame systems, Proc. AsiaPaci c Conf. on S ell and Spatial Structures 1996, C ina Civil Engineering Society , Beijing, C ina, 1996. Wit permission. TABLE 13.9 Name Mero Space Deck Triodetic Unistrut (Moduspan) Oktaplatte Unibat Nodus NS

Commonly Used Proprietary Systems Country Germany U.K. Canada U.S. Germany France U.K. Japan Period of development 19401950 19501960 19501960 19501960 19501960 19601970 19601970 19701980 Material Ste Aluminum Steel Aluminum Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Connecting met od Bo lting Bolting Inserting member ends into ub Bolting Welding Bolting Bolting and using pins Bolting 5 to 10 members of s uare or rectangular sections. A single bolt is used to conn ect t e node and member and dept of t e node is e ual to t e member section dep t . Suc jointing systems can transmit s ear force and resist rotation. In t e f ollowing discussion, t e U-angle is designated as t e angle between two members connected to t e same node. Also, t e V-angle is t e angle between t e member a is and t e normal in t e plane of t e node w ic is a measure of curvature. For a disc node, t e U-angle varies from 30 to 80 and the V-angle varies from 0 to 10 . This type of jointing system is essentially pin-jointed connections and is suita ble for latticed shells made of triangular meshes. (b) Bowl Node (Type NK) (Figu re 13.32)This is a hemispherical node connecting top chord and diagonal members. Single bolted connection from node to member is used. The top chord members of s quare or rectangular sections can be loaded in shear and are tted ush to the nodes . Bowl nodes are used for double layer planar and curved surfaces, in particular buildings irregular in plan or pyramid in shape. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.29: Mero system. FIGURE 13.30: Dimensions of spherical node. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.31: Disk node (Type TK). The diagonals and lower chords are constructed in an ordinary Mero system with c ircular tubes and spherical nodes. (c) Cylinder Node (Type ZK) (Figure 13.33) Thi s is a a cylindrical node with a multiple bolted connection that can transmit be nding moment. Usually the node can connect 5 to 10 square or rectangular section s that can take transverse loading. Connection angle varies: 30 to 100 for V-angle , 0 to 10 for V-angle. Cylinder nodes are used in singly or doubly curved surface of latticed shells with trapezoidal meshes where exural rigid connections are req uired. (d) Block Node (Type BK) (Figure 13.34)This is a a block- or prism-shaped solid node connecting members of square or rectangular sections. The U-angle var ies from 70 to 120 and V-angle varies from 0 to 10 . It can be used for singly or do ubly curved surfaces with pin-jointed or rigid connections where the number of m embers is small. The structure is of simple geometry and small dimensions. 2. Sp ace Deck The Space Deck system, introduced in England in the early fties, utilize s pyramidal units that are fabricated in the shop, as shown in Figure 13.35. The four diagonals made of rods or bars are welded to the corners of the angle fram e and joined to a fabricated boss c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.32: Bowl node (type NK). at the apex. It is based on square pyramid units that form a con guration of squar e on square offset double layer space grids. The units are eld-bolted together th rough the angle frames. The apexes of the units are connected in the eld by using tie bars made from high-tensile steel bars. Camber can be achieved by adjusting the tie bar lengths, since right-hand and left-hand threading is provided in th e boss. The Space Deck system is usually used for buildings of span less than 40 m with a standard module and depth of 1.2 m. A minimum structural depth of 0.75 m is also provided. For higher design loading and larger spans, alternative pro duction modules of 1.5 m and 2.0 m with the same depth as the module are also av ailable. 3. Triodetic The joint for the Triodetic system, developed in Canada, c onsists of an extruded aluminum connector hub with serrated keyways. Each member end is pressed in order to form a coined edge that ts into the hub keyway. The j oint is completed when the members are inserted into the hub, washers are placed at each end of the hub, and a screw bolt is passed through the center of hub, a s shown in Figure 13.36. The Triodetic connector can be used for any type of thr ee-dimensional space frame. Originally only aluminum structures were built in th is system, but later space frames were erected using galvanized steel tubes and aluminum hubs. Triodetic double layer grids have been used up to 33 m clear span . The basic module can be almost any size up to approximately 2.7 m in square. T he depth is usually 70% of the module size. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.33: Cylinder node (type ZK). 4. Unistrut The Unistrut system was developed in the U.S. in the early fties. Its joint consists of a connector plate that is press-formed from steel plate. The members are channel-shape cold-formed sections and are fastened to the connector plate by using a single bolt at each end. The connectors for the top and bottom layers are identical and therefore the Unistrut double layer grids consist of f our components only, i.e., the connector plate, the strut, the bolt, and the nut (see Figure 13.37). The maximum span for this system is approximately 40 m with standard modules of 1.2 m and 1.5 m. The name of Moduspan has also been used fo r this system. 5. Oktaplatte The Oktaplatte system utilizes hollow steel spheres and circular tube members that are connected by welding. The node is formed by welding two hemispherical shells together which are made from steel plates eithe r by hot or cold pressing. The hollow sphere may be reinforced with an annular d iaphragm. This type of node was popular at the early stage of development of spa ce frames. It is also useful for the long span structures where other proprietar y systems are limited by their bearing capacity. Hollow spheres with diameter up to 500 mm have been used. It can be applied to single layer latticed shells as the joint can be considered as semi-or fully rigid. The whole jointing system an d the hollow sphere c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.34: Block node (Type BK). with its parts are shown in Figure 13.38. The allowable bearing strength of holl ow spheres can be calculated by the following empirical formulas: Under compress ion Nc = c 6.6td 2.2 U der te sio Nt = t (0.6td ) [ ] where D t c t 2 2 D 1 (ton ) K (13.17) (13.18)

