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SINTAKOTE Steel pipeline systems

Design Manual

SINTAKOTE Steel pipeline systems


Design Manual

Tyco Water Regional Marketing Offices

Divisional Office
Tyco Water Pty Ltd
ABN 75 087 415 745

Regional Marketing Offices


Brisbane
39 Silica Street Carole Park 4300 PO Box 162 Carole Park Queensland 4300 Telephone 07 3712 3666 Facsimile 07 3271 3128 rmob@tycowater.com

1-21 Percival Road Smithfield 2164 PO Box 141 Fairfield New South Wales 1860 Telephone 61 2 9612 2470 Facsimile 61 2 9612 2471 info@tycowater.com www.tycowater.com

Sydney
1-21 Percival Road Smithfield 2164 PO Box 141 Fairfield New South Wales 1860 Telephone 02 9612 2470 Facsimile 02 9612 2471 rmos@tycowater.com

Melbourne
60A Maffra Street Coolaroo 3048 PO Box 42 Dallas Victoria 3047 Telephone 03 9301 9115 Facsimile 03 9309 0577 rmom@tycowater.com

Perth
70 Cleaver Terrace Belmont 6104 PO Box 385 Cloverdale Western Australia 6105 Telephone 08 9346 8555 Facsimile 08 9346 8501 rmop@tycowater.com

Steel Pipeline Systems Design Manual


First Edition 1992 Second Edition 2003 Third Edition 2004 Fourth Edition 2008 This manual has been prepared by Tyco Water to assist qualified engineers and contractors in the selection of the Companys product, and is not intended to be an exhaustive statement on pipeline design, installation or technical matters. Any conclusions, formulae and the like contained in the manual represent best estimates only and may be based on assumptions which, while reasonable may not necessarily be correct for every installation. Successful installation depends on numerous factors outside the Companys control, including site preparation and installation workmanship. Users of this manual must check technical developments from research and field experience, and rely on their knowledge, skill and judgement, particularly with reference to the qualities and suitability of the products and conditions surrounding each specific installation. The Company disclaims all liability to any person who relies on the whole or any part of this manual and excludes all liability imposed by any statute or by the general law in respect of this manual whether statements and representation in this manual are made negligently or otherwise except to the extent it is prevented by law from doing so. The manual is not an offer to trade and shall not form any part of the trading terms in any transaction. Tyco Waters trading terms contain specific provisions which limit the liability of Tyco Water to the cost of replacing or repairing any defective product. SINTAKOTE, SINTAJOINT , SINTALOCK and SINTAPIPE are registered trademarks. Copyright Tyco Water Pty Ltd This manual is a publication of Tyco Water Pty Ltd, ABN 75 087 415 745 / ACN 087 415 745, and must not be copied or reproduced in whole or part without the Companys prior written consent. This manual is and shall remain as the Companys property and shall be returned to the company on its request. The Company reserves the right to make changes to any matter at any time without notice.

CONTENTS

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Section 13 Section 14 Section 15 Section 16

Introduction Technical Specifications and Manufacturing Standards Coatings Linings Jointing Systems Design General Considerations Pipe Data Structural Properties of Pipe Fittings Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipe and Fittings Water Hammer Anchorage of Pipelines Structural Design for Buried Pipelines Free Span and Structural Loading Appurtenance Design Typical Installation Conditions

8 12 16 22 26 32 42 52 62 66 76 84 90 102 114 118

Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Glossary SI Conversion Factors Material Properties References Standards Referenced in Text

126 128 132 135 136 137

Introduction

section

1.1 Steel design manual


Our communities today depend heavily on the continual supply of high quality water for both domestic and industrial purposes. For these applications the community requires a pipeline that will deliver good quality water in sufficient quantity and with adequate pressure, year after year. This must be achieved under prevalent operating conditions embracing static and transient operating pressures and external loads acting on the pipeline, including earth pressure and live loads due to vehicular traffic.

Products are also available for other applications including: slurry pipelines, aggressive fluids, and tubular piling and structural applications.

1.4 Installation training


Extensive research has shown that by following proper installation procedures, Tyco Water Steel Pipeline Systems can readily achieve operational lifetimes of over 100 years. Tyco Water and its predecessors have promoted quality pipeline installation through its SINTAKOTE PIPELINES PROGRAM. This program provides training in the installation of steel pipe and accreditation to competent pipeline laying personnel. Most Australian water authorities now regard this as a mandatory competency requirement. Tyco Water Training is a Registered Training Organisation (RTO). The course has been designed to meet some outcomes of the NTIS Unit of Competency UTWNSWS390A/02 Construct/install drains, pipes and associated fittings, and is accredited to the Vocational Education and Training Board (NSW).

Satisfaction of these criteria


To perform as required the pipeline system must not only be capable of being handled, transported and installed with little or no damage but also must be resistant to degradation or damage through corrosion, ageing and other external effects. The community expects these criteria to be met in the most economical way, that is at minimum cost over the lifetime of the pipeline. The superior material properties of steel, combined with worldclass corrosion protection systems, ensure that Tyco Water Steel Pipeline Systems provide the answer for water supply and many other applications.

1.5 Manufacture of mild steel cement mortar lined (MSCL) pipe


Tyco Water Pty Ltd manufactures MSCL pipe using the spiral forming method. In this process, a coil of steel having the required width and thickness is placed on the spiral pipe-making machine, where it is uncoiled and fed continuously through the machine. The strip is formed to the required pipe diameter and continuously welded internally and externally using the Submerged Arc Welding process. The welds so produced form a spiral, hence the name of the process. The pipe so formed is then fed onto the output table where it is cut to the length required. The pipe is then removed from the machine to an area where each pipe is inspected. After inspection, the pipe ends are machined square before proceeding to the pipe end-forming machine. Here the ends of the pipe are formed to produce the socket for the SINTAJOINT rubber ring joint or the spigot and socket for the Ball and Socket Joint (B & S). The SINTAJOINT end is formed by rolling the shape on the pipe ends. The socket and spigot of the B & S joint are formed by expansion. Spherical Slip-in Joint ends (SSJ) are formed by expanding and collapsing the ends on specially made dies on the hydrostatic testing machine.

1.2 History
Throughout Australia and the rest of the world, steel pipelines have long been used in water supply, particularly where high pressures, difficult laying conditions or security of supply, have required the strength and toughness of steel. Tyco Water and its predecessors have traditionally been at the forefront of developments in the water industry. Today, Tyco Waters products and services cover a broad range of industry needs, offering a total solution approach to its Customers. Tyco Waters operations extend across Australia, South East Asia and the Pacific.

1.3 Applications
Tyco Water Steel Pipeline Systems, (TWSPS), offers products for all water industry applications, including: potable water systems, industrial water systems, sewage rising mains and trunk sewers.
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1

SECTION 1

Introduction

Each pipe is then hydrostatically pressure tested. Water is pumped into the pipe whilst all air is purged out. When the pipe is full of water, the pressure is increased so as to induce a hoop stress in the pipe shell equivalent to 90% of the nominal minimum yield strength (NMYS) of the steel, as required by AS1579. Note that the maximum pressure that can be applied is 8.5 MPa, as dictated by the pressure test equipment. After testing, the pipe is dried and the external surface is blast cleaned to remove all rust and mill scale prior to application of the external corrosion protection system (SINTAKOTE). Note that for SINTAPIPE, the internal surface of the pipe is also blast cleaned at this stage. The pipe is then placed into a preheat oven where the temperature of the steel is raised to processing temperature. It is then picked up and dipped into a fluidised bath containing polyethylene powder. On contact, the powder melts and fuses to the pipes external surface. This pipe is rotated and held in the bath until the required coating thickness is reached. This is the SINTAKOTE fusion bonding process. For SINTAPIPE, the internal lining and external coating operations are carried out simultaneously. For SSJ and B & S pipes, the external coating is set back from the ends of the pipe to allow for field jointing and welding. In the case of SINTAJOINT pipe, the external coating is carried around the ends of the spigot and socket to actually cover part of the internal surface of the pipe at each end. After coating, pipes are cement mortar lined. The pipe is spun at high speed so as to generate a high g force. This centrifugal force compacts the mortar around the inside surface of the pipe whilst removing excess water from the mortar. The process results in a dense and firm lining. For field assembly the lining is set back from the ends as required by AS1281. After the lining operation the pipe is removed from the machine and placed on curing ramps. Each pipe is fitted with plastic end-caps in order to protect against the formation of shrinkage cracks, caused by rapid drying. The SINTAKOTE is checked to ensure that no damage has occurred and that it is free from holes in the coating, known as holidays. The pipe is stored for a minimum period of four days to ensure adequate cure before dispatch. During this period, the plastic end covers are retained to prevent loss of moisture from the lining. The completed SINTAJOINT pipe is rubber ring jointed, with SINTAKOTE applied externally and around the pipe ends, allowing the cement mortar lining to overlap the SINTAKOTE. The pipe is

Preparation of pipe ends at the end trimming station. completely protected with the factory applied SINTAKOTE and cement mortar lining. It requires no field joint coating or lining. Pipes and fittings are manufactured in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard. Each manufacturing facility operates under a certified Quality Assurance system to AS/NZS ISO 9001/9002. Tyco Water can provide other types of coatings and linings, e.g. epoxy paint, seal coatings etc, to suit the clients requirements. Short runs of pipe can also be made using bending rolls to form cans that are then welded together to form specific lengths of pipe. Pipe fittings, such as mitre bends, off-takes, bifurcations etc. are also available. Tyco Water supplies a range of pipe from 114mm to 2500mm OD. The wall thickness ranges from 4mm to 16mm and lengths can be made in 6, 9, 12.2 and 13.5m. Please contact your nearest Regional Marketing Office for further details.
SECTION 1

| 11

Technical Specifications & Manufacturing Standards

12

section

SECTION 2

Technical Specifications and Manufacturing Standards

2.1 Steel Pipe Manufacture


Steel pipe and fittings for water pipe are manufactured in accordance with the following Australian/New Zealand Standards: AS 1579: Arc welded steel pipes and fittings for water and waste water AS/NZS 1594: Hot-rolled steel flat products AS/NZS 3678: Hot-rolled structural steel plates, floor plates and slabs Steel pipe for the Water Industry is usually specified in wall thicknesses from 4.0 to 12.7mm. The analysis grades HA1016 and HXA1016 steel to AS/NZS 1594 are normally used. Note: 8mm wall thickness coil is now offered as HU300 steel. These materials are supplied by the steel maker with prescribed chemical analysis limits. The mechanical property values associated with the chemical analysis have been identified by statistical means and are given in Table 6.5. For a thickness greater than 12.7mm, steel to AS/NZS 3678 is usually used with a minimum yield strength (MYS) of 250 MPa. Other grades of steel can be specified provided that the carbon equivalent (CE) calculated by using the following equation does not exceed 0.40%: CE =%C + %Mn + %Cr+%Mo+%V + %Ni+%Cu 0.40% 6 5 15 Refer to AS 1579 for further details. Pipe manufactured by Tyco Water must pass a mandatory hydrostatic pressure test in accordance with AS1579, ensuring fitness for purpose and quality of manufacture.

2.2 SINTAKOTE
AS 4321: Fusion bonded medium density polyethylene coatings and linings for pipes and fittings.

2.3 Cement mortar lining


AS 1281: Cement mortar lining of steel pipes and fittings.

2.4 SINTAJOINT rubber rings


AS 1646: Elastomeric seals for waterworks purposes.

2.5 Other materials and specifications


Other materials and specifications can be accommodated if required. Please contact your nearest Tyco Water Regional Marketing Office for further details.

SECTION 2

| 15

Coatings

16

section

3.1 Brief history


A wide variety of systems have been used to provide external corrosion protection of steel water supply pipelines, for both above ground and below ground installations. Above ground treatments have consisted of various types of industrial paints such as inorganic zinc silicates and epoxies. For underground applications bitumen paints were commonly used in the early days. Coal tar enamel became the preferred coating in the 1950s. Its properties were enhanced by incorporating glass fibre mat and an outer wrapping of coal tar impregnated felt. Coal tar enamel was in common use for underground applications through the 1960s and 1970s and into the early 1980s. Coal tar enamel generally performed well. However there were occasional problems during storage, handling and deterioration in service. Tyco Water carried out extensive research to develop an improved system, the result of which was the introduction of SINTAKOTE in 1972. Once the performance of this coating was recognised, coal tar enamel was progressively phased out.

The SINTAKOTE process


The bare steel surface of the pipe is cleaned and profiled by grit blasting to ensure an excellent bond between the steel and the coating. The pipe is then heated in an oven and dipped into a fluidised bath of polyethylene powder that fuses directly onto the heated surface. The recommended thickness of the coating varies with the diameter of the pipe. See Table 3.2. The molten SINTAKOTE can be strewn with sand to provide a shear key for concrete encasement when requested. A range of conventional fittings can be coated in a similar manner as the pipe itself to achieve the same high quality finished coating. Quality control is maintained through routine tests for thickness, adhesion and coating continuity.

SINTAKOTE thickness
SINTAKOTE coating and lining thicknesses conform to AS 4321. See Table 3.2 and Fig. 3.1.
Coating

3.2 SINTAKOTE
SINTAKOTE is a registered trademark. A black polyethylene coating is fusion bonded directly to the steel pipe, hence the coating is also known as Fusion Bonded Polyethylene (FBPE). Properties and performance under various test standards are given in Table 3.1. Features of the coating include: Excellent adhesion High impact and load resistance Excellent chemical resistance High dielectric strength High electrical resistivity Low water absorption Resistance to soil stresses Wide service temperature range - temperatures from minus 40C to plus 70C have no detrimental effect on SINTAKOTE Ability to accept cold bending of the pipe in accordance with AS 2885 without damage to the coating. SINTAKOTE is ideally suited to below ground applications, including installations where pipes must be thrust bored under roads and railways. It is also ideal for sub-sea installations such as the protection of tubular steel wharf piling. SINTAKOTE is supplied in accordance with AS 4321: Fusion-bonded medium-density polyethylene coating and lining for pipes and fittings.
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3

Joint region
Lining
ion Joint reg

Coating

Lining

Figure 3.1: Designation of SINTAJOINT joint region.

Repairs
Minor damage may occur when SINTAKOTE pipe is mishandled. Such damage can be repaired using a particular method suited to the area of the damaged section. Small areas can be repaired by the application of a patch whereas large areas are repaired by the application of tapes or heat shrinkable polyethylene sleeves. Details are given in the SINTAKOTE Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Reference Manual available from any of our Regional Marketing Offices. Note: Oxygen and acetylene should not be used to heat SINTAKOTE as heating in this way can degrade SINTAKOTE.

SECTION 3

Coatings

Property
Coating Material Colour Service Temperature Range Thermal Stability (100C for 100 days) Bond Strength Tensile Strength at Yield Indentation Hardness Penetration resistance - 23C - 70C

Test standards
AS 4321

Typical test results


Complies Black: To impart maximum protection against UV radiation when used above ground

AS 4321 AS 4321 AS 4321 AS 4321 ASTM D2240 AS 4321 ASTM C177 AS 4321 AS 4321 AS 4321 (100 days, 23C) IEC 60093 IEC 60243 ASTM G13, 219mm OD coated pipe, av. thickness 1.6mm AS 4321/ASTM G14, 219mm OD coated pipe, 2.3mm thick ASTM D4060 (C17, 1000g, 1000 cycles) AS 4321

-40C to 70C < 35% change in MFI 5-10 N/mm 18 MPa 61 Shore hardness D 0.1mm indentation 0.2mm indentation 0.34 Wm-1 K-1 F50 >100 hrs 940 kg/m3 < 0.1% m/m water absorbed approx. 1019 ohm cm 20kV/mm (on base polymer, without carbon black) No holidays after 10 successive drops

Thermal Conductivity (Compression moulded specimen) Environmental Stress Crack Resistance Density Water Absorption Electrical Volume Resistivity (1000 sec. polarisation, on base polymer) Dielectric Strength (Specimen 3mm thick, on base polymer) Impact Resistance (Limestone drop test) Impact Resistance (Falling tup test) Abrasion Resistance (Tabor) Cathodic Disbondment

Mean impact strength 20J

8mg loss due to abrasion 8-14mm radial disbonded length

Chemical Resistance: SINTAKOTE is resistant to all the normal chemicals, compounds and solutions commonly encountered in water industry applications including muriatic acids, as well as marine organisms and compounds found in aggressive soils. Table 3.1 SINTAKOTE (fusion bonded medium density polyethylene) - Properties & performance Pipe outside diameter (Note 1) 273 (250 DN) >273 508 (500 DN) >508 762 (750 DN) >762 Notes: 1 Nominal pipe sizes are shown in brackets. Minimum thickness Coating 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.3 Lining 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2 See Figure 3.1 for joint region. 3 RRJ available for 324mm OD. Elastomeric ring joint region (Note 2) (Note 3) 0.8 1.0 1.0

Table 3.2. SINTAKOTE - Coating and Lining Thickness (millimetres)


SECTION 3

| 19

Cathodic protection
Cathodic protection (CP) is a method of providing secondary corrosion protection to coated pipelines. High-pressure oil and gas pipelines are protected by CP as the danger and costs of leaks are so high that secondary protection is required by statutory authorities. Most water pipelines that utilise SINTAJOINT pipes are not cathodically protected. The choice of cathodic protection for water pipelines is one of strategic importance and cost. When using SINTAJOINT pipe it is likely to be more cost effective not to apply cathodic protection. Normal CP costs include joint bonding cables, anodes, ground-beds, transformer rectifiers and associated installation and maintenance. CP is however, completely compatible with SINTAKOTE. The high electrical resistivity of SINTAKOTE is maintained during its life due to the very low water absorption of SINTAKOTE. Its high resistance to impact and deterioration whilst in service make it the ideal coating choice for critical installations where CP is deemed essential.

Handling, storing and laying


SINTAKOTE pipes should be cradled and packed using appropriate dunnage. The FBPE will remain unaffected when stored above ground over a lengthy period of time due to the inbuilt ultra violet stabiliser, as well as its high resistance to temperature. Because of the strength, toughness and damage resistance of SINTAKOTE the bedding, backfill composition and compaction procedures are not as critical as those for alternative coatings. Please refer to the SINTAKOTE Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Reference Manual for further details.

Chemical resistance
SINTAKOTE is resistant to all the relevant chemicals, compounds and solutions commonly encountered in water industry applications including muriatic acids, as well as marine organisms and compounds found in aggressive soils.

20 | S E C T I O N

Linings

22

section

4.1 General
Ferrous potable water pipelines will corrode internally if not protected. The rate of corrosion is generally quite low due to the low conductivity, neutral pH and low dissolved oxygen content of potable water. Internal corrosion does not usually lead to pipe failure, but can result in head loss or reduced flow due to an increase in surface roughness caused by the growth of corrosion products. Water quality can also be a problem due to increased concentrations of iron in the water. The predominant lining used for potable water and sewage rising mains is cement mortar lining. For sewage pipelines that are septic and produce sulphuric acid, alternative mortar linings such as Calcium Aluminate (CA), CML or SINTAPIPE can be used (see ref. 19). Note that pipelines can be designed to minimise the generation of sulphuric acid (see ref. 7). Cement mortar linings are used to convey petroleum products from ships and the pipelines are usually left filled with seawater when not in use. Other common applications include bore field collectors and ground water transmission lines. For high saline applications where total dissolved solids exceed 35,000 ppm or aggressive water conveyance, customers should contact Tyco Water Marketing Offices.

Current practice
The centrifugally spun process remains the preferred lining method today as it produces the highest quality lining. It is the method used in all our steel pipe plants. Cement mortar linings provide long-term protection at a low cost and consequently they remain the standard lining for potable water mains.

Mechanism of corrosion protection


Cement mortar linings provide active protection of the steel pipe by creating a high pH environment, typically pH12, at the steel-mortar interface. At pH values above approximately 9, a stable hydroxide film is formed on the inside steel surface. While this passive film remains intact no corrosion occurs.

Lining appearance
When leaving our pipe manufacturing plants the linings may contain superficial hairline cracks. If the pipes are stored for extended periods, say more than two months, especially in hot weather, drying shrinkage can lead to the formation of larger cracks. For potable water pipelines cracks up to 2mm wide should not be repaired as they will close and heal when immersed in water. When the pipes are rewetted, the mortar typically absorbs up to 8% moisture and expands, reducing crack widths by around 50%. Further hydration closes the cracks in a process sometimes referred to as autogenous healing. The mechanism of high pH providing protection and the ability of cement mortar to continue to hydrate and cure during service means that minor cracks in the lining can be tolerated. However, for aggressive conveyants the 2mm maximum crack width may need to be reduced.

4.2 Cement mortar lining


History
Cement mortar has been used to line pipe since the 1840s when it was introduced in France and the USA. The techniques for application took some time to develop and it was not until the 1920s that the process of centrifugal spinning (originally known as the Hume process) came into being. This process allowed the rapid application of linings to the entire pipe surface by placing a mixture of sand, cement and water into the pipe and rotating it at high speed. The centrifugal forces distribute the lining around the pipe circumference and compact it against the pipe wall. At the same time excess water in the mixture migrates to the surface of the lining. After spinning, this excess water is removed leaving a smooth surfaced mortar with a water to cement ratio of 0.25 to 0.40. The high density, low void content and low water content results in a strong, low permeability cement mortar lining.
24 | S E C T I O N
4

Cement mortar lining (CML) thicknesses


Cement mortar linings are manufactured to the thicknesses and tolerances specified in AS 1281. See Table 4.1. Pipe OD (mm) 100 OD 273 273 < OD 762 762 < OD 1219 1219 < OD 1829 CML (mm) 9 12 16 19 Tolerance (mm) +/3 4 4 4

Table 4.1 - Cement mortar lining (CML) thicknesses

SECTION 4

Linings

Performance
The dense mortar produced by our centrifugal lining process offers good chemical resistance to potable waters and can also be used in saline and wastewater applications. Cement mortar lining using Sulphate resistant (SR) and Calcium Aluminate (CA) cements are resistant to the water chemistries shown in Table 4.2. Ordinary potable cement performs similarly to SR cement, except the limit on sulphate concentration is reduced to 600 mg/L. Note that Calcium Aluminate cement should not be used for potable water pipelines. When the water chemistry is outside these limits, please discuss with a Tyco Water Regional Marketing Office. Chemical species Tolerable Concentration for SR Cement 6000 max 300 max Tolerable Concentration for CA Cement no limit no limit no limit 4.0 min no limit no limit 10 max

Bitumen seal coat


High pH can develop in water, especially in small diameter cement mortar lined pipelines, where the water is aggressive and the flow rate is low, resulting in a long residence time. To overcome this potential problem seal coatings have been developed to restrict leaching from the cement mortar lining. Pipes can be supplied with cement mortar lining and bitumen seal coat if required. This must be specified at time of quotation.

Handling, storing, laying


Cement mortar lined pipes should be handled with due care. Mistreatment, poor handling and unloading practice can result in lining damage. Details of repair are given in the SINTAKOTE Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Reference Manual, available from any of our Tyco Water Regional Marketing Offices.

Sulphate, SO42-(mg/L) Magnesium, Mg2+(mg/L)

Free aggressive carbon dioxide, CO2(mg/L) 30 pH(mg/L) Ammonium, NH (mg/L)


4+

4.3 SINTAPIPE
SINTAPIPE is a registered trademark. SINTAKOTE is applied to both the outside and the bore of rubber ring jointed steel pipe to make SINTAPIPE. Possible because of innovation in the fusion bonding processes, it provides a wide range of opportunities for steel pipe options for aggressive water applications. SINTAPIPE properties and performance under various test standards are given in Table 3.1.

6.0 min 30 max 1.0 min 0.5 max

Calcium, Ca2+(mg/L) Hydrogen Sulphide, H2S (ppm)

Table 4.2 - Chemical resistance of cement mortar linings


SECTION 4

| 25

Jointing Systems

26

section

5.1 General
Pipes can be supplied with any of the joint configurations described below. A variety of mechanical jointing systems to suit specialist requirements can also be supplied. Jointing systems for fittings can also be specified in these configurations. They are however, subject to geometrical and practical considerations. Clients are advised to contact Tyco Water Regional Marketing Offices to discuss detailed requirements.

SINTAJOINT is available from 324mm to 1829mm outside diameter for pipes and fittings. Each joint provides angular deflection up to approximately 3 depending on diameter. See Graph 5.1. Due to its insulating properties, the joint is ideal for applications where induced current may be a design consideration, for example, within power transmission easements.

Deep entry SINTAJOINT


To accommodate abnormal angular rotation and axial displacements, rubber ring joints can be supplied with a modified socket profile featuring a deeper, wider throat. Design Engineers should contact one of the Tyco Water Regional Marketing Offices to discuss detailed requirements. An example of this joint application is in mine subsidence areas where ground strain can be high, typically in the range of 3 to 7 mm/m.

5.2 SINTAJOINT
Advantages of rubber ring joints (RRJ) over welded joints include faster laying rates, less field plant and maintenance, and speedier backfilling as this can be done immediately after the joint has been laid and checked. In the case of SINTAJOINT pipe, no joint corrosion protection is necessary. Therefore minimal excavation at joints is required, allowing trenching to proceed without interruption. See Figure 5.1.

Laying SINTAJOINT pipe


Recommended practices for laying rubber ring joint steel pipes are provided in the SINTAKOTE Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Reference Manual.

Figure 5.1 SINTAJOINT rubber ring joint

Figure 5.2 SINTALOCK joint

Figure 5.3 Spherical slip-in joint

test point

Figure 5.4 Ball and socket joint


28 | S E C T I O N
5

Figure 5.5 - Butt joint with collar

Figure 5.6 - Plain butt joint

SECTION 5

Jointing Systems

Design engineers in particular should be familiar with these practices for consideration in design.

1800

SINTALOCK
Tyco Water's SINTALOCK joint consists of a restrained rubber ring joint and external fillet weld. With no need to enter pipes for welding or lining reinstatement, safety is increased and corrosion protection enhanced. SINTALOCK also eliminates the need for thrust blocks, drastically reducing construction time. SINTALOCK is available for 324-1440mm outside diameter pipe. It will suit pipes containing a wall thickness of 10mm. Each joint provides an angular deflection of up to 1.1. For allowable operating pressures of SINTALOCK, see Table 7.2.
1700

1600

Temporary construction deflection

1500

1400

1300

5.3 Welded joints


Welded joints ensure 100% structural integrity. Where an internal and external weld is used they can also permit a pneumatic test of the weld integrity in the field during construction. Complete internal and external circumferential welds are necessary however, and a drilled and tapped hole accessing the air space between the welds must also be provided for an air nozzle to be attached. The weld is then daubed with a soap solution and the annulus pressurised to around 100 kPa. The welds are then examined for bubbles of escaping air and rectified if necessary. For large pipelines this test can assure integrity as construction progresses eliminating the time and cost of a major hydrostatic field test. See Figure 5.4 for a typical arrangement. The integrity of spherical slip-in and ball and socket welded joints may be assessed by this test. See Tyco Waters Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Manual for further details.

