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MOBILE PROPAGATION CHANNEL:
LARGE-SCALE PATH LOSS
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Introduction
Mobile radio channel is an important controlling
factor in wireless communication systems
Transmission path between transmitter and receiver
can vary in complexity
LOS (Line-Of-Sight) - simplex
Wired channels are stationary and predictable, radio
channels are extremely random and have complex
models
Modeling of radio channels is done in statistical
fashion based on measurements for each individual
communication system or frequency spectrum
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Propagation Models
To predict the average received signal
strength at a given distance from the
transmitter - large scale propagation
models, hundreds or thousands of meters
To predict the variability of the signal
strength, at close spatial proximity to a
particular location -Small scale or fading
models
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Free Space Propagation Model
The free space propagation model is used to
predict received signal strength when the
transmitter and receiver have a clear,
unobstructed line-of-sight path between them
The free space model predicts that received
power decays as function of the transmitter-
receiver (T-R) separation distance raised to
some power
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Free Space Propagation Model
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Free Space Propagation Model
Free space power received by a receiver antenna
which is separated from a radiating transmitting
antenna by a distance d (Friis free space equation):
P
t
is the transmitted power
P
r
(d) is the received power
G
t
, G
R
is the transmitter and receiver antenna gian
d is the T-R separation distance in meters
L is the system loss factor not related to propagation (L 1)
is the wavelength in meters
2
2 2
. . .
( )
( 4 ) . .
t t r
r
P G G
P d
d L

t
=
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Free Space Propagation Model
The gain of an antenna is related to its
effective aperture, A
e
A
e
is related to the physical size of the
antenna
is related to the carrier frequency
2
4
e
A
G
t

=
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Free Space Propagation Model
The effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP)
represents the maximum radiated power available
from a transmitter in the direction of maximum
antenna gain, compared to an isotropic radiator
In practice, effective radiated power (ERP) is used
instead of EIRP to demonstrate the maximum
radiated power as compared to a half-wave dipole
antenna
t t
EIRP PG =
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Free Space Propagation Model
The path loss for the free space model when
antenna gain are included is given by
When antenna gains are excluded, the
antennas are assumed to have unity gain and
path loss is given by
( )
( )
2
2
2
10log 10log
4
t t r
r
P GG
PL dB
P
d

t
(
= = (
(

( )
( )
2
2
2
10log 10log
4
t
r
P
PL dB
P
d

t
(
= = (
(

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Free Space Propagation Model
The Friis free space model is a only valid
predictor for P
r
for values of which are in the
far-field of the transmitting antenna
The far-field, or Fraunhofer region, of a
transmitting antenna is defined as the region
beyond the far-field distance d
f
, related to
the largest linear dimension of the transmitter
antenna aperture and the carrier wavelength
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Free Space Propagation Model
The Fraunhofer distance is given by
D is the largest physical linear dimension of
the antenna
d
f
must satisfy , and
2
2
f
D
d

=
f
d D
f
d
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Free Space Propagation Model
Large-scale propagation models use a close-in distance,
d
0
, as a known received power reference point
The received power, P
r
(d), at any distance d > d
0
, may
be related to P
r
at P
0
The reference distance must be chosen such that it lies in
the far-field region, that is, d
0
d
f
, and d
0
is chosen to be
smaller than any practical distance used in the mobile
communication system
The received power in free space at a distance greater
than d
0
is given by
( ) ( )
2
0
0 0
,
r r f
d
P d P d d d d
d
| |
= > >
|
\ .
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Free Space Propagation Model
Large dynamic range of received power
levels, often dBm or dBW units are used
to express received power levels
P
r
(d) is in dBm
P
r
(d
0
) is in watts
( )
( ) 10 log 20log
0, 001
,
r o o
r o f
P d d
P d d d d
W d
| |
| |
= + > >
| |
\ .
\ .
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Example
Given a transmitter produces 50 W of power. If this
power is applied to a unity gain antenna with 900
MHz carrier frequency, find the received power at a
free space distance of 100 m from the antenna. What
is P
r
(10 km). Assume unity gain for the receiver
antenna
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Example
The received power at 100m
The received power at 10Km
( ) W
L d
G G P
m d P
r t t
r
6
2 2
2
2 2
2
10 . 5 , 3
1 . 100 . ) 4 (
) 3 / 1 .( 1 . 1 . 50
) 4 (
100

