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M.S Thesis Defense presentation

By Amarjit Kumar Singh Advisor: Prof. Yiming (Kevin) Rong Prof. Diran Apelian Thesis Committee Prof. R .D. Sisson. Jr, Thesis Committee Prof. M. A. Demetriou, Graduate Committee

Outline

Introduction to Heat treatment process Industrial need of a simulation software System design of CHT- q/t Database design Enmeshment of Box shape workpiece Mechanical properties prediction after quenching Case study with CHT- q/t Industrial application of CHT- bf and CHT- cf Summary

Heat Treatment may be defined as heating and cooling operations applied to metals and alloys in solid state so as to obtain the desired properties. The main types of heat treatment applied in practice are Annealing Normalization Hardening and Tempering Some of the objectives of heat treatment are summarized as follows: Improvement in ductility Relieving internal stresses Refinement of grain size Increasing hardness or tensile strength Improvement in machinability Improvement in toughness

Furnaces are widely used for the heat treatment of mass production parts. So to optimize the heat treating process is of great significance. The present simulation softwares, unable to integrate the part load and furnace model with the heat treating process.

CHT-bf and CHT-cf as the foundation of CHT- q/t for several database and heating module QuenchPAD for the quenchant database.

CHT-q/t needs a complete database, most function modules are database oriented.

CHT-q/t is a software tool to predict the temperature profile of load in batch as well as continuous furnace during heating, quenching and tempering of steel, then to predict the mechanical properties as Quenched & Tempered and finally to optimize the heat treatment process design.

Heat transfer calculation Output Input Phase transformation Temperature vs time of all parts Heat-time profile of each part Fuel flow rate-time profile Properties in load Dynamic cooling result

Part information

Property prediction

Database

Furnace information

Workpiece Material

Initial condition

Workpiece

Furnace

Load pattern

Thermal schedule

Module 1 Workpiece classification & enmeshment Workpiece shape classification Enmeshment by Biot no.

Module 2 Heating

Module 3 Cooling Heat transfer for gas quenching in same furnace used in heating DB4 Quenchant DB

Heat transfer for oil quenching in tank (load with fixture, single workpiece without fixture)

Module 4 Phase transformation prediction (Austenite to pearlite / bainite / martensite) Comparing cooling curve with TTT diagram to determine microstructure Mapping of microstructure to properties

Database design

CHT-q/t needs extensive database to increase its applicability, as most of the modules strongly depend on database. The TTT and quenchant database are the new addition. Material and properties

It comprises of workpiece as well as furnace materials. Considers non-linearity of properties Addition of TTT diagrams for steels

Workpiece shape

13 basic shapes

Furnace

Batch & Continuous furnace for heating Dual chamber furnace, vacuum furnace, quenchant tank for cooling

Frequently used gas as well as liquid quenchants

1600

In CHT-q/t steels are classified as Carbon steel Alloy steel Tool steel Stainless steel

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

Steps for the conversion of the TTT diagrams in tabular format Convert in digital format Pick the start and finish curves at temperature duration of 20 deg The value range from Austenitic start to martensitic start Store Ms and Mf values as well

Irons and Steels http://nick-gd.chat.ru/index2.htm

TTT Database as shown in CHT- q/t User has the option to add or edit the TTT database as well

Relationship between gas pressure and the heat transfer coefficient at 500 degree C and 15m/s

Reference:

Torsten holm, Soren segerberg, Gas quenching branches out, advanced materials and processes, 1996.

TA-B B-C

Boiling Boiling stage sage

TB-C A-B

Convection stage

1000 0 0 200 400

600

800

Temperature,

The quenchant database considers the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient in all the three stages i.e. film boiling, bubble boiling and convection stages during liquid quenching

Classification of workpiece

Class Class I Box 2-stacked brick Shapes Class II Cylinder Hollow cylinder Base 2-step shaft 3-step shaft Class III Cone Hollow cone cone Class IV Sphere Class V Torus

Class I

The enmeshment was one dimensional for CHT- bf and CHT- cf The desired output of the hardness value at all the internal locations of part led to the development of 3-dimensional enmeshment.