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

This pipe joint is available in sizes 168 to 1422mm OD, in wall thicknesses up to 12mm, with angular deflections of up to 3 available in the smaller diameters. Deflections are based on proprietary calculations and can be obtained from your nearest Tyco Water Regional Marketing Office. Field welding may be carried out internally as well as externally in pipes large enough to provide adequate internal access. Generally, pipes above 813mm OD will allow this. See Figure 5.3.

Spherical slip-in joint (SSJ)

300

200

100

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

Ball and socket joint (B&S)


This pipe joint is available in sizes 806mm OD and allows 3 deflection per joint prior to welding. See Figure 5.4.

Deflection angle in degrees

Graph 5.1 - SINTAJOINT RRJ angular deflections

SECTION 5

| 29

OD. Outside diameter in millimetres

Permanent deflection

SECTION 5

Jointing Systems

Butt joint with collar


Square end preparation is required. Pipes and collar are easy to align and the configuration is often used in closing lengths. See Figure 5.5. It can also be used for smaller diameter pipes to eliminate internal gaps in cement mortar lining.

that flat-faced flanges are generally more susceptible to sealing problems and successful sealing is heavily dependent upon assembly technique. Where the required flange sizes are larger than DN 1200 or are outside the normal pressure rating, special flanges must be designed. In this situation o-ring type flanges are recommended as being the best option for medium to high pressure situations.

Butt joint
The plain butt joint may be satisfactorily welded from one side using a root fill and hot-pass method, if required, provided that the joint is NDT inspected in accordance with AS/NZS 1554. Note that pipe ends must be bevelled to achieve a reasonable weld, and the ends of the cement mortar lining must have been prepared. This method is particularly useful for small diameter pipes where internal reinstatement of the cement mortar lining cannot be performed by hand. See Figure 5.6.

Gaskets
Gaskets may be either elastomeric or compressed fibre type. Elastomeric gaskets are only recommended for the Class 16 flanges. Compressed fibre gaskets are recommended for Class 21 and Class 35 flanges. Compressed fibre gaskets can also be used with Class 16 flanges but will require the use of high strength bolts because of the higher initial compression necessary. Table 5.1 details the recommended type of gasket and bolt to be used for various classes of raised face steel flanges. Generally full face gaskets (that incorporate holes for the flange bolts) can be used with raised face flanges as only the raised face area inside the bolt holes is clamped. The full face gasket enables better location of the gasket compared to a ring type gasket. (If rigid compressed fibre type gaskets are used the use of ring type gaskets is normal). For other liquids, temperatures or pressures contact a Tyco Water Regional Marketing Office. Maximum Operating Pressure
MPa

5.4 Flanged joints


Flanged joints are completely rigid and should not be used for applications where movement of the pipeline is expected, unless special provision is made to accommodate it by, for example, the inclusion of expansion joints. Flanged joints are used mainly for above ground applications, e.g. pumping stations, water and sewage treatment plants and for industrial pipework. They are also used to facilitate the installation and removal of valves in SINTAJOINT and welded pipelines and for valve bypass arrangements. For assembly of flanged joints no field welding or other special equipment is required. Flange dimensions are normally in accordance with AS 4087 and are currently supplied in Class 16, Class 21 or Class 35. For access covers and other blank flange joints Tyco Water recommends the use of o-ring type gaskets because of their low requirement for assembly stress and trouble free operation. O-ring flanged joints have these same advantages in other flanged joint situations but it must be remembered that the use of o-ring type flanges requires full knowledge of all of the mating components to avoid a joint situation with two o-ring groove ends joining each other. The correct matching is shown in Figure 5.8. Where it is not possible or desirable to use o-ring type flanges, Tyco Water recommends the use of raised face steel flanges. See Figure 5.7. The use of flat-faced steel flanges is not preferred except when the mating flange is cast iron. This situation may occur at a pump housing, but current practice is for most pipeline components to be manufactured in wholly steel or ductile iron. Experience has shown

Maximum Temperature
C

Gasket Composition Solid EPDM Rubber 3mm thick Composite fibre 1.5mm thick TEADIT NA1000 C6327 or equivalent

1.6

50

3.5

80

Table 5.1 - Recommended gasket composition for transportation of general domestic liquids including brine and sewage

Fig 5.7 Raised face type flanges

Fig 5.8 Matched o-ring type flanges


| 31

SECTION 5

Design General Considerations

32
32 | S E C T I O N
1

section

6.1 Safe design


Long-term safety of buried pipelines will be achieved if, at the design stage, the following are known with a fair degree of confidence: the properties of the pipe material and of the pipe itself, as specified by standards and warranted by the manufacturer. the loads that the pipeline will be subjected to, as determined by adequate design methods, based on accepted theories and experimental evidence. the environment in which the pipeline will operate including its chemical nature and temperature. However, 100% confidence in accessing the conditions above is unachievable at reasonable cost. The Engineer thus uses a design safety factor in matching the pipe minimum strength to the expected loads. The real safety factor of the buried pipeline is usually larger than the design safety factor because: (i) the pipe minimum characteristics are generally exceeded, and Design Location Route Topography Geology Flow requirements Future boosting Diameter Velocity Headloss Pressure Water hammer External loads Cover Traffic Water table Bedding Backfill Compaction Jointing Fittings Air valves Isolating valves Scour tees Anchor blocks Product standards Quality AS/NZS ISO 9001/9002 External corrosion Internal corrosion Seasonality Temperature UV radiation Economics Finance Net present value Supply Availability Lead time

(ii) the design method includes criteria which are conservative. Greater confidence in the design and its performance is thus justified knowing the formal factors of safety are associated with minimum product performance criteria and conservative design procedures.

6.2 Check list for pipeline design


In order to establish the diameter and wall thickness of a pipeline it is necessary to consider a number of interrelated factors. In some cases the operating pressure and flow requirements will determine these dimensions. On other occasions such factors as external loading, soil stability and type, conditions of support (above ground, bridge crossings, river crossings) as well as axial forces may influence the calculations and necessitate some local or overall increase in wall thickness. In certain situations the design operating criteria alone may result in a diameter to wall thickness ratio considered too high for mechanical stability of the pipe during manufacture, handling and installation. Construct Handling Storage Bedding Jointing Backfill Compaction Field test Repairs Temperature UV radiation Seasonality Operate & Maintain Water quality Operating costs Cleaning Air Valves Repairs Spares Availability Cut-ins/branches Exposure Anchor blocks Reinstatement Economics Finance Net present value

Product standards Quality AS/NZS ISO 9001/9002 Delivery period Transport Handling Storage Seasonality

Table 6.1- Checklist of typical design factors

34 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 6

Design General Considerations

The additional wall thickness specified to overcome this represents a major benefit should a need arise to increase pipeline pressure and boost flow some time after the line has been in service. Integration of the numerous design principles is complicated and requires a systematic approach to optimise the design in terms of performance and cost effectiveness.

A comprehensive design will consider factors of pipeline component supply, construction, operation and maintenance and account for their effect on the viability, benefits and cost of the project.

6.3 General design procedure for buried pipelines

HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF PIPELINES


ACTION COMMENTS DESIGN MANUAL REFERENCES

1) Define pipeline Route Length Profile Jointing type

Several solutions are normally possible and alternatives will need to be assessed financially or economically. Consider demand growth, staging, boosting. Pipeline jointing system RRJ or welded may affect profile, design flexibility and pressure limitation.

Section 6.2 and Table 6.1 Section 6.3 Section 5 and Table 7.1

2) Trial HGL Identify boundary and intermediate HGL limits of operation. Trial possible HGL'S

Normally set by defined existing limitations: free water surface levels, terrain etc. Ignore fittings losses. Flow velocities generally between 1 and 2 m/s Headlosses generally 2 to 7 m/km.

3) Solve for diameter, given flow and headloss or flow, given headloss and diameter or headloss, given flow and diameter. 4) Define maximum pressure Add fittings and appurtenance headlosses. Static head Pump shut off head PRV setting

Identify optimum alternative. For pumped systems match "system curve" with pump characteristics and optimum duty point.

Section 10.1, 10.2 Graph 10.1 Examples Section 10.5

Consider a range of operating conditions. Check HGL always above pipe level.

Fittings losses see Section 10.4 and Table 10.1 Appurtenances see Section 15 Recommended maximum internal pressures see Section 8.2

Table 6.2 is a checklist of some factors to consider for a typical pipeline.

SECTION 6

| 35

5) Estimate steel wall thickness t = PD/2f Check D/t < 165 for CML pipe, increase it if not 6) Select available pipe Closest bore Closest steel wall thickness 7) Check water hammer P = 2ft/D or t = PD/2f From simple checks to full computer modelling. Increase t, reselect pipe if necessary.

Maximum static working stress [f = 0.72 MYS] D/t <165 for manufacturing, lining and handling considerations. Check availability and lead time of selection with your nearest Tyco Water Regional Marketing Office.

Section 8

Section 7.1

Allowable working pressure. Allowable wall stress [f = 0.90 MYS] Simple water hammer check vs full analysis. Increasing wall thickness increases surge peaks - check design changes Detailed design of selected size.

Table 7.1 Section 8.2 Section 11

8) Refine HGL and hammer analyses Finalise hydraulic appurtenance design, fittings etc. Check final HGL and hammer analyses

See texts and references Listed in Appendix D.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PIPELINES


ACTION 9) Define structural deflection limits COMMENTS The maximum allowable deflection of a single hardnesss RRJ pipeline ranges from 2.3-4%, depending upon OD and Wall Thickness. The maximum allowable deflection of a dual hardness RRJ pipeline (OD>1200) ranges from 3.5-4%, depending upon OD and Wall Thickness The maximum allowable deflection of CML welded pipelines = 0.00014x MYS x D/t. 0.00014 x MYS x D/t must not exceed 4%. 10) Determine maximum load (Pmax) for deflection limit. Select a trial installation design trench width and depth Section 16.1, 16.2 Table 13.3 DESIGN MANUAL REFERENCES Section 13.5 Table 13.4, 13.5 Table 8.2

36 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 6

Design General Considerations

11) Calculate design load (P) P < Pmax

Consider worst load case for deflection. Usually (dead + live load) pipe empty during construction. If P > Pmax, increase pipe teq and/or soil modulus E.

Section 13.2

12) Determine maximum allowable buckling pressure (qmax) and critical buckling pressure. 13) Calculate design buckling pressure (q) q qmax

Consider buried and exposed ring buckling stability.

Section 13.7

Consider worst load case for buckling. Usually (dead load + vacuum) or (dead + live load). If q > qmax increase pipe teq and/or soil modulus E.

Section 13.7

14) Structural design complete Specify pipeline.

Specify pipe dimensions and installation design.

O P E R AT I O N A L C O N S I D E R AT I O N S
ACTION 15) Grades COMMENTS Consider air entrapment. DESIGN MANUAL REFERENCES Section 6.6

16) Valves

Consider requirements for: Air valves Scour valves Isolating valves

Section 6.7

17) Anchorage of pipelines

Anchorage should be considered for all rubber ring jointed pipelines. Include field test pressure anchorage performance.

Section 12.

18) Cathodic protection

Secondary protection

Section 3.2

SECTION 6

| 37

years n 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 80 100 1 0.95147 0.90529 0.86135 0.81954 0.77977 0.74192 0.70591 0.67165 0.63905 0.60804 0.57853 0.55045 0.45112 0.36971 2 0.90573 0.82035 0.74301 0.67297 0.60953 0.55207 0.50003 0.45289 0.41020 0.37153 0.33650 0.30478 0.20511 0.13803

% Interest Rate or Discount Rate 3 0.86261 0.74409 0.64186 0.55368 0.47761 0.41199 0.35538 0.30656 0.26444 0.22811 0.19677 0.16973 0.09398 0.05203 4 0.82193 0.67556 0.55526 0.45639 0.37512 0.30832 0.25342 0.20829 0.17120 0.14071 0.11566 0.09506 0.04338 0.01980 5 0.78353 0.61391 0.48102 0.37689 0.29530 0.23138 0.18129 0.14205 0.11130 0.08720 0.06833 0.05354 0.02018 0.00760 6 0.74726 0.55839 0.41727 0.31180 0.23300 0.17411 0.13011 0.09722 0.07265 0.05429 0.04057 0.03031 0.00945 0.00295 7 0.71299 0.50835 0.36245 0.25842 0.18425 0.13137 0.09366 0.06678 0.04761 0.03395 0.02420 0.01726 0.00446 0.00115

Table 6.3 - Present value of a single sum

years n 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 80 100 1 4.8534 9.4713 13.8651 18.0456 22.0232 25.8077 29.4086 32.8347 36.0945 39.1961 42.1472 44.9550 54.8882 63.0289 2 4.7135 8.9826 12.8493 16.3514 19.5235 22.3965 24.9986 27.3555 29.4902 31.4236 33.1748 34.7609 39.7445 43.0984

% Interest Rate or Discount Rate 3 4.5797 8.5302 11.9379 14.8775 17.4131 19.6004 21.4872 23.1148 24.5187 25.7298 26.7744 27.6756 30.2008 31.5989 4 4.4518 8.1109 11.1184 13.5903 15.6221 17.2920 18.6646 19.7928 20.7200 21.4822 22.1086 22.6235 23.9154 24.5050 5 4.3295 7.7217 10.3797 12.4622 14.0939 15.3725 16.3742 17.1591 17.7741 18.2559 18.6335 18.9293 19.5965 19.8479 6 4.2124 7.3601 9.7122 11.4699 12.7834 13.7648 14.4982 15.0463 15.4558 15.7619 15.9905 16.1614 16.5091 16.6175 7 4.1002 7.0236 9.1079 10.5940 11.6536 12.4090 12.9477 13.3317 13.6055 13.8007 13.9399 14.0392 14.2220 14.2693

Table 6.4 - Present value of an annuity


38 | S E C T I O N
6

SECTION 6

Design General Considerations

6.4 Economic appraisal


As well as the physical aspects of pipeline design a combination of interrelated economic decisions must be taken, including pipeline diameter selection and choice of pipeline material. The objective is usually to minimise total cost (initial cost, operation and maintenance costs) by selecting the alternative that results in the least life-cycle cost. Factors influencing the economic decision include: Initial cost of pipeline components Initial installation costs Cost to increase capacity in future Maintenance costs Cost of pipeline replacement Initial cost of pumping stations Annual power costs Projected life of pipeline

value calculations, and various rates should be used to provide a sensitivity analysis on any project. (See Table 6.4 - Present value of an annuity) The present value of $1 per annum for n years when discounted at interest rate ri per annum is: (1-(1+ri)-n)/ri ri = % interest rate/100 The amount per annum to redeem a loan of $1 at the end of n years and provide interest on the outstanding balance at ri per annum can be determined from the reciprocals of values in this table.

6.5 Properties of steel


Steel water pipe manufactured to AS 1579 is normally manufactured from AS/NZS 1594 analysis grade HA1016 & HXA1016 steel coil or flat plate to AS/NZS 3678 Grade 250. HA1016 & HXA1016 is supplied by the steel maker with prescribed chemical analysis limits. HA1016 & HXA1016 mechanical property limits are not guaranteed by the steel maker, but the statistical distributions associated with the chemical analysis limits are accurately known from historical data. Minimum mechanical property values associated with these limits have been identified and are included in Table 6.5. Yield strength performance of the steel to make the pipe is assured by the hydrostatic test of each pipe after manufacture to 90% MYS (minimum yield strength). The hydrostatic factory test not only proves minimum steel strength but also tests the welding and ultimate fitness for purpose. Steel to other grades and specifications can be supplied if required. See Section 2.1. For pipe that is not hydrostatically tested in accordance with AS 1579, the design pressure rating of the pipe must be included in the design. The wall thickness of pipes that are non-hydrostatically tested shall be no less than 8.0mm. If pipes are not hydrostatically pressure tested, then all welds shall be 100% non-destructively tested in accordance with AS 1554.1, category SP, and the maximum hoop stress at the rated pressure shall not exceed 0.50 of the specified minimum yield stress of the steel. Other typical properties include: Product Standard AS/NZS 1594 AS/NZS 1594 AS/NZS 1594 AS/NZS 1594 AS/NZS 1594 Grade HA1016 HXA1016 HU300 HXA1016 250

DCF methods
It is generally considered that discounted cash flow (DCF) methods should be used in order to provide a rational basis for evaluating and ranking investment options. These DCF methods take account of both the magnitude and timing of expected cash costs each year in the life of a project. Cash flows are discounted at a predetermined real discount rate. The resulting present worth of the DCF is the basis for comparing alternatives. For diameter selection total present value of alternatives can be obtained by adding present capital cost to net present value of future costs (eg. annual pumping costs, maintenance, scheme replacement). Table 6.2 enables the calculation of present values of future capital cost: Factors for calculating present value of a single sum. The present value of $1 in n years time, when discounted at interest rate ri per annum is: (1+ri )n where ri = % interest rate/100 Table 6.3 enables the calculation of present values of annual operating costs.

Real discount rate


The discount rate used has a major effect on the result of present Thickness t mm t6 6t8 t=8 8 < t 12.7 t > 12.7 Min. yield strength MPa 300 300 300 250 250

Min. tensile strength MPa 400 400 400 350 350

Table 6.5 - Steel strength


SECTION 6

| 39

Modulus of elasticity: Est = 207,000 MPa Linear coefficient of thermal expansion: a = 12 x 10-6 mm/mm/C Thermal conductivity: k = 47 W/(mC) Density: p = 7850 kg/m3 Melting temperature: approx 1520 C Poisson ratio: v = 0.27

6.6 Air entrapment


In a water supply pipeline air must be evacuated in order for the main to be filled and function properly. Air can be brought into the pipeline under pressure should pump glands or inlet pipe not be properly sealed. Dissolved air can be liberated at points where the pressure is lower, and move along the pipeline to accumulate at high points. The pipeline profile should be designed to facilitate expulsion of air at predetermined high points where a release valve can be located. Entrained air in a pipeline can give rise to: Drop in flow rate through a reduction in bore area caused by trapped air pockets at line peaks, changes of slope, blind ends or low pressure zones near fittings. Increase in energy requirement in pumped mains. A 1% by volume of air bubbles can lower pump efficiency by 15%. Water hammer due to inflow of water into the collapsing volume of a large air pocket. 'White water' turbidity due to entrained microscopic bubbles. Although the air clears slowly, consumer complaints may result on aesthetic grounds and the resulting interference with industrial processes such as filtration.

SECTION 6

Design General Considerations

Some suggestions to assist in the expulsion of air: If possible give the pipeline a uniform gradient of at least 2 to 3 in 1000 to help air rise. Where practicable avoid too many changes of slope. If the pipeline has several high points, minimum gradient should be 2 to 3 in 1000 in rising sections and 4 to 6 in 1000 in descending sections. On level ground, pipelines should be laid with artificial high points since a level pipeline may develop high points as a result of earth settlement.

On large pipelines, isolating valves may be actuator driven to close on detection of abnormally high flow rates caused by accidental line rupture. Detection devices include pitot-static tubes, orifice plates or venturi meters.

6.8 Determination of wall thickness


To establish the appropriate steel wall thickness the following factors must be taken into account. Internal pressure, including consideration for water hammer (surge pressure). External pressure, including earth fill pressure, atmospheric and hydraulic pressure, trench loading pressure and where applicable internal part or full vacuum. Structural loading, for example beam loading stresses in above ground pipes and saddle stresses at supports. Practical requirements, such as pipe rigidity during manufacture handling and laying.

6.7 Valves
Air valves
Air valves and anti-vacuum valves should be located at the high points on the pipeline to release accumulated air, or to allow air to enter should a partial vacuum occur. Supplementary air valves may be installed before stop valves and non-return valves where these are liable to be closed during draining and refilling of the pipeline. Consideration should be given to the placement of air valves at intervals of 500m to 1000m over long ascending lengths of pipeline.

6.9 Axial loads


A welded pipeline is axially restrained. Internal pressure will therefore cause longitudinal tension due to Poisson's effect. Thermal expansion or contraction can also cause axial loads. Pipe "beam bending" due to uneven bedding, differential settlement or soil subsidence is another cause of axial loading. At pipe bends, forces are generated by the internal pressure and direction changes if velocity and volumes are significant. If not directly absorbed in thrust blocks these become axial loads acting on the pipeline. High hydrostatic loads may arise at valves or blank ends and if not restrained in thrust blocks may cause additional longitudinal stresses in the pipeline. All structures securing the pipeline must be adequately designed to carry these loads in service and also during the hydrostatic testing of the pipeline when high temporary loads may be created by the increased test head.

Scour valves
Scour valves are necessary to allow sediment to be flushed out and to enable the pipeline to be drained for maintenance and repair work, particularly on valve equipment. They should be located on invert scour tees at low points and between isolating valves on the pipeline. The location of these valves is often influenced by the need to dispose of the scour water. Their size depends on the maximum time the pipeline may be out of service, and the maximum disposal flow available, for example sewer lines. If sewers are used for disposal, measures should be taken to ensure backflow is prevented. In parallel lines scour valves can be interconnected to allow bottom charging of the empty line. This minimises air entrainment.

Isolating valves
Isolating or sectioning valves are used to isolate sections of a pipeline in an emergency or for maintenance. They should be located at high or low points. High points are generally more accessible, however low point located valves allow shorter pipeline lengths to be drained. In parallel lines with twin isolating valves, cross connections from upstream of the valve on one line to downstream of the valve on the other allow greater flexibility in operation.
SECTION 6

| 41

Pipe Data

42

section

7.1 Preferred sizes and dimensions


Table 7.1 contains a comprehensive range of pipe diameters and wall thicknesses supplied by Tyco Water. For details of pipe diameters and wall thicknesses most readily available and for pipe diameters in excess of 2200mm nominal bore, clients are advised to contact Tyco Water Regional Marketing Offices.

T = cement mortar lining thickness ts = SINTAKOTE thickness

mm mm

Approximate material densities used in these formulae are: Steel: 7850 kg/m3 Cement mortar: 2400 kg/m3 SINTAKOTE: 940 kg/m3

Steel wall thicknesses


Please note steel wall thicknesses shown in Table 7.1 represent plate thicknesses supplied by the steel maker as preferred thicknesses. Intermediate and greater wall thicknesses can be supplied but these may incur additional costs and longer lead times.

7.4 Pipe lengths


Pipes are normally supplied in 6, 9, 12.2 and 13.4m effective laying lengths. Minimum length is usually 6 metres, such pipes being used to facilitate road crossings in busy areas as well as to allow minor changes in direction without the need to provide fittings. Lengths in excess of 13.5 metres can be manufactured upon request.

7.2 Hydraulic bores


Hydraulic bores are given in Table 7.1 with CML bores based on mean cement mortar lining thicknesses given in Table 4.1.

7.3 Pipe masses


To calculate masses per metre for pipes with dimensions not included in the tables use the following formulae: Plain steel shell: Cement mortar lining: SINTAKOTE: M1 = 0.02466(D-t)t M2 = 0.00755T(D-2t-T) M3 = 0.00295Dts kg/m kg/m kg/m where: mm mm

7.5 Buoyant weights (empty, closed submerged weight)


Table 7.1 lists masses of water filled pipes and buoyant weights of pipes. Where buoyant weight values are negative, precautions should be taken against flotation effects on empty pipelines, particularly during construction. The density of water used in the calculation of these tables is 1000 kg/m3.

7.6 Rated/test pressures


All pipe manufactured to AS 1579 is hydrostatically proof tested in the factory. See Section 8.2 for more information.

