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PART CXXVII

CREST AND HEAD GATES


CHAPTER 2
TAINTER GATES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
November 1950
Paragraph Page ,
2-01 INTRODUCTION ______________ __ __ ______ __ __ ______ __ ____________________ _ 1
2-02 SCOPE _________________________________________________________ .- __ __ _____ 1
2-03 GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN______________________________________ 1
2-04 WORKING STRESSES_ ___________ ___ __ _ ___ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ __ _ ____ 2
2-05 DIMENSIONS_ _ ___ __________ __ ____ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ ___ _ __ __ _ __ ____ 2
2-06 TRUNNION AND SILL LOCATIONS_____________________________ _________ 3
2-07 WEIGHTS _______________ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3
2-08 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS_______ __ __ _ ___ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _____ _ __ _ _ __ _________ 4
2-09 SKIN PLATE ASSEMBDY _ _ ______________ __ _ _ __ __ ____ _____ _ ___ ___ __ _ _____ _ 4
2-10 HORIZONTAL GIRDERS__________ ____ ____ _ _ __ __ ____ _____ _ __ _ _ __ ______ __ _ 5
2-11 END FRAMES_ _ _ _ _ _____________ __ __ __ _ ___ __ __ __ ____ _____ _ __ ____ __ ____ __ _ 5
2-12 TRUNNION ASSEMBLY AND TIE_______________________________________ 5
2-13 ANCHORAGE GIRDERS ___________________________________ ~ _ ______ _ ______ 6
2-14 ANCHORAGES_ _ _ _____________ _____ _____ __ _ _ _ _____ _______ _ ____ _ ___ _ ______ 6
2-15 SPECIAL ANCHORAGES _________ ..... ___ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ _ ____ __ __ __ __ _ __ 7
2-16 SEALS _____________________________________ .. _ _ ___ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ ____ __ __ __ _____ 7
2-17 HEATERS_______________________ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ ___ ___ _ ______ _ _ __ __ _ _ ___ ___ _ 7
2-18 ERECTION _______________________ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ ___ _ __ _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ 8
2-19 HOIST-MECHANICAL_ __ _ _ __ ___ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ __ ___ __ ___ 8
2-20 HOIST-ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT______________________________ ________ 9
2-21 PAINTING_______________________________________________________________ 10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ ____ _ _ __ _ ________ 11
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2-01. INTRODUCTION
PART CXXVII
CREST AND HEAD GATES
CHAPTER 2
TAINTER GATES
November 1950
The tainter gate is considered the most economical, and usually the most suitable, type of
gate for a controlled spillway because of its simplicity, light weight, and low hoist capacity
requirements.
The principal objectives of this chapter are to outline for the designer the procedure involved
in developing a gate that will meet the requirements for dependable operation, minimum mainte-
nance, and long life; to standardize on the use of materials and working stresses; and. to show
typical details recommended. The material presented is based on studies and records of the
Corps of Engineers as well as on information and advice furnished by gate manufacturers and
erectors.
2-02. SCOPE
The basic and alternate designs presented are intended for flood control spillways and should
cover the more general applications for that purpose.
For the design of special tainter gates such as the" submersible" and the" moment-resisting
shell" types, reference is made to Part CXXVI-Navigation Lock and Dam Design. Certain
other types of control gates, such as radial lock valves and sluice gates, may properly be called
tainters but are not included in this chapter.
2-03. GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN
A review of a large number of tainter gate installations reveals a striking diversity in the type
of framing employed. Trusses, tied arches, and simple or continuous girders have been used, but
the original cost and maintenance charges can be held to a minimum only by proper selection of
type and sound design. It will be noted that emphasis is placed herein on simplicity of framing
and the use of a minimum number of members of fairly heavy cross section. Uniform practice
in this respect is desired as well as in the elimination of such basic errors in design as ignoring
secondary stresses in the end frames or taking care of them by extravagant use of
Existing gates of approximately the same size show weight variations of as much as 50 percent
and framing peculiarities which have caused the unit bid price for fabrication and erection to vary
even more. Excessive weight results in greater first cost for both gate and hoisting machinery.
Complexity of framing and details results in higher unit first cost and in more difficult and costly
maintenance.
The principal elements of a tainter gate structure are the skinplate assembly, the members
supporting the skinplate assembly, the end frames, the trunnions and the anchorages. Each
element requires individual study. The skinplate assembly consists of the skinplate stiffened and
supported by curved vertical beams. The members supporting the skinplateassembly are girders
or trusses spanning the gate opening horizontally. The end frames carry the reactions from the
horizontal supporting members to the trunnions and the trunnions transmit the reactions to the
anchorages. Field splices in each element should be as few as possible, depending on shipping
and erection clearances and capacity of handling equipment.
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PART CXXVU, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
All shop fabrication should be by arc welding. Modern shop methods have reduced welded
fabrication costs to a competitive level with costs of riveted work, and the saving in weight of
material and surfaces to be maintained are of great advantage. Residual stresses can be reduced
to a great extent by furnace stress relieving.