1999 by CRC Pre

LLC

= i meter of hollow phere (cm) = w ll thickne er of the tubul r member (cm)

of hollow

phere (cm) = i met

[ ] c , t K = allowable tensile stress = ampli cation factors due to t e strengt ening effect of t e diap ragm, taken as 1.4 and 1.1, respectively = factor of safety

1999 by CRC Press LLC

6. Unibat T e Unibat system, developed in France, consists of pyramidal units by arranging t e top layer set on a diagonal grid relative to t e bottom layer. T e s ort lengt of t e top c ord members results in less material being re uired in t ese members to resist applied compressive and bending stresses. T e standar d units are connected to t e adjacent units by means of a single ig -tensile bo lt at eac upper corner. T e ape and corners of t e pyramidal unit may be forgi ngs, to w ic t e top c ord and web members are c

FIGURE 13.36: Trio etic

FIGURE 13.35: Sp ce

eck y tem. y tem.

FIGURE 13.37: Unistrut system. FIGURE 13.38: Oktaplatte system. welded. T e units may employ any combination of rolled steel or structural secti ons. As s own in Figure 13.39, t e top c ords are rolled I sections and web memb ers are s uare ollow sections. T e bottom layer is formed by a two-way grid of circular ollow sections w ic are interconnected wit t e ape by a single vert ical bolt. Numerous multi-story buildings, as well as large span roofs over spor ts buildings ave been built using t e Unibat system since 1970. 7. Nodus T e No dus system was developed in England in t e early seventies. Its joint consists o f c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.39: Unibat system. alf-casings w ic are made of cast steel and ave mac ined grooves and drilled oles, as s own in Figure 13.40. T e c ord connections are made of forged steel and ave mac ined teet , and are full-strengt welded to t e member ends. T e te et and grooves ave an irregular pitc in order to ensure proper engagement. T e forked connectors are made of cast steel and are welded to t e diagonal member s. For t e completed joint, t e centroidal a es of t e diagonals intersect at a point t at generally does not coincide wit t e corresponding intersecting point s of t e c ord members. T is eccentricity produces some amount of local bending in t e c ord members and t e joint components. Destructive load tests performed on typical joints usually result in failures due to bending of t e teet in t e main alf-casing. T e main feature of t e Nodus jointing system is t at all fabr ication is carried out in t e works op so t at only t e simplest erection tec ni ues are necessary for t e assembly of t e structure on-site. 8. NS Space Truss T e NS Space Truss system was introduced around 1970 by t e Nippon Steel Corpora tion. It originates from t e space truss tec nology developed for t e constructi on of t e uge roof at t e symbol zone for E po 70 in Japan. T e NS Space Truss s ystem as a joint consisting of t ick sp erical steel s ell connectors open at t e bottom for bolt insertion. T e structural members are steel ollow sections aving specially s aped end cones welded to bot ends of t e tube. End cones ave t readed bolt oles. Special ig strengt bolts are used to join t e tubular m embers to t e sp erical s ell connector. T e NS nodes enable several members to be connected to one node from any direction wit out any eccentricity of internal forces. T e NS Space Truss system as been used successfully for many large spa n double and triple layer grids, domes, and ot er space structures. T e connecti on detail of t e NS node is s own in Figure 13.41. 13.5.3 Bearing Joints Space frames are supported on columns or ring beams t roug bearing joints. T es e joints s ould posses enoug strengt and stiffness to transmit t e reactions a t t e support safely. Under t e vertical loading, bearing joints are usually und er compression. In some double layer grids wit c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.40: Nodus system. FIGURE 13.41: NS space truss. diagonal layout, bearing joints at corners may resist tension. In latticed s ell s, bot vertical and orizontal reactions are acting on t e bearing joints. T e restraint of a bearing joint as a distinct in uence on t e joint displacement and member forces. T e construction detail of a bearing support s ould conform to t e restraint assumed in t e c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