= = = =
t t

( )
6
3, 5.10
100 10log 24, 5
0, 001
r
P d m dBm

= = =
100
( 10 ) 24, 5 20log 64, 5
10000
r
P d km dBm = = + =
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Propagation Mechanisms
Receiving power is generally the most
important parameter predicted by large-
scale propagation model based on the
physics of reflection, scattering, and
diffraction
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Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection occurs when a propagating
electromagnetic wave impinges upon an object which
has very large dimensions when compared to the
wavelength of the propagating wave.
Diffraction occurs when the radio path between the
transmitter and receiver is obstructed by a surface
that has sharp irregularities
Scattering occurs when the medium through which
the wave travels consists of objects with dimensions
that are small compared to the wavelength and
where the number of obstacles per unit volume is
large
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Reflection
Reflection occur from the surface of the
earth and from buildings and walls
When a radio wave propagating in one
medium impinges upon another
medium having different electrical
properties, the wave is partially
reflected an partially transmitted
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Reflection
The electric field intensity of the reflected and
transmitted waves may be related to the
incident wave the medium of origin through
the Fresnel reflection coefficient ()
The reflection coefficient is a function of the
material properties, and generally depends on
the wave polarization, angle of incidence, and
the frequency of the propagation wave
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Law Of Reflection At The
Boundary Between 2 Dielectrics
Reflection coefficient
Transmission coefficient
r
i
E
E
= I
1
t
i
E
T
E
= = + I
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
In mobile radio channel, the 2-ray ground
reflection model is a useful propagation
model that is based on geometrics optics, and
considers both direct path and a ground
reflected propagation path between
transmitter and receiver
This model has been found to be reasonably
accurate for predicting the large-scale signal
strength over distance of several kilometers
for mobile radio systems
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
In mobile communication systems, the
maximum T-R separation distance is at
most only a few tens of kilometers, and
the earth may be assumed to be flat
The total received E-field, E
TOT
, is then
a result of the direct line-of-sight
component, E
LOS
, and the ground
reflected component, E
g
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
If E
0
is the free space E-field (V/m) at the
reference distance d
0
from the transmitter,
then for d > d
0
, the free space propagating
E-field is given by
where represents the envelope of
the E-field at d distance from the transmitter
( )
0 0
, cos
c
E d d
E d t t
d c
e
( | |
=
| (
\ .
0 0
( , ) E d t E d d =
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
Two propagating waves arrives at the receiver: the
direct wave that travel a distance d

; and the
reflected wave that travel a distance d

The direct LOS component at the receiver can be


expressed
The E-field for the ground reflected wave can be
expressed
0 0
'
( ', ) cos
'
LOS c
E d d
E d t t
d c
e
( | |
=
| (
\ .
0 0
''
( '', ) cos
''
g c
E d d
E d t t
d c
e
( | |
= I
| (
\ .
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
According to laws of reflection in dielectrics:
Where is the reflection coefficient for ground
For small values of
i
, the reflected wave is
equal in magnitude and 180
0
out of phase
with the incident wave
i o
u u =
g i
E E = I
(1 )
t i
E E = +I
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
The resultant E-field, assuming perfect
ground reflection (i.e. = 1 and E
t
= 0) is the
vector sum of E
LOS
and E
g
TOT LOS g
E E E = +
0 0 0 0
' ''
( , ) cos[ ( 1) cos
' ''
TOT c c
E d E d d d
E d t t t
d c d c
e e
( ( | | | |
= +
| | ( (
\ . \ .
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
The path difference between line-of-sight and the
ground reflected paths can be expressed
The phase difference

between the two E-field


component and the time delay
d
between the
arrivals of the components
2 2 2 2
" ' ( ) ( )
t r t r
d d h h d h h d A= = + + +
2
" '
t r
h h
d d
d
A = ~
2
c
c
e t
u

A
A
= A =
2
d
c
c f
u
t
t
A
A
= =
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
As d becomes large, the difference between the distance
d

and d

becomes very small, and the amplitudes of E


LOS
and E
g
is virtually identical and differ only in phase
The E-field at the receiver at the distance d from the
transmitter can be written as
0 0 0 0 0 0
' "
E d E d E d
d d d
~ ~
2
sin 2 cos 2 2
0 0 0 0 A
A
= =
u
u
d
d E
d
d E
E
TOT
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
If

< 0.3 radian


E-field can be approximately as
K is constant related to E
0
, the antenna height and the
wavelength
2
sin 0, 3
2 2
t r
h h
rad
d
t u u