Although steel trusses for the horizontal supporting members have been used in many installa-
tions, there appears to be little reason for selection of this type of design. It is evident by reference
to Table 1, paragraph 2-07, that gates with trussed horizontal members are considerably heavier
than gates designed as recommended herein. Moreover, fabricators usually bid a higher unit
price for truss work than for girders and, generally, a truss of any type requires more work in design,
drafting, fabricating, erecting, inspecting, and maintenance. For small to medium size gates the
.horizontal supporting members may be rolled sections but for the larger sizes it may be necessary
to use welded built-up girders with deeper webs.
. The structural parts of gates, anchorages, and hoists should be of structural carbon steel of
welding quality conforming to Federal Specification QQ-S-74i, Type II, Grade A or, where justi-
fied, of low alloy, high strength steel conforming to ASTM Designation A242.
2-04. WORKING STRESSES
In general, working stresses should be in accordance with part CXXI, chapter 1, of this manual.
The basic allowable stress in structural carbon steel is 18,000 p. s. i. When secondary stresses are
included in the analysis, values 50 percent in excess of the basic stresses are permissible, provided
the resulting section meets the requirement for primary stress. This overstress allowance does not
apply to columns or struts with l/r greater than 60, or to beams with ~ ~ greater than 600.
Unit bearing on concrete should normally not exceed 0.30 j ~ . In the case of an intermediate
pier anchorage when one gate is fully loaded and the adjacent gate is unloaded, the maximum
allowable bearing stress of the embedded girder on the concrete may be increased to 0.45 j ~ , pro-
vided the normal allowable stress is not exceeded for symmetrical loading. No tension value
should be ascribed to concrete.
Unit bearing for bronze bushings in trunnions should not exceed 3,000 p. s. i. and should
preferably be limited to 2,000 p. s. i. The entire projected area is used in computing bearing values.
It should be noted that, although it would be unusual for one of a pair of adjacent gates to
be fully loaded while the other is unloaded, the secondary stresses which may be induced in the
anchorage members in an intermediate pier under this condition are so large that it is advisable
to use the 18,000 p.s. i. base for primary stresses in order to minimize distortion and thereby reduce
the secondary stresses. The end pier anchorages will, of course, be designed for the normal un-
symmetrical loading at normal basic stresses for both steel and concrete.
2-05. DIMENSIONS
The pier spacing and width of gate is limited by practical considerations such as maximum
desirable lengths of monoliths, length of spillway bridge spans, drift hazards, and loads on trun-
nions and anchorages. Ordinarily, the width of gate will be the width of monlith less the thick-
ness of pier, since more than one contraction joint per gate opening is undesirable.
. The depth of gate is usually determined chiefly by hydraulic requirements. Within limits it
is desirable to use a deep rather than a wide gate to secure a given discharge, since a shorter and
cheaper spillway results. On the other hand, it is desirable, hydraulically, to use gates as wide as
practicable in order to minimize the obstruction to flow. For example, using 0.015H as the end con-
traction coefficient and assuming (1) a 600-foot net spillway length (2) a surcharge of 30 feet on the
crest and (3) piers 8 feet thick for gates 50 feet wide or under and piers 9 feet thick for gates greater
than 50-foot wide, the over-all obstruction to flow is about 15 percent for 60-foot openings, 16 percent
for 50-foot openings and 21 percent for 40-foot openings. However, the trunnion loads, which
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PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
2-08. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The tainter gate design discussed herein is illustrated on Plates Nos. 1 to 3, inclusive. Among
the features are the inclined end frames (see paragraph 2-11) and the trunnion tie. A trunnion
tie is desirable, structurally, because it relieves the piers of nearly all lateral loads from the gate
but it is often impracticable because of possible interference with the nappe or with passage of
debris. In that case, vertical thrust beams in the anchorage assemblies, as indicated on Plate
No.5, may be used to transmit the lateral thrusts from the gate to the piers. The gate shown on
Plate No.4 is not as economical as that shown on Plate No.3 and the end frames will be subject
to considerable bending stress. However, its weight is not excessive and it may be desirable to
select this type if a trunnion tie cannot be used and if the lateral thrusts on the piers would be too
great with fully inclined end frames.
In order to minimize percentage reduction in section by possible corrosion, all members
carrying calculated stress should have a minimum thickness of % inch, except for webs of wide
flange members used as bracing for which %s-inch thickness is permissible.
2-09. SKINPLATE ASSEMBLY
Because of the constant span under varying loading on the skinplate, it is usually economical
to use two or more sizes of plate with %-inch minimum at the top and increasing with the depth
by Xs-inch increments as necessary. For very shallow gates, however, the entire skinplate may
be of one thickness. A thickness greater than % inch will rarely be required for any gate.