design as near as possible. If suc re uirement is not satis ed, t e magnitude or even t e sign of t e member forces may be c anged. T e a es of all connecting me mbers and t e reaction s ould be intersected at one point at t e support w ere a inged joint is used. T is will allow a free rotation of t e joint. From an eng ineering standpoint, t e space frame may be ed in t e vertical direction. W ile in t e orizontal direction, it may be ed eit er tangential or normal to t e bou ndary or bot . T e way t at t e space frame is ed often depends on t e temperatu re effect. If t e bearing support can allow a orizontal motion normal to t e bo undary, t en t e member forces due to t e temperature variation can be neglected . In suc case, t e bearing s ould be constructed so t at it can slide orizonta lly. For t ose space frames wit large spans or complicated con gurations, especia lly curved surface structures supported on sloped base, care s ould be e ercised to ensure a reliable bearing support. Typical details for bearing joints are s own in Figure 13.42. T e simplest form of bearings is to establis t e joint on a at plate and anc ored by bolts as s own in Figure 13.42a or b. T is joint seems to be ed at t e support, but in structural analysis it as to be incorporated w it t e supporting structure, suc as columns or walls t at ave a lateral e ibil ity. Figure 13.42c s ows t e joint is resting on a curved bearing block w ic al lows rotation along t e curved surface. Suc type of construction can be conside red as a inged joint. If a laminated elastomeric pad is used under t e joint as s own in Figure 13.42d, a new type of bearing joint is formed. Due to t e s ear deformation of t e elastomeric pad, t e joint can produce bot rotation and or izontal movements. It is very effective to accommodate t e orizontal deformatio n caused by temperature variation or eart uake action. 13.6 De ning Terms Aspect ratio: Ratio of longer span to s orter span of a rectangular space frame. Braced (barrel) vault: A space frame composed of member elements arranged on a cylindrical surface. Braced dome: A space frame composed of member elements arra nged on a sp erical surface. Continuum analogy met od: A met od for t e analysis of a space frame w ere t e structure is analyzed by assuming it as an e uivalen t continuum. Dept : Distance between t e top and bottom layer of a double layer space frame. Discrete met od: A met od for t e analysis of a space frame w ere t e structure is analyzed directly as a general assembly of discrete members. Dou ble layer grids: A space frame consisting of two planar networks of members form ing t e top and bottom layers parallel to eac ot er and interconnected by verti cal and inclined members. Geodesic dome: A braced dome in w ic t e elements for ming t e network are lying on t e great circle of a sp ere. Lamella: A unit used to form diamond s aped grids, t e size being twice t e lengt of t e side of t e diamond. Latticed grids: Double layer grids consisting of intersecting vertica l latticed trusses to form regular grids. Latticed s ell: A space frame consisti ng of curved networks of members built eit er in single or double layers. Lattic ed structure: A structural system in t e form of a network of elements w ose loa d-carrying mec anism is t ree-dimensional in nature. Local buckling: A snap-t ro ug buckling t at takes place at one point. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