A A
~ = <
20 20
3
t r t r
h h h h
d
t

> ~
0
2
2 2
( / )
o t r
TOT
E d h h k
E V m
d d d
t

~ ~
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Ground Reflection (2-ray)
Model
The received power at the distance d from the
transmitter can be expressed as
Path loss 2-ray model (with antenna gains) can be
expressed in dB as
When

= , then d = (4h
t
h
r
)/ is where the ground appears in
the first Fresnel zone between the transmitter and receiver
2 2
4
( )
t r
r t t r
h h
P d PG G
d
=
( ) ( ) 40log 10log 10log 20log 20log
t r t r
PL dB d G G h = + + +
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Example
A mobile is located 5 km away from a base station.
and uses a vertical /4 monopole antenna with a gain
of 2.55 dB to receive cellular radio signals. The E
field at 1 km from the transmitter is measured to be
10-3 V/m. The carrier frequency used is 900 MHz.
(a) Find the length and gain of the receiving antenna
(b) Find the received power at the mobile using the
2-way ground model assuming the height of the
transmitting antenna is 50 m and receiving antenna
is 1.5 m above the ground.
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Example
Wavelength:
Length of the antenna:
Gain of antenna:
Since
Received power
m
f
c
33 , 0
10 . 900
10 . 3
6
8
= = =
4 8.33 L cm = =
2.55 1.8 G dB = =
r t
h h d >>
m V
m V
d
k
d
h h
d
d E
d E
r t
R
/ 10 . 1 , 113
) 10 . 5 .( 33 , 0
5 , 1 . 50 . 2
10 . 5
10 . 1 . 10 . 2
) / (
2 2
) (
6
3 3
3 3
2
0 0

=
(

=
~ ~
t

t
( ) ( )
dBm dBW
W km d P
r
68 , 92 68 , 122
10 . 4 , 5
4
33 , 0 8 , 1
377
10 . 1 , 113
) 5 (
13
2
2
6
= =
=
(

= =

t
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Diffraction
Diffraction allows radio signals to propagate
around the curved surface of the earth,
beyond horizon, and to propagate behind
obstructions
The received field strength decreases rapidly
as a receiver moves deeper into obstructed
(shadow) region.
The diffraction field still exists and often has
sufficient strength to produce a useful signal
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
Consider a transmitter and receiver separated
in free space as shown in below figure
Let an obstructing screen of effective height h
with infinite width be placed between them at
a distance d
1
from the transmitter and d
2
from the receiver
The wave propagating from the transmitter to
the receiver via the top of the screen travels
a longer distance than if a direct line-of-sight
path existed.
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
Assuming h << d
1
, d
2
and h >>
The difference between the direct path and
the diffracted path, called the excess path
length () can be obtained as
The corresponding phase difference is given
2
1 2
1 2
( )
2
h d d
d d
+
A ~
2
1 2
1 2
( ) 2 2
2
h d d
d d
t t
|

+ A
A = =
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
When
Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction parameter v is given by
Where has units of radians, the corresponding phase
difference can be expressed as
tgx x o | ~ = +
|
|
.
|

\
| +
~
2 1
2 1
d d
d d
h o
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 d d d d
v h
d d d d
o

| | | | +
= =
| |
+
\ . \ .
2
2
v
t
| A =
o
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
In practical diffraction problems, it is advantageous to reduce all
heights by a constant, so that the geometry is simplified without
changing the values of the angles
The concept of diffraction loss as a function of the path
difference around an obstruction is explained by Fresnel zones.
The Fresnel zones represent successive regions where
secondary waves have a path length from the transmitter to
receiver which are n/2 greater than the total path length of a
line-of-sight path
The successive Fresnel zone have the effect of alternately
providing constructive and destructive interference to the total
received signal
The radius of the n
th
Fresnel zone circle is denoted by r
n
and be
expressed in terms of n, , d
1
, and d
2
1 2
1 2
1 2
,
n n
n d d
r d d r
d d