D = outside diameter of steel shell t = steel wall thickness


44 | S E C T I O N
7

SECTION 7

Pipe Data

OD (mm) 114 168 190 219 240 257 273 290 324 324 324 324 337 337 337 337 356 356 356 356 406 406 406 406 406 419 419 419 419 419 457 457 457 457 457 502 502 502

WT (mm) 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.0 4.5 5.0

Test Pressure (Mpa) (m) 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 8.5 866 6.7 680 7.5 765 8.3 849 8.5 866 6.4 653 7.2 735 8.0 817 8.5 866 6.1 618 6.8 696 7.6 773 8.5 866 5.3 542 6.0 610 6.7 678 8.0 813 8.5 866 5.2 525 5.8 591 6.4 657 7.7 788 8.5 866 4.7 482 5.3 542 5.9 602 7.1 723 8.5 866 4.3 439 4.8 493 5.4 548

Rated Pressure (Mpa) (m) 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 6.8 693 5.3 544 6.0 612 6.7 680 6.8 693 5.1 523 5.8 588 6.4 653 6.8 693 4.9 495 5.5 557 6.1 618 6.8 693 4.3 434 4.8 488 5.3 542 6.4 651 6.8 693 4.1 420 4.6 473 5.2 525 6.2 631 6.8 693 3.8 385 4.3 434 4.7 482 5.7 578 6.8 693 3.4 351 3.9 395 4.3 439

SK (mm) 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8

CML (mm) 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Bore CML 86 140 162 191 212 229 245 256 292 291 290 288 305 304 303 301 324 323 322 320 374 373 372 370 366 387 386 385 383 379 425 424 423 421 417 470 469 468

Empty Pipe SKCL UCCL kg/m kg/m 19.9 19.4 31.0 30.2 35.3 34.4 41.0 40.0 45.1 44.0 48.5 47.2 51.6 50.3 61.0 59.4 60.8 59.1 64.6 62.9 68.4 66.7 76.0 74.2 63.4 61.6 67.3 65.5 71.3 69.5 79.1 77.3 67.1 65.2 71.2 69.4 75.4 73.5 83.8 81.9 76.8 74.6 81.6 79.4 86.4 84.2 95.9 93.8 114.9 112.8 79.3 77.1 84.3 82.1 89.2 87.0 99.1 96.9 118.7 116.5 86.7 84.3 92.1 89.7 97.6 95.1 108.4 106.0 129.9 127.4 95.5 92.8 101.5 98.8 107.4 104.8

Water Filled Pipe SKCL kg/m 25.8 46.4 55.9 69.6 80.4 89.6 98.7 112.4 127.8 131.1 134.4 141.1 136.4 139.9 143.3 150.2 149.5 153.1 156.8 164.1 186.6 190.8 195.0 203.4 220.1 196.9 201.2 205.6 214.3 231.5 228.5 233.3 238.0 247.5 266.4 268.9 274.1 279.4

Bouyant Weight SKCL kN/m 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 -0.2 -0.5 -0.5 -0.4 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.5 -0.5 -0.4 -0.2 -0.8 -0.7 -0.7 -0.6 -0.4 -1.0 -1.0 -0.9

6m 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6

Tonnes per Pipe, SKCL 9m 12m 13.5m 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.3

1.4 1.5

Table 7.1 Pipe Data Note: 1) See Table 6.5 for associated steel grades and relevant minimum yield strength and minimum tensile strength values. 2) For further sizes please contact your local Tyco Water regional marketing office.
SECTION 7

| 45

Key: OD = Outside diameter of the steel pipe shell. Does not include SINTAKOTE thickness WT = Thickness of steel SK = Thickness of SINTAKOTE external coating CML = Thickness of cement mortar lining SKCL = SINTAKOTE cement mortar lining UCCL = Uncoated cement mortar lining Rated Pressure = Maximum allowable operating internal pressure for SINTAJOINT and welded joint pipelines Test Pressure = Maximum internal pressure each SINTAJOINT and welded joint pipe is tested to during manufacturing

OD (mm) 502 502 508 508 508 508 508 559 559 559 559 559 610 610 610 610 610 648 648 648 648 648 660 660 660 660 660 700 700 700 700 700 700 711 711 711 711 711 762 762 762 762 762

WT Test Pressure Rated Pressure (mm) (Mpa) (m) (Mpa) (m) 6.0 6.5 658 5.2 526 8.0 8.5 866 6.8 693 4.0 4.3 433 3.4 347 4.5 4.8 488 3.8 390 5.0 5.3 542 4.3 433 6.0 6.4 650 5.1 520 8.0 8.5 867 6.8 693 4.0 3.9 394 3.1 315 4.5 4.3 443 3.5 354 5.0 4.8 492 3.9 394 6.0 5.8 591 4.6 473 8.0 7.7 788 6.2 630 4.5 4.0 406 3.2 325 5.0 4.4 451 3.5 361 6.0 5.3 541 4.2 433 8.0 7.1 722 5.7 578 9.5 7.0 714 5.6 572 4.5 3.8 382 3.0 306 5.0 4.2 425 3.3 340 6.0 5.0 510 4.0 408 8.0 6.7 680 5.3 544 9.5 6.6 672 5.3 538 4.5 3.7 375 2.9 300 5.0 4.1 417 3.3 334 6.0 4.9 500 3.9 400 8.0 6.5 667 5.2 534 9.5 6.5 660 5.2 528 4.5 3.5 354 2.8 283 5.0 3.9 393 3.1 315 6.0 4.6 472 3.7 377 8.0 6.2 629 4.9 503 9.5 6.1 623 4.9 498 12.0 7.7 786 6.2 629 5.0 3.8 387 3.0 310 6.0 4.6 465 3.6 372 8.0 6.1 619 4.9 495 9.5 6.0 613 4.8 490 12.0 7.6 774 6.1 619 5.0 3.5 361 2.8 289 6.0 4.3 433 3.4 347 8.0 5.7 578 4.5 462 9.5 5.6 572 4.5 458 12.0 7.1 722 5.7 578
7

SK (mm) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

CML (mm) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Bore CML 466 462 476 475 474 472 468 527 526 525 523 519 577 576 574 570 567 615 614 612 608 605 627 626 624 620 617 667 666 664 660 657 652 677 675 671 668 663 728 726 722 719 714

Empty Pipe SKCL UCCL kg/m kg/m 119.4 116.7 143.1 140.4 96.6 93.9 102.7 100.0 108.7 106.1 120.8 118.1 144.8 142.1 106.9 103.6 113.6 110.3 120.3 117.0 133.6 130.3 160.1 156.8 124.2 120.6 131.5 127.9 146.1 142.5 175.1 171.5 196.7 193.1 132.0 128.2 139.8 136.0 155.3 151.5 186.3 182.4 209.3 205.5 134.5 130.6 142.5 138.6 158.3 154.4 189.8 185.9 213.3 209.4 142.8 138.7 151.3 147.1 168.1 163.9 201.5 197.4 226.5 222.4 267.9 263.8 153.7 149.5 170.7 166.6 204.8 200.6 230.1 225.9 272.2 268.0 164.9 160.4 183.2 178.7 219.7 215.2 247.0 242.5 292.2 287.7

Water Filled Pipe SKCL kg/m 289.8 310.6 274.5 279.8 285.1 295.7 316.8 324.9 330.8 336.6 348.3 371.6 385.5 391.9 404.7 430.1 449.1 428.9 435.8 449.4 476.4 496.6 443.1 450.1 463.9 491.5 512.1 492.1 499.4 514.2 543.5 565.3 601.6 513.5 528.4 558.2 580.4 617.3 580.9 597.0 629.0 652.8 692.4

Bouyant Weight SKCL kN/m -0.8 -0.6 -1.1 -1.0 -0.9 -0.8 -0.6 -1.4 -1.3 -1.3 -1.1 -0.9 -1.7 -1.6 -1.5 -1.2 -1.0 -2.0 -1.9 -1.7 -1.4 -1.2 -2.1 -2.0 -1.8 -1.5 -1.3 -2.4 -2.3 -2.2 -1.8 -1.6 -1.2 -2.4 -2.3 -1.9 -1.7 -1.3 -2.9 -2.7 -2.4 -2.1 -1.7

Tonnes per Pipe, SKCL 6m 9m 12m 13.5m 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.6 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.9 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.5 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.6 0.9 1.3 1.7 2.0 0.6 1.0 1.3 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.5 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.2 0.7 1.1 1.5 1.7 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.8 0.9 1.3 1.8 2.0 1.1 1.6 2.1 2.4 1.2 1.8 2.4 2.7 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.8 0.8 1.3 1.7 1.9 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.1 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.5 1.3 1.9 2.5 2.8 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.8 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.9 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.1 1.1 1.7 2.3 2.6 1.3 1.9 2.6 2.9 0.9 1.3 1.7 1.9 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.3 1.2 1.8 2.4 2.7 1.4 2.0 2.7 3.1 1.6 2.4 3.2 3.6 0.9 1.4 1.8 2.1 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.3 1.2 1.8 2.5 2.8 1.4 2.1 2.8 3.1 1.6 2.4 3.3 3.7 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.2 1.1 1.6 2.2 2.5 1.3 2.0 2.6 3.0 1.5 2.2 3.0 3.3 1.8 2.6 3.5 3.9

46 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 7

Pipe Data

OD (mm) 800 800 800 800 800 813 813 813 813 813 813 914 914 914 914 914 960 960 960 960 972 972 972 972 1016 1016 1016 1035 1035 1035 1067 1067 1067 1085 1085 1085 1125 1125 1125 1200 1200 1200 1219

WT Test Pressure Rated Pressure (mm) (Mpa) (m) (Mpa) (m) 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 12.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.5 12.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 8.0 3.4 4.1 5.4 5.3 6.8 3.3 4.0 4.6 5.3 5.3 6.6 3.5 4.1 4.7 4.9 5.9 3.4 4.5 4.7 5.6 3.3 4.4 4.6 5.6 4.3 4.4 5.3 4.2 4.3 5.2 4.0 4.2 5.1 4.0 4.1 5.0 3.8 4.0 4.8 3.6 3.8 4.5 3.5 344 413 550 545 688 339 406 474 542 536 677 361 422 482 502 602 344 459 478 573 340 453 472 566 433 451 542 425 443 532 413 430 516 406 423 507 391 408 489 367 382 459 361 2.7 3.2 4.3 4.3 5.4 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.3 4.2 5.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 3.9 4.7 2.7 3.6 3.8 4.5 2.7 3.6 3.7 4.4 3.4 3.5 4.3 3.3 3.5 4.2 3.2 3.4 4.0 3.2 3.3 4.0 3.1 3.2 3.8 2.9 3.0 3.6 2.8 275 330 440 436 550 271 325 379 433 429 542 289 337 385 402 482 275 367 382 459 272 362 378 453 347 361 433 340 355 425 330 344 413 325 338 406 313 326 391 294 306 367 289

SK (mm) 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

CML (mm) 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

Bore CML 758 756 752 749 744 771 769 767 765 762 757 870 868 866 862 858 916 912 908 904 928 924 920 916 968 964 960 987 983 979 1019 1015 1011 1037 1033 1029 1077 1073 1069 1152 1148 1144 1171

Empty Pipe SKCL UCCL kg/m kg/m 197.0 216.2 254.4 283.0 330.4 200.2 219.7 239.2 258.7 287.7 335.9 247.6 269.6 291.5 335.2 378.7 260.3 306.4 352.4 398.2 263.6 310.3 356.9 403.3 324.6 373.4 421.9 330.8 380.5 429.9 341.2 392.4 443.5 347.0 399.2 451.1 360.0 414.1 468.1 384.4 442.2 499.8 390.6 191.5 210.7 249.0 277.6 325.0 194.7 214.2 233.7 253.2 282.2 330.4 241.4 263.4 285.3 329.0 372.5 253.7 299.9 345.9 391.7 257.0 303.7 350.3 396.7 317.7 366.5 415.0 323.8 373.4 422.9 333.9 385.2 436.3 339.7 391.8 443.8 352.4 406.5 460.4 376.3 434.1 491.7 382.3

Water Filled Pipe SKCL kg/m 648.0 664.8 698.4 723.4 764.9 666.8 684.0 701.0 718.1 743.5 785.8 841.7 861.0 880.2 918.5 956.6 918.9 959.3 999.6 1039.7 939.6 980.5 1021.3 1061.9 1060.2 1102.9 1145.4 1095.5 1139.0 1182.3 1156.3 1201.2 1245.9 1191.2 1236.8 1282.3 1270.6 1317.9 1365.1 1426.2 1476.8 1527.2 1467.0

Bouyant Weight SKCL kN/m -3.1 -2.9 -2.5 -2.2 -1.7 -3.2 -3.0 -2.8 -2.6 -2.3 -1.9 -4.1 -3.9 -3.6 -3.2 -2.8 -4.6 -4.2 -3.7 -3.3 -4.8 -4.3 -3.8 -3.4 -4.8 -4.4 -3.9 -5.1 -4.6 -4.1 -5.5 -5.0 -4.5 -5.7 -5.2 -4.7 -6.3 -5.8 -5.2 -7.4 -6.8 -6.3 -7.7

6m 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 2.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 2.0 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.3 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.0 2.4 2.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.7 3.0 2.3

Tonnes per Pipe, SKCL 9m 12m 13.5m 1.8 1.9 2.3 2.5 3.0 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.6 3.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 3.0 3.4 2.3 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.8 3.0 3.4 3.9 3.1 3.5 4.0 3.1 3.6 4.1 3.2 3.7 4.2 3.5 4.0 4.5 3.5 2.4 2.6 3.1 3.4 4.0 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.5 4.0 3.0 3.2 3.5 4.0 4.5 3.1 3.7 4.2 4.8 3.2 3.7 4.3 4.8 3.9 4.5 5.1 4.0 4.6 5.2 4.1 4.7 5.3 4.2 4.8 5.4 4.3 5.0 5.6 4.6 5.3 6.0 4.7 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.8 4.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.5 5.1 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 4.4 5.0 5.7 4.5 5.1 5.8 4.6 5.3 6.0 4.7 5.4 6.1 4.9 5.6 6.3 5.2 6.0 6.7 5.3 | 47

SECTION 7

Key: OD = Outside diameter of the steel pipe shell. Does not include SINTAKOTE thickness WT = Thickness of steel SK = Thickness of SINTAKOTE external coating CML = Thickness of cement mortar lining SKCL = SINTAKOTE cement mortar lining UCCL = Uncoated cement mortar lining Rated Pressure = Maximum allowable operating internal pressure for SINTAJOINT and welded joint pipelines Test Pressure = Maximum internal pressure each SINTAJOINT and welded joint pipe is tested to during manufacturing

OD WT Test Pressure Rated Pressure (mm) (mm) (Mpa) (m) (Mpa) (m) 1219 9 3.3 339 2.7 271 1219 10 3.7 376 3.0 301 1219 12 4.4 452 3.5 361 1283 8 3.4 343 2.7 275 1283 10 3.5 358 2.8 286 1283 12 4.2 429 3.4 343 1283 16 5.6 572 4.5 458 1290 8 3.3 341 2.7 273 1290 10 3.5 356 2.8 284 1290 12 4.2 427 3.3 341 1290 16 5.6 569 4.5 455 1404 10 3.2 327 2.6 261 1404 12 3.8 392 3.1 314 1422 10 3.2 323 2.5 258 1422 11 3.5 355 2.8 284 1422 12 3.8 387 3.0 310 1440 10 3.1 319 2.5 255 1440 12 3.8 382 3.0 306 1440 16 5.0 510 4.0 408 1451 10 3.1 316 2.5 253 1451 12 3.7 379 3.0 303 1451 16 5.0 506 4.0 405 1500 10 3.0 306 2.4 245 1500 12 3.6 367 2.9 294 1500 16 4.8 489 3.8 391 1575 10 2.9 291 2.3 233 1575 12 3.4 349 2.7 280 1575 16 4.6 466 3.7 373 1600 10 2.8 287 2.3 229 1600 12 3.4 344 2.7 275 1600 16 4.5 459 3.6 367 1626 10 2.8 282 2.2 226 1626 12 3.3 339 2.7 271 1626 16 4.4 451 3.5 361 1750 12 3.1 315 2.5 252 1750 16 4.1 419 3.3 336 1829 12 3.0 301 2.4 241 1829 16 3.9 401 3.1 321 1981 12 2.7 278 2.2 222 1981 16 3.6 370 2.9 296 2159 12 2.5 255 2.0 204 2159 16 3.3 340 2.7 272

SK (mm) 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

CML (mm) 16 16 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

Bore CML 1169 1167 1163 1229 1225 1221 1213 1236 1232 1228 1220 1346 1342 1364 1362 1360 1382 1378 1370 1393 1389 1381 1442 1438 1430 1517 1513 1505 1542 1538 1530 1568 1564 1556 1688 1680 1767 1759 1919 1911 2097 2089

Empty Pipe SKCL UCCL kg/m kg/m 420.0 411.7 449.3 441.0 507.9 499.6 439.3 430.6 501.1 492.4 562.7 554.0 685.3 676.6 441.7 432.9 503.9 495.1 565.8 557.1 689.2 680.4 549.1 539.6 616.7 607.2 556.2 546.6 590.5 580.9 624.7 615.1 563.4 553.6 632.7 623.0 770.9 761.1 567.7 557.9 637.7 627.8 776.9 767.0 587.2 577.0 659.5 649.3 803.6 793.4 617.0 606.3 693.0 682.3 844.4 833.7 626.9 616.0 704.1 693.3 858.0 847.2 637.2 626.2 715.7 704.7 872.2 861.2 771.1 759.2 939.8 927.9 806.3 793.9 982.8 970.4 874.1 860.7 1065.6 1052.2 953.5 938.9 1162.6 1147.9

Water Filled Pipe SKCL kg/m 1492.7 1518.4 1569.6 1625.0 1679.1 1733.0 1840.4 1640.9 1695.3 1749.6 1857.6 1971.3 2030.4 2016.7 2046.7 2076.6 2062.7 2123.4 2244.2 2091.0 2152.2 2274.0 2219.5 2282.8 2408.8 2423.5 2490.0 2622.5 2493.4 2561.0 2695.6 2567.2 2635.9 2772.8 3007.8 3155.3 3257.3 3411.7 3764.9 3932.4 4405.5 4588.3

Bouyant Weight SKCL kN/m -7.4 -7.1 -6.5 -8.5 -7.9 -7.2 -6.0 -8.6 -8.0 -7.4 -6.1 -9.9 -9.2 -10.2 -9.9 -9.5 -10.5 -9.9 -8.5 -10.7 -10.1 -8.7 -11.7 -11.0 -9.6 -13.2 -12.4 -10.9 -13.7 -12.9 -11.4 -14.2 -13.5 -11.9 -16.1 -14.5 -18.0 -16.2 -21.8 -19.9 -26.7 -24.6

Tonnes per Pipe, SKCL 6m 9m 12m 13.5m 2.5 3.8 5.0 5.7 2.7 4.0 5.4 6.1 3.0 4.6 6.1 6.9 2.6 4.0 5.3 5.9 3.0 4.5 6.0 6.8 3.4 5.1 6.8 7.6 4.1 6.2 8.2 9.3 2.7 4.0 5.3 6.0 3.0 4.5 6.0 6.8 3.4 5.1 6.8 7.6 4.1 6.2 8.3 9.3 3.3 4.9 6.6 7.4 3.7 5.6 7.4 8.3 3.3 5.0 6.7 7.5 3.5 5.3 7.1 8.0 3.7 5.6 7.5 8.4 3.4 5.1 6.8 7.6 3.8 5.7 7.6 8.5 4.6 6.9 9.3 10.4 3.4 5.1 6.8 7.7 3.8 5.7 7.7 8.6 4.7 7.0 9.3 10.5 3.5 5.3 7.0 7.9 4.0 5.9 7.9 8.9 4.8 7.2 9.6 10.8 3.7 5.6 7.4 8.3 4.2 6.2 8.3 9.4 5.1 7.6 10.1 11.4 3.8 5.6 7.5 8.5 4.2 6.3 8.4 9.5 5.1 7.7 10.3 11.6 3.8 5.7 7.6 8.6 4.3 6.4 8.6 9.7 5.2 7.8 10.5 11.8 4.6 6.9 9.3 10.4 5.6 8.5 11.3 12.7 4.8 7.3 9.7 10.9 5.9 8.8 11.8 13.3 5.2 7.9 10.5 11.8 6.4 9.6 12.8 14.4 5.7 8.6 11.4 12.9 7.0 10.5 14.0 15.7

48 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 7

| 49

SINTALOCK
Pipe OD (mm) 324 324 324 337 337 337 356 356 356 406 406 406 419 419 419 457 457 457 457 502 502 502 502 508 508 508 508 559 559 559 559 610 610 610 610 648 648 648 648 648 Wall Thickness WT (mm) 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 Steel Yield (MPa) 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 Rated Pressure (MPa) 3.0 3.3 4.0 2.9 3.2 3.8 2.7 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.7 3.2 2.3 2.6 3.1 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.8 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.4 1.9 2.1 2.6 3.4 1.7 1.9 2.3 3.1 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.8 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.7 2.6 Steel Yield (MPa) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 Rated Pressure (MPa) 3.5 3.9 4.7 3.4 3.7 4.5 3.2 3.5 4.2 2.5 3.1 3.7 2.4 3.0 3.6 2.2 2.8 3.3 2.0 2.2 3.0 2.0 2.2 3.0 1.8 2.0 2.7 1.7 1.8 2.5 1.6 1.7 2.3 Pipe OD (mm) 660 660 660 660 660 700 700 700 700 711 711 711 711 762 762 762 800 800 800 813 813 813 813 813 914 914 914 914 960 960 960 972 972 972 1016 1016 1035 1035 1067 1067 Wall Thickness WT (mm) 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 4.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 5.0 6.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 Steel Yield (MPa) 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 300 250 300 300 250 300 300 250 300 250 300 250 300 250 Rated Pressure (MPa) 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.6 2.6 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.5 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.4 1.4 1.7 2.3 1.4 1.6 2.2 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.3 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 Steel Yield (MPa) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 Rated Pressure (MPa) 1.5 1.7 2.3

1.4 1.6 2.2 1.6 2.1

1.5 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.7

1.5

1.4

1.4

Table 7.2. SINTALOCK joint rated pressure Note: For further sizes please contact your local Tyco Water regional marketing office.
50 | S E C T I O N
7

SECTION 7

Pipe Data

SINTALOCK
Pipe OD (mm) 1085 1085 1125 1125 1200 1200 1219 1219 1219 Wall Thickness WT (mm) 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Steel Yield (MPa) 300 250 300 250 300 250 300 250 250 Rated Pressure (MPa) 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.5 Pipe OD (mm) 1283 1283 1290 1290 1404 1422 1422 1440 Wall Thickness WT (mm) 8.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 11.0 10.0 Steel Yield (MPa) 300 250 300 250 250 250 250 250 Rated Pressure (MPa) 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3

SECTION 7

| 51

Structural Properties of Pipe

52

section

8.1 Standards
A list of applicable Australian Standards used in steel pipe design and specification is included in Section 2.

Rated pressure refers to the maximum hydrostatic pressure at which the pipe or fitting is suitable for sustained operation, including an allowance for transient pressures. The recommended maximum field test pressure is limited to the Manufacturing Proof Test as defined in AS 1579 (90% of MYS). Typically the field test pressure would be 1.25 x maximum working pressure.

8.2 Recommended maximum internal pressures


All pipe manufactured to AS 1579 is hydrostatically proof tested in the factory to 90% MYS. Table 7.1 lists recommended maximum rated pressures for SINTAJOINT and welded joint pipes.

Hydrostatic pressure limits


The hydrostatic pressures calculated on the basis of the allowable steel hoop stresses given in Table 8.1 are subject to the following limits: Pt = 8.5 MPa Pr = 6.8 MPa The limits apply principally to pipe with D/t ratios less than 50 and rarely occur. They are set in consideration of the practicality of achieving the test pressures necessary to reach the relevant steel wall proving stress.

Pressure formula
The Barlow formulae given below were used to calculate the maximum test and maximum working pressures respectively, shown in Table 7.1. a) Strength test pressure P = 0.90 (2 MYS x t) = 1.25 P t r Do b) Rated pressure c) Hoop stress Pr = 0.72 (2 MYS x t) Do h = PtDo 2t or = PrDo 2t MPa MPa mm mm MPa MPa

8.3 Ring stiffness


Correctly designed and installed buried flexible pipes deflect under load, to be restrained by passive pressure from the surrounding soil. See Figure 8.1. The installation is a composite pipe-soil structure acting integrally to carry imposed loads. The degree to which the pipe depends on the soil for support is a function of the ring stiffness of the pipe. Ring stiffness is also required to resist buckling. For the purpose of calculating ring stiffness of pipes, the outside diameter has been used. This simplifies calculation and gives conservative values.

where Pt = field test internal pressures Pr = internal pressure t = steel wall thickness Do = outside diameter of steel shell h = hoop stress MYS = minimum yield strength

The lining has been ignored in the calculation of pressures for CML pipe. The steel shell is assumed to act alone.

Steel strength
The Nominal Minimum Yield Strength (NMYS) values used for the thicknesses given in Table 8.1 are given in Table 6.5. Category Maximum Recommended Steel Hoop Stress (%MYS) Manufacture Proof / Strength Test Pressure, Pt Rated Pressure, Pr 90 72 (MPa) t 8mm 8 < t 16mm 270 216 225 180

Stiffness as a function of D
A common form of calculating ring stiffness, as a function of diameter, SD, is: SD = E I x 10 6 N/m/m Dm3 where SD = ring bending stiffness measured in N/m of deflection per m of pipe N/m/m E = Modulus of elasticity for the steel or composite steel-cement mortar lining MPa t = steel wall thickness mm I = second moment of area of the pipe wall section per unit length of pipe = t3 mm4/mm 12

Table 8.1 - Maximum recommended steel hoop stresses

Steel hoop stress h


The maximum recommended steel hoop stresses at various service pressures are given in Table 8.1.
54 | S E C T I O N
8

SECTION 8

Structural Properties of Pipe

% Deflection = / Dm

Pipe section before backfill and compaction

Bedding reaction Pipe section after backfill and compaction loading

Figure 8.1 - Flexible pipe deflection


Pipe Type Welded Pipe Welded Pipe RRJ-S Pipe RRJ-S Sintalock RRJ-D Pipe Pipe OD range CML No Yes Yes Yes Yes Design Limit The lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS* x D/t and 5% The lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS* x D/t and 4% The lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS* x D/t and 4% (for 648mm, reducing to 2.8% for 1290mm) 324 1440 1200 - 1829 The lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS* x D/t and 4% (for 648mm, reducing to 2.5% for 1440mm) The lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS* x D/t and 4% Design Limit 80% of Design Limit Design Limit 80% of Design Limit Maximum field measurement

mm
114 - 2500 114 2500 324 1290

Pipe body
Design Limit Design Limit Design Limit

Joint
Design Limit Design Limit 80% of Design Limit

Table 8.2 - Summary of deflections for steel pipe

Note: 1) Field measurements should only be made at positions where at least half a pipe length is buried either side of the measurement position 2) The joint region is 150mm from either side of the pipe joint * Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) or Nominal Minimum Yield Strength (NMYS) Dm = mean diameter of pipe = D-t D = pipe outside diameter Simplified, this can also be expressed as SD = E x t 3 x 10 6 12 Dm mm mm t T Ecl Est = steel pipe wall thickness = cement lining thickness = Youngs Modulus for cement mortar = Youngs Modulus for steel mm mm = 21,000 GPa = 207,000 GPa

( )

Thus teq = t + 0.1 T mm

an inverse function of the Dm /t ratio. This is the ring stiffness that is used in the deflection analysis of buried pipes.

Moduli for elasticity


Young's Modulus for steel is taken as 207,000 MPa. Young's Modulus for cement mortar lining is taken as 21,000 MPa.

Transformed section
Young's Modulus for the composite steel-cement mortar lining is accounted for by transforming the cement mortar lining thickness to the equivalent thickness of steel using the ratio of respective moduli. teq = t + T Ecl Est

This transformation is not meant to account for the cement lined steel shell acting as a monolithic composite. A strict transformation to account for this structural action would assume perfect bonding at the cement-steel interface and integral ring action of the cement mortar lining. The transformed section would be a 'T' shape and have a much greater second moment of area. The simplified teq transformation above results in a conservative estimate of the stiffness contribution by the cement mortar lining. Table 8.3 lists stiffness values as functions of radius and diameter for bare steel shells and composite cement mortar lined steel shells. Dm /t ratios are also listed for reference, included in table 8.3.

( )

mm

where teq = transformed pipe wall thickness

mm
SECTION 8

| 55

8.4 Critical buckling pressure


The critical buckling pressure, Pcr for unsupported pipe is sometimes required to assess structural stability under loads that may give rise to unsupported buckling of the pipe, due to accidental removal of the soil support. Probability of such an event and its inclusion as a performance criterion must be assessed by the Design Engineer. Pcr required to cause buckling of an unsupported pipe can be calculated using the Timoshenko buckling equation. Pcr = 24 SD x 10-3 FS (1-2) where Pcr = critical external pressure required to cause buckling FS = a factor of safety, normally equal to 2.5 SD = pipe ring stiffness as a function of the diameter = Poissons Ratio = 0.27 kPa

8.5 Beam section properties


In beam bending analyses and Table 14.1 the contribution to beam stiffness by the cement mortar lining has been ignored. The section properties of steel shell only have been used. Actual short term beam deflections will thus be smaller than calculated, however long term deflections are likely to be realised due to creep of the CML. The contribution of SINTAKOTE to structural properties is negligible and has been ignored. The second moment of area I, of the steel shell for beam bending is calculated from: mm4 I = x (D4-d4) 64 = rm3t N/m/m where I = the second moment of area of the pipe cross section mm4 D = outside diameter of the pipe mm d = inside diameter of the pipe mm mm rm = pipe mean radius = (D-t) 2 The elastic section modulus Z, of the steel shell for beam bending is calculated from: Z = p (D4-d4) mm3 (32 D) =2x I D = rm2t where Z = the elastic section modulus D = outside diameter of the pipe d = inside diameter of the pipe rm = pipe mean radius = (D-t) 2 p = density

kPa

This equation ignores the assistance of soil support (see Section 13.6.) Table 8.3 lists critical buckling pressures described above for bare steel shells and composite cement mortar lined steel shells.