FIGURE 13.42: Bearing joints. Module: Distance between two joints in t e layer of grid. Overall buckling: Buck ling t at takes place at a relatively large area w ere a large number of joints is involved Space frame: A structural system in t e form of a at or curved surfac e assembled of linear elements so arranged t at forces are transferred in a t re e-dimensional manner. Space grids: Double layer grids consisting of a combinatio n of s uare or triangular pyramids to form offset or differential grids. Space t russ: A t ree-dimensional structure assembled of linear elements and assumed as inged joints in structural analysis. References [1] ASCE Subcommittee on Latticed Structures of t e Task Committee on Special St ructures of t e Committee on Metals of t e Structural Division. 1972. Bibliograp y on latticed structures. J. Struct. Div., Proc. ASCE. 98(ST7):1545-1566. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

[2] ASCE Task Committee on Latticed Structures of t e Committee on Special Struc tures of t e Committee on Metals of t e Structural Division. 1976. Latticed stru ctures: state-of-t e-art report. J. Struct. Div., Proc. ASCE. 102 (ST11):2197-22 30. [3] ASCE Task Committee on Latticed Structures under E treme Dynamic Loads o f t e Committee on Special Structures of t e Committee on Metals of t e Structur al Division. 1984. Dynamic considerations in latticed structures. J. Struct. Eng ., 110(10):2547-2550. [4] C inese Academy of Building Researc . 1981. Speci cation s for t e Design and Construction of Space Trusses (JGJ 7-80). C ina Building In dustry Press, Beijing, C ina. [5] European Convention for Constructional Steelwo rk (ECCS). 1980. Recommendations for t e Calculation of Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures. [6] Gerrits, J. M. 1996. T e arc itectural impact of space frame systems. Proc. Asia-Paci c Conf. on S ell and Spatial Structures 1996. C ina Civil Engineering So ciety, Beijing, C ina. [7] Gioncu, V. 1995. Buckling of reticulated s ells: stat e-of-t e-art. Int. J. Space Struc., 10(1):1-46. [8] Hangai, Y. and Tsuboi, Y. 19 85. Buckling loads of reticulated single-layer space frames. T eory and E perime ntal Investigation of Spatial Structures. Proc. IASS Congress 1985. Moscow. [9] Heki, K. 1993. Buckling of lattice domesstate of t e art report. Nonlinear Analys is and Design for S ell and Spatial Structures. Proc. Seiken-IASS Symp. 1993. pp .159-166. Tokyo. [10] If and, J. S. B. 1987. Preliminary design of space trusses a nd frames, in Building Structural Design Handbook, W ite, R. N. and Salmon, C. G ., Eds., Jo n Wiley & Sons, New York, 403-423. [11] International Association fo r S ell and Spatial Structures (IASS) Working Group on Spatial Steel Structures. 1984. Analysis, design and realization of space frames. Bull. IASS No. 84/85, X XV(1/2):1-114. [12] ISO 4355. 1981. Basis for Design of Structures: Determinatio n of Snow Loads on Roofs. [13] Kato, S., Kawaguc i, K., and Saka, T. 1995. Preli minary report on Hans in eart uake. Spatial Structures: Heritage, Present and F uture. Proc. IASS Symp. 1995. 2, 1059-1066. S. G. Editoriali, Padova, Italy. [14 ] Lan, T. T. and Qian, R. 1986. A study on t e optimum design of space trussesopt imal geometrical con guration and selection of type. S ells, Membranes and Space F rames. Proc. IASS Symp. 1986. 3, 191-198. Elsevier, Amsterdam. [15] Lan, T. T. 1 994. Structural failure and uality assurance of space frames. Spatial, Lattice and Tension Structures. Proc. IASS-ASCE Intl. Symp. 1994. 123-132. ASCE, New Yor k. [16] Lind, N. C. 1969. Local instability analysis of triangulated dome framew ork. Structural Eng., 47(8). [17] Makowski, Z. S., Ed. 1981. Analysis, Design an d Construction of Double Layer Grids. Applied Science, London. [18] Makowski, Z. S., Ed. 1984. Analysis, Design and Construction of Braced Domes. Granada, Londo n. [19] Makowski, Z. S., Ed. 1985. Analysis, Design and Construction of Braced B arrel Vaults. Elsevier Applied Science, London. [20] Makowski, Z. S. 1992. Space frames and trusses, in Constructional Steel Design. An International Guide. Dow ling, P. J. et al., Eds., Elsevier Applied Science, London, 791-843. [21] Saito , M., Hangai, Y., Todu, I., and Oku ara, T. 1987. Design procedure for stability of reticulated single-layer domes. Building Structures. Proc. Structure Congres s 1987. 368-376. ASCE New York. [22] Wrig t, D. T. 1965. Membrane forces and buc kling in reticulated s ells. J. Struct. Div. Proc. ASCE, 91(ST1):173-201. [23] Z ang, Y. G. and Lan, T. T. 1984. A practical met od for t e analysis of space fr ames under vertical eart uake loads. Final Report, IABSE 12t Congress 1984. pp .169-176. IABSE, Zuric . c 1999 by CRC Press LLC

