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Candidate

Name

Centre
Number

Candidate
Number
2

General Certificate of Education


Advanced Subsidiary/Advanced

541/01

PHYSICS
ASSESSMENT UNIT PH1:
WAVES, LIGHT AND BASICS
P.M. FRIDAY, 11 January 2008
(1 hour 30 minutes)

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS
In addition to this examination paper, you may require a calculator.

For Examiners
use only.
1

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

Write your name, centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the
top of this page.

Answer all questions.

Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet.

You are advised to spend not more than 45 minutes on questions 1 to 5.

7
Total

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES


The total number of marks available for this paper is 90.
The number of marks is given in brackets at the end of each question or
part question.
You are reminded of the necessity for good English and orderly presentation in your answers.
You are reminded to show all working. Credit is given for correct working even when the final
answer given is incorrect.
Your attention is drawn to the table of Mathematical Data and Relationships on the back page of
this paper.
No certificate will be awarded to a candidate detected in any unfair practice during the examination.
VP*(W08-541-01)

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Fundamental Constants
Avogadro constant

NA = 60 1023 mol1

Fundamental electronic charge

Mass of an electron

me = 91 1031 kg

Mass of a proton

mp = 167 1027 kg

Molar gas constant

= 83 J mol1 K1

Acceleration due to gravity at sea level

= 98 m s2

[Gravitational field strength at sea level

= 98 N kg1]

Universal constant of gravitation

G = 67 1011 N m 2 kg2

Planck constant

Unified mass unit

1 u

= 16 1019 C

= 66 1034 J s
= 166 1027 kg

Boltzmann constant

= 138 1023 J K1

Speed of light in vacuo

= 30 108 m s1

Permittivity of free space

o = 89 1012 F m1

Permeability of free space

o = 4 107 H m1

(541-01)

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1.

Examiner
only

A uniform building brick is pulled


along rough ground by a newtonmeter
as shown in the diagram.

(a)

(i)

Define centre of gravity.

[1]

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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(ii)
(b)

Mark, with an X on the upper surface, the point directly above the centre of gravity of
the brick.
[1]

When the brick is pulled at constant speed the reading on the newtonmeter is 82 N. Giving
your reasoning, determine the force of friction between the brick and the ground.
[3]

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(c)

(i)

Calculate the vertical component of the 82 N force.

[2]

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(ii)

Hence determine the force that the brick exerts on the ground and state the direction
of this force. [The weight of the brick is 250 N]
[3]

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(541-01)

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Turn over.

2.

(a)

Examiner
only

A complete stress-strain graph for a thin specimen of glass is shown, indicating the full
range of strain possible for the specimen.

10
P

8
Stress/107 Pa
6
4
2
0
00

(i)

05

10

15
Strain ( 103 )

Explain why there are no units given on the strain axis.

[1]

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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Determine the Young modulus for this glass.

[2]

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(iii)

Is the deformation of glass shown by the graph elastic or plastic? Explain your
answer.
[2]

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(iv)

What happens at point P?

[1]

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(541-01)

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(b)

(i)

Examiner
only

Glass is a brittle material. Briefly describe the process by which glass fractures.

[2]

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(ii)

Car windscreens are made from pre-stressed glass. During production, jets of air are
used to cool the hot glass which causes the outside to contract and harden while the
inside remains soft. Later, the inside cools and contracts, putting the outside surfaces
under compression. Explain how this process makes the windscreen less likely to
fracture.
[2]

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Turn over.

(541-01)

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6
3.

(a)

(i)

Examiner
only

The Sun emits light which is unpolarised. Explain what is meant by the term
unpolarised.
[1]

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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(ii)

When a ray of light from the Sun is incident on a block of ice most of it is refracted,
but part of it is also reflected as shown in the diagram. The light that is reflected is
plane polarised.

unpolarised
incident ray

plane
polarised
reflected ray

ice

Describe in detail a simple laboratory test to confirm that the reflected ray is plane
polarised.
[4]
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(iii)

Skiers wear sunglasses with polarizing lenses to reduce the glare caused by light
reflected from the snow. Using the information from part (ii) suggest how the
sunglasses work.
[3]

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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

Use the information given in the diagram to determine the refractive index of the ice.

[2]

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(541-01)

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4.

Examiner
only

The following apparatus is set up to investigate stationary sound waves in air.

microphone

speaker

metal
plate

to signal
generator

(a)

Explain how stationary waves are produced in the space between the speaker and the metal
plate.
[3]

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(b)

(i)

Calculate the separation between the nodes when the generator is set to 1700 Hz.
(Speed of sound in air = 340 ms1 ).

[3]

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(ii)

The microphone initially detects no sound. It is then moved at a speed of 5 cms1


towards the metal plate for 4 seconds. The intensity of the sound detected by the
microphone is recorded. Sketch, on the grid below, how the intensity varies over the
4 seconds. You are not expected to calculate values of intensity.
[3]

Intensity
(arbitrary units)

(iii)

4
Time (seconds)

What are the points of maximum intensity called?

[1]

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(541-01)

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5.