3-Dimensional enmeshment

Classification of workpiece by Biot number Case 1: Bi .1 Lumped heat capacity model Case 2: Bi > .1 Exact model

Lumped heat capacity model

Input Conditions: The dimensions of the box (D1, D2, & D3). The initial temperatures of the part. Temperature of the quenchant gas.

T Ta = exp[ Bi F0 ] Ti Ta

Where, Ta is the ambient temperature Ti is the initial temperature of part F0 (Fourier number) is F = .t and

0

Lc

k C p

Thus we can get the final temperature T, by using the above equations Conductivity and specific heat as a function of temperature

Input: Dimensions of the box (D1, D2, & D3). Specify the origin as shown in the figure. Input the values n, l ,m The initial temperatures of the part. The time step Ambient or quenchant temperature. Internal nodes

i j 1 (1 to L-1) 2 (1 to L-1) (n-1) (1 to L-1) k (1 to m-1) (1 to m-1) (1 to m-1) i 0 1 n-1 n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (1 to L-1) k 0, m 0, m 0, m 0, m

x =

D1 n

y =

D2 l

z =

D3 m

Boundary nodes

i 0, n 0, n 0,n 0, n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (0 to L-1) k 0 1 m-1 m i 0, n 0, n 0,n 0, n j (1 to L-1) (0 to L) (0 to L) (0 to L-1) k 0 1 m-1 m

Corner nodes: (0, 0, 0) (n, 0, 0) (0, L, 0) (n, L, 0) (0, 0, m) (n, 0, m) (0, L, m) (n, L, m)

Initial condition

Properties to be determined Hardness Ultimate Tensile Strength Yield Strength Approach: Analytical approach for as quenched. Hardness value for all the nodes to get hardness distribution. For other properties equations used, as a function of hardness. The average value of hardness used to determine other properties. Database approach for as tempered.

Workpiece

Furnace

Load pattern

Thermal schedule

Module 1 Workpiece classification & enmeshment Workpiece shape classification Enmeshment by Biot no.

Module 2 Heating

Module 3 Cooling Heat transfer for gas quenching in same furnace used in heating DB4 Quenchant DB

Heat transfer for oil quenching in tank (load with fixture, single workpiece without fixture)

Module 4 Phase transformation prediction (Austenite to pearlite / bainite / martensite) Comparing cooling curve with TTT diagram to determine microstructure Mapping of microstructure to properties

Hardness

Microstructure after quenching

The kinetics of the growth of ferrite and pearlite are described using the Avrami-Johnson-Mehl equation where, w : volume fraction of austenite transformed b,n : coefficient and exponent of the austenite transformation kinetics, t : time ln (1 ws ) ts : start time log[ln (1 w ) / ln (1 w )]

tf : finish time

ws

w = 1 exp b.(t t s )

n=

= 0.01 w f = 0.99

log t s (T ) / t f (T )

b=

t s (T )

Distortion and Residual Stresses in Carburized Thin Strips, vol. 125, April 2003

Hardness Calculation

A continuous cooling curve is divided into constant temperature steps with appropriate times . It is assumed that the horizontal parts of this step function cause a transformation comparable to the transformation occurring at the individual temperatures in the isothermal TTT-diagram. By an iteration of the transformation steps the final microstructure is derived.

step function

Temperature T

HV A

P HV HV B

M

Time t

Time log t

Regression Analysis

Hardness=f(C%, Martensite%) The equations of the form: H= ax2 +bx+c, x--- C% The equation at 50% Martensite y = -19.0476 x^2 + 64x + 20.1448 The equation at 80% Martensite y = 7.14286 x^2 + 50.6429x + 25.6529 Similarly, generating the HRC value for all the martensitic percentage points

Reference:

http://people.hofstra.edu/faculty/Stefan_Waner/RealWorld/newgraph/regressi onframes.html

UTS=a*HB+b Brinell hardness is used Aim is to find constants a and b. Value of constants for stainless steel