Reservoir operation will usually permit maintenance painting of the upstream side of the
gates during periods of pool drawdown. If the minimum pool will always or nearly always be
above the spillway crest, the computed thickness of skinplate should be increased by Xs inch to
allow for abrasion and corrosion.
The skinplate should be protected from contact with the hoist chains by narrow wearing plates
of carbon steel welded in place.
The skinplate should be designed as a continuous member spanning horizontally across the
vertical supporting members. Attempts to treat the plate as a two-way member by using hori-
zontal intercostals will involve the designer in a very complex problem. The curvature of the
plate in one direction and its indeterminate action due to the wide difference in stiffness of the
panel supporting members make an accurate analysis extremely difficult, if not impossible. Refer-
ence is made to Timoshenko's "Theory of Plates and Shells", pages 219 and 228, wherein the au-
thor states that two-way design is not applicable to cylindrical plates. Paragraph 43, of the same
reference, contains a discussion of the difficulties in analyzing flat plates on panel supports of
different rigidities. Reference is also made to a discussion by 1. K. Silverman of Schorer's Paper
No. 1938 in Volume 62 of the Transactions ASCE (1936). The discussion points out that large
stresses may be caused in horizontal skinplate supporting members, especially the bottom mem-
ber, by the arch thrusts of the loaded curved plate. The magnitude of these thrusts is difficult to
determine. In further discouragement of the two-way treatment, fabricators have estimated the
cost per pound of a skinplate assembly with vertical beams and horizontal intercostals at about
10 percent higher than one with vertical beams only.
The skinplate supporting members should be vertical curved beams without horizontal inter-
costals because of the greater likelihood of debris clinging to horizontal members and causing cor-
rosion for reasons cited above. The beams will usually be standard rolled sections but may be
built up of plates, if necessary, or formed by splitting standard or wide flange beams. Tee sections
with the stems welded to the skinplate are preferred to H or I sections in order to avoid the corrosion
which is likely to occur under a contacting flange welded at both edges. Angles, split channels
or flanged bent plates may also be used.
The skinplate assembly should be made up in shop fabricated sections consisting of a width
of skinplate welded to the curved supporting beams. The sections should be as wide as shipping
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PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
increase directly with the width and as the square of the depth, may become excessive for the larger
gates. A tainter gate of moderate size, say 40' x 28' *, will have a reaction of about 500 kips at
each trunnion,and an 8-foot pier will be adequate. When the gate size is increased to 50' x 37'
or 64' x 30', the trunnion reaction is about doubled, and the anchorage and pier design problems
become more difficult. As the depth is increased, the turning radius, which is usually about
equal to the depth, must also be increased. This may require wider piers for proper location of
the trunnion girder .
. 2-06. TRUNNION AND SILL LOCATIONS
The trunnion should be located above the water surface of the maximum flood nappe to
avoid contact with floating ice and debris. It will usually be advantageous to place the center
line of the trunnion at about the depth of the gate above the sill in order to transmit the maximum
reaction approximately horizontally to the trunnion girder. The sill should be located so that
a vertical plane tangent to the skinplate arc will intersect the spillway at or downstream from
the crest. This requirement alone will usually place the sill about two feet downstream from
the crest. Operating clearances from the bridge and the location of the hoist will usually require
the sill to be placed still further downstream but the distance from the center line of crest to the
sill should be as small as possible in order to economize on depth of gate and size of pier.
r07. WEIGHTS
Weights of typical tainter gates of structural carbon steel are shown in Table 1. Data for
gates Nos. 1,2, and 3 are taken from designs by the Oorps of Engineers as recommended herein.
Data for gates Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are from truss type designs by others. All weights are for the
movable gate structure only.
Gate No.
TABLE NO. 1
TAINTER GATE WEIGHTS
Nominal dimensions (feet)
L __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ ___ __ _ _ _ 64 X 30 _______ ::' __ ___________ _
2___ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 50 X 37 ______ ::. ___ ___________ _
3__ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ 40 X 28 _______ _: ___________ _
4__ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 40 x 32 ______ j?,- _.? __ J_.:'-,: ___________ _
5 ________ ________ ----- 40 X 25 _______ __ ___________ _
6 ______________________ 32 x 23.5 _______ __ c __ ____________ _
Area (square
feet)
1,920
1,850
1,120
1,280
1,000
750
Total weight
(pounds)
146,000
136,000
73, 500
129, 100
90,000
61, 000
Weight per
square foot
(pounds)
76
74
66
101
90
82
Gates Nos. 4,5, and 6 are included to show the heavier weights per square foot of typical truss
type gates as compared with gates Nos. 1, 2, and 3. However, gates of welded or riveted girder
design with weights per square foot almost equal to those shown for the truss type have been
built.
Although the data for gates Nos. 1,2, and 3 show a reduction in unit weight with reduction
in gate area, there is little saving in weight per square foot for gates smaller than gate No.3. The
weights of end frames, trunnions, seals,etc. do not decrease in proportion to the gate area, and
the requirement for %-inch minimum material further limits weight savings.
