Sie sind auf Seite 1von 38

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. Forward ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii

2. Acknowledgement ------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii

3. Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

4. Training Procedures --------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

5. Annex I -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28

7. Annex II ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29

8. Annex III ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31

9. Reference --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32

10. Resources and Budget ----------------------------------------------------------------- 33

1
FORWARD.

The effects of the current war in South Sudan cannot be over emphasised. The Socio-
economic structures have been destroyed and social displacement and insecurity is the
order of the day. Draughts and floods which are more eminent in Bahr el Ghazal has
added more suffering to the community living in this region.

The situation after a long period of relief interventions now warrants a need to make
transitional plans from relief to food self sufficiency and development. This is a process
of transformation from dependency to food self-reliance. The food security situation in
Bahr el Ghazal in general and Aweil East County in particular is characterised by lack of
trained extension workers, poor or low key extension service, resulting to food insecurity.

The training curriculum is therefore developed to address this anormally by trying to


target community based extension workers (CBEWs) in Aweil East County of the Bahr El
Ghazal region as a problem solving strategy, to improve on extension service delivery.

It is hoped that the trainers will be able to use it as a guide to developing their own
training mannuals. I too hope that the SRRA Agriculture Coordination office will approve
of its use even beyond Bahr-El-Ghazal.

Thank you.

Henry Taban
Agriculture Sector Head
IAS - Kampala.

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

I would like to extend my sincere heartfelt appreciation to the following resource persons
who sacrificed to go and sit with me in Yei for several days to put bits and pieces
together to formulate and develop this training curriculum.

Mr. Thomas Bully - Horticultural production

Mr. Eliakima Kenyi - Agronomy

Mr. James Gbagbe Duku - Agroforestry

Mr. Joseph Mwirigi - Agriculture extension and rural sociology

Mr. Emmanuel Dusman - Farm Management

3
1. INTRODUCTION:
This training curriculum is compiled to address the problem of lack of trained staff in
Agriculture sector in Aweil East County in Bahr-El-Ghazal. The deficiency has resulted
into poor coverage in Extension services and the consequences has added injury to
continuous dependency on food handouts with little effort to create awareness on its
danger.
The course guidelines originate from the efforts of a seven men team facilitated by
International Aid Sweden (IAS) and led by Henry Taban Solomon; the Agriculture Sector
Head. During the curriculum development workshop in Yei, many reference books and
notes were made available to substantiate the opinions of the technocrats in the workshop.
The result is the production of this document.
It has taken eight working days for the team to put the bits and pieces together to produce
this curriculum. It is hoped that all will be transformed into a reality in order to alleviate
the deficiency so mentioned earlier.

2. TRAINING PROCEDURES:

Course Objectives.
i. To train grassroots community extension workers in basic and effective agricultural
techniques.
ii. Equip the community with trained agriculture workers who will (be committed) help
them identify opportunities available for sustainable Agriculture.
iii. To train Agricultural workers who will transform the community from the tradition on
increased food production, to modern techniques that will improve food production.
iv. To train trainees in modern food crop production and processing techniques and
utilization of the products.
v. To improve on the quality and coverage of extension services in the Region, in order to
transform the community from relief dependency to their own food sufficiency and
Reliance.
vi. To enable the extension workers acquires knowledge and skills, which they, will
disseminate to the community to improve their standard of living.
vii. To make the extension workers become responsible and accountable to their
communities.
viii. To sensitise the extension workers to create awareness in the community, in order to
appreciate and undertake farming as a business and not only cultural entity.
ix. To create awareness for the other stakeholders e.g. local authorities about the existence
of the training centre.
x. To establish a data collection centre in collaboration with SRRA database in the region,
for those other stakeholders who would like to use the information.

2.2 Training Duration:


The Course duration is three months. And will run for a total of 400 active hours.
Saturdays will be mostly utilised for trainees practicals in the field. Trainees are expected
to arrive the training centre on the 1st of June and Graduate in August with certificates.

2.3 Selection Criteria:


It is anticipated that the training centre would not only serve the community in Aweil East
County but probably the entire region. Therefore trainees selection has a rationale on
representation where possible. Chiefs, Administrative officials of the existing political
strategies and SRRA shall be involved in the identification and selection process.
However, academic qualification will be uniform to all areas. Upper primary is the

4
minimum academic requirement. And the lowest and highest age limits are 18 to 45 years
respectively. Qualified men and women are all given equal opportunity for the training.
(Reference on selection guidelines Annex 1).

2.4 ACIEK TRAINING CENTRE:


This name originates from a Dinka dialect meaning; meaning ”Enlightenment’, which
therefore implies that the centre is for enlightening the community. This is a multipurpose
training centre for capacity building. Current Training programs are Bible training and
Agricultural Extension Education which includes Ox-plough Training as well.

2.5 Responsibilities of the Agriculture sector during training:-


♦ To organise the training for 25 extension workers.
♦ Disseminate information to respective stakeholders regarding the training.
♦ Advertise intake of trainees through meetings, NGOs, SRRA etc.
♦ Accommodation/feed the trainees
♦ Recruit mostly competent Sudanese Nationals as trainers.
♦ Accommodate the trainers.
♦ Release funds for other expenses pertaining to the smooth running of the training.
♦ Ensure that English will be the language of instruction
♦ Liase with Relevant Authorities like SRRA Agriculture Coordination office on
selection exercise, transportation and security of the trainees.
♦ Promote cordial relationship with the community in which the centre is established.

2.6 Responsibilities of the Authorities;- (SRRA Agriculture Co-ordination and SRRA


County Secretary).
♦ Approve Nominees to be trained.
♦ Advise the management of the centre on cultural and traditional norms from violation.
♦ Liase with IAS on matters affecting the well being of the trainees and staff.
♦ Promote collaboration/co-ordination with NGOs and other institutions in the region
with the objectives and management of the centre.
♦ Is/are responsible stakeholders. The County after few years will take over the
management of the centre.