Class Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic Martensitic Designation and Grade AISI Type 201 AISI 300-series AISI 300-series AISI 400-series AISI 400-series Hardness Range (250-400) HB (140-180) HB (190-370) HB (140-190) HB (156-595) HB Ultimate tensile strength U.T.S = 606 HB - 31600 U.T.S = 457 HB + 16910 U.T.S = 534 HB - 16280 U.T.S = 430 HB + 6530 U.T.S = 508 HB - 3900

Validation for low alloy steel (5140) having hardness of 167 HB. UTS calculated by the mentioned equation comes to be 572.278 Mpa And the UTS of a specimen having hardness 167 HB should be 573 Mpa Reference: Mechanical properties of Work Materials, Edmund Isakov Validation source: http://www.efunda.com/materials/alloys/alloy_home/steels.cfm

Conversion of HRC to HB

Rockwell Hardness Numbers (HRC) from 20 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 to 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 66 HB = 5.329 HRC + 119.6 HB = 6.984 HRC + 76.1 HB = 8.379 HRC + 33.7 HB = 8.872 HRC + 16.0 HB = 10.025 HRC - 30.8 HB = 12.473 HRC - 142.6 HB = 15.962 HRC - 318.7 HB = 19.038 HRC - 489.4 HB = 17.602 HRC - 403.8 Equations to convert Rockwell hardness (HRC) to Brinell Hardness (HB)

Conversion of HV to HB

Vickers Hardness Number (HV) from 85 150 200 250 300 400 500 to 149 199 249 299 399 499 670 HB = 0.959 HV - 0.8 HB = 0.949 HV + 0.9 HB = 0.954 HV - 0.7 HB = 0.922 HV + 7.3 HB = 0.944 HV +1.2 HB = 0.909 HV + 15.1 HB = 0.940 HV - 0.2 Equations to convert Vickers hardness (HV) into Brinell Hardness (HB)

s = k b

The materials are classified into three categories, plain carbon, low alloy and alloy steel. For plain carbon steel k is between 0.6 to 0.65, for low alloy steel k is 0.65 to 0.75, and alloy steel k is 0.84 to 0.86. The value of k has been further refined and added in the database for each grade of steel. k = Yield strength / U.T.S

Reference: http://www.efunda.com/materials/alloys/alloy_home/steels.cfm

Quench Gas Atmosphere Nitrogen Quench Pressure 2 bar Blower HP 160

Process

Time (mins)

Heating

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

CALC_F

Workpiece Stainless steel Quench Gas Atmosphere Nitrogen Quench Pressure 2 bar Blower HP 200

Process Atmosphere Content Vacuum Vacuum Nitrogen (2 bar) Temperature (F) 70-1900 1900 200 Time (mins)

Measured & Calculated results

2500

2000 Temperature (F) Meas. slow Meas. fast Calc. furnace Set Point Calc. fast Calc. fast

1500

1000

500

Dynamic cooling results

Discusses the function and domain of CHT- q/t CHT- q/t designed to meet industrial need, close contact with industries kept to review their needs and implement the idea. The basic advantages lies in short computation time, easy to use and the ability to integrate the part load and furnace model with the complete heat treatment process. Database development (especially TTT and quenchant database) Development and validation of property prediction module Validation of the new interface as well as cooling module in industry.

Future work

More case studies required to validate the system Enhance database for TTT diagram and quenchant Analytical approach to find convective heat transfer coefficient Analytical approach to find properties after tempering

Case studies performed at Bodycote Thermal Processing, Worcester Objective

To study the effects of change in the load quantity and giving recommendations for the thermal schedule redesign. To study the effect of change in load arrangement and determination of optimal load pattern from the calculated temperature values. To determine the pre-heat required to reach the set point temperature and hence to determine cycle time. Scheduling of jobs in furnace after determining exact cycle time. To study the effect of part orientation on the quality and distortion and hence to determine best suited load orientation.