Furt er Reading An introduction to t e practical design of space structures is presented in Hori zontal-Span Building Structures by W. Sc ueller. It covers a wide range of topic s, including t e development, structural be avior, simpli ed analysis, and applica tion of different types of space structures. For furt er study of continuum anal ogy met od of space frames, Analysis and Design of Space Frames by t e Continuum Met od by L. Kollar and I. Hegedus provides a good reference in t is topic. T e uarterly journal International Journal of Space Structures reports advances in t e t eory and practice of space structures. Special issues treating individual topics of interest were publis ed, suc as Stability of Space Structures, V. Gi oncu, Ed., 7(4), 1992 and Prefabricated Spatial Frame Systems by A. Hanaor, 10(3 ), 1995. Conferences and symposiums are organized annually by t e International Association for S ell and Spatial Structures (IASS). T e proceedings document t e latest developments in t is eld and provide a wealt of information on t eoreti cal and practical aspects of space structures. T e proceedings of conferences re cently eld are as follows: Spatial Structures at t e Turn of Millennium, IASS S ymposium 1991, Copen agen. Innovative Large Span Structures, IASS-CSCE Internati onal Congress 1992, Toronto. Public Assembly Structures from Anti uity to t e Pr esent, IASS Symposium 1993, Istanbul. Nonlinear Analysis and Design for S ell an d Spatial Structures, Seiken-IASS Symposium 1993, Tokyo. [5] Spatial, Lattice an d Tension Structures, IASS-ASCE International Symposium 1994, Atlanta. [6] Spati al Structures: Heritage, Present and Future, IASS Symposium 1995, Milan. [7] Con ceptual Design of Structures, IASS International Symposium 1996, Stuttgart. [1] [2] [3] [4] Journal of IASS is publis ed t ree times a year and it covers design, analysis, construction, and ot er aspects of tec nology of all types of s ell and spatial structures. c 1999 by CRC Press LLC