2.6 Responsibility of the community:


♦ Participate through the chiefs in the identification/selection of the nominees for
training.
♦ Support trainees during and after training to implement the knowledge acquired at the
centre.
♦ Monitor/report un-usual behaviour of trainee to the relevant authorities.

2.7 Methodology:
As the trainers are well qualified they will be able to use their expertise to employ as
many comprehensive-teaching methodologies as possible in order to facilitate those
trainees with poor educational background.
The following are a few teaching methods that will mainly be used in the centre.
- Lectures/Brainstorming
- O&A
- Plenary/group discussions
- Classroom and field demonstrations
- Role plays/Drama

5
- Case study
- Field/site visits
- Quiz/assessment tests.

2.7.1 Teaching aids:


Visual: Video, posters, charts, life seedlings, seeds, tools/materials like marker
pens and flip charts, white boards.
Others:Samples for practicals in food technology.

2.7.2 Award of Certificates:


Attendance certificates will be awarded to those who have successfully completed the
duration of training without significant absenteeism. Any trainee who absent
himself/herself for more than a week with or without permission will not be awarded a
certificate.
An end of course assessment examination will be given and although the award of the
certificate is attendance, there will be grades to motivate the trainees to work hard. A
transcript giving details of subjects attended against marks obtained will be attached to
the certificates.

Sample
Marks Grades.
0 – 39% - Failed
40 – 49% - Pass (pass on Certificate)
50 – 59% - Good (Good pass)
60 – 79% - Very good (Credit)
80 – 100% - Excellent (Distinction).

2.8.3 Evaluation:
The trainers and the course content will be evaluated at the end of the course period by the
graduands. The evaluation report is important for improvement in future course
deliverance.

2.8.4 Follow up:


Follow up is a means of getting in touch with the trainees wherever they are deployed. Its
for the centre to acquaint itself with the progress or challenges they face and how they
could be given moral/other support. The management of this training package will design
and develop a follow – up method to reach the trainees. Other useful means like work
plans and contact information will be left by each trainee at the centre for an effective
follow up.

2.8.5 Rules/Regulation:
A set of rules and regulations have been formulated to safe guard the smooth execution of
the training package. A copy will be given to each eligible trainee on arrival. One copy
will be stuck on the notice board in the classroom for the consumption of those concern. A
sample of these rules is on Annex II.

2.8.6 A course content:


A comprehensive course content guide is produced to direct the training team. The
following course codes have been created to make it easy for the trainees to remember
his/her subject especially during assessment tests or exams.

6
1. Extension A 001
2. Agronomy A 002
3. Nutrition A 003
4. Farm management A 004
5. Horticulture A 005
6. Agro-forestry A 006
7. Livestock Production A 007

course content details

Course Code 001

AGRICULTURE EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT.

Objectives:

To equip Agriculture trainees with knowledge and skills that will enable them to help farmers
identify, analyse and deal with their production problems.

Attitudes:
The trainees will be able to appreciate the importance of Agriculture extension in rural
development.

Skills:
To equip trainees with skills and techniques that will enable the rural community identify and
address their own problems.

S/NO TOPIC COURSE CONTENT TIME


1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Agriculture Extension (Definition)
1.2. History of agriculture extension 2 hours
1.3. Elements of agriculture extension
1.4. Importance of agriculture extension
1.5. Extension problems in developing
countries.
- Population problem
- Inappropriate content
- Lack of practical skills.
- Management problems
- Lack of supportive services

7
2 AGRICULTURE 2.1. The role of Agriculture Extension
EXTENSION Agent.
AGENT 2.2. Extension agent as 4 hours
- a change agent
- agriculture Advisor

2.3 Selection and Selection techniques


of Extension Agents.
- Personal qualities
- Professional qualities.

3 PRINCIPLES OF 3.1. Guidelines/Principles 2 hours


EXTENSION WORK
4 EXTENSION 4.1. Sources of Extension knowledge.
METHODS - Informal education
- Formal education
- Non formal education
4.2 Formal Vs Non formal education 4 hours
4.3 Initiating Change.
- Establishing rapport
- Winning the support of leaders
- The problem identification
approach
- Building on the local culture
- Choosing contact farmers.
5 TEACHING AND 5.1. The concept of Adult Education
LEARNING 5.2. Principles of Adult learning
PROCESS 5.3. Nature of learning 2 hours
5.4. Barriers to learning
5.5. Motivation to Adult learning
6 EXTENSION 6.1. - Conventional extension approach.
APPROACHES - Farmer to farmer approach
- Contract farming approach 4 hrs

6.2 Roles of farmer promoters


6.3 Qualities of farmer’s promoters.

8
7 SOCIAL CHANGE 7.1. Adoption and Diffusion of
innovations
7.2. Innovations:
- Sources of innovations
- Innovation characteristics 5 hrs
affecting the rate of adoption.
7.3 Diffusion:
7.4 Adoption process.
7.5 Stages of adoption process.
7.6 Classification of social change
- Immanent change
- Contract change.
7.7 Barriers to social change.
7.8 Factors motivating people to accept
a change.
- Psychological factors
- Sociological factors
- Economic factors
7.9 Elements of social change
- Stratification and mobility
- conformity and deviant

8 SOCIAL SYSTEMS 8.1. social Stratification


AND ADOPTION 8.2. Social Mobility
- Horizontal mobility
- Vertical mobility
8.3 Adaptors category
- Innovators 3 hours
- Early adaptors
- Early Majority
- Late Majority
- Laggards.
8.4 Characteristics of adoptors
category
8.5 Steps in learning - innovation
diffusion process
- Awareness stage
- Interest stage
- Trial stage
- Evaluation
- Adoption/Rejection stage.
8.6 Collection of innovation/Diffusion
process.
- Stimulation
- initiation
- Legitimating
- Decision to act
- Rejection or adoption

9
9 COMMUNITY 9.1. Development (Definition)
PARTICIPATION IN Initiating development in the
RURAL village 3 hours
DEVELOPMENT 9.2. -Self-help schemes and social
clubs
-The animation rural
9.3. Group Dynamics
- Traditional African groups
- Modern groups
9.4. Problems of groups.
9.5. Why Extension Agents use groups.
♦ Why extension Agents use
groups
♦ Purpose of group formation
♦ Why individuals join in
groups.