= >>
+
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
In mobile communication systems, diffraction loss
occurs from the blockage of secondary waves such
that only a portion of the energy is diffracted around
an obstacle
That is, an obstruction causes a blockage of energy
from some of the Fresnel zones, thus allowing only
some of the transmitted energy to reach the receiver.
Depending on the geometry of the obstruction, the
received energy will be a vector sum of the energy
contributions from all unobstructed Fresnel zones.
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
If an obstruction does not block the volume
contained within the first Fresnel zone, the
diffraction loss will be minimal, and diffraction
effects may be neglected
In fact, a rule of thumb used for design of
line-of-sight microwave links is that as long
as 55% of the first Fresnel zone is kept clear,
then further Fresnel zone clearance does not
significantly alter the diffraction loss
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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49
Diffraction Fresnel Zone
Geometry
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Knife-edge Diffraction Model
It is impossible to make very precise estimates of the
diffraction losses
In practice, prediction is a process of theoretical
approximation modified by necessary empirical
corrections
The limiting case of propagation over a knife-edge
vies good insight into the order of magnitude of
diffraction loss
When shadowing is caused by a single object such as
a hill or mountain, the attenuation caused by
diffraction can be estimated by treating the
obstruction as a diffracting knife-edge
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51
Knife-edge Diffraction Model
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Knife-edge Diffraction Model
Consider a receiver at point R, located in the
shadowed region
The field strength at point R is a vector sum
of the fields due to all of the secondary
Huygens source in the plane above the knife-
edge
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Knife-edge Diffraction Model
The E-field strength, E
d
, of a knife-edge
diffracted wave is given by
E
0
is the free space field strength in the absence
of both the ground and the knife-edge
F(v) is the complex Fresnel integral and is a function of the
Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction paremeter v
2
2
0
(1 )
( )
2
j t
d
v
E j
F v e dt
E
t

+
= =
}
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Knife-edge Diffraction Model
The diffraction gain due to the presence of a knife-
edge, as compared to the free space E-field, is given
by
The approximate solution is given
( ) 20log ( )
d
G dB F v =
( )
( )
0.95
2
( ) 0 1
( ) 20 log(0, 5 0, 62 ) 1 0
( ) 20 log 0.5 0 1
( ) 20 log 0.4 0,1184 (0, 38 0,1 ) 1 2, 4
0, 225
( ) 20 log 2, 4
d
d
v
d
d
d
G dB v
G dB v v
G dB e v
G dB v v
G dB v
v

= s
= s s
= s s
= s s
| |
= >
|
\ .
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Example
Compute the diffraction loss between the
transmitter and receiver assuming, = 1/3
m, d
1
= 1 km, d
2
= 1 km and h = 25m
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Knife-edge Diffraction Model
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57
Example
Given
= 1/3 m,
d
1
= 1 Km,
d
2
= 1 Km
h = 25 m
Fresnel diffraction parameter
Diffraction loss is 21.71 dB
1 2
1 2
2 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
2 5 2 . 7 4
1 / 3 1 0 0 0 * 1 0 0 0
d d
v h
d d
| | + + | |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .
( ) ( ) 20log 0.225 2.74 21.71 F v dB = =
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Multiple Knife-edge Diffraction
In many practical situations, especially in hill terrain,
the propagation path may consist of more than one
obstruction, in which case the total diffraction loss
due to all of the obstacles must be computed
Bullington suggested that the series of obstacles be
replaced by a single equivalent obstacle so that the
path loss can be obtained using single knife-edge
diffraction model
This method oversimplifies the calculations and often
provides very optimistic estimates of received signal
strength
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59
Multiple Knife-edge Diffraction
60
Multiple Knife-edge Diffraction
Millington gave a wave-theory solution for the
field behind two knife edges in series
This solutions is very useful and can be
applied easily for predicting diffraction loss
due to two knife edges.
However, extending this to more than two
knife edges becomes a formidable
mathematical problem
Many models that are mathematically less
complicated have developed to estimate the
diffraction losses due to multiple obstruction
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61
Scattering
A radio wave impinges on a rough
surface, the reflected energy is spread
out (diffused) in all directions due to
scattering
The actual received signal is often
stronger than what is predicted by
reflection and diffraction models alone
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Practical Link Budget Design
Most radio propagation models are derived using a
combination of analytical and empirical models
Empirical approach is based on fitting curves or
analytical expressions that recreate a set of
measured data
Advantages: Takes into account all propagation factors, both
known and unknown
Disadvantages: New models need to be measured for
different environment or frequency
Over many years, some classical propagation models
have been developed, which are used to predict
large-scale coverage for mobile communication
system design
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63
Log-Distance Path Loss Model
The average large-scale path loss for an arbitrary T-R
separation is expressed as a function of distance by
using a path loss exponent, n
n is the path loss exponent
d
0
is the close-in distance which is determined from
measurements close to the transmitter
d is the T-R separation distance
0
( )
n
d
PL d
d
| |