*Where gate size is shown in this manner the width is given firsti e. g. a 50"x 37' gate is 50' wide and 37'
deep.
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PART CXXVII. CHAPTER 2
November 1950
clearances will permit, usually about 12' 6". Edges should be stiffened and prepared in the shop
for field splices running the full depth of the gate, as shown on Plate No.3. Holes for bolting the
splices during field welding are provided in each edge stiffening plate and in the matching vertical
beam of the adjacent section.
2-10. HORIZONTAL GIRDERS
Ordinarily, two horizontal girders should be used for gate depths up to about 28 feet, and three
for depths from 28 to 37 feet. For deeper gates four or even more may be required. A design
using a minimum number of girders will simplify fabrication and erection and facilitate maintenance.
Girders may be either rolled sections or weldments made up of plates. The skinplate assembly
sections may be attached to the upstream flanges of the girders in the field by riveting, bolting or
welding at each vertical beam. If the connections are welded, holes for fitting up bolts must be
provided.
The girders should be spaced so that bending moments in the vertical beams at the girders are
about equal. This spacing will result in a heavier load on the lower girder of a two-girder gate but,
for a three-girder gate, the loads on the two lower girders will usually be so nearly equal that the
same section can be used for each.
Diagonal bracing across the downstream flanges of the girders is commonly used on tainter
gates and is designed for stresses occurring when the gate is supported at one end. The arm of
the resisting couple is assumed equal to the height of the gate. Unit stresses should not exceed
the elastic limit of the material. Such bracing is of doubtful use in a gate of this type since the plane
of the bracing will be very close to the stiff skinplate assembly and normally will probably serve
only to reduce dead load bending stresses in the flanges of the girders at the panel points. Vertical
struts may be used as an alternate to the diagonal bracing,as shown on Plate No.3.
Weep holes properly located for drainage should always be provided in the girder webs.
2-11. END FRAMES
Maximum economy in the horizontal girders will be obtained by inclining the end frames to
intersect the center line of girders at a point about one-fifth of the width of the gate from each end
(Plate No.3). The maximum moment in the center span will then be very nearly equal to the end
cantilever moments, and bending in the end frames, which would tend to bind the trunnion bearing,
will be minimized. The side thrust component of the gate reaction introduced by inclining the end
frames may be resisted by a trunnion tie (paragraph 2-12) or by designing the anchorage to trans-
mit the thrust to the pier (Plate No.5).
The slightly inclined end frame design (Plate No.4) is suitable for moderate-size gates where
a tie is undesirable and where large side thrusts cannot be transferred to the piers.
2-12. TRUNNION ASSEMBLY AND TIE
The trunnion assembly consists of a cast steel trunnion to which the main end frame members
are attached; a cast steel shoe rigidly attached to the anchorage girder; and a forged steel trunnion
pin, which transfers the gate reaction from the trunnion to the shoe. Both castings should be
annealed. The trunnion should be provided with a bushing of bronze conforming to Fed. Spec.
QQ-B-691b, Oomposition 8. The trunnion shoe is bolted to the trunnion girder after final adjust-
ment by horizontal and vertical jack screws. Keys welded to the girder provide for lateral forces
on the shoe and a poured zinc filler assures uniform contact between the shoe and the girder.
The trunnion tie is usually a steel pipe with end flanges bolted to the trunnion castings. If a
tie is used, the design of the trunnion assembly must take into account the lateral forces caused
by temperature variations in the tie. Olearance for the maximum sidewise movement of each
trunnion should be provided in the trunnion shoe to limit the thrust to the frictional resistance of
PART cxxvn, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
the trunnion pin in the bearing. Clearance from the tie to the nappe should be at least equal to
that provided for the bottom of the gate structure in the raised position.
2-13. ANCHORAGE GIRDERS
Many existing gates transmit the end frame reactions to forged trunnion pins which extend
through the downstream ends of the anchorage members, thus serving "also as anchorage girders.
In the intermediate anchorages, one pin serves adjacent gates. Since a solid cylindrical section
is very inefficient in bending, the cost of such a design is considerably more than that of the box
girder with trunnion shoes and pins described herein. At one such installation the trunnion pins
are 26 inches in diameter, 17-feet long, and weighed nearly 16 tons each before machining. In
addition to the inefficient use of material, a further objection is the lack of provision for inde-
pendent adjustment of the trunnion pins.
The box-type anchorage girder should preferably be entirely outside of the concrete pier.
If embedment is unavoidable the girder should be covered with at least W' of cork mastic to permit
free deformation of the member under load. Concealment should not be a factor since the box
design presents a good appearance. Besides shear and bending stresses, the girder will be subjected
to torsion which will be greatest when the gate is partly raised and the pool is at maximum level.
Strain gage tests, made by the Corps of Engineers on an a.ctual anchorage, show that torsional
stresses will not be excessive. A comprehensive discussion of torsion in structural members is
given in Paper No. 1941 by Lyse and Johnston in Volume 62 of the Transactions ASeE (1936).