9.6 Group membership Behaviour


- Dominator
- Aggressor
- Blocker
- Self Confessor
- Play boy

10
10 POWER AND 10.1. Leader
LEADERSHIP 10.2. Influence
Sources of influence
- Legitimacy of position
- Charisma
- Social Control
10.3. Types of power
- Expert power
- Reference power 3 hours
- Reward power.

10.4 Leadership:
Characteristics of leaders
(a) A leader with an internal
orientation.
(b) A leader with external
orientation
(c) Follower
(d) Aloof individual
(e) Deviant

10.5 Types of leaders.


♦ Authoritarian
♦ Democratic
♦ Laizzer fair
♦ Autocratic

10.6 Determination of leaders.


Formal Vs. Informal Leaders
10.7 Selection of leaders.
10.8 General duties of a leader.
11 COMMUNICATION 11.0. Communication Channels
- Mass media
- Extension agents and
commercial firms 4 hours
- Personal contact with other
farmers
11.1 Communication channels in
innovation diffusion process.

11
12 LEARNING 12.1. Extension Teaching methods.
PRACTICAL 12.2. Classification of extension 4 hours
SKILLS teaching methods
(a) Group methods
- Result demonstration
- Method demonstration
(b) Mass method
♦ Posters
♦ Pamphlets etc
(c) Individual methods.
Home and Farm visits
12.3. Result Demonstration
12.4. Method Demonstration

Total hours: Theory 38 hours


Out reach program
- Training and visits 14 hours
- Extension meetings 8 hours
60 hours
NOTE:
1. Trainees shall be expected to be in attendance throughout the course.
2. (CAT) Continuous Assessment tests shall be given within class sessions at the end
of every month. These shall add up to 30% of the final exams.
OUYTREEACH PROGRAM
a) Training and visits (Home and Farm visits)
Trainees shall carry out these practical endeavours in-groups.
This will entail:
(a) Choosing contact farmers
(b) Giving agricultural advise to the contact farmers. This is aimed at
enhancing their capability in disseminating agriculture information
acquired in class.

At the end of the practical session, trainees in their respective groups will be
expected to write a report. This part shall add up to 10% of the final exams.

b) Extension meetings
Students shall be expected to carry out extension meetings in groups. Extension meetings
in the outreach program are aimed at measuring the capability of the trainees in the
communication process.

A prior arrangement to meet with the community and county leaders shall be made by the
students. The training centre shall also write to notify the authority concerned about the
program.

Students shall be given various topics to choose; only one that they will base on, in their
extension message.

Assessment will be done on the sport. There will be a tutor to assess every group wherever
it will be conducting the meeting. This will add up to 10% of the final exams.

Reference: Agriculture extension in developing countries- by M.E Adams

12
REQUIREMENTS:
- Manila papers
- Permanent marker pens
- White board markers and White board

course code 002


AGRONOMY

TOPIC: CROP PRODUCTION.

Knowledge: (a) To make trainees to understand the importance of priciples of


crop production and their application.

Attitude: (b) Trainees will be able to appreciate the content of the subject.

Skill: (c) Equip the trainees with techniques of land preparation and their field
practicals and management.

S/NO TOPICS CONTENT DURATION


(HRS)
1 Introduction of 1.1. Definition of Agriculture
Agriculture 1.2. Importance of Agriculture. 2 hours
1.3. Problems facing Agriculture.
1.4. Systems and types of farming in
Southern Sudan
2 Soils 2.1 Definition of soil
2.2 Formation of soils
2.3 Factors influencing soil formation 2 hours
2.4 Soil profile
2.5 Soil texture, structure and soil
classification.
2.6 Soil sampling
3 Field Practices 3.1 Definition of a seed
3.2 Seed bed preparation
3.3 Reasons for preparing seed bed
3.4 Methods of preparing seed bed 3 hours
3.5 Advantages and disadvantages of
mechanical land preparation
4 Planting and 4.1 Planting depth
Sowing 4.2 Mono cropping versus inter
cropping
4.3 Row planting verses boad
casting 4 hours
4.5 Thinning

13
4.6 Gapping
4.7 Planting time

5 Climatic features 5.1 Rains


5.2 Rehability of rains in Southern
Sudan 3 hours
5.3 Negative and positive effects of
erosion, storm damage
5.4 Temperature
5.5 Altitude
5.6 Light

6 Principles of 6.1 Seed 2 hours


Vegetative 6.2 Vegetative
propagation 6.3 Factors affecting cuttings and laying
7 Weeds and Control 7.1 Importance of weeds
7.2 Effects of weeds 2 hours
7.3 Level of quality products
7.4 Lower quality pastures
7.5 Increase in cost production
7.6 Poisonous
7.7 Harbour of pest and diseases
7.8 Irrigation and navigation blockage.
8 Pests and Diseases 8.1 Common weeds
control 8.2 Weed control methods
8.3 Cultural weed control 4 hours
8.4 Mechanical weed control
8.5 Biological weed control.
9 Major field crops 9.1 Cereals e.g. sorghum,maize, bult-rice,
rice, millit etc.
9.2 Oil crops e.g groundnuts, simsim, 8 hours
sun-flower etc.
9.3 Legume crops e.g peas, beans, soya
beans, bambara mit etc.
9.4 Root crops e.g. cassava, yams,
potatoes etc.
10 Grass and Fodder 10.1 Introduction 2 hours
10.2 Grass land management.
10.3 Important grasses and legumes
11 Storage 11.1 Types of storage
11.2 Factors affecting food crop storage.
11.3 Control meansures on storage 5 hours
facility (cultural methods).
11.4 Control of grain storage.
11.5 Storage hygiene
12 Post Harvest 12.1 Drying
12.2 Moisture content 2 hours
12.3 Storage
12.4 Pests and diseases