(a)

Velocity is a vector. Explain what is meant by this statement.

Examiner
only

[1]

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(b)

A ball is projected vertically upwards from ground level with an initial velocity of
118 ms1. Referring to the data on page 2 and ignoring air resistance, calculate
(i)

the maximum height reached;

[3]

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(ii)

the time of flight, i.e. the total time taken to reach ground level again.

[2]

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(c)

(541-01)

Draw a velocity-time graph for the balls motion.

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[4]

6.

(a)

Examiner
only

Newton realised that forces always act in pairs and from this idea he developed the 3rd law
rd
[1]
of motion. State Newtons 3 law of motion.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(b)

A skydiver falls towards the Earth. The arrows in the diagram represents the main forces
acting on the skydiver, the Earth and the air. Two are unlabelled. The diagram is not to
scale!

(A)

...................................................................

...................................................................

(C) Gravitational force


of Earth on skydiver

Earth

(B) force of air on skydiver

(D)

...................................................................

...................................................................

(i)

Identify, in the spaces provided, the forces (A) and (D).

[2]

(ii)

Comment on the effect of force (D) on the Earth.

[2]

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(iii)

Explain carefully, referring to the forces involved, why the skydiver accelerates at
the start of his fall and then reaches terminal velocity at some later time.
[3]

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(541-01)

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10

(c)

Examiner
only

The simplified graph shows how the velocity of the skydiver changes with time during his
fall to the ground, including the time when his parachute is open. Q and R are two points
on the graph which are referred to later in the question.

velocity/ms1

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10

5
0

10

(i)

20

30

40

50

60

70

80
time/s

At a time of 20 seconds the acceleration of the skydiver is 10 ms2. Given that the
total mass of the skydiver and parachute is 70 kg, calculate the force of air resistance
at this time. [Refer to the data on page 2].
[4]

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(541-01)

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11

(ii)

Examiner
only

Calculate the force of air resistance on the skydiver when he is moving at terminal
velocity before he opens his parachute e.g at point Q on the graph.
[2]

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(iii)

Using the graph, estimate the skydivers height above the ground when he opens his
parachute.
[3]

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(iv)

Hence estimate his average speed from the time he opens his parachute to the moment
he lands.
[2]

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(v)

What is the force of air resistance when the skydiver is moving at terminal velocity
after he opens the parachute e.g at point R on the graph?
[1]

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(541-01)

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12

7.

(a)

Examiner
only

Figures A and B show two graphs which refer to the same transverse wave.

Figure A (Displacement at given time)


Displacement/cm

4
2
Distance/m

10

12

14

2
4
Figure B (Displacement at given distance from source)

Displacement/cm

4
2
0

Time/s

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

2
4

(i)

Mark clearly two points on figure A which are 25 wavelengths apart.

[1]

(ii)

Mark clearly two points on figure B which are 90 out of phase.

[1]

(iii)

Calculate the speed of the wave.

[4]

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(iv)

(541-01)

Draw another graph in figure A to represent a wave of the same frequency but double
the speed and half the amplitude.
[3]

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13

(b)

Examiner
only

Two speakers are placed 125 m apart and are connected to the same signal generator so that
they act as coherent sources. A microphone is moved perpendicular to the speakers and in
the direction shown by the arrow. As it moves it detects a series of maxima and minima of
sound intensity. A maximum occurs at A, and the first minimum at B.

B
microphone
125 m

A
460 m

(i)

State what the microphone detects when it is moved, in the direction of the arrow,
beyond B.
[1]

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(ii)

Explain what is meant by coherent.

[1]

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(iii)

The Young double slit formula may be applied to this set-up. Calculate the
wavelength of the sound from the sources.
[4]

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(541-01)

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14

(c)

Examiner
only

A listener stands outside a concert hall.

Sound proof walls

9m

20 m
Orchestra
9m

Listener

(i)

She notices that she can hear the orchestra through an open doorway, even though she
cannot see the orchestra. Explain how this is possible.
[2]

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(ii)

She also notices that she can hear the low frequency notes better than the higher
notes. Explain why she is able to hear the low notes better. Use the concert hall
dimensions to support your answer. Take the speed of sound in the air to be 340 ms1.
[3]

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(541-01)

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15

Examiner
only

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(541-01)

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16

Mathematical Data and Relationships


SI multipliers
Multiple

Prefix

18

Symbol

atto

10

15

Prefix

Symbol

centi

Multiple

10

10

femto

10

kilo

1012

pico

106

mega

109

nano

10

giga

10 6

micro

10

12

tera

milli

10

15

peta

10

Geometry and trigonometry


P

R
sin =

PQ
,
PR

PQ
QR
,
tan =
,
QR
PR
2
2
2
PR = PQ + QR

cos =

sin = tan
cos

Areas and Volumes


d
Area of a circle = r =
4

Area of a triangle = 12 base height

Solid

(541-01)

Surface area

Volume
lbh

rectangular block

2 ( lh + hb + lb )

cylinder

2r ( r + h )

r2 h

sphere

4r2

4
3

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r3