2-14. ANCHORAGES
The anchorage shown on Plate No.5, consisting of two standard rolled beams or built-up
sections welded to the anchorage girder and to the embedded girder, should be adequate for most
gates. The tie beams should be placed so that at least 8 inches 'of concrete will cover the steel
nearest the face of the piers. The embedded girder should be designed to transmit the entire load
from the tie beams to the pier in bearing. To permit free deformation of the tie beams and prevent
tension in the pier concrete, the beams should be mechanically isolated from the concrete for their
full length by a coating of at least W' of cork mastic.
A loaded end anchorage, or an intermediate anchorage with one gate loaded and the adjacent
gate raised, will be subjected to severe racking on the frame formed by the anchorage girder and
tie beams. In addition to the large direct tension stress in the tie nearest the loaded gate, there
will be both primary and secondary bending stresses in the frame. Since the frame is restrained
against sidesway, the primary bending stress will be negligible. In order to minimize the secondary
bending stress, the tie beams should have a stiffness value as low as practicable in the plane of the
frame .. For this reason an I beam, or built-up member with narrow flanges, will be more suitable
than a wide flange beam. The length of tie beams should be limited to approximately two-thirds
of the radius of the gate.
The anchorage shown has short vertical embedded beams at the inner edges of the tie beams,
with brackets in cont.act with the top and bottom flanges of the tie beams. The purpose of these
vertical beams iato transmit to the pier the side thrust from the inclined end frames and the vertical
components (upward or downward) of the trunnion reactions. Bronze plates permit free longi-
tudinal movement of the tie beams. If a trunnion tie is provided on the gate, there will be little
side thrust except that due to temperature changes or to tendency of the anchorage frame to side-
sway under unsymmetrical loading, but the vertical beam will still be required for vertical loads and
to act as erection supports for the anchorage.
Plate No.6 shows a suggested arrangement for the end pier anchorages.
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2-15. SPECIAL ANCHORAGES
PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
,- November 1950
When trunnion loads are heavy and the piers must be light, it may be necessary to use an
anchorage which will transmit the load to the concrete below the pier rather than to the pier itself.
In this case (see Plate No.7), the anchor ties should be inclined at an angle with the horizontal
large enough to place the embedded girder well below the bottom of the pier, and columns should
be provided under the anchorage girder to take the vertical component of the trunnion loads.
Cork-tar mastic should be used to isolate the anchorage members from the concrete except at the
embedded girder and the column footings. This type of anchorage will be heavier than that
shown on Plate No.5; but the reduction in pier reinforcing ~ t e e l will partly compensate for the
extra weight of structural steel.
2-16. SEALS
Side seals should be of natural rubber with physical characteristics as listed in Civil Works
Engineer Bulletin No. 49-18. The seal section should be one which can be made by most manu-
facturers from their existing molds. The section shown on Plate No.3 will meet this requirement.
The method of attaching the seal to the gate should permit field adjustment for slight initial
pressure against t h ~ side seal rubbing plates.
The side seal rubbing plates should be of corrosion-resisting clad steel to insure a permanently
smooth surface. Adjustable anchors in blockouts in the piers permit accurate alinement of the
plates after the piers are completed. .
The type of bottom seal will depend upon the particular project requirements. If the bottom
of the flood-ctmtrol pool is below the spillway crest, and a small amount of leakage under a closed
gate is of little importance, the contact between the finished bottom edge of the skinplate and a
corrosion-resisting surface on the sill will be adequate. If storage of water for conservation, navi-
gation or power is involved, and the top of the operating pool is above the crest, a tighter bottom
seal may be required. In this case, the sill may consist of a channel into which hot lead is poured.
When cool, the surface of the lead is dressed to serve as the contact with the bottom edge of the
skinplate.
The seal arrangements described above are shown on Plate No.3. Rubber bottom seals have
been used on tainter gates but will not usually be required. If used, care should be taken to
provide protection from damage by debris passing under the gate.
2-17. HEATERS
Heating devices for the side sealing surfaces should be provided for gates which must be
operated in subfreezing weather. In areas subject to long periods of extreme cold it may be neces-
sary to heat the bottom seal or to heat the entire face of the gate, but the extent to which heating
should be provided depends upon the exposure conditions. While the main purpose of heaters is
to free the gate for operation, they will also help to reduce hoist loads and to prevent thrust from
the ice sheet in the reservoir. Electric heaters are preferable where side seals only are to be heated.
Where both the bottom and side seals are to be heated, a design which circulates a suitable anti-
freeze solution through pipes embedded in the concrete should also be considered. In the latter case,
immersion type electric heating units should be used to heat the solution which is then forced through
the embedded pipes by circulating pumps. The heating and circulating equipment can be located
on the pier along with the hoisting equipment. Since a design employing electric heaters will have
more frequent application, it is discussed below in detail.