Furnace name

Pit furnace, 416 Vertical Electric 5x8 45 x 60 2500 F 1000 120 kw or 409416.58 BTU/hr Air No preheat No [ ] Yes [ x] Yes Material Horse power Diameter Height Speed Weight Rate of cooling water [ x ] No [ ] No 303 2 14 4.5 1140 R.P.M 35 0 Graphite, 50lbs Alloy, 100lbs Alloy, 1000lbs

Pit Furnace

Body Shape (E.g. vertical, Horizontal) Heating type (E.g. direct/indirect fired, electric) External size(LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Work space (LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Maximum Operating Temperature Minimum Operating Temperature Connected heat input Atmosphere content Air preheated temperature Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace Recirculation Fan (one fan at top)

Workpiece Information

R. H. Handles 1137 2

Load Pattern

Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (diameter , height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs

Quantity in each ring Row Ring (Row)1 Ring 2 Ring 3 Ring 4 Ring 5 Quantity 23 22 21 20 19 Row Ring 6 Ring 7 Ring 8 Ring 9 Ring 10 Quantity 18 17 16 14 11

Temperature-Time chart

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 Time (min) 300 400

Temp (F)

Conclusion: Part Temperature remains almost constant after 180 mins. The optimum cycle time prior to heat treating can be determined.

Temperature-Time chart

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 50 100 Time (min) 150 200

Temp (F)

Case study 2

Hitchiner part no. 87296 & 87292 17-4 stainless steel Two types of part(same material) present in the load 1. Qty = 300 2. Qty = 903 Wt. = 41 Wt. = 45 Thus average workpiece wt = 0.0715

Load pattern

Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (diameter , height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs

Basket Round Solid 300 lbs 35, 25 Random (300 + 903)/2 = 601 (41 + 45)/2 = 43

Comparison of Result

Actual result

2500 2000 Temp (F) 1500 1000 500 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (min) Temp (furnace) Temp (slow) Temp (fast)

Furnace name

Body Shape (E.g. vertical, Horizontal) Heating type (E.g. direct/indirect fired, electric) External size(LengthWidth Height) or (diameter Height) Work space (WidthLength Height) or (diameter Height) Maximum Heating Minimum Operating Temperature Fuel (combustion air) Connected heat input Atmosphere content Air preheated temperature (F) Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace Opening area (inch2) Recirculation Fan

1800 1400 Natural gas 1000000, 60000 Btu/hr Endothermic (RX) with enriching gas, dilution air and ammonia additions 850 15 [ ] Yes 900 [x ] Yes Material Horse power Diameter Height Speed Weight Rate of cooling water [ ] No 330 5 10 inches 14.5 inches 1800 R.P.M 200 2 G.P.M (one fan at top) [ x ] No

Case study on all case furnace (with connected heat input 600,000 Btu/hr)

Load Pattern

Fixture type (basket/plate) Fixture shape (rectangular/round) Side wall, bottom (solid/net like) Fixture weight Fixture size (Length, width, height) inch Load pattern, Fixture configuration Rows Columns Layers of fixtures in furnace Total quantity of workpiece in fixture Total weight of workpiece in fixture, lbs Basket Rectangular Net like 45 lbs 29, 23, 4 Random 1x2x5 607 140.4 lbs

Result

Load takes around 65 minutes to reach the set point temperature, although the time allotted to reach the set point temperature is 30 minutes. In all case furnace, 10 fixtures are used for the part load and generally the parts are randomly placed in the fixture, leaving no room to change the part load design.