14
PRACTICALS

S/NO TOPICS CONTENT DURATION


1 Soils 1.1. Identification of soils 4 hours
1.2. Collection of different soils
1.3. Soil sampling
1.4. Structures
2 Seed 2.1 Identification of different seeds 1 Hour
3 Seed bed 3.1 Clearance
preparation 3.2 Digging
3.3 Harrowing 4 hours
3.4 Measurement
4 Planting/sowing 4.1 Planting
4.2 Thining 4 hours
4.3 ¨Gapping
5 Erosion 5.1 Different types of erosions 2 hours
6 Vegetative plants 6.1 Stalks 1 hour
6.2 Cuttings
7 Weeds 7.1 Different weeds 2 hours
7.2 Pests and disease control
8 Major crops 8.1 Identification of crops
8.2 Cereals 2 hours
8.3 Oils
8.4 Roots
9 Grasses 9.1 Different grass Legumes, cereals 2 hours
10 Storage 10.1 Local stores 4 hours
10.2 Improved stores
11 Harvesting 11.1 Drying and time
11.2 Measuring moisture 5 hours
11.3 Control of pests and diseases
11.4 Harvesting methods

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PRACTICALS.


S/NO ITEM QUANTITY COST (Ushs)
1 Hoes 26 65,000
2 Rakes 10 50,000
3 Wheel borrows 02 110,000
4 Shovels 05 25,000
5 Pangas 02 5,000
6 Sisal -roll 26 10,000
7 Fork - hoes 05 25,000
8 Exercise books 200 90,000
TOTAL 276 380,000

15
Course code 003
HUMAN NUTRITION:

Objectives:
Trainees to understand the importance of nutritional implications in human diet.

Attitudes:
Trainees to appreciate the content of nutrition.

Skills:
Trainees to be equiped with skills for identification of different types of foods and their
preparetion and identification of balanced diet difficiency symbol/diseases.

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 NUTRITION (Definition)


1.2 Factors influencing nutritional status.
1.3 NUTRIENTS
1.4 Types of nutrition and their uses.
1.5 Using nutrients to produce energy. 6 hours
1.6 Uses of nutritients in body production against
diseases.
1.7 CARBOHYDRATES.
♦ Fats
♦ Proteins
♦ Vitamins
♦ Water
2 PROMOTION OF 2.1. TYPES OF FOOD.
NUTRITION 2.2. Nutrients in
(a) Vegetables 4 hours
(b) Fruits
(c) Foods from animals
(d) Oils and Fats
(e) Different kinds of milk
(f) Sugar and sugery foods.
3 SOCIAL AND 3.1. Food habits and their origin
CULTURAL 4 hours
FACTORS IN 3.2 Nutritional advantages of traditional
NUTRITION food habits.
16
3.3 Food Taboos.
4 NUTRITIONAL 4.1. MALNUTRITION
PROBLEMS 4.2. Symptoms of Maltrition
4.3 Kwashaiorkor 4 hours
- Symtoms
- Effects
- Treatment

DIABETS
- Symptoms
- Effcts
- Treatment/control.
5 FOOD 5.1. BACTERIA (Definition)
CONITAMINATION 5.2. Food Bacteria 5 hours
5.3. Food and Water contamination
5.4. Keeping food clean
5.5. Making bitter cassave taste to eat
6 FOOD PRODUCTION 6.1 Measures to be taken in food production.
6.2. PRACTICALS
Methods of food production:
- Steaming 7 hours
- Grilling
- Stewing
- Dip frying
- Shallow frying
- Seasoning
Theory 23 hours
Practicals 7 hours
TOTAL 30 HOURS

FOOD AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.


ITEMS QTY COST/UNIT TOTAL COST REMARKS
(Ksh) (Ksh)
FOOD Potatoes 5 kgs 150
Cooking Oil 10 Litres 800
Salt 2 kg 40
Sugar 10 kg 100 Local market
Eggs 2 trays 200 400
Baking power 3 pcs 20 60
Yeast 2 pcs - 100
Wheat flour 10 kg 25 500
Maize flour 10 kg 25 300
Rice 5 kg 100 500
Sorghum 10 kg 60 600 local
purcahse
Cassava open - -
Onion/Galics 5 kg 200 1000 local
pruchase
Leafy vegetables local - 300 local

17
purchase
Carrots 5 kg 60 300
Green grains 5 kg 60 300
Beans 5 kg 60 300
Cow peas 5 kg 60 300
Blue band 2 kg 1000 200
Milk powder 2 kg 1000 2000
Tea 2 kg - 500 local
purchase
Tea strainers 2 pcs - 100
UNTENSILS Deep frying pan 1 pc - 1000
Shallow frying pan 1 pc - 500
Certlery 1 set - 500
Serving spoon 1 pcs - 200
Table knives 2 pcs - 200

Course code 004


FARM MANAGEMENT.

Objectives:

To impart knowledge and skills to the trainees so as to enable them assist the rural community
solve their agricultural resource management.

Attitude:

Trainers will appreciate the importance of farm management in the rural economy.

Skills:

To equip trainees with skilss and knowledge that will enable the rural community make proper
use of their land resource.