A side seal heating device of the electrical type consists of a heater unit in a recess behind the
side seal rubbing plate. The recess should be insulated to direct the flow of heat toward the seal
and should be watertight .. A suitable side seal heater design is shown on Plate No.8. The material
in the space between the two channels should be granular vermiculite which provides good insulating
properties and which can be easily poured into the space.
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PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
The construction of the bottom seal heater of the electric type will be similar to that of the side
seal heater, except that the access recess, for the insertion of the heater units and housing of the
junction box for making the external electrical connections, would be at the center of the seal.
The length of the access recess, in this case, should be held to a minimum. One junction box
should be used for making the electrical connections to both heater elements.
The bottom seal may also be effectively heated by means of a well-insulated heater element
attached near the bottom edge of the skinplate on the downstream side.
To heat the face of the gate, the heater units should be attached directly to the downstream
side of the skinplate and covered with heavy transite or other effective insulating material. Power
supply conductors should be attached to the gate near the trunnion and carried along the end
frame to the heaters.
The heater units should be of the tubular type, consisting of a helically formed coil of chrome-
nickel resistance wire surrounded by a refractory insulating material (magnesium oxide) and encased
in a seamless tube of corrosion-resisting, non-oxidizing metal. Each end of the heater unit should
be provided with a terminal to which is connected a length of solid single-conductor, lead sheathed
cable which is wiped to the tubing of the terminal to make a watertight connection. The cable
terminates in a watertight junction box in which the connection to the power supply feeder is made.
The heater unit is quite flexible and can be readily bent to fit the contour of the recess. The side
seal heater installation detail on Plate No.8 shows the tubular type heater unit. Specifications for
these units are available in the Office, Chief of Engineers.
Reference is made to part CXXXII of the Manual, Chapter 2-Electrical Systems, for further
data on design of electrical de-icing devices.
2-18. ERECTION
Each gate should be completely erected in the shop to check accuracy of fabrication and to
facilitate field erection. Holes for field connections should be reamed with the parts assembled and
shipping pieces should be match-marked.
In the field, the gate should be completely erected and alined before final connection of the
trunnion shoes to the anchorage girders. The jackscrews and holding bolts in the trunnion shoe
connection should then be tightened to hold the gate in alinement and the gate should be raised
and lowered as a check. Molten zinc should then be poured between the base of the trunnion shoe
and the face of the anchorage girder.
It is advisable to require the fabricator to furnish an engineer to supervise erection.
2-19. HOIST-MECHANICAL
The size of the gate, the type of reservoir to be controlled, the operating criteria of the reservoir,
the type of service bridge, and the space available should be considered in determining the location
and arrangement of the hoist. A general arrangement is shown on Plate No.9, and typical designs
are shown on Plates Nos. 10, 11, and 12. Recent bidding has indicated that hoists similar to those
shown on Plates Nos. 10 and 11, incorporating helical or herringbone type speed reducers, are less
expensive than those using worm gear reducers as illustrated on Plate No. 12.
The maximum load on the hoist usually occurs at. the beginning of the hoisting cycle but it
may occur at other points in the cycle, depending on the gate radius and the relative positions of
the gate and the hoist. The total load at the sprockets is the sum of the following loads:
(1) Dead weight of the gate.
(2) Side seal friction (0.5 of the effective force on the seal).
(3) Dead weight of lifting chains.
(4) Trunnion friction (0.2 of the pressure on the trunnions).
PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
(5) Formations of ice or silt deposits on the gate, where applicable. Where the antic-
ipated amounts of such deposits or formations would produce a load less than 10 .
percent of the load due to the dead weight, they may be neglected, since the overload
capacity of the hoist can be depended upon to cover small infrequent loads of this
nature.
The design capacity should be based on the maximum load at normal speed. Loads on the
component parts should include the above loads and the applicable friction losses in the reducers,
bearings, gear trains, and chain. A hoisting speed of about 1 foot per minute has been found
satisfactory for most installations. However, the hoist speed should be varied so that the horse-
power requirement will approximately match a standard motor rating. Component parts of the
hoist are designed for a factor of safety of 5 based on normal loading and, in addition, each part
is designed for a unit stress not in excess of 75 percent of the yield point of the material under loads
resulting from the maximum torque of the motor selected. Both normal loads and loads resulting
from the maximum torque of the motors should be considered as equally divided between the
two drives of a hoist. Shock, impact, and wear factors are considered negligible and may be
disregarded.
Hoist chains having a pitch of 12 inches in conjunction with seven-tooth sprockets usually
provide the most economical over-all hoist design. Single width chains are less expensive to
manufacture than double or triple width chains and should be used wherever the hoist loading will
permit.