Out of round effects


Ring buckling resistance of unsupported pipe will be reduced by the degree of out of roundness or deflection reached immediately prior to the onset of buckling. The reduction may be calculated from: 6 N/m/m SDcr = E I x 10 3 DB The crown radius of curvature and the corresponding diameter of the deformed pipe can be calculated from DB = D (1 + Df x ) D where DB = pipe diameter deformed D = pipe diameter undeformed = pipe deflection Df = shape factor (ref Sect. 13.4 ) = 3.33 x 10-6 SDL + 0.00136 E

mm3 mm mm mm kg/m3

mm mm mm

( ) S 1.11 x 10 ( ) + 0.000151 E
-6 DL

Table 8.3 lists the section properties I and Z described above for bare steel shells.

E = effective combined soil modulus

MPa

56 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 8

Structural Properties of Pipe

Pipe Dimensions Shell CML OD t T mm mm mm 114 4.8 9 168 5.0 9 190 5.0 9 219 5.0 9 240 5.0 9 257 5.0 9 273 5.0 9 290 5.0 12 324 4.0 12 324 4.5 12 324 5.0 12 324 6.0 12 337 4.0 12 337 4.5 12 337 5.0 12 337 6.0 12 356 4.0 12 356 4.5 12 356 5.0 12 356 6.0 12 406 4.0 12 406 4.5 12 406 5.0 12 406 6.0 12 406 8.0 12 419 4.0 12 419 4.5 12 419 5.0 12 419 6.0 12 419 8.0 12 457 4.0 12 457 4.5 12 457 5.0 12 457 6.0 12 457 8.0 12 502 4.0 12 502 4.5 12 502 5.0 12 502 6.0 12 502 8.0 12 508 4.0 12 508 4.5 12 508 5.0 12

Pipe Shell SK ts mm 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Dm/t 22.8 32.6 37.0 42.8 47.0 50.4 53.6 57.0 80.0 71.0 63.8 53.0 83.3 73.9 66.4 55.2 88.0 78.1 70.2 58.3 100.5 89.2 80.2 66.7 49.8 103.8 92.1 82.8 68.8 51.4 113.3 100.6 90.4 75.2 56.1 124.5 110.6 99.4 82.7 61.8 126.0 111.9 100.6 Ring Stiffness SD N/m/m 1,465,025 497,893 340,552 220,018 166,148 134,740 112,020 93,146 33,691 48,196 66,424 115,867 29,898 42,761 58,923 102,745 25,313 36,195 49,863 86,904 16,994 24,287 33,440 58,219 140,091 15,446 22,073 30,388 52,892 127,214 11,876 16,966 23,350 40,618 97,571 8,939 12,766 17,564 30,535 73,262 8,623 12,315 16,943 Pcr kPa 15,170 5,156 3,526 2,278 1,720 1,395 1,160 965 349 499 688 1,200 310 443 610 1,064 262 375 516 900 176 251 346 603 1,451 160 229 315 548 1,317 123 176 242 421 1,010 93 132 182 316 759 89 128 175 Beam bending I x 106 Z x 103 4 mm mm3 2 43 8 101 12 131 19 176 25 212 31 244 38 277 45 313 51 318 58 356 64 393 76 467 58 344 65 385 72 426 85 507 68 385 77 431 85 477 101 567 102 502 114 563 127 623 151 742 198 975 112 536 126 600 139 665 166 792 218 1,041 146 639 164 716 181 793 216 945 284 1,244 194 773 217 866 241 960 287 1145 379 1508 201 791 225 888 250 983 teq mm 5.7 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 6.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 5.2 5.7 6.2

Composite shell and lining Ring Stiffness Dm/teq SD N/m/m 19.2 2,453,272 27.6 818,055 31.4 559,538 36.3 361,496 39.8 272,987 42.7 221,383 45.4 184,052 46.0 177,595 61.5 74,020 56.1 97,949 51.5 126,646 44.2 200,219 64.0 65,685 58.3 86,904 53.5 112,344 46.0 177,543 67.7 55,612 61.7 73,559 56.6 95,070 48.6 150,170 77.3 37,335 70.4 49,358 64.7 63,757 55.6 100,602 43.3 213,061 79.8 33,936 72.7 44,858 66.8 57,938 57.4 91,398 44.7 193,476 87.1 26,092 79.4 34,479 72.9 44,519 62.6 70,187 48.8 148,393 95.8 19,639 87.3 25,944 80.2 33,488 68.9 52,764 53.7 111,422 96.9 18,946 88.3 25,027 81.1 32,304

Pcr kPa 25,403 8,471 5,794 3,743 2,827 2,292 1,906 1,839 766 1,014 1,311 2,073 680 900 1,163 1,838 576 762 984 1,555 387 511 660 1,042 2,206 351 464 600 946 2,003 270 357 461 727 1,537 203 269 347 546 1,154 196 259 335

Table 8.3 Structural properties of steel pipes


SECTION 8

| 57

Pipe Dimensions Shell CML OD t T mm mm mm 508 6.0 12 508 8.0 12 559 4.0 12 559 4.5 12 559 5.0 12 559 6.0 12 559 8.0 12 610 4.5 12 610 5.0 12 610 6.0 12 610 8.0 12 610 9.5 12 648 4.5 12 648 5.0 12 648 6.0 12 648 8.0 12 648 9.5 12 660 4.5 12 660 5.0 12 660 6.0 12 660 8.0 12 660 9.5 12 700 4.5 12 700 5.0 12 700 6.0 12 700 8.0 12 700 9.5 12 700 12.0 12 711 5.0 12 711 6.0 12 711 8.0 12 711 9.5 12 711 12.0 12 762 5.0 12 762 6.0 12 762 8.0 12 762 9.5 12 762 12.0 12 800 5.0 16 800 6.0 16 800 8.0 16 800 9.5 16 800 12.0 16 813 5.0 16 58 | S E C T I O N
8

Pipe Shell SK ts mm 1.8 1.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Dm/t 83.7 62.5 138.8 123.2 110.8 92.2 68.9 134.6 121.0 100.7 75.3 63.2 143.0 128.6 107.0 80.0 67.2 145.7 131.0 109.0 81.5 68.5 154.6 139.0 115.7 86.5 72.7 57.3 141.2 117.5 87.9 73.8 58.3 151.4 126.0 94.3 79.2 62.5 159.0 132.3 99.0 83.2 65.7 161.6 Ring Stiffness SD N/m/m 29,453 70,656 6,458 9,220 12,681 22,033 52,796 7,081 9,737 16,910 40,483 68,300 5,899 8,111 14,081 33,691 56,817 5,581 7,673 13,320 31,865 53,730 4,672 6,423 11,147 26,653 44,923 91,531 6,128 10,633 25,421 42,843 87,277 4,971 8,623 20,604 34,709 70,656 4,291 7,444 17,778 29,940 60,919 4,088 Pcr kPa 305 732 67 95 131 228 547 73 101 175 419 707 61 84 146 349 588 58 79 138 330 556 48 67 115 276 465 948 63 110 263 444 904 51 89 213 359 732 44 77 184 310 631 42 Beam bending I x 106 Z x 103 4 mm mm3 298 1,173 393 1,545 268 960 301 1,077 334 1,194 398 1,425 525 1,879 392 1,286 435 1,425 519 1,701 685 2,246 807 2,647 471 1,453 522 1,610 623 1,923 823 2,541 971 2,996 497 1,507 551 1,671 659 1,996 870 2,637 1,026 3,110 594 1,698 659 1,882 787 2,249 1,041 2,973 1,228 3,507 1,534 4,382 691 1,943 825 2,321 1,091 3,069 1,287 3,621 1,609 4,525 851 2,234 1,018 2,671 1,346 3,533 1,589 4,170 1,987 5,215 986 2,465 1,179 2,947 1,560 3,900 1,842 4,605 2,305 5,762 1,035 2,547 teq mm 7.2 9.2 5.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 5.7 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 13.2 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 13.2 6.2 7.2 9.2 10.7 13.2 6.6 7.6 9.6 11.1 13.6 6.6

Composite shell and lining Ring Stiffness Dm/teq SD N/m/m 69.7 50,895 54.3 107,459 106.7 14,188 97.3 18,737 89.4 24,179 76.8 38,072 59.9 80,297 106.2 14,390 97.6 18,565 83.9 29,220 65.4 61,569 56.1 97,589 112.9 11,989 103.7 15,464 89.2 24,332 69.6 51,240 59.7 81,182 115.0 11,342 105.6 14,630 90.8 23,017 70.9 48,463 60.8 76,771 122.0 9,496 112.1 12,246 96.4 19,262 75.2 40,535 64.5 64,187 52.1 121,828 113.9 11,683 97.9 18,375 76.4 38,662 65.6 61,215 53.0 116,166 122.1 9,477 105.0 14,901 82.0 31,336 70.3 49,593 56.8 94,043 120.5 9,870 104.5 15,128 82.5 30,720 71.2 47,759 57.9 88,680 122.4 9,401

Pcr kPa 527 1,113 147 194 250 394 831 149 192 303 638 1,011 124 160 252 531 841 117 151 238 502 795 98 127 199 420 665 1,262 121 190 400 634 1,203 98 154 324 514 974 102 157 318 495 918 97

SECTION 8

Structural Properties of Pipe

Pipe Dimensions Shell CML OD t T mm mm mm 813 6.0 16 813 7.0 16 813 8.0 16 813 9.5 16 813 12.0 16 914 6.0 16 914 7.0 16 914 8.0 16 914 10.0 16 914 12.0 16 960 6.0 16 960 8.0 16 960 10.0 16 960 12.0 16 972 6.0 16 972 8.0 16 972 10.0 16 972 12.0 16 1016 8.0 16 1016 10.0 16 1016 12.0 16 1035 8.0 16 1035 10.0 16 1035 12.0 16 1067 8.0 16 1067 10.0 16 1067 12.0 16 1085 8.0 16 1085 10.0 16 1085 12.0 16 1125 8.0 16 1125 10.0 16 1125 12.0 16 1200 8.0 16 1200 10.0 16 1200 12.0 16 1219 8.0 16 1219 9.0 16 1219 10.0 16 1219 12.0 16 1283 8.0 19 1283 10.0 19 1283 12.0 19 1283 16.0 19

Pipe Shell SK ts mm 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Dm/t 134.5 115.1 100.6 84.6 66.8 151.3 129.6 113.3 90.4 75.2 159.0 119.0 95.0 79.0 161.0 120.5 96.2 80.0 126.0 100.6 83.7 128.4 102.5 85.3 132.4 105.7 87.9 134.6 107.5 89.4 139.6 111.5 92.8 149.0 119.0 99.0 151.4 134.4 120.9 100.6 159.4 127.3 105.9 79.2 Ring Stiffness SD N/m/m 7,090 11,300 16,931 28,510 58,001 4,977 7,930 11,876 23,350 40,618 4,291 10,236 20,120 34,987 4,133 9,859 19,376 33,691 8,623 16,943 29,453 8,154 16,018 27,842 7,437 14,607 25,385 7,070 13,886 24,129 6,337 12,444 21,620 5,215 10,236 17,778 4,973 7,098 9,761 16,952 4,261 8,362 14,518 34,739 Pcr kPa 73 117 175 295 601 52 82 123 242 421 44 106 208 362 43 102 201 349 89 175 305 84 166 288 77 151 263 73 144 250 66 129 224 54 106 184 51 74 101 176 44 87 150 360 Beam bending I x 106 Z x 103 4 mm mm3 1,238 3,045 1,439 3,539 1,638 4,030 1,934 4,758 2,421 5,955 1,763 3,858 2,050 4,486 2,335 5,110 2,900 6,345 3,457 7,564 2,045 4,260 2,709 5,644 3,365 7,011 4,013 8,360 2,123 4,368 2,813 5,788 3,494 7,190 4,167 8,574 3,216 6,331 3,996 7,866 4,767 9,383 3,401 6,573 4,227 8,168 5,043 9,744 3,729 6,990 4,635 8,688 5,531 10,367 3,923 7,231 4,876 8,988 5,819 10,726 4,376 7,780 5,441 9,673 6,494 11,545 5,318 8,864 6,614 11,024 7,897 13,162 5,577 9,149 6,258 10,267 6,936 11,380 8,282 13,588 6,508 10,145 8,097 12,622 9,671 15,075 12,773 19,911 teq mm 7.6 8.6 9.6 11.1 13.6 7.6 8.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 7.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 7.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 11.6 13.6 9.6 10.6 11.6 13.6 9.9 11.9 13.9 17.9

Composite shell and lining Ring Stiffness Dm/teq SD N/m/m 106.2 14,408 93.7 20,955 83.9 29,256 72.4 45,478 58.9 84,432 119.5 10,115 105.5 14,705 94.4 20,522 77.9 36,447 66.3 59,127 125.5 8,721 99.2 17,689 81.9 31,405 69.7 50,931 127.1 8,400 100.4 17,036 82.9 30,244 70.6 49,045 105.0 14,901 86.7 26,447 73.8 42,875 107.0 14,089 88.4 25,003 75.2 40,530 110.3 12,850 91.1 22,800 77.6 36,953 112.2 12,217 92.7 21,674 78.9 35,124 116.4 10,951 96.1 19,424 81.8 31,472 124.2 9,011 102.6 15,978 87.4 25,880 126.1 8,594 114.2 11,597 104.2 15,236 88.8 24,677 128.8 8,075 107.0 14,091 91.4 22,563 70.8 48,643

Pcr kPa 149 217 303 471 874 105 152 213 377 612 90 183 325 527 87 176 313 508 154 274 444 146 259 420 133 236 383 127 224 364 113 201 326 93 165 268 89 120 158 256 84 146 234 504 | 59

SECTION 8

Pipe Dimensions Shell CML OD t T mm mm mm 1290 8.0 19 1290 10.0 19 1290 12.0 19 1290 16.0 19 1404 10.0 19 1404 12.0 19 1422 10.0 19 1422 11.0 19 1422 12.0 19 1440 10.0 19 1440 12.0 19 1440 16.0 19 1451 10.0 19 1451 12.0 19 1451 16.0 19 1500 10.0 19 1500 12.0 19 1500 16.0 19 1575 10.0 19 1575 12.0 19 1575 16.0 19 1600 10.0 19 1600 12.0 19 1600 16.0 19 1626 10.0 19 1626 12.0 19 1626 16.0 19 1750 12.0 19 1750 16.0 19 1829 12.0 19 1829 16.0 19 1981 12.0 19 1981 16.0 19 2159 12.0 19 2159 16.0 19

Pipe Shell SK ts mm 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Dm/t 160.3 128.0 106.5 79.6 139.4 116.0 141.2 128.3 117.5 143.0 119.0 89.0 144.1 119.9 89.7 149.0 124.0 92.8 156.5 130.3 97.4 159.0 132.3 99.0 161.6 134.5 100.6 144.8 108.4 151.4 113.3 164.1 122.8 178.9 133.9 Ring Stiffness SD N/m/m 4,192 8,225 14,280 34,170 6,368 11,051 6,128 8,173 10,633 5,899 10,236 24,469 5,765 10,003 23,911 5,215 9,047 21,620 4,500 7,806 18,647 4,291 7,444 17,778 4,088 7,090 16,931 5,678 13,552 4,969 11,856 3,905 9,312 3,012 7,179 Pcr kPa 43 85 148 354 66 114 63 85 110 61 106 253 60 104 248 54 94 224 47 81 193 44 77 184 42 73 175 59 140 51 123 40 96 31 74 Beam bending I x 106 Z x 103 mm4 mm3 6,616 10,257 8,231 12,762 9,831 15,242 12,986 20,133 10,632 15,146 12,704 18,097 11,050 15,541 12,129 17,059 13,203 18,570 11,478 15,941 13,715 19,049 18,134 25,186 11,744 16,188 14,035 19,345 18,557 25,579 12,984 17,312 15,518 20,690 20,524 27,365 15,045 19,104 17,984 22,837 23,796 30,217 15,777 19,722 18,861 23,577 24,959 31,199 16,564 20,374 19,803 24,358 26,208 32,236 24,727 28,259 32,742 37,420 28,254 30,896 37,424 40,923 35,955 36,300 47,648 48,105 46,614 43,181 61,805 57,254 teq mm 9.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 11.9 12.9 13.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 11.9 13.9 17.9 13.9 17.9 13.9 17.9 13.9 17.9 13.9 17.9

Composite shell and lining Ring Stiffness Dm/teq SD N/m/m 129.5 7,944 107.6 13,861 91.9 22,194 71.2 47,845 117.1 10,731 100.1 17,176 118.7 10,326 109.4 13,182 101.4 16,526 120.2 9,941 102.7 15,909 79.6 34,262 121.1 9,715 103.5 15,547 80.2 33,481 125.2 8,788 107.1 14,061 82.9 30,272 131.5 7,584 112.4 12,133 87.1 26,110 133.6 7,232 114.2 11,569 88.5 24,893 135.8 6,888 116.1 11,019 89.9 23,707 125.0 8,824 96.9 18,976 130.7 7,723 101.3 16,602 141.7 6,069 109.8 13,039 154.5 4,681 119.7 10,053

Pcr kPa 82 144 230 495 111 178 107 136 171 103 165 355 101 161 347 91 146 313 79 126 270 75 120 258 71 114 245 91 196 80 172 63 135 48 104

60 | S E C T I O N

Fittings

62

section

Mitred Bends

30 min.

d
S d
Tee

U
Angled Branch Figure 9.1 Typical Fittings Y Piece

9.1 Preferred sizes, dimensions and typical configurations


Fittings are normally fabricated from pipe. Pipe wall, coating and lining thicknesses, and outside diameters are therefore in accordance with Table 7.1.
Concentric Reducer
150mm ~4.5 x (D1 D2) 150mm

Table 9.1, Figure 9.1 and Figure 9.2 depict a range of cost effective fitting configurations manufactured by Tyco Water. Whilst these sizes are preferred, Tyco Water can make any size that is required.

9.2 SINTAJOINT fittings


SINTAJOINT fittings are available in sizes 324mm OD to 1829mm OD and allow construction of a complete rubber ring joint pipeline system. This eliminates welding entirely. In particular, no joint reinstatement or field joint overwrap of any kind is required and over excavation of the trench at joints for wrapping access is unnecessary. Tapers, tees and air valves or scour off-takes are also available.

D1

Eccentric Reducer
150mm ~4.5 x (D1 D2) 150mm

D2

9.3 Welded joint SINTAKOTE fittings


Most welded joint fittings are available with SINTAKOTE, fusion bonded polyethylene coating.

D1

D2

Figure 9.2 Typical Reducers


64 | S E C T I O N
9

Typical fitting dimensions are shown in Table 9.1. Changes in pipeline direction can be achieved by the appropriate combination of joint deflection and specified bends.

SECTION 9

Fittings

9.4 Special fittings


Tyco Water can fabricate and supply special fittings in addition to those indicated to suit your specific needs, for example: expansion joints, ring girders and support assemblies and complex fittings like bifurcations and trifurcations. Diameter = 22.5 DN mm 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 M mm 300 375 375 450 450 450 450 525 525 525 525 600 600 600 750 750 825 825 825 825 900 900 900 900 900 900
o o

Technical assistance is readily available on request in connection with any problems relating to pipe specials. Although not illustrated we can also supply plate flanges to suit various specifications. Tee Angle Branch (30 minimum) S mm U mm 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 350 400 400 500 500 500 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 850 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500 1,650 1,800 1,900 2,000 2,100 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200 3,400 3,600 3,800 4,000 4,200 4,400 4,600 4,800
o

Mitred Bends 22.5 < 45 N mm R1 mm


o

Y - Piece (45o) S mm U mm 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 500 500 500 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 825 890 950 1,025 1,100 1,150 1,225 1,300 1,350 1,425 1,500 1,550 1,600 1,750 1,850 2,000 2,150 2,275 2,400 2,550 2,675 2,800 2,950 3,050 3,200 3,325

45 < 90 P mm R2 mm
o o

Q mm 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 525 575 625 675 750 775 825 875 925 975 1,025 1,075 1,125 1,175 1,225 1,275 1,325 1,375 1,425

360 360 380 420 465 485 525 565 610 650 690 710 755 815 900 980 1,065 1,105 1,190 1,270 1,355 1,395 1,500 1,560 1,645 1,725

500 500 550 650 750 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,350 1,450 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,300 2,500 2,700 2,900 3,000 3,250 3,400 3,600 3,800

650 650 700 800 900 950 1,050 1,150 1,250 1,350 1,450 1,500 1,600 1,750 1,950 2,150 2,350 2,450 2,650 2,850 3,050 3,150 3,400 3,550 3,750 3,950

500 500 550 650 750 800 900 1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,350 1,450 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,300 2,500 2,700 2,900 3,000 3,250 3,400 3,600 3,800

Table 9.1 Fitting configurations manufactured by Tyco Water. Note: 1) Mitred bend radii designed to restrict stress concentration at inside leg to max of 1.25 times hoop stress in pipe. 2) Q may need to be increased when crotch plate reinforcement is used.

SECTION 9

| 65

Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipe & Fittings

66

section

10

Bringing water to wine Barossa Valley, South Australia. The flow capacity of a pipeline depends on the head driving the flow, the diameter and length of the pipe, the condition of the interior surface of the pipe and the number and type of fittings in the line. The flow velocity in water supply pipes usually does not exceed 3 m/s and is often below 1.5 m/s. At high flow velocities there is a risk of cavitation occurring at discontinuities in the pipeline, such as bends, joints, tees etc. To avoid this, the recommended maximum flow velocities are: 4 m/s for CML pipelines 6 m/s for FBPE pipelines

10.2 k values
The recommended value of k for cement mortar lined steel pipes is 0.01 to 0.06mm as per Table 2 of AS 2200 (2006) Design charts for water supply and sewerage. Experiments carried out by Tyco Water in collaboration with the Water Research Laboratory - University of NSW, at the State Rivers & Water Supply Commission of Victoria Hydraulic Experimental Station, resulted in a k value of 0.01mm with water at 20C for new cement lined steel pipe. Therefore values of k in the lower range of the variation shown in Table 2 of AS 2200 (2006) should be chosen when determining head losses. For SINTAPIPE, k values are of the order of 0.003 to 0.015mm per AS 2200, but the actual value taken should represent any film that may build up on the surface.

10.1 Colebrook-White formula


A number of formulae exist for calculation of friction losses along a pipeline. The Colebrook-White formula below is the most recently developed and is regard internationally as the most accurate basis for hydraulic design. k 2.51 + v = -2 2gdSg . log10 3.7d d 2gdSg

10.3 Flow chart for mild steel cement mortar lined pipe
Pipe flow friction charts provide a convenient graphical means of solving the Colebrook-White formula and are sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes. Recommended values of k for new steel pipelines are: 0.003 mm for SINTAPIPE 0.03 mm for CML pipe and CML seal coated pipe Graphs 10.1 and 10.2 are based on the Colebrook White formula, using k values of 0.003 and 0.03mm, and indicate the hydraulic gradient along a straight run of pipe. Where the number of fittings is high compared with pipe length head losses can be calculated using minor loss coefficients from Table 10.1.

where: v = flow velocity g = acceleration due to gravity d = internal diameter of pipe Sg = hydraulic gradient (head loss/unit length) k = linear measure of roughness = kinematic viscosity of water = 0.11425 x 10-5 at 15 Celsius

m/s 9.81 m/s2 m m/m m m2/s

68 | S E C T I O N

10

SECTION 10

Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipe and Fittings

Type of fittings 1) Entry losses Sharp edged entrance Re-entrant entrance Rounded entrance Bellmouthed entrance Footvalve and strainer 2 )Radiused bends Elbows (R/D - 0.5 approx) 22.5 45 90 Close radius bends (R/D - 1 approx.) 22.5 45 90 Long radius bends (R/D - 2 to 7) 22.5 45 90 Sweeps (R/D - 8 to 50) 22.5 45 90 3) Tees Flow in line Line to branch or branch to line:sharp-edged radiused

KL

Type of fittings 5) Sudden enlargements Inlet dia:Outlet dia.4:5 3:4 2:3 1:2 1:3 1:5 and over 6) Sudden contractions Inlet dia:Outlet dia.5:4 0.20 3:2 2:1 3:1 5:1 and over 7) Tapers Flow to small end = 0 Flow to large end Inlet dia.: Outlet dia. 4:5 3:4 1:2 8) Valves Gate valve - fully open - 25% closed - 50% closed - 75% closed

KL

0.50 0.80 0.25 0.05 2.50

0.15 0.20 0.35 0.60 0.80 1.00

0.20 0.40 1.00 4:3 0.15 0.30 0.75

0.15 0.30 0.35 0.45 0.50

0.10 0.20 0.40

0.05 0.10 0.20

0.03 0.04 0.12

0.35

0.12 1.00 6.00 24.00

1.20 0.80

Globe valve Right angle valve Reflux valve

10.00 5.00 1.00

4) Angle branches Flow in line Line to branch or branch to line:30 angle 45 angle 90 angle Table 10.1 - Pipeline fittings loss coefficients

0.35 0.40 0.60 0.80

9) Exit losses Sudden enlargement Bellmouthed outlet

1.00 0.20

SECTION 10

| 69

Hydraulic gradient in percent

Velocity v in metres/second Graph 10.1 Pipe flow and head loss , k = 0.003
70 | S E C T I O N
10

Internal diameter d in millimetres

Discharge Q in litres/second

SECTION 10

Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipe and Fittings

Hydraulic gradient in percent

Velocity v in metres/second Graph 10.2 Pipe flow and head loss , k = 0.03
SECTION 10

Internal diameter d in millimetres


| 71

Discharge Q in litres/second

SECTION 10

| 73

10.4 Pipeline fittings losses


Values of KL given in Table 10.1 are taken from Skeat (ref 8) and related to head loss by the equation: HL = KLv2 2g where HL v g KL = head loss in metres head of water = flow velocity = acceleration due to gravity = minor loss coefficient m m/s 9.81 m/s2 m

Mitred bends
Mitred bends are less efficient hydraulically than radiused bends, however they can be readily fabricated to suit specific geometrical needs. Loss coefficients vary markedly with Reynolds number (R) and normally, to a lesser extent, with inlet and outlet arrangements and surface roughness. Figure 10.2

90 Composite bend KL
90 Composite Bend 2 x 45 3 x 30 4 x 22.5 Table 10.3 re /d 1.0 0.45 0.42 0.40 1.5 0.35 0.33 0.31 2.0 0.31 0.27 0.25 3.0 0.35 0.21 0.19 4.0 0.40 0.23 0.19

Single mitres
The coefficients given below are defined at a Reynolds number of 106, with long and hydraulically smooth inlet and outlet pipes. Miller (ref 9, chapter 8) gives correction factors for other inlet:outlet arrangements and roughness. K1 Table 10.2 11
1/4

22

1/2

45 0.30

60 0.50

90 1.15

Other angles
Coefficients for combinations of two single mitres can be derived from: KLE = (KL1 + KL2) x Cbb Where Cbb = headloss coefficient factor for bends KLE = Effective headloss coefficient

0.03

0.07

Figure 10.1

KL1 = headloss coefficient bend 1 KL2 = headloss coefficient bend 2 re/d Cbb Table 10.4 mm mm 1 0.82 2 0.73 3 0.78

Composite mitres
The equivalent circular arc re, needed for re/d values, can be calculated using: re = a cot 90 2 2n

() ( )

where re = equivalent radius a = centreline length n = number of individual mitres


74 | S E C T I O N

Reynolds number correction


The following factors derived from Miller (ref 9) can be used to adjust for Reynolds number variation.