Result by CHT-bf (same load in furnace with higher heat input i.e increasing the connected heat input to 1 million Btu/hr) The time required by the load to reach

set point temperature reduced from 65 to 40 minutes, as we increased the connected heat input from 600,000 Btu/hr to 1000000 Btu/hr, thus saving around 25 minutes. Conclusion: The cycle time can be reduced. Conclusion about All case furnace: Connected heat input is the most important parameter for the All-case furnaces. We can determine suitable all case furnace for a specific load by CHT-bf

Determination of pre-heat and cycle time Helps in deciding appropriate furnace Designing optimum load and its arrangement Determination of required heat input of the furnace Low computation time make it highly applicable in industry User friendly interface and stability further increases its applicability

Limitation

Scheduling more than one type of parts of different geometry and material, we have to take average dimension and a closely resembling material. This may affect the result. Needs improvement for random load pattern Part load may require some assumptions Only applicable for heating process Needs a furnace efficiency parameter

Case studies performed at Bodycote Thermal Processing, Waterbury, CT

Objective

To study the effects of change in the load quantity and giving recommendations for the thermal schedule redesign. To study the effect of change in load arrangement, determination of optimal load pattern from the calculated temperature values. To study the effect of part orientation on the quality and distortion and hence to determine best suited load orientation. To study the effect of belt speed and gross productivity on the thermal profile of parts and hence determine optimum belt speed and load capacity to maximize productivity.

Body Shape Heating type External size(Width Height) Or (diameter ) (in) Work space (Width Height) Or (diameter ) (in) Moving belt/conveyor width (in) Moving belt/conveyor unit weight Belt or conveyor return Opening area of the entrance zone (in2) Opening area of the end zone (in2) Fuel Air preheated temperature (F) Excess of preheated air (%) Vacuum Furnace

[ ]pipe

[x]box

[ ]Direct [x]indirect fired [ ]electric 90 x 96 56 x 56 54 (lbs/in2) 0.27 [x] internal 324 0 Natural gas 900 15 [ ] Yes [x ] No [ ] external

Connecte d heat input

1 2 3 4

136 72 72 50

Case study 1

Gross productivity Name Material Weight XHD005 screw 1020 carbon steel 0.04 lbs Actual load width Height of layers Workpiece length Workpiece width Workpiece height

600 lbs/hr 54 inch 0.25 inch 0.25 inch 0.25 inch 0.156 inch

Measured result

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 80

Temp (F)

CHT-cf calculated and Thermocouple measured

2000 Temp_setpoint 1500 Temp (F) 1000 500 0 0 20 40 Time (min) 60 80 Temp_furnace Temp_load_fast Temp_load_slow Temp_load_slowest Channel 5 (Left) Channel 1 (Right) Channel 3 (Center)

Experimental result closely matches with the result given by CHT-cf The thermal profile of the part remains almost same irrespective of its location.

Work piece Name Work piece Material Work piece weight (lbs)

Gross productivity (lbs/hr) Actual load width (in) Height of layers (in) Workpiece length Workpiece width Workpiece height

Random load

Arranged load

Manual load arrangement Arranged load clubbing 15 parts as 1. Weight, part load pattern changed accordingly

Improvement in result

Uniformity of thermal profile in load Better quality achieved (confirmed by the quality department)

The affect of part load arrangement can be studied using CHT-cf, prior to running the actual load. As shown in the case studies uniformity of temperature can be achieved by choosing arranged load pattern. Orientation of parts: We can judge the part orientation, which gives uniformity in temperature The affect of belt speed on the thermal profile of parts can be studied, and the optimum belt speed (i.e cycle time ) can be determined. Furnace Planning: CHT-cf can help us in determining the important parameters required for the furnace, e.g connected heat input required for each zones, which can help in deciding the number of burners required for each zones.

Limitation of CHT-cf

In the Atmosphere content, only atmosphere name can be mentioned. No option to quantify the atmosphere content. While simulating the part load by CHT-cf, distortion of parts are not considered, while in actual industrial practice the cycle time, production rate and load pattern arrangement are mostly considered keeping in view the final quality and distortion. Need to make the program stable and user friendly. Sometimes it gives some extra profiles in the temperature-time chart.

Summary

Several case studies validated with experimental results (using thermocouple) Accuracy of the temperature profiles predicted by CHT-bf and CHT-cf Judgment and approximation required in defining part load Described the methods to troubleshoot CHT-bf and CHT-cf Discussed in detail all the features i.e, database management Case studies and the experience helped in development of CHT- q/t as well

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