The reduction ratio selected for the speed reducer, connected to the motor, should be such as
to permit the use of the smallest commercial size motor-operated brake which has a torque rating
of 160 foot-pounds, for a one-hour intermittent duty and a torque rating of 125 foot-pounds for
continuous duty. Where double reduction worm gear units are used for the main reduction, ratios
offering the best efficiency should be selected since the self-locking feature of units with small helix
angles and low efficiencies serve no useful purpose on these hoists. Ratings of the reducers are based
on the rated horsepower of the motor or on full load torque, depending on the type of reducer
and the operating speed, reduced by suitable allowances for friction losses.
2-20. HOIST-ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
The electrical equipment required for the operation of a tainter gate consists of the hoisting
motor, electrically operated brake and controls. The type of equipment required by Guide Speci-
fication CE-1907, Electrical Equipment for Gate Hoists, is best suited for this application, par-
ticularly from the standpoints of operating characteristics, resistance to corrosion, and deterioration
from exposure to damp environment and safety.
In general, squirrel cage induction motors of the high-torque, high-slip type, with a frame of
splashproof construction, are used. However, there may be applications, such as in dry and
dusty locations, where the use of a totally enclosed type of motor, having the same above-described
electrical characteristics, should be considered. If a totally enclosed motor is used, small weep holes
must be provided in the lowest point of the motor frame to permit draining of condensation from
the inside of the motor. Motors with continuous ratings are used in order to obtain the lowest
over-all cost for the electrical system.
The brake is of the shoe type, spring-set with motor operated release, arranged for floor mount-
ing and provided with a watertight and dusttight enclosing case. The brake specified in the above
cited Guide Specification is of corrosion-resistant construction, using nonferrous parts for bearings,
pins, etc. The torque rating of the brake should be a value corresponding to 150 percent of full
load motor torque, when referred to the shaft on which the brake wheel is mounted. The brake is
set in the factory for the torque required and means should be provided to prevent increasing the
torque in the field.
9:
PART CliXVil. CHAPTER 2
November 1950
The control equipment consists of the controller, limit switch and master control station.
The scheme of control shown and described on Plate No. 13 should be used for all crest gate instal-
. lations using individual hoists. The controller is of the combination air-circuit-breaker disconnect
and reversing magnetic contactor type, with thermal over-load protection, all enclosed in water-
tight and dusttight enclosing case (NEMA Type IV). Two disconnects are required to allow con-
nections to be made to either of the two dam power feeders. A main line contactor is provided to
give additional reliability and safety. It will be noted that the overtravel contacts of the limit
switch are connected in the circuit of the main line coritactor.
The limit switch is of the heavy duty type and of precision construction in order to insure
reliable operation of the control system In order to insure that the construction of the case will
be sufficiently tight to keep the interior dry and clean at all times, the specifications require that all
limit switches be subjected to the Navy watertight test, which requires submergence.
2-21. PAINTING
The painting should conform with requirements contained in Guide Specification for Oivil
Works Oonstruction, OE-1409, "Painting."
On flood control and multiple purpose dams where only the upstream surface of the skinplate
of the gate is subject to submergence, the downstream surfaces may be treated as ferrous surfaces
subject to atmospheric exposure only, with the surface preparation and first coat applied in the
shop. The entire upstream surface of the skinplate. will usually be blast cleaned in the field and
protected with one of the recommended submerged exposure systems.
Finish painting of the electrical equipment should be in accordance with the standard practice
or recommendation of the manufacturer, as prescribed in Guide Specification OE-1907.
10
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Plate
No. Subject
1 Load Diagrams
2 Typical Design Data
3 Typical Design
4 Alternate Design
5 Typical Anchorage, Intermediate Pier
6 Typical Anchorage, End Pier
7 Special Anchorage
8 Side Seal Heater Detail
PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
November 1950
9 General Arrangement of Operating Machinery
10 Operating Machinery-Design "A"
11 Operating Machinery-Design "B"
12 Operating Machinery-Design "C"
13 Electrical Control System and Equipment Details
U, S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1911
For sale by the Superiutendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. O. Price 45 cents
11
DEPARTMENT OF ARMY
Vertical
921863 51 back cover)
top
center
bottom
IN DESIGN.
FOR CORROSION
SHOULD BE
(EXCEPT AS NOTED IN PAR.2-09
VERT.
HORIZ.
VERT.
HORIZ.
I' LENGTH OF GATE
I' SPAC.ING OF BEAMS
SCALES
OF
FEET
D
SCALES
-rot Gote
01
C\JI
LBS.)( lOS
FEET
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
about t of gate
FEET
ENGINEERING MANUAL PARTCXXVII, CHAPTER 2
TYPICAL DESIGN DATA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
ABOUT OF GATE
A
921863 0 - 51 (Inside back cover)
FIELD WELD
SEE PLATE 8 FOR
WITH HEATER
GROOVES
IN BRONZE BUSHIIIIG
UNLESS NOTED.