|
\ .
0
0
( )[ ] ( ) 10 log
d
PL d dB PL d n
d
| |
= +
|
\ .
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Log-Distance Path Loss Model
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65
Log-normal Shadowing
Log-distance path loss model does not
consider the fact that the surrounding
environmental clutter may be vastly different
at two different location having the same T-R
separation
This leads to measured signals which are
vastly have shown that at any value d, the
path loss at a particular location is random
and distributed log-normal (normal in dB)
about the mean distance dependent value
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Log-normal Shadowing
That is
And (antenna gains included in PL(d) )
X

is a zero-mean Gaussian distributed random variable (in


dB) with standard deviation (also in dB)
0
0
( )[ ] ( ) ( ) 10 log
d
PL d dB PL d X PL d n X
d
o o
| |
= + = + +
|
\ .
( )[ ] ( )[ ] ( )[ ]
r t
P d dBm P d dBm PL d dB =
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Log-normal Shadowing
Since PL(d) is a random variable with a normal
distribution in dB about the distance dependent
mean, so is P
r
(d), and Q-function or error function
(erf) amy be used to determine the probability that
the received signal level will exceed a particular level
The Q-function
2
2
1 1
( ) 1
2 2 2
x
z
z
Q z e d x er f
t

( | |
= =
( |
\ .
}
( ) 1 ( ) Q z Q z =
68
Log-normal Shadowing
The probability that the received signal level will
exceed a certain value can be calculated from the
cumulative density function
Similarly, the probability that the received signal level
will be below is given by
( )
( )
Pr ( )
r
r
P d
P d Q

o
| |

> =
|
\ .
( )
( )
Pr ( )
r
r
P d
P d Q

o
| |

< =
|
\ .
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69
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
For a circular coverage area having radius R
from a base station, let there be some
desired received signal threshold
We are interested in computing U(), the
percentage of useful service area, i.e. the
percentage of area with a received signal that
is equal or greater than
70
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
Let d = r represent the radial distance from the
transmitter
It can be shown that Pr[P
r
(r) > ] is the probability
that the random received signal at d = r exceeds the
threshold within an incremental area dA
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71
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
U() can be found by
( ) | | | |
2
2 2
0 0
1 1
P r ( ) P r ( )
R
r r
U P r dA P r rd rd
R R
t
u
t t
= > = >
} } }
( )
0
0
( ) ( ) 1 1
Pr ( )
2 2 2
[ ( ( ) 10 lg )]
1 1
2 2 2
r r
r
t
P r P r
P r Q erf
r
P PL d n
d
erf

o o

o
| | | |

> = =
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
+
| |
\ . |
=
|
|
|
\ .
72
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
In order to determine the path loss as referenced to
the cell boundary (r = R), it is clear that
0
0
( ) 10 log 10 log ( )
R r
PL r n n PL d
d R
| |
| |
= + +
| |
\ .
\ .
( )
0
0
( ) 10 log 10 log
1 1
Pr ( )
2 2 2
t
r
R r
P PL d n n
d R
P d erf

o
| | ( | | | |
| |
| + +
( | | |
\ . | ( \ . \ .
> =
|
|
|
\ .
3/7/2012
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73
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
If we let
Then
0
0
( ) 10 log
2
t
R
P PL d n
d
a

o
| |
+ +
|
\ .
=
10 log
2
n e
b
o
=
( )
2
0
1 1
ln
2
R
r
U r erf a b dr
R R

| |
= +
|
\ .
}
74
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
By substituting
By choosing the signal level such that
(i.e. a = 0)
log( ) t a b r R = +
( )
2
1 2
1 1
1 ( ) 1
2
ab
b
ab
U erf a e erf
b

| |

|
\ .
| |
( | |
= + |
| (
|
\ .
\ .
( )
r
P R =
( )
2
1
1 1
1 1
2
b
U e erf
b

| |

|
\ .
| |
( | |
= + |
| (
|
\ .
\ .
3/7/2012
38
75
Determination of Percentage
of Coverage Area
76
Example
Four received power measurements were taken at the distances
of 100m, 200m, 1 km and 3 km from a transmitter. These
measured values are given in the following table.
The path loss equation model for other measurements follows
log normal shadowing model where d
0
= 100 m.
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77
Example
(a) Find the minimum mean square error
(MMSE) estimate for the path loss
exponent n.
(b) Calculate the standard deviation about
the mean value
(c) Estimate the received power at d = 2 km
using the resulting model
(d) Predict the likelihood that the received
signal at 2 km will be greater than -60
dBm.
78
Example
The MMSE estimate may be found using the following
method: Let p
i
be the received power at a distance d
i
and let be the estimate for p
i
using the (d/d
0
)
n
path loss model. The sum of squared errors between
the measured and estimated is given by
The value of n which minimizes the mean square
error can be obtained by equating the derivative of
J(n) to zero, and then solving by n
i
p
( )