S/NO TOPICS CONTENT TIME


1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition 2 hours
1.2 Different homesteads in Northern
Bahr-el- Ghazal
2 FARM PLANNING 2.1 Selection of suitable farm sites
2.2 Farm layout and Designs.
2.3 Farm Calendar 2 hours
2.4 Farm inputs plan
- Labour
- Seeds
- Farm tools
2.5 Practicals (site visit)

18
3 MEASUREMENTS 3.1 Setting a straight line and a right
angle. 3 hours
3.2 Farm area measurement and area
culculations.
3.3 Culculations of Labout cost in relation
to field area.
4 AGRICULTURE 4.1 Shifting , rotation, momocropping 2 hours
SYSTEMS continuous cropping, mixed cropping,
mixed farming, bush fallowing.
5 FARM TOOLS, 5.1 Farm implements. ------------------ 3 hours
MACHINERY AND Use and care -------------------------
STRUCTURES 5.2 Appropriate machines --------------
5.3 Farm structures
- Fence ----------------------
- Animal shelters -----------etc.
6 FARM RECORDS, 6.1 Importance of keeping farm records, 4 hours
ACCOUNTS AND accounts and procedures.
STORE PROCEDURES 6.2 Farm records
6.3 Financial Documents and books.
- Invoices, receipts, payment
vouchers, delivery notes, purchase
order.
- Ledger books, cash books and
inventories.
6.4 Store procedures: 2 hours
- Requisition slips
- Issue slips
- Receipt slip
- Delivery note (way bills)
- Stock ledger/stock cards
7 AGRICULTURE 7.1 Definition
ECONOMICS 7.2 Factors of production 4 hours
- Land, labour, capital and
management.
7.3 Economic importance of Agriculture
in Southern Sudan.
7.4 Agriculture as a source of foreign
currency for essential imports.
7.5 Agriculture as a source of income to
the farmer.
- Provision of food, shelter, clothing,
drugs, fuel etc.
8 LAND TENURE 8.1 Traditional land tenure. 2 hours
8.2 Present law
9 COST OF PRODUCTION 9.1 Inputs in production 2 hours
9.2 Outputs
- Gross margin/profit …………..

19
10 MARKETING 10.1 Definitions:
- Market 3 hours
- Marketing

10.2 Supply and Demand and Prices.


- The law of supply and demand

10.3 Transport and Distribution:


- Stores
- Processing
- Grading
- Packaging

course code 005


HORTICULTURE.

OBJECTIVES

Knowledge: To help the trainees understand social, economic and nutritious values of
horticultural crops.

Attitudes: The trainees will be able to appreciate the importance of modern production
techniques, and utilisation of garden and orchard products.

Skills: The trainees will be equipped with modern applicable techniques of Orchard and
garden establishment, management, processing and utilisation.

S/NO TOPIC CONTENT TIME


1.0 HORTICULTURE (FRUITS 1.1. Introduction
AND VEGETABLE
PRODUCTION) 1.2. What is Horticulture?
2 hours
1.3. Principles of Horticulture

1.4. Parts of Horticulture


(a) Fruits
(b) Vegetables
2.0 SITE SELECTION OF FRUITS SITE SELECTION
AND VEGETABLE 2.1 Soil Fertility 2 hours

2.2 Topography

2.3 Protection
20
2.4 Water Point
3.0 Maintenance of soil Fertility 3.1 Farming and formation of soil fertility.

3.2 Manure 3 hours

3.3 Compost

3.4 Rotation

4.0 NURSERY RAISING 4.1 Site selection.

4.2 Nursery seed bed preparation.

4.3 Nursery sowing


4 hours
4.4 Types of Beds.

(a) Raised bed


(b) Sunked bed
(c) Ridges

4.5 Care after sowing.


5.0 CULTURAL PRACTICES TRANSPLANTING
5.1 Time for transplanting

5.2 Transplanting techniques 4 hours


(a) Spacing
(b) Watering

5.3 Care
(a) Watering
(b) Desuckering
(c) Mulching
(d) Staking

6.0 HARVEST Harvesting


7.1 Time

7.2 Charateristics
2 hours
7.3 Harvesting methods

7.4 Marketing

7.5 Processing

7.0 COMMON TYPES OF Tomatoes Cucumber

21
VEGETABLES Okra Onion
Water melon Pumpkin 6 hours
Jew melon Kale
Peas Pegion peas
Amarathus

FRUITS TREE

1.0 PROPAGATION METHOD


1.1 By seed
1.2 Vegetative

1.2.1 Grafting
1.2.2 Budding

And their advantages and disadvantages


1.3 SELECTION OF PLANT
MATERIAL.

1.3.1 Selection of scion 5 hours


1.3.2 Selection of root stock
2.4 Seed Extraction
2.4.1 Characteristics of parent plant
2.4.2 Characteristics of the fruit
2.4.3 Extraction
2.4.4 Processing and storage
2.0 LAND PREPARATION 2.1 Explanation
AND TRANSPLANTING 2.1.1 Land preparation
2.1.2 Transplanting techniques 3 hours
2.2.Watering
3.1 Weeding
3.0 GENERAL ORCHARD
MANAGEMENT 3.2 Mulching

3.3. De-suckering

3.5 Cover crops 4 hours

22
3.6 Pest, disease and control

3.7 Harvesting techniques.

3.8 Marketing

PRACTICES

1 SEED BED PREPARATION 1.1. Clearance


1.2. Digging 8 hours
1.3. Harrowing
1.4. Levelling
2 NURSERY RAISING 2.1. Sowing techniques
2.2. Watering
2.3. Mulching
2.4. Shade 2 hours
2.5. Nursery bed care
3 TRANSPLANTING 3.1. Transplanting techniques
3.2. Care 2 hours
4 CULTURAL PRACTICES 4.1. Watering
4.2 Mulching
4.3 De-suckering
4.4 Staking 5 hours
4.5 Weeding
4.6 Pest and disease control
4.7 Harvesting techniques
4.8 Processing
5 FRUIT TREE 5.1. Seed selection
PROPAGATION 5.2. Grafting
5.3. Budding
5.4. Seedling care 3 hours
5.5. Transplanting and its
techniques
6 SOIL FERTILITY 6.1. Compost
MAINTENANCE 6.2. Manure
6.3 Rotation calendar 5 hours

TIME ALLOCATION

Theory 34 hrs
Practicals 24 hrs
TOTAL 60 hrs

PRACTICAL REQUIREMENTS

S/NO. ITEM QUANTITY COST

23
1 TOOLS
♦ Hoe 25
♦ Panga 25
♦ Water can 5
2
♦ Wheel barrow
10
♦ Fork hoe 25
♦ Rake 25
♦ Hand fork 10
♦ Fork 3
♦ Budding/Grafting Knife 5
♦ Shovels
2 SEEDS
♦ Okra 4 kg
♦ Onion 2 kg
♦ Jew melon 2 kg
2 kg
♦ Water melon
1 kg
♦ Cucumber 1 kg
♦ Pumpkin 1 kg
♦ Amaranthus 2 kg
♦ Kales 1 kg
♦ Cabbage 3 kg
♦ Carrot 1 kg
TOTAL 20 KG

24
Course code 006

AGROFORESTRY.