MANUAL PARr GXXVII, OHAPTER 2
TYPICAL
DEPARTMENT OF
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
FIELD
ABOUT
CHANNEL
ALL CONNECTIONS WELDED UNLESS NOTED
NOT E:
DESIIGN F!ECOMMEIIlDED
ENGINEERING PART GXXVII,GHAPTER 2
ALTERNATE DESIGN
NONE
OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
WASHINGTON,D,C.
921863 0 51 (Inside back cover) No.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
fACE
, q
= = = = = ===
p
, q
-----. ----.. ----. ---- -----. --' -1'-- ____ ----.. ------- ____ . ---- -. - ___ . _---'c.......:..
q.
SLOT DOWNSTREAM FLANGE OF CROSS GIRDER
FOR TIE BEAM FLANGES
TIE BEAM- ROLLED OR
BUILT -UP SE eTION
ONLY
921863 0 - 51 (Inside back No.5
, p
v
fACE
P L A
----..
APPR. CONSTR.
Note "A"
MASTIC APPLIED
WHEREVER REQUIRED
TO PROVIDE FREE
LONGITUDINAL MOVE-
MENT OF
TIE
OUTLINE Of PIER
x
o
!II
FACE OF PIER
SLOT UPSTREAM FLANGE OF GIRDER
FOR TIE BEAM FLANGES
APPR. CONSTR. JOINT
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
HOLE)
SYMMETRICAL
t OF PIER
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXXVII,CHAPTER 2
NOTE:
----
IF THE PIERS WILL REQUiRE EXCESSIVE REINFORCING
TO WITHSTAND LATERAL THRUSTS FROM THE TRUNN-
IONS,GATES WITH TRUNNION TIES OR WITH END
FRAMES LESS STEEPLY INCLINED SHOULD BE USED.
SCALE: NONE
WASHINGTON,D.C.
R
TYPICAL ANCHORAGE
INTERMEDIATE PIER
OFFICE. CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
OF THE ARMY
l
I' )"
CONTINUOUS
COLUMN FOR ERECTION
<'.
.1>
."
TIE-BEAM, ROLLED OR
SEE
B-B
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
a::
w
tl.
TAINTER
921863 0 - 51 (Inside back. cover) No.
..
. \' ". 9 .
."
APPROXIMATE
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
l
j
PIN
:;::"" Note"A"-Plate No.5
I
fw '// //#
,I
OF SUGGESTED FOR LARGE TAINTER
WITH LATERAL THRUST TAKEN BY TRUNNION TiE
ACROSS GATE.
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
R G
SPECIAL
CHIEF OF ENGINEERS
WORKS
Corr05iof1-resi!Jtlng clod plot!}. Cleoronce for seo/ 2" 1: l
seolplote
E-
clod plote 20'J{, sing/II
921863 0 ~ (Inside back cover) No.8
CORPS ENGINEERS
GATE SEAL HEATER WIRING DIAGRAM
GATE SEAL HEATER
INSTALLATION DETAILS
E-E
GATE SEAL HEATER ELEMENT
otherwise shown
ond 511011 be tested with
sholl be tested before ""t., "hm,np/
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXX VII
TAINTER
SIDE SEAL HEATER DETAIL
ELECTRICAL a STRUCTURAL
PLAN UNDER ROADWAY
921863 back
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXXVII CHAPTER 2
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
OF
OPERATING MACHINERY
induction type, with
BRAKE - Shoe type, wiih mo1or operated release, and
",atertigl1!and du.f-fight constructiOil.
C<lpccity of holsl- 160,000 pounds
OF
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXXVII CHAPTER 2
NGTON D.C.
CIVIL
ENGINEERING DIVISION
FILE NO. EM 127- 2 - 10
Walkway to next
pIer.
Pier
ECHANICAL
SPEED REDUCER- Single reduction, worm gear type.
SPEED REDUCER- Herringbone ,triple reduction
DE EL
FLEXIBLE COUPLlNG- locking
hold in engaged or
COUPLI NG- Ri g id flange ty pe.
FLEXIBLE COUPLING-Single engagement,flooting shaft type.
GATE POSITION INDICATOR
COUNTER- Non reset,Veeder-Root or equal
STATION - Push button
dust-tight ",,,,,,t,,,,,,,ti(ln
DISCONNECTING PLUG-
CORPS OF
Chain guard
CURRENT
p
8
Capacity of hOist-IOO,OOO pounds
ENGINEERING MANUAL PART CXXVII, CHAPTER 2
SCALE:
WASHINGTON D.C.
R G
OPERATING MACHINERY DESIGN B
CIVIL WORKS
ENGINEERING DIVISION
FILE NO. EM 127-2
SEPTEMBER 1950
PLATE NO. II
THE ARMY
(Inside cover)
ARRANGEMENT ELEMENTS
T ronsformer PCL Power conloclor, /ower
PlJsh button normally open PCM Power contactor, main
and receptacle Thermal ollerload relay
Blow -aut coil ACB Air CirclJif
CORPS OF ENGINEERS
DETAIL-A
DETAIL- B