=
=
k
i
i i
p p n J
1
2
) (
3/7/2012
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79
Example
We find
Since P(d
0
) = 0 dBm, the following estimates for in dBm
The sum of squared errors is then by
Setting
0
( ) 10 log
100
i
i i
d
p p d n
| |
=
|
\ .
i
p
1
0 p =
2
3 p n =
3
10 p n =
4
14.77 p n =
2 2 2 2
2
( ) (0 0) (20 ( 3 )) ( 35 ( 10 )) ( 70 (14.77 ))
65.25 2887.8 327.153
J n n n n
n n
= + + +
= +
( )
654.306 2887.8 0 4.4
dJ n
n n
dn
= = =
80
Example
The variance at n = 4.4 can be obtained
2
( )
4
J n
o =
2 2 2 2
( ) (0 0) (20 13.2) ( 35 44) ( 70 64.988) 152.36 J n = + + + + + + + =
2
152.36 4 38.09 o = =
6.17dB o =
3/7/2012
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81
Example
The estimate of the received power at d = 2Km is
given by
The probability that the received signal level will be
greater than -60dBm is given by
2000
0 10.4, 4 log 57, 24
100
p dBm
| |
= =
|
\ .
( )
% 4 , 67
17 , 6
) 24 , 57 ( 60
) (
60 ) ( Pr
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

= >
Q
d P
Q dBm d P
r
r
o

82
Outdoor Propagation Model
Longley-Rice Model
Okumura Model
Hata Model
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83
Longley-Rice Model
Applicable to point-to-point communication systems
in frequency range from 40MHz to 100GHz, over
different kind of terrain
Longley-Rice propagation prediction model is also
referred to as the ITS irregular terrain model
Longley-Rice model is also available as a computer
program calculate large-scale median transmission
loss relative to free space loss over irregular terrain
for frequencies between 20MHz to 10GHz
There have been many modifications and corrections
to the Longley-Rice model to deal with radio
propagation in urban area this is particularly
relevant to mobile radio
84
Okumura Model
It is one of the most widely used models for
signal prediction in urban area.
This model is applicable for frequencies in
range 10MHz to 1920MHz (although it is
typically extrapolated up to 3000MHz) and
distance of 1Km to 100Km
It can be used for base station antenna
height ranging from 30m to 1000m
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85
Okumura Model
Okumura developed a set of curves giving the
median attenuation relative to free space (A
mu
) , in
an urban area over a quasi-smooth terrain with a
base station effective antenna height (h
te
) of 200m
and a mobile antenna height (h
re
) of 3 m
To determine path loss using Okumuras model, the
free space loss between the points of interest is first
determined, and then the value of A
mu
(f,d) (as read
from the curves) is added to it along with correction
factors to account for the type of terrain.
86
Okumura Model
The model can be expressed as
Where L
50
is the 50
th
percentile (i.e. median) value of
propagation path loss
L
F
is the free space path loss
A
mu
is the median attenuation relative to free space
G(h
re
) is the base station antenna height gain factor
G(h
re
) is the mobile antenna height gain factor
G
area
is the gain due to the type of environment
50
( ) ( , ) ( ) ( )
F mu te re area
L dB L A f d G h G h G = +
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87
Okumura Model
88
Okumura Model
3/7/2012
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89
Okumura Model
Okumura found that G(h
te
) varies at a rate of
20dB/decade and G(h
re
) varies at a rate of
10dB/decade for height less than 3m
( ) 20 lg 1000 30
200
( ) 10 lg 3
3
( ) 20 lg 10 3
3
te
te te
re
re re
re
re re
h
G h m h m
h
G h h m
h
G h m h m
| |
= > >
|
\ .
| |
= s
|
\ .
| |
= > >
|
\ .
90
Okumura Model
Other corrections may also be applied to Okumuras
model
Okumuras model is wholly based on measured data
and does not provide any analytical explanation
Okumuras model is considered to be among the
simplest and best in terms of accuracy in path loss
prediction for mature cellular and land mobile radio
systems in cluttered environment
It is very practical and has become a standard for
system planning in modern land mobile radio system
in Japan
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91
Okumura Model
The major disadvantage with the model
is its slow response to rapid changes in
terrain, therefore the model is fairly
good in urban and suburban area, but
not good as in rural area
Common standard deviations between
predicted and measured path loss
values are around 10dB to 14dB
92
Example
Find the median path loss using Okumuras
model for d = 50Km, h
te
= 100m, h
re
= 10m in
an urban environment. If the base station
radiated an EIRP of 1KW at a carrier
frequency of 900MHz. Find the power at the
receiver (assume a unity gain receiving
antenna)
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93
Example
The free space path loss L
F
can be calculated as:
From the Okumura curves
A
mu
(900MHz, 50Km) = 43 dB
G
area
= 9 dB
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2 3 2
1 / 3
10 log 10 log 125.5
4 * 4 * (50 *10 )
F
L dB
d