Objectives.
To equip the trainees with knowledge and practical skills that will enable them to assist farmers to
incorporate trees planting in crop production.

Attitude:
The trainees will be able to appreciate the content of the subject.

Skills:
To equip the trainees with skills and techniques that will assist the rural community plant crops
together with trees that are of economic importance to their daily life.

S/NO TOPIC/SUBJECT CONTENT TIME HOURS


1 Agro-forestry. 1.1. Introduction
1.2 What is Agro-forestry?.
1.3 Definition of key items 3 hours
1.3.1 Agro-forestry practices
1.3.2 Agro-forestry Systems
1.4 Importance of agro-forestry on
social and economic aspects.

2 Useful 1.2. Characteristics of agro-forestry trees


(Multipurpose) 1.3. Benefits/uses to man and livestock. 4 hours
agro-forestry trees 1.4. Indigenous and exotic agro-forestry
trees - the identification.
3 Nursery planning, 3.1. Nursery planning
design, layout and 3.1.1. Nursery site selection
management 3.1.2. Seed collection, extraction and
storage.
3.1.3 Nursery design and layout. 4 hours
3.1.4. Sowing of seeds, peregrination
treatment
3.2 Nursery management
3.2.1 Tending operations: Not pruning,

25
hardening
3.3. Preparation of seed beds, pre- 6 hours
Germination treatment and sowing.

3.3.1 Preparation of seedbeds, pre-


germination treatment and sowing.
3.3.2 Pricking -out (potting) of seedlings
prior to filling of seedling pots.

4 Agro-forestry 4.1. Types of Agro-forestry systems.


systems 4.2. Establishment and management of 4 hours
agro-forestry systems.
4.3. Advantages of agro-forestry systems to
the traditional methods of farming.
5 Agro-forestry for 5.1. Agro-forestry practices for erosion 4 hours
the control of soil Control.
erosion

5.2. Practical 2 hours


5.2.1. Trees/Shrubs check soil erosion
6 Agro-forestry for 6.1. Soil fertility and land degradation.
maintenance of soil 6.2. Maintaining/improving soil fertility by
fertility use of organic matter. 5 hours
6.3 Composting
6.3.1. Methods of composting
- Pile method
- Pit method
6.4 Effects of trees on soils.
6.5 Functions of trees and shrubs in soil and
water conservation:
- Supplementary use
- Direct use.
6.6 Practical
6.6.1 Compost making (pit and pile) 4 hours
methods.
6.6.2 How to use compost.
7 Agro-forestry and 7.1. The role of roots to tap sources of water
soil water (avail water to animal (crop). 4 hours
management 7.2. Tree -crop combination can achieve
higher water utilization.
7.3. Trees can increase water availability
to crops.

8 Environmental 8.1. Afforestation


protection 8.1.1. Woodlot establishment
- Communal 2 hours
- Individual
8.2. Peafforestation
8.2.1. Planting trees on
- Degraded lands (deforested areas)

26
-Denuded hill tops
-Along river/stream banks.
8.3 Fuel saving devices
8.3.1. Mudstone construction and use
8.4. Methods of cooking
8.5. Practicals
8.5.1. Construction and use of mudstones
8.5.2. Comparison in timing 4 hours
- Three stones and mud-stove
- Covered and uncovered
looking/boiling of water.
- Cooking in the open and sheltered
places
- Cooking/boiling soaked and dry
beans or maize.
9 Assessment Tests 9.1. At the end of June 1
9.2. In the middle of July 1
9.3. At the end of July 1
9.4. IN the middle of August 1

Time Allocation:

- Theory - 18 hours
- Group discussion
- Role play - 12 hours
- Brainstorming

- Practicals - 20 hours
- Assessment Tests

TOTAL - 50 HOURS

Nursery/Afforestation Material requirement.

S/NO ITEM QTY COST/UNIT TOTAL REMARK


COST
1 Tree seeds 100 kgs 4,000@ 400,000
(Assorted)
2 Wheel barrow 2 Pcs 50,000@ 100,000
3 Knap-sack 2 Pcs 80,000 @ 160,000
sprayer
4 Potholing 20,000 Pcs
tubings/Pots
5 Hoes 20 Pcs 4,000@ 20,000
6 Rakes 5 Pcs 5,000@ 25,000
7 Axes 5 Pcs 4,000@ 20,000
8 Watering cans 5 Pcs 15,000@ 75,000
9 Tape measure (50 2 Pcs 30,000@ 60,000

27
m)
10 Spades/Shovels 3 Pcs 15,000@ 45,000
11 Bared wires 4 Rolls 50,000@ 200,000
12 U-nails 10 Kg 2,000@ 20,000
13 Nails 4” +3” 5 Kgs 2,000@ 10,000
14 Clawed hammers 3 Pcs 12,000@ 36,000
15 Saucepans (with 3 Pcs 6,000@ 18,000
lids)
16 Buckets (Plastic) 3 Pcs 3,000@ 9,000
17 Basins 3 Pcs 2,000@ 6,000
18 Nylon rope 2 Rolls 20,000@ 40,000
19 Machetes 5 Pcs 4,000@ 20,000
(pangas)
20 Jerry cans (20 5 Pcs 4,000@ 20,000
litres)
21 Water mugs 3 Pcs 1,500@ 4,500
Chemical 30 Kg - 40,000 Control
Marshal suscon termites
Fencing poles 300 Pcs 500@ 150,000
(wood)

28
Course code 007:

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Objectives

Knowledge:
To trainees so that as extension workers, they can assist small scale farmers in the introduction
and productive Husbandary of animals.