10

SECTION 10

Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipe and Fittings

R x103 re/d 1 1.5 >2 Table 10.5

50

100

200

500

1000

5000

From Table 7.1 select a 914mm OD x 6mm wall thickness pipe with 16mm thick cement mortar lining. (Actual mean bore = 870mm) From Table 7.1 permissible working head for this pipe is 289 metres. From Graph 10.2 flow velocity is 2.1m/s - well within normal limits.

1.5 1.6 1.65

1.25 1.4 1.5

1.0 1.25 1.3

1.0 1.0 1.15

1.0 1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 0.8

Example 2. Find Sg given Q and d.


Determine the friction head when pumping 600 litres per second along a 15km pipeline consisting of 750mm nominal bore MSCL pipe. Pipe 762mm OD Steel wall thickness 6mm m/s mm m2/s kg/m/s kg/m3 Mean bore from Table 7.1 = 726mm From Graph 10.2 hydraulic gradient is 0.18% Head loss over 15km = 15000 x (0.18/100) = 27 m From Graph 10.2 flow velocity is 1.50m/s - well within normal limits.

Reynolds number
R = vd = vd where v = water velocity d = inside diameter of pipe = kinematic viscosity = dynamic viscosity = density

10.5 Flow calculation examples


Example 1. Find d given discharge Q and hydraulic gradient Sg
Determine the diameter of pipe required to discharge 1000 litres/second if pipeline length is 5km of CML pipe and the available head is 15 metres. Hydraulic gradient is 15/5000 = 0.3% From Graph 10.2 an internal diameter of 800mm is required.

Example 3. Find Q given d and Sg.


Given an existing 5km, 900NB MSCL pipeline between two reservoirs with an elevation difference of 20m. Find the maximum flow rate. From Table 7.1 mean bore of 914mm OD x 8mm steel wall thickness, with 16mm CML pipeline = 866mm. Hydraulic gradient = 20/5000 = 0.4% From Graph 10.2 flow rate = 1420 l/s, velocity = 2.4m/s - well within acceptable limits.
SECTION 10

| 75

Water Hammer

76

section

11

11.1 General formula


The formula used to establish the wall thickness required to accommodate internal pressure is the Barlow formula (refer also to Section 8.2): t = PDo 2all mm MPa mm MPa

The maximum potential pressure rise will then be generated by the interaction of all possible shock waves. Valve closure in a period greater than Tr reduces the maximum surge.

Surge estimate for rapid valve closure


Joukowsky Method

where t = steel wall thickness P = internal design pressure Do = outside diameter of pipe all = allowable hoop stress

For the case of a steel pipeline of length L metres, undergoing instantaneous valve closure or a valve closure within the reflection period Tr seconds, the resulting pressure rise can be estimated by Joukowsky's formula: h = av g or p = av 1000 where: L = length of pipeline Tr = reflection period = 2L/a h = head rise above normal operating head p = pressure rise above normal operating pressure a = pressure wave velocity (celerity) = 1440 1 d 0.5 1+ 100 t v = velocity of flow g = acceleration due to gravity d = pipe internal diameter t = pipe wall thickness m

11.2 Steel stress


It is recommended that all should not exceed 72% of the minimum yield strength (MYS) of the steel, under hydrostatic or steady state working pressure. Where a detailed hydrodynamic analysis is carried out the effect of transient surge pressures together with static pressure may be taken to 90% of the MYS.

MPa m s m MPa m/s

11.3 Water hammer


Water hammer is caused by a sudden change of flow velocity in a pipeline, causing shock waves to travel upstream and downstream from the point of origin. The shock waves cause increases and decreases in pressure as they travel at the speed of sound through the fluid along the pipeline. Their reflection and interaction can lead to significant changes in pressure above and below those prevailing in the static or steady state operation of the pipeline. Potential water hammer problems should be investigated at the design stage. They are caused by events such as rapid valve closure sudden pump stoppage (e.g. power failure) improper operation of surge control devices

( )}

m/s 9.81 m/s2 mm mm

Note: this formula applies to steel pipelines only.

Example
Consider a 610mm OD x 5mm thick- SINTAKOTE (SK) CML RRJpipeline, 2 km in length with a normal operating head of 90m and a flow of 160 l/s. What is the maximum surge pressure that will occur if sudden valve closure occurs.

OD, pipe outside diameter t, steel wall thickness T, cement mortar lining thickness d, inside diameter of lined pipe

= 610 =5 = 12 = 576

mm mm mm mm

Gravity Mains
For gravity mains, water hammer effects arise commonly through rapid valve closure. Valve closure within the reflection period Tr will permit shock waves of closure to be generated prior to the return of the first reflected shock wave to the valve.
78 | S E C T I O N
11

celerity a = 1440/{1+576/(100 x 5)}0.5

= 981.6 m/s

Determine flow velocity v = Q/A

SECTION 11

Water Hammer

Where Q = flow rate v = velocity A = bore area of lined pipe v = 160 x 10 /[( 0.576/2) ]
-3 2

Ho m3/s m/s m2 = 0.614 m/s vo L To g

= head under constant flow conditions = velocity under constant flow conditions = pipeline length = time for valve closing or opening = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81

m m/s m s m/s2

This velocity is well within acceptable limits. Pressure rise above normal operating pressure h = av/g = 981.6 x 0.614/9.81 = 61.44 m

Example
For the previous example assume To Ho n = 5 x 2L/a = 90m = 2000 x 0.61/(5 x 4.07 x 9.81 x 90) = 0.0679

Total head on pipe (sum of static and surge pressure) = 90+61.44 P = Total head x g / gamma w P = 151.44 x 9.81 / 1000 Therefore pipe wall hoop stress s = PDo 2t = 90.62 MPa = 1.49 m = 151.44

H/Ho = 1+0.5 x 0.0679(0.0679(0.06792+4)) = 1.0703 or 0.9344 H = 96.32m or 84.09m

The maximum pressure rise in this case is 7 metres, significantly less than the 61.44 metres calculated using Joukowsky's equation. The examples above show that a valve in a flowing pipeline should be closed slowly, and particularly for the last 10% of closure, Skeat (ref. 8) recommends the last 10% of valve closure should take at least 10xTr.

s = 1.49 x 610 / (2 x 5)

Reflection period Tr = 2 x 2000/981.6

= 4.07

Pumped mains
For pumped mains water hammer effects can develop through pump start up or stoppage. The pressure rise during pump start up will not exceed the maximum head value on the HQ characteristic curve for the pump. However, the positive surge along the full pipe length will exceed the normal operating hydraulic grade line. This condition should be closely examined for long pipelines and particularly where thinner walled pipe has been selected away from the pumping facilities. The sudden stoppage of pumps, such as caused by power failure, is a common cause of water hammer problems. Potentially more damaging conditions are likely if water column separation occurs. The subsequent rejoining of water columns may cause pressure surges sufficient to damage the pipeline. Where no separation occurs, the maximum positive pressure at the pump delivery point will not exceed twice the normal operating pressure. Typical surge profiles are shown in Figure 11.1. Locations A and B are potential zones of column separation should the maximum negative surge drop below the pipeline.

As the pressure rise computed above is well below the working pressure of steel pipelines, the period for critical closure does not need to be determined. It has been calculated to illustrate the procedure as high velocity/head conditions should always be checked.

Allievi Method
For water hammer caused by slowly opening or closing valves (To > 2L/a) an approximation of the pressure change may be made using a formula similar to Allievi's. This formula assumes that from the time the first reflective wave returns to the valve until it is fully closed, the pressure remains unchanged and that the effective opening area of the valve is changed rectilinearly. H = 1+ n ( n n2+4 ) Ho 2 The plus is associated with the pressure rise in closing the valve, the minus with pressure drop at the time of opening. where n = Lvo (TogHo) m

H = head after valve operation

SECTION 11

| 79

Figure 11.1 - Typical surges in a pumped system

Surge estimate for pump stoppage and start up


A useful means for estimating surges in a pumped system is by surge diagrams.

A surge diagram shows the system resistance curve represented as hydraulic levels and velocities. The pressure change per unit velocity change is derived from Joukowsky's formula, namely: h = a v g The pressure change equates to 111 metres for a 1 m/s velocity change in this example. It has been assumed that the pump/motor rotational moment of inertia is insignificant, and no column separation occurs over the pipeline length. The pump stoppage condition is shown in Graph 11.1. Prior to stoppage, the system operating point is at the intersection of the system resistance and pump curve (a). Upon stoppage, both the pressure and flow velocity drop (b). The minimum pressure occurs when the velocity falls to zero (c). The velocity then reverses and the pressure increases (d). The maximum reverse velocity occurs at the intersection with the s

Example
An example has been analysed to demonstrate this method. The following steady state conditions have been assumed: OD, pipe outside diameter t, steel wall thickness T, CML pipe length flow velocity celerity static lift friction headloss pumping head
80 | S E C T I O N
11

= = = = = = = = = =

406 5 12 10,000 102 0.94 1090 120 20 140

mm mm mm m l/s m/s m/s m m m

SECTION 11

Water Hammer

system resistance curve (e). The flow velocity reduces and pressures increase due to the water column coming to rest against the pump's check valve (f). The maximum pressure occurs when the flow comes to rest (g). The cycles of pressure and velocity-change continue until the system flow comes to rest at the static head condition (h). The pump start up condition is shown in Graph 11.2. Prior to pump start, the system operating point is at the static head condition (a). Upon pump start up both the pressures and flow velocities increase (b). The pressure increases to a maximum at the intersection with the pump curve (c). Then there is a drop in pressure but the flow velocities continue to increase (d). The flow velocity continues to increase with pressures fluctuating between the system resistance and pump curve (e). The system eventually settles at the normal operating condition at the intersection of the system resistance curve and pump curve (f).

Surge tower
Consists of an open ended tower. Mainly used in gravity systems, particularly hydroelectric schemes. They can be used in low head pumping systems where the height does not become excessive. They dampen both positive and negative surges.

Air vessel
A pressure vessel containing air and water. They dampen both positive and negative surges. Their use is usually limited by cost.

One way surge tank


A tank connected to the pipeline by a check valve. Allows water entry into the pipeline following negative surge.

Pressure relief valve


Used to dampen positive surges. Can be spring loaded or pilot operated. The pilot operated type is usually preferred where pressure release is instant and valve closure is slow.

General recommendation
It is suggested that a detailed surge analysis be undertaken if there is a possibility of column separation or pipe flow velocities exceed 1 m/s in systems where appurtenances may suffer damage under high head.

Computer programmes
A number of companies lease out computer programmes to enable rapid, economical and accurate water hammer analysis. They are ideal in modelling the incorporation of protection devices as described above, due to the inherent hydraulic complexity of these controls. Care should be exercised in using these programmes however, and it is advisable that experienced operators be consulted to ensure realistic modelling.

Water hammer protection devices


The selection of protection devices in a system should be based on an adequate water hammer analysis. Indiscriminate selection may in fact exacerbate an existing water hammer problem. There are positive and negative surges present to be considered. It may be necessary to control both or either one for a particular system. This assessment will become apparent during the water hammer analysis. A water hammer problem may be solved by installing a single or combination of protection devices. Some of the commonly used protection devices available are summarised below.

Further reading
The following references are recommended for further information: Parmakian (ref 14), Streeter (ref 15), Pickford (ref 16), Watters (ref 17), Webb (ref 18).

Flywheel
Effective for pipeline lengths up to about 1000 metres. They dampen the negative surge upon pump stoppage and consequently dampen the associated positive surge.

SECTION 11

| 81

Velocity in metres per second Graph 11.1 - Pump stoppage


82 | S E C T I O N
11

SECTION 11

Water Hammer

Velocity in metres per second Graph 11.2 - Pump start up


SECTION 11

| 83

Anchorage of Pipelines

84

section

12

12.1 Calculation of thrust


All pressure pipelines with unanchored flexible joints require anchorages at changes of diameter, direction, tees, valves and blank ends to resist the thrusts developed by the internal pressures. These static thrusts act in the directions shown in Figure 12.1. The additional dynamic thrust associated with a change in direction of the moving water can usually be ignored unless the water velocity is extremely high. It is imperative that thrust restraints be designed with capacity for the maximum pressure to which the pipeline system will be subjected. This includes field test pressure and any transient pressures associated with operation. The magnitude of static thrusts can be calculated as follows: At blank ends and junctions Ts = AP x 103 At bends Re = 2Tssin 2 where A = cross sectional area based on pipe OD plus coating thickness P = internal pressure Ts = static thrust Re = resultant thrust at pipe bend = angle of deflection of bend m2 MPa kN kN degrees kN kN

See Section 12.2 for typical thrust block arrangements. Notes: Calculations based on pipe outside diameter, steel OD + 2 x SINTAKOTE thickness. Thrust values rounded to nearest kN. Dividing the above values by the safe bearing load of the surrounding soil will give the area of the thrust block in m2.

Example:
A 1200mm nominal diameter pipe at 45 bend with an internal pressure of 1.0 MPa. Static thrust = 960 Soil allowable bearing pressure = 48 Thus area required = 960/48 = 20.0 kN kN/m2 m2

12.2 Typical thrust block arrangements


Horizontal thrust
The thrust developed must be transferred to the undisturbed earth of the trench wall by anchor blocks poured against an appropriate area. Horizontal anchor blocks must distribute thrust forces over the total bearing area of the block so as not to exceed the safe bearing pressure of the trench wall, thus ensuring the stability of the pipeline under test and working pressures. See Figure 12.2. Typical values for safe bearing pressures of various undisturbed soils based on horizontal thrust at 0.6 metres depth are given in Table 12.2.

Vertical thrust
Downward thrusts are transferred to the undisturbed ground by anchor blocks in the same manner as horizontal thrusts. Upwards

See Table 12.1 for values of static thrusts at typical fittings over a range of pipe diameters.

Ts Re Ts Ts Ts Ts
Re =2TsSin 2

Anchor block for horizontal bend

Anchor block for horizontal tee Anchor block for horizontal taper

Figure 12.1 - Static thrust diagram


86 | S E C T I O N
12

Figure 12.2 - Anchor blocks horizontal plane

SECTION 12

Anchorage of Pipelines

OD mm Blank end 219 324 610 762 1016 1200 1422 1626 1829 31 71 283 442 785 1,131 1,539 2,011 2,545

Thrust developed per MPa internal pressure kN 90 Bend 44 100 400 625 1,111 1,599 2,177 2,843 3,599 45 Bend 24 54 216 338 601 866 1,178 1,539 1,948 22.5 Bend 12 28 110 172 306 441 601 785 993 11.25 Bend 6 14 55 87 154 222 302 394 499

Soil type pressure Soft clay

Safe bearing kPa 24

Sand

48

Sand and gravel

72

Sand and gravel bonded with clay

96

Shale

240

Table 12.1 - Static thrust values thrusts are counteracted by the mass of the concrete anchor blocks. See Figure 12.3. Where the water table in the area is likely to reach the level of the anchor block the submerged mass of the block should be used in the calculation to determine the anchor block size.

Table 12.2 - Safe soil bearing pressures Thrust blocks are not required in a welded pipeline since the unbalanced force is transmitted into the pipeline in the form of longitudinal stress. Where a rubber ring joint pipeline is involved, a similar situation can be achieved by providing a number of welded joints on each side of a fitting where a change of direction occurs. To consider this alternative the frictional resistance of the pipeline in the soil must be checked to determine the number of welded joints necessary to produce an effective anchoring embedment length.

Gradient thrust
Pipes laid at a gradient between 1 in 10 and 1 in 6 should be analysed for anchor block requirement. Rubber ring jointed pipes laid on steep slopes require restraint to prevent relative movement of the individual pipes due to the component of the pipe mass and contents acting along the direction of the gradient. See Figure 12.3. Frictional resistance between the pipeline coating and the backfill material counteract a portion of the sliding thrust. Thrust blocks should be designed to take the balance of the force.

Friction Factor
The AWWA (ref 11) states coefficients of friction , between soil and steel pipe coatings are generally in the range 0.25 to 0.40. No data has been published for fusion bonded polyethylene and hence extensive experimental work was carried out by Tyco Water to determine the appropriate range of values. Results can be summarised as follows: Where sand backfill or low clay content contact the coating, a friction coefficient of 0.32 is appropriate. For sand backfill using SINTAKOTE pipe with a factory applied sand coating, a friction coefficient of 0.50 is appropriate. Where clay soils are in contact with the coating, a friction coefficient of 0.16 should be used. Note that clay would not normally be placed directly against the pipe surface. These values should provide a reasonable degree of conservatism in designing the required length of pipeline to be welded to generate adequate restraint.

12.3 Alternative to anchor blocks

Anchor block for vertical slope

Anchor block for vertical bend

Figure 12.3 - Anchor blocks to resist upward and gradient thrust


SECTION 12

| 87

SECTION 12

Anchorage of Pipelines

Anchorage length
The length of pipe required to balance these forces can be deduced from L = PA (1-cos) x 10 (2Wd+Ww+Wp)
3

where = soil density (see Table13.1) D = pipe outside diameter H = height of ground surface above top of pipe therefore Wd = weight of soil prism above pipe = 9.81DH/1000 = 9.81 x 1800 x 0.563 x 1.0/1000 = 9.960 Ww = weight of water in pipe = (0.525/2)2 x 9.81 x 1000/1000 = 2.124 Wp = weight of pipe (refer Table 7.1 pipe masses)

kg/m3 m m

where L = pipeline length to be anchored P = internal pressure A = cross sectional area based on pipe OD + coating thickness = angle of deflection of bend

m MPa m
2

kN/m

degrees

kN/m

= soil friction coefficient Wd = weight of backfill Ww = weight of water in pipe Wp = weight of pipe kN/m kN/m kN/m

12.4 Examples of thrust calculations


Given a pipe diameter of 559mm x 5mm wall thickness, and 12mm cement lining thickness and SINTAKOTE thickness of 2 mm thickness giving a pipe OD of 563mm.

= 120 x 9.81/1000 = 1.177 kN/m = 0.32 hence L = 2/4 x (0.563)2 x (1-cos90) x 103/[0.32(2 x 9.960+2.124+1.177)] = 67.0 m If each pipe is 12m long, then 5 joints are required to be welded.

Incorporating bend reaction


In the above calculations, the soil reaction at the bend has not been included. If it were, the number of joints that have to be welded could be reduced. Say the bearing pressure of clayey-sand equals 96 kPa and safety factor is 0.8. Assume the length of pipe under bearing pressure is 3 diameters i.e. 1.69m long.

Example 1. Bearing area


Determine the lateral bearing area and anchor block size, for a horizontal 90 bend in a pipeline and with an internal pressure of 2 MPa laid in shale. Re = 2PA sin(/2) x 103 = 2 x 2 x x (0.563/2)2 x sin (90/2) x 103 = 704.13 Bearing pressure for shale = 240 kN/m2 Thrust block bearing area = 2.94 m2

kN

Force available at the pipe face = 1.69 x 0.563 x 96 x 0.8 = 73.1 pipe length to be welded is = (2/4 x (0.563)2 x (1-cos90) x 103 -73.1 x sin(90/2) / [0.32 (2 x 9.96 + 2.124 + 1.177)] = 57.3 m kN

Example 2. Embedment length


Determine the length of welded pipe required on each side of the 90 bend in example 1 above, to avoid the need for a thrust block. Assume that the pipe is buried under 1 metre of clayey sand, a trench 0.8m wide at pipe crown level with clay having a density of 1800 kg/m3. Length of pipe required to carry the out of balance force in the direction of the pipe. L = PA(1-cos) x 103 / [ (2Wd +Ww +Wp)]

= 4 joints to be welded

Note:
When the backfill depth to trench width ratio is > 10, consideration should be given to a reduction in the weight of soil on the pipe. For such an analysis using Marston's theory, designers should consult Spangler and Handy (ref 3) and AS 2566.1.

SECTION 12

| 89

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

90

section

13

13.1 General considerations and procedure


The following design procedures are based on flexible pipe behaviour under load. Lateral support is generated by the passive resistance of the soil, contributing to the load carrying performance of the pipe. A pipe placed in a trench must be strong enough to withstand all external loads which may act on it. In some instances, particularly when the internal pressure is low, these external loads may determine the wall thickness of the pipe in satisfying ring stiffness requirements.

Material

Unified Soil Classification symbol (see Table 13.2) CL, CH, ML, MH CL, CH, ML, MH GM, SM, SC GW, SW, GP, SP

Weight kN/m3 21 19 18 15

Saturated clay Normal clay Clayey sand Loose granular sand

Table 13.1 - Density of backfill materials Symbol Description

GW Well-graded gravels, gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines GP Poorly graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines

Performance aspects
The performance of the selected pipe is checked principally in two ways: 1. Ring deflection by verifying that the unpressurised pipe under trench backfill, other superimposed distributed loads and traffic loads will not suffer excessive ring deflection. 2. Ring buckling by verifying whether the pipe has adequate shell stability or resistance to buckling to resist local external loads and internal vacuum loads. The combined effects of ring bending stress due to external pressures and hoop stress due to internal pressure are generally not significantly greater than the effects of internal pressure alone. As a result, hoop stress only is normally adequate for determination of wall thickness. In addition it may be necessary to assess axial and beam bending loads. In rubber ring joint pipes correctly placed in a trench, the axial and bending loads are small and not usually taken into account. The following methods of load calculation and performance assessment are recommended for their ease of application and proven track record in practice.

GM Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand-silt mixtures GL SW SP SM SC ML CL MH CH OL OH Pt Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand-clay mixtures Well-graded sands, gravely sands, little or no fines Poorly graded sands, gravely sands, little or no fines Silty sands, poorly graded-silt mixtures Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixtures Inorganic silts & very fine sand, silty or clayey fine sands Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays Organic silts and organic silt-clays of low plasticity Organic clays of medium to high plasticity Peat and other highly organic soils

Table 13.2 - Unified Soil Classification Source: Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes. ASTM Standard D2487-9, ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa. (1969). Compaction and effective combined soil modulus E Depending on the ring deflection and surface settlement considerations of the installation, different levels of compaction can be specified to achieve the necessary effective combined soil modulus E. As a guide, non trafficable installations such as in open field would require compaction to achieve 60% density index in cohesionless materials or 90% dry density ratio in cohesive materials. Trafficable installations such as under road pavement may require compaction to achieve 70% density index in cohesive materials or 95% dry density ratio in cohesive soils.

Load calculation
Calculation of soil loads is based on Marston's theory (ref 6) for flexible pipe. Calculation of traffic wheel load effects is based on work by Boussinesq (ref 10) and the Bridge Design Code Section Two Design Loads Austroads (1992). It is to be noted that the transient loads from internal vacuum and surface live loadings are not usually considered simultaneously. Loads from groundwater and internal vacuum are hydrostatic in nature and do not generally affect pipe ring deflection, but a check should be made to ensure ring buckling stability of the shell.
92 | S E C T I O N

13

SECTION 13

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

Connecting a cable across a joint on a cathodically protected SINTAJOINT pipeline.

Deflection calculation
A variety of methods have been developed for the evaluation of the structural strength of the pipe as well as the external loads acting on the pipe. A popular formula for calculation of pipe ring deflection is that developed by MG Spangler and later modified by Watkins and Spangler at the Iowa State University. Other methods of deflection estimation are available and vary in their degree of sophistication. Some require extensive calculation using computer programmes which require numerous soil parameters to be either estimated or measured in the field for input to the analysis. The degree of sophistication is questionable given the intrinsic variability of soil parameters, the difficulty in their consistent estimation, their often time dependent nature and the propensity for soil-pipe structures to be disturbed during their service life. Generally, the Spangler-Watkins formula is preferred because of its extensive history of successful application, ease of use and understanding.

support, whereas Moores equation is valid only where external soil support is present.

13.2 Design loads due to trench and embankment fill


A rapid method of estimating the earth load on a flexible pipe due to trench and embankment fill is to assume that it is equal to the weight of the earth prism directly above the pipe: wg = H where wg = vertical design load pressure at top of pipe due to soil dead load = assessed unit weight of trench fill or embankment fill H = cover, vertical distance between the top of the pipe and the finished surface 10D D = pipe outside diameter For H > 10D results may be conservative.

kPa kN/m3 m m

Ring buckling stability


The ring buckling stability check where depth of cover is equal to or less than 0.5m is carried out using Timoshenkos equation. For cover greater than 0.5, the Moore equation, which yields similar factors of safety to those obtained from using the more conventional formulae based on Luschers equation, is adopted. Timoshenkos equation predicts a buckling resistance pressure for a condition of uniform external pressure without allowance for soil

Embankment condition
For embankment condition the settlement ratio is assumed to be zero, that is settlement of the soil columns beside the pipe is assumed equal to the settlement of the soil column above the pipe.

Deep trench or embankment


For deeper trenches and embankments, say H/B > 10, consideration should be given to side wall friction. For such an analysis designers should consult AS 2566.1
SECTION 13

| 93

90

80

70

60

Average Load Intensity, Wq (kPa)

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.5 0.7 1 2 4 6 8 10

Cover Height (m) Legend: = Single lane = Multiple lanes = HLP 320 loading = HLP 400 loading

Graph 13.1 Average load intensity


94 | S E C T I O N
13

SECTION 13

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

Finished surface

Plane at top of pipe

L1 = G + b + 1.45H if load prisms overlap or ( b + 1.45H ) if no overlap L2 = a + 1.45H

Figure 13.1 Distribution of Wheel and Track Loads

Design Loads due to superimposed loads.