t t
= = =
100
( ) 20 log 20 log 6
200 200
10
( ) 20 log 20 log 10.46
3 3
te
te
re
re
h
G h dB
h
G h dB
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
94
Example
The total mean path loss is
The average received power is
50
( ) ( , ) ( ) ( ) 155.04
F mu te re area
L dB L A f d G h G h G dB = + =
50
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
60 155.04 0 95.04
r r
P d EIRP dBm L dB G dB
dBm dB dB dBm
= +
= + =
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95
Hata Model
Hata model is an empirical formulation of the
graphical path loss data provided by Okumura
Applicable form frequencies range from
150MHz to 1500MHz
Hata presented the urban area propagation
loss as a standard formula and supplied
correction equations for application to other
solutions
96
Hata Model
The standard formula for median path loss in urban
area is given by
f
c
is the frequency (in MHz) from 150MHz to 1500MHz
h
te
is the effective transmitter (base station) antenna height
(in meters) ranging from 30m to 200m
h
re
is the effective receiver (mobile) antenna height (in
meters) ranging from 1m to 10m
d is the T-R separation distance (in Km)
a(h
re
) is correction factor for effective mobile antenna height
which is the function of the size of the coverage area
50
( )( ) 69.55 26.16log 13.82log ( )
(44.9 6.55log ) log
c te re
te
L urban dB f h a h
h d
= +
+
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97
Hata Model
For a small to medium sized city, the mobile antenna
correction factor is given by
For a large city, it is given by
( ) (1.1log 0.7) (1.56log 0.8)
re c re c
a h f h f =
2
( ) 8.29(log1.54 ) 1.1 300
re re c
a h h dB f MHz = s
2
( ) 3.2(log11.75 ) 4.97 300
re re c
a h h dB f MHz = >
98
Hata Model
The path loss in a suburban area the standard Hata
formula is modified as
The path loss in open rural areas is modified as
( )
2
50 50
( ) ( ) 2 log 28 5.4
c
L dB L urban f = (

2
50 50
( ) ( ) 4.78(log ) 18.33log 40.98
c c
L dB L urban f f =
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99
Hata Model
Although Hatas model does not have any of
the path specific corrections which are
available in Okumuras model, the
expressions have significant practical value
The predictions of Hata model compare very
close with the original Okumura model, as
long as d exceeds 1Km.
This model is well suited for large cell mobile
systems, but no personal communications
systems (PCS) which have cells on the order
of 1Km radius
100
PCS Extension to Hata Model
European Co-operative for Scientific and
Technical research (EURO-COST) formed the
COST-231 working committee to develop an
extended version of Hata model
COST-231 proposed the following formula to
extend Hata model to 2GHz
The COST-231 extension of the Hata model is
restricted to the following parameters:
f : 1500MHz 2000MHz
h
te
: 30m to 200m
h
re
: 1m to 10m
d: 1Km to 10Km
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101
PCS Extension to Hata Model
The proposed model path loss is
a(h
re
) is defined above
C
M
= 0 dB for medium sized city and suburban areas
C
M
= 3 dB for metropolitan centers
50
( ) 46.3 33.9log 13.82log ( )
(44.9 6.55log ) log
c te re
te M
L urban f h a h
h d C
= +
+ +
102
Walfisch and Bertoni Model
Model is developed by Walfisch and Bertoni
Considers the impact of rooftops and building height by using
diffraction to predict average signal strength at street level
The model considers the path loss, S, to be a product of three
factors
Where P
0
represents free space loss between isotropic
antennas given by
The factor Q
2
gives the reduction in the rooftop signal due
to the row of building which immediately shadow the
receiver at street level
The P
1
term is based upon diffraction and determines the
signal loss from the rooftop to the street
2
0 1
S PQ P =
( )
2
0
4 P R t =
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103
Walfisch and Bertoni Model
In dB, the path loss is given
L
0
represents free space loss
L
rts
represents the rooftop-to-street diffraction and
scatter loss
L
ms
denotes multiscreen diffraction loss due to the
rows of buildings
0
( )
rts ms
S dB L L L = + +
104
Walfisch and Bertoni Model
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105
Indoor Propagation Models
The indoor radio channel differs from the traditional
mobile radio channel in two aspects the distances
covered are much smaller, and the variability of the
environment is much greater for a much smaller of T-
R separation distances.
Propagation within buildings is strongly influenced by
specific features such as the layout of the building,
construction materials and the building type
Indoor radio propagation is dominated by the same
mechanisms as outdoor: reflection, diffraction, and
scattering
In general, indoor channels may be classified either
as line-of-sight (LOS) or obstructed (OBS) with
varying degrees of clutter
106
Partition Losses (Same Floor)
Buildings have a wide variety of partitions
and obstacles which form the internal and
external structure
Partitions that are formed as part of the
building structure are called hard partitions,
and partitions that may be moved and which
do not span to the ceiling are called soft
partition
Partitions vary widely in their physical and
electrical characteristics, making it difficult to
apply general models to specific indoor
installation
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107
Partition Losses (Same Floor)
108
Partition Losses (Between
Floor)
The losses between floors of a building are
determined by the external dimensions and
materials of the building, as well as, the type
of construction used to create the floors and
the external surroundings
The following table illustrated values for floor
attenuation factor (FAF) in three buildings
It can be seen that for all three buildings, the
attenuation between one floor of the building
is greater than the incremental attenuation
caused by each additional floor
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109
Partition Losses (Between
Floor)
110
Log-distance Path Loss Model
Indoor path loss obeys the distance power
law
Where the value of n depends on the
surroundings and building type
X