Attitude:
Trainees to appreciate the incorporation of livestock husbandary in crop production.

Skills:
Trainees will be equiped with skills on how to identify livestock feeds, constuents of a balanced
ration , selection of suitable breeding stock and control of pests and diseases.

S/No. Topic Content Time


1 Animal Husbandry INTRODUCTION:
1.1. Definition of livestock production
Husbandry and its importance
1.2. Types of animals in the region. 2 hours
1.3. Animal distribution in the Region
1.4. Problems of keeping animals) or
factors affecting animal production
2 ANATOMY Alimentary Canal
2.1. Types of alimentary canals
2.1.1 Ruminant
2.1.2 Non-Ruminant 4 hours
2.2. Food intake
2.2.1 Digestion
2.2.2 Observation
2.2.3 Assimilation
2.2.4 Excretion
2.2.5 Diagram
3 NUTRITION 3.1.1 Nutrition in animals
3.1.2 Types of foods
3.1.3 Abalance ration
3.2 Pasture 3 hours

29
3.2.1 Explanation of pasture and types
of pasture
3.2.2 Composition and Evaluation
3.2.3 Suitable available feed stuffs
3.3. Basic Ration formulation
3.3.1 Cattle
3.3.2 Sheep
3.3.3 Goats
3.3.4 Others in Locality.
4 MANAGEMENT 4.1 Importance of management 2 hours
CARE 4.2 Suitable management
4.2.1. Feeding
4.2.2. Housing
5 BREEDING 5.1. Selection creteria
MANAGEMENT 5.2. Mating
5.3. Gestation 2 hours
5.4. Birth
5.5. Weaning
5.6. Pest and disease control -
(issolation).
5.7. Livestock records
6 ANIMAL Introduction to: 4 hours
HEALTH 6.1. Characteristics of health
6.2. Disease
6.3. Definition of disease
6.4 Causes of diesease
6.5 Symptoms of diseases
6.6 Treatment and control
6.7 Parasites
6.7.1. Internal
6.7.2. External
7 ANIMAL 7.1. Introduction 2 hours
PRODUCTS Types of products
7.1.1 Primary products
7.1.2 Secondary products
7.1.3 Their importance
7.1.4 Importance of by-products
8 External Parts of an 1.1 Physical introduction to
1 animal 1.1.1 Cattle
1.1.2 Goal 4 hours
1.1.3 Sheep
1.1.4 Poutry
2 Anatomy 2: Introduction: Physical organs
2.1. Alimentary
2.2. Digestive 3 hours
2.3. Reproductive

30
3 Animal Handling Introduction:
3.1. Milking procedures:
3.2. Rope
3.3. Construction of crash
4 Milking 4.1. Animal 4 hours
4.2 Milking untensils
4.3. Milking techniques
4.5. Check for mastitis

Time Allocation
Theory 19 hours
Practicals 11 hours
TOTAL 30 hours

PRACTICALS

S/NO TOPICS CONTENT DURATION


1 Soils 1.5. Identification of soils 4 hours
1.6. Collection of different soils
1.7. Soil sampling
1.8. Structures
2 Seed 2.1 Identification of different seeds 1 Hour
3 Seed bed 3.1 Clearance
preparation 3.2 Digging
3.3 Harrowing 4 hours
3.4 Measurement
4 Planting/sowing 4.4 Planting
4.5 Thining 4 hours
4.6 ¨Gapping
5 Erosion 5.1 Different types of erosions 2 hours
6 Vegetative plants 6.1 Stalks 1 hour
6.2 Cuttings
7 Weeds 7.1 Different weeds 2 hours
7.2 Pests and disease control
8 Major crops 8.1 Identification of crops
8.2 Cereals 2 hours
8.3 Oils
8.4 Roots
9 Grasses 9.1 Different grass Legumes, cereals 2 hours
10 Storage 10.1 Local stores 4 hours
10.2 Improved stores
11 Harvesting 11.1 Drying and time
11.2 Measuring moisture 5 hours
11.3 Control of pests and diseases
11.4 Harvesting methods

31
3. RESOURCES/BUDGET.
For the training to succeed, there must be financial implications. The adhoc training
committee presented a list of materials and other financial requirements which are found
in Annex iv.

APPENDICIES

Annex I: Selection Criteria.


1. Trainees shall be selected from the grassroots, at Boma level.

2. Boma Administrators and chiefs should form the nomination team.

3. Boma Administrators, chiefs and other organised bodies will identify suitable
candidates, at least 5 per county for an interview at county level.

4. selection interview will be conducted by SRRA at county level.

5. Successful candidates shall be sent with an official letter from the county authority to
the training centre introducing the trainees.

6. Each county authority will organise to and for transport of the successful candidates to
the centre not later than the date mentioned respectively.

7. English is the medium for instruction, therefore successful candidates must have
understanding of English.

8. Eligible candidates must have completed or attained upper primary standard.

9. Minimum and maximum age requirements is 18 – 45 respectively.

32
ACIEK AGRICULTURE TRAINING CENTRE
Akuem - ( Aweil East county)

Rules and Regulations

1. Academic Studies:
(i) All trainees must respect all the regulations of the school and instructor.

(ii) All trainees must be punctual in attending classes, practicals and examination.

(iii) All trainees must take special care of the training materials (that is) books,
desk, chairs etc.

(iv) Trainees should respect each other.

(v) Trainees are expected to co-operate with the instructors and other staff.

(vi) All trainees must complete their assignments within given time.

2. Residence:
(i) Trainees must take proper care of furniture, bedding and other property of the
school in their residence.

(ii) No trainee should leave the school at any time without permission from the
school Administration.

(iii) All lights must be put off at 10:00 pm.

(iv) Trainees must keep their dormitories, toilets, bathrooms and the surroundings
clean.

3. Feeding:
(i) All trainees to know and observe time of meals. The school will not cater for
those who miss meals at scheduled time.