The design load due to a superimposed dead load shall be determined as follows: for uniformly distributed loads wgs = u = load per unit area, kPa for concentrated dead or live loads, it shall be determined by application of either - the Boussinesq theory in Spangler and Hardy, or - the distribution method described in section 13.3.

load shall be uniformly distributed at the top of the pipe, over an area similar to the contact area of such load, and with sides equal to 1.45 H greater than the sides of the contact area. See Fig 13.1. Where the surcharge from loads overlap, the total load shall be considered as uniformly distributed over the area defined by the outside limits of the combined areas See Fig 13.1. On the basis of these assumptions, the average intensity of the design live load at the top of the pipe due to multiple wheel or track vehicle loads, including impact effects, is calculated from the following equation: wq = P (L1L2) where = 1.4 0.15H but not less than 1.1 = impact effects P= sum of wheel loads L1 = total wheel footprint width (Graph 13.1) L2 = total wheel footprint length (Graph 13.1) kPa

13.3 Superimposed Live Loads


Aircraft and railways
For aircraft, the appropriate superimposed live loads related information may be obtained from the relevant authority. For railways, the superimposed live loads may be obtained from AS 4799.

kN m m

Road vehicles
Unless otherwise specified by the regulatory authority, road vehicle loads shall be taken as given in AUSTROADS Bridge Design Code Section 2 and the average intensity of the design load (wq), for these loadings is shown in Graph 13.1. (This load distribution includes the effect of the tyre footprint) Where the cover (H) is less than 0.4 m, a wheel or track load shall be considered to act at the top of the pipe on an area equal to the contact area of such load. Where the depth of fill over a pipe is 0.4 m or more, a wheel or track

Construction and other equipment


Appropriate wheel or track loads for construction and other equipment shall be obtained from the manufacturer of the equipment. Distribution and intensity of loading shall be determined as shown above under Road Vehicles. Note: Construction loads may be applied for cover heights less than the final cover height.

SECTION 13

| 95

Compaction Low <----------------------------> High RD (%) Soil Description Soil Classification 85 90 ID (%) 50 60 70 80 95 100

Standard Penetration Test - Number of Blows 4 Gravel single size Gravel graded Sand and coarse-grained soil with less than 12% fines Coarse-grained soil with more than 12% fines Fine-grained soil (LL<50%) with medium to no plasticity and containing more than 25% coarse-grained particles Fine-grained soil (LL<50%) with medium to no plasticity and containing less than 25% coarse-grained particles : Fine-grained soil (LL>50%) with medium to high plasticity GW GW GP, SW, SP and GM-GL, GC-SC GM, GC, SC, SM and GM-SC, GC-SC CL, ML, ML-CL, CL-CH, ML-MH CI, CL, ML, ML-CL, CL-CH, ML-MH CH, MH and CH-MH 5 3 1 NA NA >4 14 7 5 3 1 1 >14 24 7 7 5 3 3 >24 50 10 10 7 5 5 >50 14 20 14 10 10

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA = Soils in these categories require special engineering analysis to determine required density, moisture content and compaction. RD = Dry density ratio (ref AS 1289, 5.4.1 and 14.2) ID = Density index (ref AS 1289, 5.6.1 and 14.2) Table 13.3 - Embedment (Ee) and native (En) soil moduli

13.4 Deflection Calculations


The predicted vertical deflection of a buried pipe shall satisfy the following equation: y y all D D where y = K x 10-3 ( wg +wgs+wq) D 8 x 10-6 x SD + 0.061 x E where y = pipe vertical deflection m m yall = allowable pipe vertical deflection N/m/m SD = E I x 106 Dm3 K E = 0.1 (bedding constant) = Ee
13

1.44 f+( 1.44 - f ) x Ee En

( )
MPa MPa

Ee = embedment soil modulus (ref Table 13.3) En = native soil modulus ( B/De 1 ) f = 1.44 1.154 + 0.444 ( B/De -1) B = Width of the trench at the pipe spring line De = D = Pipe outside diameter

m m

13.5 Acceptable deflection limits


Welded joint pipe
For mild steel cement mortar lined pipes with welded joints a safe deflection limit can be taken as the lesser of 0.00014 x SMYS X D/t(%) and 4% of the pipe diameter, see Table 8.2 and Table 13.4.

MPa

96 | S E C T I O N

SECTION 13

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

This limit is recommended to avoid possible repetitive flexing of the pipe to an extent which could cause the cement mortar lining to fray at cracks. It should be noted that a reduction in the deflection can in most cases be achieved by improving the pipe bedding conditions in localities where the pipe will be subject to traffic loads and not necessarily by selecting a pipe with greater wall thickness.

the pipe outside diameter can be used for mild steel cement mortar lined pipes. This limit is to avoid significant cracking of the cement mortar lining. The allowable deflection must also be within acceptable limits of ring bending stress in the steel pipe shell. This limit is determined by: Stress limit = 0.00014 x (SMYS or NMYS) x D/t For low D/t pipes (high stiffness) this deflection limit may be below 4%. In those situations the stress limit will apply. Additionally the limit for RRJ-S pipes is reduced for pipe sizes above 660mm OD. Table 13.4 gives the allowable deflection limits for buried mild steel cement mortar lined pipes. The limits should be used in conjunction with AS/NZS 2566 to determine the suitability of the trench design, compaction, loadings, etc. Limits for pipe diameters outside the range given in Table 13.4 can be provided on request. It should be noted that these design limits are applicable to trench design only, and do not apply to the field inspection of rubber ring jointed pipes. The higher stiffness in the joint region of rubber ring jointed pipes means that there is reduced deflection, and accordingly reduced limits apply.

Rubber ring joint pipe


The maximum allowable deflection of a single hardnesss RRJ pipeline ranges from 2.3-4%, depending upon OD and Wall Thickness (See Table 8.2 and Table 13.4). The maximum allowable deflection of a dual hardness RRJ pipeline (OD>1200) ranges from 3.5-4%, depending upon OD and Wall Thickness (See Table 8.2 and Table 13.4).

Ring Bending Strain


Ring bending strain b can be calculated from: b = Df y x t D D

( )

b all

where b all = allowable ring bending strain = shape factor Df = SD 3.333 x 10-6 + 0.00136 E SD 1.11 x 10-6 + 0.000151 E

( ) ( )

Field inspection
The deflection limits for the field inspection of welded joints are the same as those used for design. However for rubber ring jointed pipes a lower limit applies to the joint area, due to the stiffening affect of the joint, see Table 8.2.

b all = 0.001449 for t 8 = 0.001208 for t > 8 (At 100% MYS, = / E for t 8, MYS = 300 Mpa = 300 /207000 = 0.001449 for t > 8 MYS = 250 MPa = 250 /207000 = 0.001208)

13.6 Combined Loading


The response to the combined external load and internal pressure must satisfy Pw r 1 + c b b b all pPall where p = b = = 1.39 rc = re-rounding effect = 1- Pw 3 =0 (ref Table 2.1 AS 2566.1) for Pw 3.0 Mpa, or for Pw > 3.0 Mpa

Internal Pressure
The applied internal pressure Pw shall not exceed the maximum allowable pressure Pr , i.e. Pw Pr Pr can be obtained from Table 8.1

Design
The design of buried pipes with respect to trench design, backfill material, compaction, loadings, etc depends on pipe material stiffness, diameter, wall thickness, the allowable deflection limit, etc. Calculations of pipe deflection should be undertaken in accordance with AS/NZS 2566, and compared against the allowable deflection limits. Extensive testing undertaken by Tyco Water Technologies has determined that a maximum safe allowable deflection limit of 4% of

( )

SECTION 13

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SECTION 13

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

13.7 Ring buckling stability


A buried pipeline may collapse or buckle from elastic instability resulting from loads or deformations. The total of all loads should not be greater than the allowable buckling pressure. Maximum allowable buckling pressure The allowable buckling pressure qall can be calculated from: (i) For H 0.5m, the greater of qall qall
1
-3 = 24 SD x 210 FS (1- )

External loads and combinations


The summation of appropriate external loads including external pressure and internal vacuum must satisfy the following equations: for H Hw (H - Hw) + ( L + sub) x (De /2 + Hw) + wgs + wq + qv qall where Hw = height of water surface above top of pipe sub = (s -1) s = assessed unit weight of trench or embankment fill L = assessed unit weight of liquid external to the pipe = 10.0 for water qv = internal vacuum Note: where s is not known, assume s = 2.65 kPa i.e sub = 0.623 for H < Hw L (De /2 + Hw) + sub (De /2 + Hw) + wgs + wq + qv qall Note: where the possibility of concurrent application of live loads and vacuum is unlikely, the lesser of the terms wq and qv may be omitted from the equations above. m

or

kPa kPa

kN/m3 kN/m3 kPa

2=

(SD x 10-6)1/3. (E)2/3 x 103 FS

(ii) For H < 0.5m qall where FS = factor of safety = 2.5 unless specified otherwise H = height of ground surface above top of pipe 24 SD x 10-3 1= FS (1-2)

SECTION 13

| 99

SECTION 13

Structural Design for Buried Pipelines

Pipe OD

Wall Thickness

Maximum Allowable Pipe Deflection, mm SSJ, B&S Sintalock RRJ-S RRJ-D

Pipe OD

Wall Thickness

Maximum Allowable Pipe Deflection, mm SSJ, B&S Sintalock RRJ-S RRJ-D

(mm) 324 324 337 337 356 356 406 406 419 419 457 457 508 508 559 559 610 648 648 660 660 700 700 711 711 762 800 813

(mm) 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5,6 5,6 8 5,6 8 5,6 8 5,6 8 5,6,8 6,8 6,8

(%) 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.4 3.0 2.5 3.4 2.8 3.5 2.9 3.8 3.2 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.0

(%) 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.4 3.0 2.5 3.4 2.8 3.5 2.9 3.8 3.2 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7

(%)

(mm) 914 960 960 1016 1016 1035 1035 1067 1067 1085 1085 1125 1125 1200 1200 1219 1219 1290 1290 1404 1422 1440 1500 1575 1626 1750 1829

(mm) 6,8 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8 10 8,10 12 8,10 12 10 12 10,12 10,12 10,12 10,12 10,12 12 12 12

(%) 4.0 4.0 3.4 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

(%) 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9

(%)

4.0 3.5

2.9

4.0 3.6

2.8

4.0 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Table 13.4 Maximum Allowable Pipe Deflection for Design of SKCL Buried Pipe Key: RRJ-S = Single hardness rubber ring joint RRJ-D = Dual hardness rubber ring joint

SECTION 13

| 101

Free Span & Structural Loading

102

section

14

14.1 General considerations


Due to its high tensile strength, steel pipe is well suited to above ground installations, enabling longer spans and fewer supports than are possible with other materials.

Sag pockets
Where it is required to completely drain intermittently supported pipelines, care must be taken to avoid sag pockets. To eliminate such pockets, each downstream support level must be lower than the adjacent upstream support by an amount that exceeds the sag of the pipe between the supports. A convenient rule is to ensure the elevation of one end is higher than the other by an amount equal to four times the deflection calculated at the mid span of the pipe. The required gradient, M between supports is thus calculated: M= 4y L

Supports
Above ground pipelines can be supported in a number of ways depending on such factors as pipe size, the span required and economics. Where the pipe itself acts as a structural span, it may be supported on suitably padded saddles which may be fixed on piers attached to hangers or cantilevers.

Saddles
The angle of the contact area of saddles usually varies from 90 to 120, with the latter being a convenient design. For equal load, the larger the contact angle the lower the saddle stresses. Saddle supports cause critical points of stress in the steel pipe wall adjacent to the saddle edges. The critical stresses are practically independent of the width of the saddle and accordingly the saddle width may be determined by the design width of the pier or cantilever. In the case of hangers the saddle width is determined by the choice of materials at the pipe-saddle interface. Should overstress be encountered it is often more economical to increase the wall thickness of the pipe than to provide stiffening rings, especially where diameter of the pipes is 900 mm or less. This thickening may apply to the entire span or for a distance each side of the saddle support of approximately two pipe diameters plus the width of the saddle. Pipes should be held in each saddle by steel hold-down straps bolted to the main structural support.

where M = Gradient y = deflection L = span

mm mm

General design considerations


It should be remembered that the theory of flexure applies to a pipe supported at intervals, held circular at and between supports and completely filled with water. If the pipe is only partially filled and the cross section between supports becomes out of round, the maximum fibre stress is considerably greater than indicated by the ordinary flexure formula, being highest for the half filled condition. See Schorer (ref 12). When determining the actual position of the support centres it should be remembered that lengths of individual pipes are subject to manufacturing tolerances. (Refer to AS 1579). In beam bending analyses and Table 14.1 the contribution to beam stiffness by the cement mortar lining has been ignored. The section properties of steel shell only have been used. Actual short term beam deflections will thus be smaller than calculated, however long term deflections are likely to be realised due to creep of the CML. The weight component of SINTAKOTE has also been ignored in these analyses and Table 14.1.

Pipe-saddle interface
Depending on the coating finish specified for the pipe and the frequency of any movement relative to the saddle, the interface may require padding. Where coating damage is inconsequential padding is unnecessary. When coatings are to be protected in installation and against localised stress a neoprene pad is recommended. Where the pipe saddle interface must accommodate sliding, an arrangement of suitable materials must be considered. These include PTFE, teflon and aluminium. In this case the arrangement should ensure that the sliding capacity is maintained, free of possible contamination by grit or dust. Multiple strips in the padding combination may be necessary.
104 | S E C T I O N
14

14.2 Maximum span for welded joint pipelines


A welded joint pipeline supported on saddles is treated as a continuous beam as shown below. It is recommended that welded joints between supports be fully welded, either by full butt weld or by double-weld lap joints. If joints at supports are thus fully welded the pipeline is assumed to act strictly as a continuous beam. When single welded lap joints are employed at or near supports,

SECTION 14

Free Span and Structural Loading

the analysis conservatively assumes the joint is not absolutely rigid and allows some moment redistribution. This effectively reduces bending moment on the joint and the maximum allowable span. Above ground rubber ring jointed pipe supported by saddles is treated as a simply supported beam and is considered in the next section. Consider a welded joint pipeline. This can be treated as a built-in beam. W C L Ps Figure 14.1 Supported Beam Bending moment at A and B Bending moment at C where w = (M1 +M2 +MW) x 9.81 M1 = unit mass of steel shell = 0.02466 (D t) t M2 = unit mass of cement mortar lining = 0.00755 ( D 2t T)T MW = unit mass of water, pipe full = p (D - 2t -2T)2 4000 where D t T L Ps p = outside diameter of pipe = steel wall thickness = cement mortar lining thickness = span = saddle reaction = density = 1000 kg/m3 (for water) N/m kg/m kg/m kg/m w L2 12 w L2 24 Nm Nm Ps

d = inside diameter of pipe t = wall thickness r = pipe mean radius = (D-t) 2

mm mm mm

Cracking and spalling of Cement Lining in steel pipes occurs when the longitudinal bending stress in the pipe reaches 80 MPa. Therefore a tentative maximum longitudinal bending stress of 80 MPa has been used in the following analysis. This limit can be changed by the designer to suit particular requirements. Correction factors are included to achieve this. By substituting MB = wL2/12 in the bending stress equation for maximum moments at A and B and rearranging we have: L1 =

MA = MB = MC =

( 12 Zw) 1000 12 x 80 x Z =( 1000 (M +M +M ) x 9.81 ) 0.09786 Z =( M +M +M )


B
1/2

1/2

m m

1/2

This equation holds for fully welded pipe, that is a pipe with either a full butt weld or a double weld lap joint. For spans with pipes jointed at supports with only one weld, for example, a single welded lap joint, the above equation is modified to: L2 = 0.08155 ( M +M +MZ )
1 2 W
1/2

to reduce the structural bending load on the single circumferential weld. If the allowable bending stress required is other than 80 MPa, the resultant value of L in the above equations should be multiplied by the appropriate correction factor: For example, if new value of B = 65 MPa then the correction factor = (65/80)1/2 = 0.90 The recommended maximum spans for continuous fully welded (butt welded or double lap welded) and single lap welded cement mortar lined pipe are given in Table 14.1. This table takes into account the total weight of pipes full of water with a density of 1000 kg/m3. Spans have been calculated allowing for a maximum bending stress of 80 MPa. This may be increased if higher bending stresses are allowable on a project. However, it is important that deflection, buckling and other stresses (Poisson, temperature and saddle stresses) also be checked before deciding on the acceptable span. Note: the contribution of CML to the section modulus is conservatively taken to be zero.

mm mm mm m N kg/m3

Maximum bending stress


The maximum bending stress B , occurs at A and B:

B = 1000 MB
Z where Z = elastic section modulus of pipe = ( D4 d4 ) 32 D = r2 t D = outside diameter of pipe

MPa

mm

mm3 mm
SECTION 14

| 105

14.3 Maximum span for simply supported pipelines


Where SINTAJOINT pipelines adjoin a fully welded span or where span support joints allow angular rotation, the span is regarded as being simply supported. Hence the moment at the support is minimum and taken to be zero while the maximum bending moment occurs at the mid-point of the span and is equal to:
2 MC = wL 8

Hold down over bearing material

Nm

Bearing material to accomodate expansion movement where necessary

Hence the span can be calculated by using the equation: 1/2 L3 = 0.0652 Z M1+M2+MW

Figure 14.2 - Pier support for above ground SINTAJOINT pipelines m at supports, the mid span deflection can be determined from: 4 = 5wL 384 E I where = deflection w = [(M1 +M2 +MW) x 9.81]/ 1000 L = span of simply supported pipe E = Youngs modulus for steel = 207,000 I D d Rav t = (D - d ) = Rav t 64
4 4

In this equation the allowable bending stress is taken as 80 MPa. If the allowable stress is other than 80 MPa the resultant value of L3 should be multiplied by the correction factor shown in Section 14.2. The recommended maximum spans for simply supported pipelines are provided in Table 14.1. Once the span is determined, deflection, buckling and Poisson, temperature and saddle stresses should be checked.

mm N/mm mm MPa mm4 mm mm mm mm

Above ground SINTAJOINT pipes


It is recommended that with above ground rubber ring jointed pipelines, a support be located behind each socket, see figure 14.2. Pipes must be fixed to supports with metal straps so that axial movement due to expansion or contraction resulting from temperature variations is taken up at individual joints along the pipeline. In addition joints should be assembled with spigots withdrawn 4mm to 5mm to accommodate these thermal movements. Pipes supported in this way are capable of free deflection and axial movement at the joints which can accommodate any normal movement of the pipe support. Purpose-designed anchorage must be able to resist thrusts developed by internal pressure at bends, tees and other thrust fittings. Suspended spans are not recommended for SINTAJOINT pipes.

= external diameter of the pipe = internal diameter of the pipe = pipe mean radius = (D-t)/2 = pipe wall thickness

In the case of a pipe with single welded lap joints at supports, the mid span deflection is determined from: 4 mm = 3wL 384 E I For a pipe with butt welded or double welded lap joints at supports the mid span deflection is determined from: 4 mm = wL 384 E I Pipe deflection should be kept within 1/360 span.

Safe span for SINTAJOINT pipes


SINTAJOINT pipe with diameters up to DN600 with effective lengths of 13.5m are satisfactory for simply supported spans using a single pipe. For sizes above DN600, shorter spans or special tolerance pipes are required to avoid sealing problems caused by shear loads at the joints. In this size range advice should be sought from Tyco Waters marketing offices.

14.5 Mid span stresses


Stresses in the pipe between pipe supports are Longitudinal stresses, from a combination of beam bending temperature stress Poisson stress (for welded pipes) saddle friction (for unrestrained pipes)

14.4 Deflection
In the case of a simply supported pipe, for example, a SINTAJOINT
106 | S E C T I O N
14

Circumferential stress from hoop stress due to internal pressure

SECTION 14

Free Span and Structural Loading

The equivalent stress (e) based on Hencky-Mises failure theory is calculated from the resultant longitudinal (L) and circumferential (c) stresses as follows

- hoop stress from internal pressure - localised stress at the tip of the saddle support The equivalent stress (e) based on Hencky-Mises failure theory is calculated from the resultant longitudinal (L) and circumferential (c) stresses as follows

e = (L.2 + c.2 - L.c) 0.5


This stress should not exceed 55% of the material yield stress. Also beam bending stress should not exceed 80MPa to avoid risk of spalling the cement mortar lining.

e = (L.2 + c.2 - L.c) 0.5


At the saddle support, this stress should not exceed the material yield stress. It is not necessary to provide a safety factor because tests have shown that because this is a very localised condition, the resulting design will have a factor of safety of 2. Note: Stresses should be calculated for both pipe full with no pressure and pipe full with internal pressure conditions. Also beam bending stress should not exceed 80MPa to avoid risk of spalling the cement mortar lining. Where ring girders are used to stiffen the pipe at the supports, additional stresses need to be considered. Refer AWWA M11 (ref 11).

14.6 Stresses at pipe supports


Stresses at pipe supports are Longitudinal stresses, from a combination of beam bending temperature stress Poisson stress (for welded pipes) saddle friction (for unrestrained pipes) Circumferential stresses from a combination of

SECTION 14

| 107

108 | S E C T I O N

14

SECTION 14

Free Span and Structural Loading

14.7 Localised saddle stress


The localised saddle stress (s) is a circumferential bending stress which tends to decrease as the pipe pressure increases. Therefore the critical condition is usually with the pipe full and no internal pressure. s = kPs x loge(ro) t2 t where s = localised saddle stress k = factor = 0.02 - 0.00012 (s 90) s = saddle angle Ps = total load on saddle or saddle reaction t = pipe wall thickness ro = outside radius of pipe MPa degrees N mm mm

where E = Youngs modulus for steel = 207,000 = coefficient of linear expansion for steel = 12 x 10-6 MPa mm/mm/C

T = difference between pipeline operating and installation Temperature C

14.10 Saddle friction


For unrestrained pipes (rubber ring jointed or welded with an expansion joint) relatively small longitudinal stresses are calculated as follows Stress due to friction resistance at pipe saddle = (Ww + Wp)L (D + t)t where = friction coefficient between surfaces of pipe and saddle Ww + Wp = unit weight of pipe full of water L = span length Stress due to friction resistance in the expansion joint = (Ref 11) Stress due to internal pressure acting on end of pipe at expansion joint = p

14.8 Hoop and Poisson stresses


The internal pressure results in a circumferential hoop stress (h) in the pipe, where h = PD
2t

In the case of axially restrained, that is welded joint pipelines, the internal pressure results in a longitudinal stress due to the Poisson effect. The Poisson stress = h where = Poissons ratio = 0.27

14.9 Temperature stress


Temperature changes induce stress in axially restrained pipelines. The difference between the temperature at which the pipeline was constructed and the service temperature should be considered, the stress (T) induced being estimated by T = E T MPa

SECTION 14

| 109

Section Dimensions Steel Shell OD t mm mm 114 4.8 168 5.0 190 5.0 219 5.0 240 5.0 257 5.0 273 5.0 290 5.0 324 4.0 324 4.5 324 5.0 324 6.0 337 4.0 337 4.5 337 5.0 337 6.0 356 4.0 356 4.5 356 5.0 356 6.0 406 4.0 406 4.5 406 5.0 406 6.0 406 8.0 419 4.0 419 4.5 419 5.0 419 6.0 419 8.0 457 4.0 457 4.5 457 5.0 457 6.0 457 8.0 502 4.0 502 4.5 502 5.0 502 6.0 502 8.0 508 4.0 508 4.5 CML T mm 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 SK ts mm 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Steel M1 kg/m 12.9 20.1 22.8 26.4 29.0 31.1 33.0 35.1 31.6 35.5 39.3 47.1 32.8 36.9 40.9 49.0 34.7 39.0 43.3 51.8 39.7 44.6 49.4 59.2 78.5 40.9 46.0 51.0 61.1 81.1 44.7 50.2 55.7 66.7 88.6 49.1 55.2 61.3 73.4 97.5 49.7 55.9

Component Masses CML M2 kg/m 6.5 10.1 11.6 13.6 15.0 16.2 17.3 24.3 27.5 27.5 27.4 27.2 28.7 28.6 28.5 28.4 30.4 30.4 30.3 30.1 35.0 34.9 34.8 34.6 34.2 36.1 36.1 36.0 35.8 35.4 39.6 39.5 39.4 39.2 38.9 43.7 43.6 43.5 43.3 42.9 44.2 44.1 Water Mw kg/m 5.9 15.4 20.6 28.6 35.3 41.2 47.1 51.4 66.9 66.5 66.0 65.1 73.0 72.5 72.1 71.1 82.4 81.9 81.4 80.4 109.8 109.2 108.6 107.5 105.2 117.6 117.0 116.4 115.2 112.8 141.8 141.1 140.5 139.1 136.5 173.4 172.7 171.9 170.5 167.6 177.9 177.1 Total Mass MTOT kg/m 25.3 45.6 55.0 68.6 79.3 88.4 97.4 110.9 126.0 129.4 132.7 139.3 134.6 138.1 141.5 148.5 147.6 151.3 154.9 162.2 184.4 188.7 192.9 201.3 217.9 194.7 199.0 203.4 212.0 229.3 226.1 230.8 235.6 245.1 263.9 266.2 271.5 276.7 287.2 308.0 271.8 277.1

Second moment of area I x 106 mm4 2 8 12 19 25 31 38 45 51 58 64 76 58 65 72 85 68 77 85 101 102 114 127 151 198 112 126 139 166 218 146 164 181 216 284 194 217 241 287 379 201 225

Section Modulus Z x 103 mm3 43 101 131 176 212 244 277 313 318 356 393 467 344 385 426 507 385 431 477 567 502 563 623 742 975 536 600 665 792 1,041 639 716 793 945 1,244 773 866 960 1,145 1,508 791 888

Fully Welded L1 m 12.9 14.7 15.3 15.8 16.2 16.4 16.7 16.6 15.7 16.4 17.0 18.1 15.8 16.5 17.2 18.3 16.0 16.7 17.4 18.5 16.3 17.1 17.8 19.0 20.9 16.4 17.2 17.9 19.1 21.1 16.6 17.4 18.2 19.4 21.5 16.9 17.7 18.4 19.8 21.9 16.9 17.7

Safe Span Single Lap Weld L2 m 11.8 13.5 13.9 14.4 14.8 15.0 15.2 15.2 14.3 15.0 15.5 16.5 14.4 15.1 15.7 16.7 14.6 15.2 15.8 16.9 14.9 15.6 16.2 17.3 19.1 15.0 15.7 16.3 17.5 19.2 15.2 15.9 16.6 17.7 19.6 15.4 16.1 16.8 18.0 20.0 15.4 16.2