represents a normal random variable in dB


having a standard deviation of dB
0
0
( ) ( ) 10 log
d
PL dB PL d n X
d
o
| |
= + +
|
\ .
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111
Log-distance Path Loss Model
112
Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint
Model
The Ericsson radio system model obtained by
measurement in a multiple floor office building
The model has four breakpoints and considers both
an upper and lower bound on the path loss
The model also assumes that there is 30dB
attenuation at d
0
= 1m, which can be shown to be
accurate for f = 900MHz and unity gain antenna
Rather than assuming a log-normal shadowing
component, the Ericsson model provides a
deterministic limit on the range of path loss at a
particular distance
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113
Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint
Model
114
Attenuation Factor Model
An in-building propagation model that
includes the effect of building type as well as
the variations caused by obstacles
This model provides flexibility and was shown
to reduce the standard deviation between
measured and predicted path loss to around
4dB, as compare to 13dB when only a log-
distance model was used in two different
buildings
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115
Attenuation Factor Model
The attenuation factor model is given
Where n
SF
represents the exponent value for the
same floor measurement. If a good estimate for n
exists on the same floor, then the path loss on a
different floor can be predicted by adding an
appropriate value of FAF
| | | | | |
0
0
( ) ( ) 19 log
SF
d
PL d dB PL d dB n FAF dB
d
| |
= + +
|
\ .
116
Attenuation Factor Model
FAF may be replace by an exponent which
already considers the effects of multiple floor
separation
When n
MF
denotes a path loss exponent based on
measurements through multiple floor
| | | |
0
0
( ) ( ) 19 log
MF
d
PL d dB PL d dB n
d
| |
= +
|
\ .
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117
Attenuation Factor Model
118
Attenuation Factor Model
Devasirvatham, et. al. found that in-building path
loss obeys free space plus an additional loss factor
which increase exponentially with distance as in
following table
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119
Attenuation Factor Model
Path loss is possible to modify as follows
Where is the attenuation constant for the
channel with units of dB per meter (dB/m)
| | ( )| | | |
0
0
( ) 20log
d
PL d dB PL d dB d FAF dB
d
o
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
o
120
Measured Indoor Path Loss
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61
121
Measured Indoor Path Loss
122
Measured Indoor Path Loss
3/7/2012
62
123
Signal Penetration into
Buildings
The signal strength inside of a building due to an external
transmitter is important for wireless systems that share
frequencies with neighboring buildings or with outdoor systems
As with propagation measurements between floors, it is difficult
to determine exact models for penetration as only a limited
number of experiments have been published, and they are
sometimes difficult to compare
Some generalizations can be made from the literature
measurements reported: signal strength received inside a
building increase with height. At the lower floors of a building,
the urban clutter induces greater attenuation and reduces the
level of penetration. At the higher floor, a LOS path may exist,
thus causing a stronger incident signal at the exterior walls of
the building