33
(ii) No food should be given to visitors by trainees without prior permission form
the instructor.

(iii) Special food will be provided only if the trainees concern produces medical
document from recognised medical practitioner.

(iv) All types of meals should be taken in the dinning hall.

(v) Use available water economically especially drinking water.

(vi) Any problem (s) related to food must be reported immediately to the instructor
on duty.

(vii) All trainees must conduct themselves decently in the dinning hall.

(viii) Only the student in the food committee is allowed to the kitchen.

4. Security/socialisation:
(i) No trainee is allowed to carry any weapon in the dormitory or school
premises.

(ii) Acts such as fights, drunkard ness, strikes, rumour mongering, are forbidden.

(iii) No trainee is allowed to entertain any visitor in the school premises without the
knowledge of Master on duty.

(iv) No smoking in the classroom, dinning hall or in the dormitories. No


disturbances e.g. playing music, shouting, talking loudly etc while others are
studying.

(v) Trainees are no allowed to enter the instructor’s house for any reasons.

(vi) Trainees must respect all the workers within and around the school premises.

(vii) Entertainments will be provided from time to time and trainees are expected to
conduct themselves decently on such occasions.

I ----------------------------------------------------, having read all the rules governing


this Training School, I promise that I will not break any of them and incase I
violate any of the above rules or regulations, I shall be subjected to the School
penalties.

Signature: ------------------------------ Date: --------------------

34
Annex 3: REFERENCE. A

1. AAH (2001) training Curriculum: For Community Based Extension workers. AAH

2. (1999) Curriculum for training of production and environmental production


committees: Module one. Moyo Food and Income security project.

3. Agusiobo O.N (1984) vegetable gardening MACMILLAN EDUCATION.

4. Dugues H. and Leener P. (1989) land and life: African Gardens and Orchards.

Macmillan Publishers.

5. F.A.O (1997) Agriculture, Food and Nutrition a resource book for teachers of
Agriculture, FAO Rome, 1997.

6. GAAAND SRRA – Community Agricultural extension workers. Field hand book.


Torit county – Eastern Equatoria GAA/SRRA.

7. IIRR (1998) sustainable Agriculture Extension manual: For Eastern and Southern
Africa.

8. Lawrence 0.0 (2000) training notes: For CRS Sudan. Community Agricultural
Extension Agents.

9. MEL N. (1984) Yei Agricultural training centre, Draft ERAP. Regional Ministry of
Agriculture and Natural Resources, Juba.

10. Ngungu D. et al (1978) East Africa Agriculture. Machimillan Education Ltd.

11. Sharland R.W (1993) Extension Assistant Training manual: For Mundri District.

35
REFRENCE: B

Reference For Further Readings.

1. Rocheleau, D; et at, 1988


Agro-forestry in Dry Land Africa
ICRAF, Nairobi.

2. IIRR, 1998
Sustainable Agriculture Extension Manual for Eastern and Southern Africa. IIRR,
Nairobi.

3. Young, Anthony, 1997


Agro-forestry for soil management, 2nd Edition.
Cab, International, in association with ICRAF, Wallington.

4. Agro-forestry seed circular, AFSICH,


Number 3, March 1993

5. Agro-forestry for Today, ICRAF,


Volume 5, Number 1 January – March, 1993.

6. Young, Anthony, 1997


Agro-forestry for soil conversation
Cab, International, in association with ICRAF, Wallington

7. Ngugi, D.N, et al, 1978


East African Agriculture, 3rd Edition.
Macmillan Education Ltd, London.

36
Annex 4: Budget.

S/No Description Unit Qty Ksh cost @ Total Remarks


unit
A 1. Sugar Bags 5 5,000 30,000 Lp
2. Tea leaves Carton 1 40 26,000 Lp
3. Sorghum flour Bags 6 1250 7,500 LP
4. & Maize Sacks 12 1000 12,000 Lp
5. Rice Bags 6 3000 18,000 Lp
6. Beans/Peas Carton 4 800 32,000 Lp
7. Oil Kg 2 1800 36,000 Ki
8. Fish Kg 24 200 4,800 Lp
9. Meat Lumpsome 24 100 2,400 Lp
10. Vegetables (assorted) Kg 2,000 Lp
11. Onions Bags 45 200 9,000 Lp
12. Groundnuts 3 2500 7,500 Lp

SUB-TOTAL 102,600
A1 Supplies
1. Washing soap carton 6 800 4,800
2. Toilet soap bales 1 499 400
3. Dettol Doz 1 2400 2,400
SUN-TOTAL 7,600
B Agricultural practical
protective wear
1. Gum boots Pairs 30 800 2,400
37
2. Over ralls Pairs 25 1000 2,500
3. Dust coats Pairs 5 500 2,500
4. Rain coats Pairs 30 1000 30,000
SUB-TOTAL 81,500
B1 Training aid
1. White board Pcs 1 17500 17500
2. Seedlings Kg 100 200 20,000
3. Marker pens Pkt 6 450 2,700
4. Exercise books Cartons 2 2880 5,760
5. Pens Pkts 3 400 1,200
6. Pencils Doz 5 120 1,200
7. Rubbers Pkts 1 288 288
8. Rullers Doz 3 120 360
9. Dust baord Pcs 15 50 750
10. File folders Pcs 30 30 900
11. A4 Note books Pcs 15 100 1,500
12. Fullscap Reams 5 500 2,500
13. Photocopiers Pcs 1 150,00 150,000
14. Printers Pcs 1 16,000 16,000
15. Printing papers Reams 2 500 1000
16. Photocopying Pcs 5 500 2,500
17. Castlages Pcs 2 2000 4,000
18. Sharpeners Pcs 25 3 75
19. Correcting fluid Tubes 2 50 100

SUB-TOTAL 227,733
Grand total A 102600
A1 7,600
B 81,500
B2 227,733
419,433
5% Contigency 20,972
GRAND TOTAL 440,405

Key
Lp - Local Purchase

38