Simply Supported L3 m 10.5 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.6 12.8 13.4 13.9 14.8 12.9 13.5 14.0 14.9 13.0 13.6 14.2 15.1 13.3 14.0 14.5 15.5 17.1 13.4 14.0 14.6 15.6 17.2 13.6 14.2 14.8 15.9 17.5 13.8 14.4 15.0 16.1 17.9 13.8 14.5

Table 14.1 - Maximum span for Simply Supported MSCL pipe. (Bending stresses only)
110 | S E C T I O N
14

SECTION 14

Free Span and Structural Loading

Section Dimensions Steel Shell OD t mm mm 508 5.0 508 6.0 508 8.0 559 4.0 559 4.5 559 5.0 559 6.0 559 8.0 610 4.5 610 5.0 610 6.0 610 8.0 610 9.5 648 4.5 648 5.0 648 6.0 648 8.0 648 9.5 660 4.5 660 5.0 660 6.0 660 8.0 660 9.5 700 4.5 700 5.0 700 6.0 700 8.0 700 9.5 700 12.0 711 5.0 711 6.0 711 8.0 711 9.5 711 12.0 762 5.0 762 6.0 762 8.0 762 9.5 762 12.0 800 5.0 800 6.0 800 8.0 800 9.5 CML T mm 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 SK ts mm 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Steel M1 kg/m 62.0 74.3 98.6 54.7 61.5 68.3 81.8 108.7 67.2 74.6 89.4 118.8 140.7 71.4 79.3 95.0 126.3 149.6 72.7 80.8 96.8 128.6 152.4 77.2 85.7 102.7 136.5 161.8 203.6 87.0 104.3 138.7 164.3 206.8 93.3 111.9 148.7 176.3 221.9 98.0 117.5 156.2 185.2

Component Masses CML M2 kg/m 44.0 43.9 43.5 48.8 48.7 48.7 48.5 48.1 53.4 53.3 53.1 52.7 52.5 56.8 56.7 56.5 56.2 55.9 57.9 57.8 57.6 57.3 57.0 61.5 61.4 61.2 60.9 60.6 60.2 62.4 62.2 61.9 61.6 61.2 67.0 66.9 66.5 66.2 65.8 93.5 93.3 92.8 92.4 Water Mw kg/m 176.4 174.9 171.9 218.0 217.2 216.4 214.7 211.4 261.3 260.4 258.6 255.0 252.4 296.9 295.9 294.0 290.2 287.3 308.6 307.6 305.7 301.8 298.8 349.2 348.2 346.1 341.9 338.8 333.7 359.8 357.7 353.4 350.3 345.1 416.0 413.8 409.2 405.8 400.2 451.0 448.7 443.9 440.4 Total Mass MTOT kg/m 282.4 293.0 314.1 321.6 327.5 333.3 345.0 368.3 381.9 388.3 401.1 426.5 445.5 425.1 431.9 445.5 472.6 492.8 439.2 446.2 460.0 487.6 508.2 487.9 495.3 510.0 539.3 561.2 597.5 509.3 524.2 554.0 576.2 613.1 576.4 592.5 624.5 648.3 687.9 642.6 659.4 692.9 718.0

Second moment of area I x 106 mm4 250 298 393 268 301 334 398 525 392 435 519 685 807 471 522 623 823 971 497 551 659 870 1,026 594 659 787 1,041 1,228 1,534 691 825 1,091 1,287 1,609 851 1,018 1,346 1,589 1,987 986 1,179 1,560 1,842

Section Modulus Z x 103 mm3 983 1,173 1,545 960 1,077 1,194 1,425 1,879 1,286 1,425 1,701 2,246 2,647 1,453 1,610 1,923 2,541 2,996 1,507 1,671 1,996 2,637 3,110 1,698 1,882 2,249 2,973 3,507 4,382 1,943 2,321 3,069 3,621 4,525 2,234 2,671 3,533 4,170 5,215 2,465 2,947 3,900 4,605

Fully Welded L1 m 18.5 19.8 21.9 17.1 17.9 18.7 20.1 22.3 18.1 18.9 20.4 22.7 24.1 18.3 19.1 20.6 22.9 24.4 18.3 19.1 20.6 23.0 24.5 18.5 19.3 20.8 23.2 24.7 26.8 19.3 20.8 23.3 24.8 26.9 19.5 21.0 23.5 25.1 27.2 19.4 20.9 23.5 25.1

Safe Span Single Lap Weld L2 m 16.9 18.1 20.0 15.6 16.4 17.1 18.4 20.4 16.6 17.3 18.6 20.7 22.0 16.7 17.4 18.8 20.9 22.3 16.7 17.5 18.8 21.0 22.3 16.8 17.6 19.0 21.2 22.6 24.5 17.6 19.0 21.3 22.6 24.5 17.8 19.2 21.5 22.9 24.9 17.7 19.1 21.4 22.9

Simply Supported L3 m 15.1 16.2 17.9 14.0 14.6 15.3 16.4 18.2 14.8 15.5 16.6 18.5 19.7 14.9 15.6 16.8 18.7 19.9 15.0 15.6 16.8 18.8 20.0 15.1 15.7 17.0 19.0 20.2 21.9 15.8 17.0 19.0 20.2 21.9 15.9 17.1 19.2 20.5 22.2 15.8 17.1 19.2 20.4 | 111

SECTION 14

Section Dimensions Steel Shell OD t mm mm 800 12.0 813 5.0 813 6.0 813 7.0 813 8.0 813 9.5 813 12.0 914 6.0 914 7.0 914 8.0 914 10.0 914 12.0 960 6.0 960 8.0 960 10.0 960 12.0 972 6.0 972 8.0 972 10.0 972 12.0 1016 8.0 1016 10.0 1016 12.0 1035 8.0 1035 10.0 1035 12.0 1067 8.0 1067 10.0 1067 12.0 1085 8.0 1085 10.0 1085 12.0 1125 8.0 1125 10.0 1125 12.0 1200 8.0 1200 10.0 1200 12.0 1219 8.0 1219 9.0 1219 10.0 1219 12.0 1283 8.0 112 | S E C T I O N
14

Component Masses SK ts mm 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Steel M1 kg/m 233.2 99.6 119.4 139.1 158.8 188.2 237.0 134.3 156.6 178.7 222.9 266.9 141.2 187.8 234.3 280.5 142.9 190.2 237.2 284.1 198.9 248.1 297.1 202.6 252.8 302.7 208.9 260.7 312.2 212.5 265.1 317.5 220.4 275.0 329.4 235.2 293.5 351.6 238.9 268.5 298.1 357.2 251.5 CML M2 kg/m 91.8 95.1 94.8 94.6 94.3 94.0 93.4 107.0 106.8 106.5 106.1 105.6 112.6 112.1 111.6 111.1 114.0 113.6 113.1 112.6 118.9 118.4 117.9 121.2 120.7 120.2 125.0 124.5 124.1 127.2 126.7 126.2 132.0 131.6 131.1 141.1 140.6 140.1 143.4 143.1 142.9 142.4 179.0 Water Mw kg/m 434.5 466.6 464.2 461.8 459.4 455.8 449.8 594.2 591.4 588.7 583.3 577.9 658.7 652.9 647.2 641.5 676.0 670.2 664.4 658.7 735.6 729.5 723.5 764.7 758.5 752.4 815.1 808.7 802.4 844.2 837.7 831.2 910.5 903.8 897.1 1041.8 1034.6 1027.4 1076.4 1072.8 1069.1 1061.8 1185.7 Total Mass MTOT kg/m 759.5 661.3 678.5 695.5 712.6 738.0 780.3 835.5 854.8 874.0 912.3 950.4 912.4 952.8 993.1 1033.2 933.0 973.9 1014.7 1055.3 1053.3 1096.0 1138.5 1088.5 1132.0 1175.3 1149.1 1193.9 1238.6 1183.8 1229.5 1274.9 1262.9 1310.3 1357.5 1418.0 1468.6 1519.0 1458.7 1484.4 1510.1 1561.4 1616.3

CML T mm 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 19

Second moment of area I x 106 mm4 2,305 1,035 1,238 1,439 1,638 1,934 2,421 1,763 2,050 2,335 2,900 3,457 2,045 2,709 3,365 4,013 2,123 2,813 3,494 4,167 3,216 3,996 4,767 3,401 4,227 5,043 3,729 4,635 5,531 3,923 4,876 5,819 4,376 5,441 6,494 5,318 6,614 7,897 5,577 6,258 6,936 8,282 6,508

Section Modulus Z x 103 mm3 5,762 2,547 3,045 3,539 4,030 4,758 5,955 3,858 4,486 5,110 6,345 7,564 4,260 5,644 7,011 8,360 4,368 5,788 7,190 8,574 6,331 7,866 9,383 6,573 8,168 9,744 6,990 8,688 10,367 7,231 8,988 10,726 7,780 9,673 11,545 8,864 11,024 13,162 9,149 10,267 11,380 13,588 10,145

Fully Welded L1 m 27.2 19.4 21.0 22.3 23.5 25.1 27.3 21.3 22.7 23.9 26.1 27.9 21.4 24.1 26.3 28.1 21.4 24.1 26.3 28.2 24.3 26.5 28.4 24.3 26.6 28.5 24.4 26.7 28.6 24.4 26.7 28.7 24.6 26.9 28.8 24.7 27.1 29.1 24.8 26.0 27.2 29.2 24.8

Safe Span Single Lap Weld L2 m 24.9 17.7 19.1 20.4 21.5 22.9 24.9 19.4 20.7 21.8 23.8 25.5 19.5 22.0 24.0 25.7 19.5 22.0 24.0 25.7 22.1 24.2 25.9 22.2 24.3 26.0 22.3 24.4 26.1 22.3 24.4 26.2 22.4 24.5 26.3 22.6 24.7 26.6 22.6 23.7 24.8 26.6 22.6

Simply Supported L3 m 22.2 15.8 17.1 18.2 19.2 20.5 22.3 17.4 18.5 19.5 21.3 22.8 17.4 19.7 21.5 23.0 17.5 19.7 21.5 23.0 19.8 21.6 23.2 19.8 21.7 23.2 19.9 21.8 23.4 20.0 21.8 23.4 20.0 21.9 23.5 20.2 22.1 23.8 20.2 21.2 22.2 23.8 20.2

SECTION 14

Free Span and Structural Loading

Section Dimensions Steel Shell OD t mm mm 1283 10 1283 12 1283 16 1290 8 1290 10 1290 12 1290 16 1404 10 1404 12 1422 10 1422 11 1422 12 1440 10 1440 12 1440 16 1451 10 1451 12 1451 16 1500 10 1500 12 1500 16 1575 10 1575 12 1575 16 1600 10 1600 12 1600 16 1626 10 1626 12 1626 16 1750 12 1750 16 1829 12 1829 16 1981 12 1981 16 2159 12 2159 16 CML T mm 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 SK ts mm 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Steel M1 kg/m 313.9 376.1 499.9 252.9 315.6 378.2 502.7 343.8 411.9 348.2 382.7 417.2 352.6 422.6 561.9 355.4 425.8 566.2 367.4 440.3 585.5 385.9 462.5 615.1 392.1 469.9 625.0 398.5 477.6 635.2 514.3 684.2 537.7 715.3 582.7 775.3 635.3 845.5

Component Masses CML M2 kg/m 178.5 177.9 176.7 180.0 179.5 178.9 177.7 195.8 195.2 198.4 198.1 197.8 201.0 200.4 199.3 202.6 202.0 200.8 209.6 209.0 207.9 220.3 219.8 218.6 223.9 223.4 222.2 227.7 227.1 225.9 244.9 243.7 256.2 255.1 278.0 276.9 303.5 302.4 Water Mw kg/m 1178.0 1170.3 1155.0 1199.2 1191.5 1183.8 1168.4 1422.2 1413.8 1460.5 1456.2 1451.9 1499.3 1490.6 1473.4 1523.3 1514.5 1497.1 1632.3 1623.3 1605.2 1806.5 1797.0 1778.0 1866.5 1856.9 1837.6 1930.0 1920.2 1900.6 2236.7 2215.6 2451.0 2428.9 2890.8 2866.8 3452.0 3425.7 Total Mass MTOT kg/m 1670.4 1724.3 1831.7 1632.2 1686.6 1740.8 1848.8 1961.8 2020.9 2007.1 2037.1 2067.0 2052.9 2113.6 2234.5 2081.2 2142.3 2264.1 2209.3 2272.6 2398.6 2412.8 2479.3 2611.8 2482.6 2550.1 2684.8 2556.2 2624.9 2761.8 2995.9 3143.5 3244.9 3399.2 3751.5 3918.9 4390.8 4573.6

Second moment of area I x 106 mm4 8,097 9,671 12,773 6,616 8,231 9,831 12,986 10,632 12,704 11,050 12,129 13,203 11,478 13,715 18,134 11,744 14,035 18,557 12,984 15,518 20,524 15,045 17,984 23,796 15,777 18,861 24,959 16,564 19,803 26,208 24,727 32,742 28,254 37,424 35,955 47,648 46,614 61,805

Section Modulus Z x 103 mm3 12,622 15,075 19,911 10,257 12,762 15,242 20,133 15,146 18,097 15,541 17,059 18,570 15,941 19,049 25,186 16,188 19,345 25,579 17,312 20,690 27,365 19,104 22,837 30,217 19,722 23,577 31,199 20,374 24,358 32,236 28,259 37,420 30,896 40,923 36,300 48,105 43,181 57,254

Fully Welded L1 m 27.2 29.2 32.6 24.8 27.2 29.3 32.6 27.5 29.6 27.5 28.6 29.7 27.6 29.7 33.2 27.6 29.7 33.2 27.7 29.8 33.4 27.8 30.0 33.6 27.9 30.1 33.7 27.9 30.1 33.8 30.4 34.1 30.5 34.3 30.8 34.7 31.0 35.0

Safe Span Single Lap Simply Weld Supported L2 L3 m m 24.8 22.2 26.7 23.9 29.8 26.6 22.6 20.2 24.8 22.2 26.7 23.9 29.8 26.6 25.1 22.4 27.0 24.2 25.1 22.5 26.1 23.4 27.1 24.2 25.2 22.5 27.1 24.2 30.3 27.1 25.2 22.5 27.1 24.3 30.4 27.1 25.3 22.6 27.2 24.4 30.5 27.3 25.4 22.7 27.4 24.5 30.7 27.5 25.5 22.8 27.5 24.6 30.8 27.5 25.5 22.8 27.5 24.6 30.9 27.6 27.7 24.8 31.2 27.9 27.9 24.9 31.3 28.0 28.1 25.1 31.6 28.3 28.3 25.3 32.0 28.6

SECTION 14

| 113

Appurtenance Design

114

section

15

d /SIN

Figure 15.1 Reinforcement of Openings

15.1 Introduction
Tees, laterals and bifurcations provide a means of dividing or uniting flow in pipelines. These fittings do not have the same resistance to internal pressure as straight pipe of a similar size. Not all appurtenances need reinforcement, because the wall thickness used is generally thicker than that required for pressure considerations. However, if a pipe is operating at or near the design pressure the strength of the fitting should be checked and reinforced if necessary. Generally, reinforcement is made available by the addition of a localised thickening of the pipe, called a collar reinforcement. Other times a thicker wall pipe may be used, called a wrapper plate design, or in the case of bifurcations and tees, crotch plates may be necessary. This section only deals with the design of reinforcements of nozzles having a d/D ratio 0.7 and a PDV value 6000. For ratios of d/D greater than 0.7, refer to AWWA M11 Manual of Water Supply Practices - Steel Pipe A guide for Design and Installation.

2.5ty normal to the main pipe surface but measured from the surface of the reinforcing collar, must be taken into consideration. Consider the following: 2 PDV = 5.7087Pd 6000 2 (D sin ) P = design pressure D = outside diameter of the pipe d = outside diameter of the branch = angle of the nozzle Ty = main pipe wall thickness ty = branch pipe wall thickness M = factor (see Table 15.1) Theoretical wall thickness of the main pipe: Tr = PD 2all Theoretical wall thickness of the branch: tr = Pd 2all Area removed: AR = M Tr (d-2ty ) sin Area available as excess AA = (d-2ty)(Ty Tr ) + 5ty ( ty - tr ) sin Reinforcement area AW = AR AA = 2wT MPa mm mm degrees mm mm

mm

mm

15.2 Design method


The method generally adopted for reinforcements of nozzles is the Area - Replacement method. Here the area of the wall removed from the pipe so as to attach the fitting is replaced by means of a collar, welded to the outside surface of the pipe. The area removed is based on the maximum width of the opening measured along the longitudinal axis of the pipe, multiplied by the pipe wall pressure thickness required. Any excess area available in the pipe wall as well as any excess area available in the branch wall for a distance of
116 | S E C T I O N
15

mm2

mm2

mm2

SECTION 15

Appurtenance Design

Minimum reinforcement thickness T w = d 2 sin T = AW = AWsin 2w d

mm

M factor from Table 15.1 = 0.00025 x 4982 = 1.25 ( Note: if = 60, PDV = 6224 > 6000. Refer to AWWA M11 ) H all d/D Ty ty Tr tr = 2 x 914 / (2 x 6 ) = 152.3 = 0.72 x 300 = 216.0 = 610/914 = 0.67 < 0.7 ( O.K.) =6 =5 = (2 x 914)/(2 x 216) = 4.23 = (2 x 610)/(2 x 216) = 2.82 MPa MPa mm mm mm mm mm2

mm

The overall width W, of the collar should not be less than 1.67d/sin and should not exceed 2.0d/sin, i.e the collar edge width w, should be within 0.333d/sin w 0.5d/sin. Collar edge width in the circumferential direction should not be less than the longitudinal edge width. Nozzles should not be placed on the pipe weld seams. In Fig. 15.1, the area Ty (d-2ty) / sin represents the section of the main pipe removed for the branch opening. The hoop tension due to pressure that would be taken by the area removed must be carried by the total areas represented by 2wT and 5ty (ty tr ), or 2.5ty (ty tr ) on each side of the branch. PDV 4000 6000 < 4000 d/D 0.7 0.7 M factor 0.00025PDV 1.0

Theoretical reinforcement area ( Area removed ) AR = 1.25 x 4.23 x (610-2 x 5)/ sin75 = 3284 Area available as excess AA = (610-10)/sin75 x (6-4.23)+5 x 5(5-2.82) = 1110 Reinforcement area AW = 3284-1110 = 2174 Minimum reinforcement thickness T T = 2174 sin 75 / 610 = 3.44 say 4.0 Reinforcement width w = 2174/(2 x 4) = 271.8 Minimum allowable width wmin = d/(3sin) = 610 / ( 3 x sin 75 ) = 211 mm, therefore use 272 width Overall reinforcement width W = 2w + d / sin = 2 x 272+610/sin75 = 1176 mm from 4mm thick plate.
SECTION 15

mm2 mm2 mm mm

Table 15.1- PDV values and M factors for d/D ratios

15.3 Example of a calculation for determination of reinforcement size.


Consider a pipe having a diameter of 914mm and a wall thickness of 6 mm with a design pressure of 2 MPa, with a branch 610mm diameter by 5mm wall thickness set at an angle of 75. Pipe material has a MYS of 300 MPa and the allowable stress all = 0.7 MYS PDV= 5.7087 x 2 x 6102 / (914 sin2 75 ) = 4982 < 6000

| 117

Typical Installation Conditions

118

section

16

16.1 Trench conditions


These installations are suitable for SINTAKOTE welded steel pipelines and SINTAJOINT rubber ring joint (RRJ) steel pipelines as described. The following terms and their definitions are referred to in this section. See Figure 16.1. Bedding - the zone between the foundation and the bottom of the pipe Haunch support the part of the side support below the spring line of the pipe Side Support - the zone between the bottom and the top of the pipe Overlay the zone between the side support and either the trench fill or the embankment fill Trench Fill fill material placed over the overlay for the purpose of filling the trench

Location of other services, particularly in urban areas Future change in levels due to road re-grading or other civil works The minimum depth of cover recommended is 0.6m provided none of the other considerations require a greater depth. In rock, the trench should be excavated to ensure that at least 50mm of compacted bedding is achieved under the pipe after it is bedded. Where an unstable sub-grade condition unable to support the pipe is encountered, an additional depth should be excavated and backfilled as discussed below.

Bedding
Bedding provides support to the pipeline enabling it to withstand external loads. The higher the external loading (depth of trench plus any vehicle loading) the greater the degree of care necessary with the backfill in this zone. Any part of the trench excavated below grade unintentionally or because of rocky ground should be backfilled to grade with a thoroughly compacted approved material. In the case of additional depth due to unstable sub-grade the extra depth should be backfilled with crushed stone or other suitable material to achieve a satisfactory trench bottom. For open field loading where traffic and superimposed loading will be low, the bedding angle (total depth of bedding) can be limited to approximately 70. For roadways or heavy traffic and superimposed loads total depth of compacted bedding may need to be increase to the spring line (centre line) of the pipe to increase the bedding angle to 180, maximise support and minimise deflection. See Spangler & Handy (ref 3). In order to prevent damage to SINTAKOTE a compacted zone of 50 mm below the pipe should comprise non-cohesive native soil, imported fill or sand such that the maximum particle size does not exceed 13.2 mm.

Trench width
The trench width should be as narrow as practicable consistent with the need to ensure: Proper laying and jointing of the pipe Application of joint wrapping if relevant Where a change of direction is being made using the lateral deflection permissible at the joints, the trench should be sufficiently wide to allow the joint to be made in line and then the pipe laterally deflected Where the virgin soil does not provide the pipe with the required side support, the trench must be wide enough to allow the selected back-fill to be placed and compacted in such a manner which will adequately spread the load into the surrounding ground Common size backhoe/excavator bucket widths are 300, 450, 600, 750, 900, 1100 and 1200mm. As a guide, the following trench minimum widths are reasonable: OD + 400mm for pipe diameters 450mm OD + 600mm for pipe diameters > 450mm, 900mm OD + 700mm for pipe diameters > 900mm, 1500mm OD + 0.5 x OD mm for pipe diameters > 1500mm, 4000mm

SINTAJOINT ( RRJ ) pipelines


Bellholes should be excavated in the foundation to prevent the socket from bearing on the foundation.

SINTAKOTE welded joint pipelines


Construction holes should be excavated at the joint to facilitate welding and coating reinstatement. Bedding should then be restored.

Trench depth
The depth of the trench will depend on a number of factors apart from pipe diameter. Other considerations include: External loadings. Pipes usually have a greater depth of cover when subject to vehicle loading
120 | S E C T I O N

Haunch support, side support and overlay


It is essential that backfill for haunch support, side support and overlays be well compacted between the sides of the pipe and the trench. Particular care should be taken in compacting the material under the haunches of the pipe. The backfill should be built up in layers evenly on both sides of the

16

SECTION 16

Typical Installation Conditions

Finished surface Trench wall Embedment zone Springline of pipe

C L

Trench fill

C L Embankment fill

Top of embankment (finished surface)

Overlay Side support Bedding Trench Embankment

Embedment zone Haunch support Springline of pipe

Haunch support

Figure 16.1 - Definition of terms pipe. Whilst the depth of such layers should be established at the commencement of the laying for any particular material to be used, it should not normally exceed 150 mm. Backfilling in layers should proceed until 150 mm above the top of the pipe or as otherwise specified where vehicular traffic is encountered. Backfill provides material to support the pipe and prevent sharp objects imparting high loads onto the pipeline coating. The material used should be non-cohesive native soil with no particles larger than 25mm, or imported sand or gravel of nominal size not larger than 20mm with the maximum size not to exceed 25mm. When select backfill or bedding is used with pipes which are to be cathodically protected, the material should not be too high in electrical resistivity as this will reduce the effectiveness of the protection. Generally, sand or native soil is suitable. Stone and gravel can be too high in resistivity. Hence a graded mix of sand and gravel should be used on cathodically protected lines where imported backfill is required. Compaction should achieve the effective combined soil modulus E. anchorage friction For situations where trench water flow is possible, cross trench dams keyed into trench walls should be constructed to prevent erosion of backfill and bedding.

Trench fill
The trench can then be topped up with convenient fill. Where necessary it should be compacted to achieve the appropriate relative density for pavement support. The extent of compaction depends on the allowable future surface settlement. Under roads, pavements and in certain other areas the load bearing capacity of the ground surface is important and fill must be compacted in layers all the way to the surface. Where the trench is across open land the compaction requirements are not normally so important and the surface can usually be built up to a degree to allow for some future settlement. The material used would normally be the excavated trench material but where a high degree of compaction is needed in poor natural ground, imported material may be required.

Non-cohesive soils
Cohesionless soils are often specified for bedding and side support areas of buried conduits. They offer the advantages of ease of placement and handling minimum compactive effort free draining behaviour minimum settlement non shear stress memory maximum density over a wide moisture content range high shear strength

16.2 Compaction
Compaction increases the density of the soil resulting in greater bearing capacity, stability and reduced permeability and settlement. Void space is reduced and interparticle contact is increased resulting in higher internal friction. Generally, non cohesive soils require less compactive effort to achieve a given density as the interparticle cohesive forces to be overcome in rearranging the soil are a minimum. Vibratory compaction uses equipment which incorporates vibration, normally by means of a rotating eccentric weight. The vibration
SECTION 16

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SECTION 16

Typical Installation Conditions

jostles adjacent particles and allows their relative movement to settle together in a denser state. The three main factors to be considered in compaction are: soil type moisture content compaction method and energy input
100 90 80 Clay 70
Percent passing

U.S. standard sieves


40 200 100 50 30 16 10 1.1/2" 3" 6" 12" 8 4 3/8"3/4"

Well graded sand

Soil classification
A commonly referred system of soil classification is the United Soil Classification System (USCS). Soils are categorised by this system in 15 groups identified by name and letter symbols. (ref Table 13.2)

60 50 Silt 40 30 20

Uniformly graded sand

Road base material

Gradation
The gradation of a soil is a measure of the size and distribution of the constituent particles. This is assessed by sieving the sample through a series of screens of increasing fineness. The retained material on each screen is expressed as a percentage of total sample weight. These figures, when plotted on a graph show the gradation of the material. Refer to Graph 16.1. A well graded material covers a wide range of particles filled by smaller ones. Higher densities are more easily achieved with well graded materials than uniformly graded materials.

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1 1 Particle size in mm Sand

10

100

Clay

Silt

Gravel

Cobbles

Graph 16.1 - Sieve analysis RD = 100 r

Density index - non cohesive soils


Density index ID is a measure of compaction used for non cohesive (low fines) soils, and is specified in AS 1289.5.6.1 as: ( ) ID = max min x 100% (max min ) where max min = maximum dry soil density = minimum dry soil density = measured dry soil density = 100 (100 + wt) wt = measured wet soil density = measured soil moisture content kN/m3 % kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3

Where: = measured dry soil density r = maximum dry density (adjusted for oversize material, where applicable) as assigned or determined in the compaction test.

kN/m3 kN/m3

Compaction equipment
The most common forms of compaction equipment used in pipeline construction are vibratory plate compactors and vibratory tampers. Their use depends very much on the surface loads to be carried by the installation. This load carrying capacity depends on the structural stiffness of the pipe and the degree of soil bedding and side support compaction achieved. Very dry sand and gravel can be vibrated into place at a density of over 90% providing it contains little or no silt.

min is determined by drying and pulverising the soil to a single grain size and pouring with minimum disturbance into a container of a known volume. The sample is then weighed and min determined. max is determined after compaction with a drop hammer, tamper or vibrator.

Sluicing and dumping


Where the material is of a granular nature and drains quickly, an alternative to using compacting equipment is to flood the backfill with water. Using this method with coarse sand a 60% relative density can be achieved, whilst with fine sand a 50% relative density should be attained.
SECTION 16

Dry density ratio - cohesive soils


Dry density ratio (RD) is a measure of compaction used for cohesive soils and is specified in AS 1289.5.4.1 as:

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Clean selected aggregate will usually achieve 60% relative density or better by simply dumping around the pipe.

temporary anchors. All outlets should be plugged prior to testing. Air valves should be properly located and checked to ensure they are operational. If permanent air vents are not provided at all high points, the contractor should install corporation cocks at all such points to expel air during filling of the line.

16.3 Backfill prior to hydrostatic field test


When laying pipelines it is normal practice to place some backfill on the pipes to prevent movement during hydrostatic testing. In the case of flexible jointed pipelines such fill is essential to prevent any joint movement during the subsequent operations. Where the pipeline has welded joints the fill is usually placed on the barrel portion of the pipe only, leaving the joints exposed for examination during the hydrostatic test. In a rubber ring joint pipeline, sufficient fill should be placed on each pipe following its installation to prevent joint movement during positioning of adjacent pipes. There is no need to leave flexible joints exposed provided the laying is carried out strictly in accordance with the recommended laying practice. Refer to Tyco Water Steel Pipeline Systems Handling and Installation Manual.

Filling prior to tests.


Cement mortar lined pipe should be completely filled with water and allowed to stand for 24 hours or longer to permit maximum absorption of water by the lining, although experience has shown that 4-5 days soaking is more beneficial in reducing this effect after filling. Lines should be flushed at hydrants, scours and dead ends. Filling should be done slowly to prevent water hammer and to ensure all the air is allowed to escape. Additional water should be added to replace that absorbed by the cement mortar lining. It is good practise to do a final manual bleed of the line prior to starting the pressure test.

Test measurement
Test pressure should be measured at the lowest point of the section under test, or a static head allowance between the lowest point and the point of measurement should be made to ensure that the required test pressure is not exceeded. The field test pressure specified must accommodate the rated pressure of fittings and appurtenances.

Measurement of soil compaction


Standard tests are available for determining the density of compacted soil. These tests are outlined in AS 1289 E3. An experienced engineer can usually tell the density from his footmarks on the soil. If he has to back-kick the soil with the corner of his heel to leave an impression then the density is probably greater than 95%. A heel corner impression while walking probably indicates a soil density of 90%. A full heel imprint may indicate a density above 80% whilst a full footprint would suggest a density of only 70%.

Test method
It is recommended that initially the field test be carried out on a small section (200m) of the pipeline laid first to confirm that laying practises are effective. Pressure testing should not be carried out during wet weather. Pump in water until the test pressure is reached. The field test pressure is normally specified in the relevant contract documents. The test pressure should lie between the allowable operating pressure of the pipeline, and no more than 125% of the allowable operating pressure. It is good practise to allow the system time to stabilise at the test pressure before starting the test. This period can be utilised to check and tighten bolted fittings, flanges etc. that show signs of leaking. The test pressure should be maintained for at least 2 hours. During pressure testing all field joints which have not been backfilled shall be clean, dry and accessible for inspection. If the pressure has dropped at the end of the test period the quantity of water (make up volume) required to increase the pressure to the original test pressure should be established.

16.4 Hydrostatic field test.


A pipeline is subjected to a hydrostatic field test primarily to check that all joints are watertight. At the same time the test checks the integrity of all fittings and appurtenances, as well as construction work such as anchorages. Where concrete anchor blocks are installed, allow at least 7 days for the concrete to cure before any test is carried out. If the pipeline section to be tested is not provided with valves then the ends must be fitted with bulkheads. Such bulkheads must have attachments to allow passage of the incoming water and outgoing air. Hydraulic jacks may be inserted between the temporary anchors and sealed ends in order to take up any horizontal movement of the
124 | S E C T I O N

16

SECTION 16

Typical Installation Conditions

The test should be repeated a number of times with any make up volume being measured. It is normal for a pressure drop to occur due to; - entrapped air going into solution - water being absorbed into the cement mortar lining - weeping at valve seats, fittings and appurtenances - movement of pipe under pressure - changes in pipe temperature A generally accepted make-up volume rate is; Q = 0.00014 DLH Where Q = make up water rate D = pipe diameter L = test pipeline length H = mean test head litres / hour mm km m

annulus between the welds and tapped for air nozzle attachments. The weld is then daubed with a soap solution and the annulus pressurised to around 100kPa. The welds are then examined for bubbles of escaping air and rectified if necessary. For large pipelines this test can assure the integrity as construction progresses eliminating the time and cost of a major hydrostatic field test.

16.6 Backfill following hydrostatic field test


After a section of a pipeline has passed the field pressure test to the satisfaction of the Supervising Engineer, the trench should be completely backfilled as soon as possible. In badly drained ground or where heavy rain is expected, finished sections should not be left unfilled as there is a risk the pipeline could be moved by floatation.

If the specified make-up volume is exceeded; - ensure all air has been expelled - check all valves for closure and sealing - check all mechanical joints, gibaults and flanges. Bolts should be uniformly tight and full sealing achieved. If subsequent testing results in unacceptable make up volume, the ground above the pipeline should be inspected for signs of obvious leakage. A bar probe may be be used to detect the location of any leaks. If none are apparent the line should be tested in halves with the failing section being subsequently halved until the leak is located. The pressure test shall be considered satisfactory if: - there is no failure of any anchor block, pipe, fitting, valve, joint or any other pipeline or service component - there is no visible leakage, and - the maximum acceptable loss rate is not exceeded

16.7 Commissioning of water pipelines.


Prior to hydrostatic testing care must be taken to ensure removal of any solid material from the inside of the pipeline including rubbish, dirt, welding stubs and other foreign matter. This may be achieved by placing a swab or pig through the line or in the case of larger diameter pipes, by operators travelling through the line. Only soft foam swabs (with no scouring pad attachments) should be used on seal coated pipelines. A pipeline which will carry potable water should be sterilised with chlorinated water in accordance with the Water Agencys requirements. After standing for the prescribed period the water should be tested for residual chlorine to ensure sterilisation has been achieved. Potable water may then be used to replace the chlorinated water. The pipeline is not to be put into service until bacteriological tests of water delivered at the end of the pipeline show that a satisfactory potable standard has been attained. Note that exit water may not be suitable for disposal to drains.

After test
It is important to ensure that proper arrangements are made for the disposal of water from the pipeline after the test, and that all consents which may be required from land owners and occupiers, and from river drainage and water authorities have been obtained.

16.5 Pneumatic test of welded joints.


Welded joint pipe (Spherical Slip-in and Ball and Socket joints) can be tested for integrity of the field welding by an air pressure test. This can only be done however if an external and internal weld are executed. An air hole must also be drilled into the sealed

SECTION 16

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Appendices

126

appendix

ABC D&E

APPENDIX A

Glossary

Symbol
b b all s L sub min max r b p s

Reference
thermal coefficient of linear expansion of steel impact factor for live loads beam deflection predicted bending strain allowable bending strain angular deflection at pipe joint or at mitre cut or pipe bend angle of nozzle to main pipe saddle angle unit weight of trench or embankment fill measured dry soil density assessed unit weight of liquid external to pipe submerged unit weight of trench or embankment fill minimum dry soil density maximum dry soil density maximum soil dry density assigned/determined in compaction test factor of safety for combined external load and internal pressure factor of safety for ring bending strain factor of safety for internal pressure soil/pipe surface friction factor dynamic viscosity of water kinematic viscosity of water ( 0.11425 x 10-5 at 15C ) Poissons ratio ( 0.27 for steel ) measured wet soil density specific gravity of soil particle ( = 2.65 or determined value) bending stress circumferential stress equivalent stress hoop stress temperature stress saddle stress longitudinal stress Leonhardt correction factor pipe deflection design factor head rise above normal operating head pressure rise above operating pressure predicted vertical deflection of pipe in ground allowable vertical deflection of pipe in ground change in temperature pressure wave velocity centre line length on bend mitre cross area of pipe based on OD area available as excess area removed reinforcement area

Unit
12 x 10-6 mm mm/mm/C

degrees degrees degrees kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3

kg/m.s m2 /s kg/m3 kg/m3 MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa m or mm m MPa m m C m/s mm m2 mm2 mm2 mm2

b c e h T s L

f h p y y all T a a A AA AR AW
128 | A P P E N D I X

APPENDIX A

Glossary

bedding backfill B&S B C CE CML Cbb Cu CP Cr cover d D, De ,Do Dm DB D/t DCF DN E Ee En E Est Ecl FBPE FS G g H H Ho Hw HL HGL I I ID ID k K k k KL KLE

the layer of material directly under the pipe the material at the sides and the set cover layer above and in contact with the pipe ball and socket joint trench width at pipe crown the element carbon carbon equivalent cement mortar lining headloss coefficient factor for bends the element copper cathodic protection the element chromium the depth of material H, from pipe crown to surface level pipe inside diameter pipe outside diameter pipe mean diameter (D-t) deformed pipe diameter outside diameter to pipe wall thickness ratio discounted cash flow nominal diameter effective combined soil modulus embedment soil modulus native soil modulus modulus of elasticity for the steel or composite steel-cement mortar lining Youngs modulus for steel Youngs modulus for cement mortar lining fusion bonded polyethylene factor of safety gradient acceleration due to gravity height of ground surface above pipe head after valve operation head under constant flow condition height of water surface above the top of the pipe head loss in meters head of water hydraulic grade line second moment of area of the pipe wall per unit length elastic moment of inertia of the pipe inside diameter of pipe Density index of non cohesive soil saddle factor bedding constant thermal conductivity of steel linear measure of bore roughness for the Colebrook-White formula minor loss coefficient minor loss coefficient

m m or mm m or mm m or mm m or mm

m MPa MPa MPa 207,000 Mpa 21,000 Mpa

9.81 m/s2 m m m m m mm4/mm mm4 mm %

47 m

W/(mC)

APPENDIX

| 129

APPENDIX A

Glossary

KL1 KL2 L L L1 L2 M M1 M2 M3 MA MB MC Mn Mo MTOT MW MSCL MTP MYS Ni NPV n n OD P P Pt Pr Pcr PW PWall Ps PE PDV PRV pH qall qall1 qall2 qv Q R Re
130 | A P P E N D I X

minor loss coefficient minor loss coefficient length dimension or length of pipeline pipe span as a beam length of the base of the live load distribution measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of the vehicle at the top of the pipe length of the base of the live load distribution measured parallel to the direction of travel of the vehicle at the top of the pipe factor for design of off-takes unit mass of the steel shell unit mass of the cement mortar lining unit mass of Sintakote bending moment at point A bending moment at point B bending moment at point C the element manganese the element molybdenum total mass of water filled pipe unit mass of water in pipe mild steel cement lined manufacture test pressure minimum yield strength the element nickel nett present value number of years number of individual mitres or a ratio in Allievis equation outside diameter live wheel load, P is the sum of the individual wheel loads internal pressure manufacture proof test or strength test pressure field test pressure or rated pressure critical external pressure required to cause buckling applied internal pressure allowable internal pressure saddle reaction plain ended pipe pressure/diameter value pressure reducing valve(s) -log (H+) allowable buckling pressure allowable buckling pressure based on pipe alone allowable buckling pressure based on pipe/embedment interaction internal vacuum flow rate or discharge radius of bend or outside diameter radius of pipe resultant thrust at pipe bend

m or mm m or mm m m kg/m kg/m kg/m Nm Nm Nm

kg/m kg/m MPa MPa

mm kN MPa MPa MPa kPa MPa MPa N

kPa kPa kPa kPa l/s or m3/s m or mm kN

APPENDIX A

Glossary

R RD RRJ r re ri rc rm Sg Sr SD SDcr SSJ SK SR T T Tr To Ts TQM trench fill t ts Ty ty TR tR teq UV u v vo V w Wd Ww Wp wg wgs wq wt w y Z

Reynolds number Dry density ratio of cohesive soil rubber ring joint outside radius of pipe equivalent circular arc on composite mitres interest rate re-rounding effect mean radius (= (D-t) / 2 ) hydraulic gradient ring-bending stiffness as a function of radius ring-bending stiffness as a function of diameter critical ring buckling resistance due to out of roundness spherical slip-in joint SINTAKOTE sulphate resistant cement cement mortar lining thickness reinforcement collar minimum thickness reflection period time for valve opening or closing static thrust at blank ends and junctions total quality management the material placed over the backfill steel wall thickness thickness of Sintakote main pipe wall thickness branch wall thickness theoretical main pipe wall thickness theoretical branch wall thickness transformed pipe wall thickness ultra violet superimposed, uniformly distributed dead load at finished surface flow velocity flow velocity under steady state conditions the element vanadium reinforcement collar edge width weight of backfill weight of water in pipe weight of pipe vertical design load pressure at top of pipe due to soil dead loads design load due to superimposed dead load vertical design load due to surface applied live load measured soil moisture content unit weight of pipe (steel, lining and water) pipe deflection as a beam elastic section modulus of pipe

% mm mm

mm m/m N/m/m N/m/m N/m/m

mm mm s s kN

mm mm mm mm mm mm mm kPa m/s m/s mm kN/m kN/m kN/m kPa kPa kPa % N/m mm mm3

APPENDIX

| 131

APPENDIX B

SI Conversion Factors

Quantity
Length

Unit
1in 1ft 1yd 1 fathom 1 chain 1 mile 1 international nautical mile 1 UK nautical mile 1in2 1 ft2 1 yd2 1 UK minim 1 UK fluid drachm 1UK fluid ounce 1 US fluid ounce 1 US liquid pint 1 US dry pint 1 Imperial pint 1 UK gallon 1 US gallon 1 in3 1 ft3 1 yd3 1 in4 1 lb ft2 1 slug ft2 1 grain 1 dram (avoir.) 1 drachm (apoth.) 1 ounce (troy or apoth.) 1 oz (avoir.) 1 lb 1 slug 1 sh cwt (US hundredweight) 1 cwt (UK hundredweight) 1 UK ton 1 short ton 1 lb/yd 1 UK ton/mile 1 UK ton/1000yd 1 oz/in 1 lb/in 1 lb/in 1 oz/ft2 1 lb/ft2 1 lb/in2 1 UK ton/mile2 1lb/ft3 1lb/UK gal 1 lb/US gal

Conversion Factor
25.4 0.3048 0.9144 1.8288 20.1168 1.60934 1.852 1.85318 6.4516 0.092903 0.836127 0.0591938 3.55163 28.4131 29.5735 473.176 550.610 568.261 4.54609 3.78541 16.3871 0.0293168 0.764555 41.6231 0.0421401 1.35582 64.7989 0.00177185 0.00388793 0.0311035 28.3495 0.45359237 14.5939 45.3592 50.8023 1016.05 907.185 0.496055 0.631342 1.11116 1.11612 1.48816 17.8580 0.305152 4.88243 703.070 3.92290x10-4 16.0185 99.7763 119.826 mm m m m m km km km cm2 m2 m2 cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3 dm3 dm3 cm3 m3 m3 cm4 kg m2 kg m2 mg kg kg kg g kg kg kg kg kg kg kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m kg/m2 kg/m2 kg/m2 kg/m2 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3

Area

Volume

2nd Moment of Area Moment of Inertia Mass

Mass per Unit Length

Mass per Unit Area

Density

132 | A P P E N D I X

APPENDIX B

SI Conversion Factors

Quantity
Density

Unit
1slug/ft3 1ton/yd3 1lb/in3 1in3/lb 1ft3/lb 1in./min 1 ft/min 1ft/s 1mile/h 1UK knot 1International knot 1ft/s2 1lb/h 1UK ton/h 1dyne 1pdl (poundal) 1ozf (ounce) 1lbf 1kgf 1tonf 11bf/ft 1lbf/in 1tonf/ft 1pdl/ft2 1lbf/ft2 1mm Hg 1in H20 1ft H20 1in.Hg 1lbf/in2 1bar 1 std. atmosphere 1tonf/ft2 1 mm H20 1 lbf/ft3 1 lbf/UK gal 1 tonf/yd3 1 lbf/in3 1 ozf in (ounce-force inch) 1 pdl ft 1 lbf in 1 lbf ft 1 ton ft

Conversion Factor
515.379 1328.94 27.6799 36.1273 0.0624280 0.042333 0.00508 0.3048 1.60934 1.85318 1.852 0.3048 1.25998x10-4 0.282235 10-3 0.138255 0.278014 4.44822 9.80665 9.96402 14.5939 175.127 32.6903 1.48816 47.8803 133.322 249.089 2989.07 3386.39 6.89476 105 101.325 107.252 9.8067 157.088 978.471 13.0324 271.447 0.00706155 0.0421401 0.112985 1.35582 3037.03 kg/m3 kg/m3 Mg/m3 cm3/kg m3/kg cm/s m/s m/s km/h km/h km/h m/s2 kg/s kg/s N N N N N kN N/m N/m kN/m N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 N/m2 kN/m2 N/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 N/m2(=1g) N/m3 N/m3 kN/m3 kN/m3 Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm

Specific volume Velocity

Acceleration Mass flow rate

Force (weight)

Force (weight) per unit length

Force (weight) per unit area (pressure)

Specific wt

Moment, torque or couple

APPENDIX

| 133

APPENDIX B

SI Conversion Factors

Quantity
Energy or heat or work

Unit
1erg 1horsepower hour 1 therm = 10 cal 1therm = 1 00 000 Btu 1cal 1 Btu 1kWh 1hp= 550 ft lbf/s 1 metric horsepower (ch, PS) 1 Btu/lb deg F 1 cal/g deg C 1Btu/h 1kcal/h 1 cal/s 1 Btu/ft2h 1 kV/in. 1 1b/ft s 1 ft2/s 1 1 Btu/lb 1 cal/g 1 kcal/m3 1 Btu/lbR 1 cal cm/cm2 s deg C 1Btu ft/ft2 h deg F 1ft lbf/lb R 1rad (radian) 1degree 1minute 1second Btu/ft3

Conversion Factor
10-7 2.68452 4.1855 105.506 4.1868 1.05506 3.6 0.745700 735.499 J MJ MJ MJ J kJ MJ kW W

Power

Specific heat

4.1868 0.293071 1.163 4.1868 3.15459 0.039370 1.48816 929.03 37.2589 2.326 4.1868 4.1868 4.1868 41.868 1.73073 0.00538032

kJ/kg K W W W W/m2 kV/mm kg/m s stokes kJ/m3 kJ/kg J/g kJ/m3 kJ/kg K W/m K W/m K kJ/kg K 57.2958 0.0174533 rad = 1.1111 grade 2.90888x10-4 rad = 0.0185 grade 4.84814x10-6 rad = 0.0003 grade 0. 1 04720 rad/s

Heat flow rate

Intensity of heat flow rate Electric stress Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Calorific value or specific enthalpy

Specific entropy Thermal Conductivity

Gas constant Plane angle

Velocity of rotation 1rev/min Based on Ramsay and Taylor: SI Metrication: Easy to Use Conversion Tables (Chambers).

Common Approximate Conversions


1 N/mm2 1 psi 1kg 1 1 UK gallon 1kg
134 | A P P E N D I X

= 1 MPa = 6.9 kPa = 2.2 lb = 25.4 mm = 4.55 litre = 9.81 N

1 UK gallon 1m3 1 Joule 1 kN/m 1 atmosphere

= 1.2 US gallon = 1000 litre(=1kl) = 1 Nm = 1 N/mm = 101.325 kPa =10.33m head of water = 1 bar = 760 cm Hg

APPENDIX C

Material Properties

Steel
Modulus of elasticity Linear Coefficient of thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Density Melting range Poisson ratio 207,000 MPa 12x10-6 mm/mm C 47 W/(m C) 7850 kg/m3 1510 1524 C 0.27

Cement Mortar Lining


Modulus of elasticity Density approx 21,000 MPa approx 2,400 kg/m3

Soil
Density Bearing pressures Moduli of soil reaction - E'e and En (see Table 13.1) (see Table 12.2) (see Table 13.3)

SINTAKOTE
Density approx 940 kg/m3

Saline waters
fresh water marginal brackish Saline waters sea water

TDS
(mg/l) < 500 500 to 1000 1000 to 3000 > 3000 35000

APPENDIX

| 135

APPENDIX D

References

1. Luscher, U "Buckling of Soil surrounded tubes" Jour. Soil Mech & Foundations Division ASCE 92:6:213, 215 (Nov 1966) 2. Molin, Jan "Principles of calculation for underground plastic pipes calculation of loads, deflection, strain" International Organization for Standardization ISO Bulletin 2:10:21 (Oct 1971) 3. Spangler MG, Handy RL "Soil Engineering", 4th edition Harper & Row, New York, 1982 4. Clarke NWB "Buried Pipelines - A manual of structural design and installation" MacLaren and Sons, London,1968 5. Compston DG, Cray P, Schofield AN, Shann CD "Design and construction of buried thin-wall pipes" Construction Industry Research and Information Association CIRIA UK Report 78, July 1978 6. Marston, Anson "The theory of external loads on closed conduits in the light of the latest experiments" Proc. Ninth Annual Meeting Highway Res. Board. Dec 1929

10. Boussinesq, J "Application des Potentiels a l Etude de l Equilibre et du Mouvement des Solids Elastiques Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1885 11. AWWA Manual of water supply practices M11 "Steel pipes a guide for design and installation" 12. Schorer, H "Design of large pipelines" Trans. ASCE, 88:1011 (1933) 13. Ligon, JB and Mayer, GR "Coefficient of friction for pipe coating materials" Pipe Line Industry 42 (2) PP 51-54, Feb 1975 14. Parmakian, J "Water Hammer Analysis" Dover, New York, 1963 15. Streeter, VL and Wylie, EB "Fluid Transients" McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978 16. Pickford, J "Analysis of Water Surge" Gordon and Breach, New York, 1969 17. Watters, GZ

7. Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works "Modern Analysis and Control of Unsteady Flow in Pipelines" "Hydrogen Sulphide Control Manual" Anne Arbor, Michigan, 1980 Technological Standing Committee on Hydrogen Sulphide 18. Webb, TH Corrosion in Sewerage Works. Dec 1989 8. Skeat, WO (Ed) Institution of Water Engineers "Manual of British Water Engineering Practice", Third Edition Heffer & Sons, Cambridge, 1961 9. Miller DS "Internal flow systems". Second ed. BHRA, 1990 "Water Hammer Control in Pipelines 1981" James Hardie, Sydney, 1981 19. WSAA Technical Notes TN6 "Guidelines for the use of cement mortar linings in sewerage applications"

136 | A P P E N D I X

APPENDIX E

Standards Referenced in Text

AS 1281 AS 1289 E1.2 AS 1289 E3 AS 1289.5.4.1 AS 1289.5.6.1 AS/NZS 1554 AS 1579 AS/NZS 1594 AS 1646 AS 2129 AS 2200 AS/NZ S2566.1 AS 2885 AS/NZS 3678 AS 4087 AS 4321 AS 4799

Cement Mortar Lining of Steel Pipes and Fittings Method of Testing Soil for Engineering Purposes determination of dry density / moisture content relation of soil using standard compaction. Method of Testing Soil for Engineering Purposes determination of the field dry density of a soil Method of Testing Soil for Engineering Purposes dry density moisture variation and moisture ratio Method of Testing Soil for Engineering Purposes density index method for a cohesionless material Structural Steel Welding Arc Welded Steel Pipes and Fittings for Water and Waste-Water Hot Rolled Steel Flat Products Elastomeric Seals for Waterworks Purposes Flanges for Pipes, Valves and Fittings Design Charts for Water Supply and Sewerage Buried Flexible Pipelines Structural Design Pipelines Gas and Liquid Petroleum Structural Steel Hot-rolled Plates, Floor-plates and Slabs Metallic Flanges for Water-works Purposes Fusion bonded Medium density Polyethylene Coatings and Linings for Pipes and Fittings Installation of Underground Utility Services and Pipelines Within Railway Boundaries

AS/NZS ISO 9001 Model for Quality Assurance ASTM C177 ASTM D2240 ASTM D2487.9 ASTM D4060 ASTM G8 ASTM G13 ASTM G14 IEC 60093 IEC 60243 Standard Test Method for Steady State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus Standard Test Method for Rubber Property durometer hardness Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Tauber Abraser Standard Test Methods for Cathodic Disbondment of Pipeline Coatings Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings (Limestone drop test) Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings (Falling weight test) Methods of Test for Volume Resistivity and Surface Resistivity of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials Electrical Strength of Insulating Materials test methods tests at power frequencies

APPENDIX

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Regional Marketing Offices


Brisbane 39 Silica Street Carole Park 4300 PO Box 162 Carole Park Queensland 4300 Telephone 07 3712 3666 Facsimile 07 3271 3128 rmob@tycowater.com Sydney 1-21 Percival Road Smithfield 2164 PO Box 141 Fairfield New South Wales 1860 Telephone 61 2 9612 2470 Facsimile 61 2 9612 2471 rmos@tycowater.com Melbourne 60A Maffra Street Coolaroo 3048 PO Box 42 Dallas Victoria 3047 Telephone 03 9301 9115 Facsimile 03 9309 0577 rmom@tycowater.com Perth 70 Cleaver Terrace Belmont Western Australia 6104 Telephone 08 9346 8555 Facsimile 08 9346 8501 rmop@tycowater.com

Divisional Office
Tyco Water Pty Ltd ABN 75 087 415 745 1-21 Percival Road Smithfield New South Wales 2164 PO Box 141 Fairfield NSW 1860 Telephone 61 2 9612 2470 Facsimile 61 2 9612 2471 info@tycowater.com www.tycowater.com

TWSPS/6/08