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M Processing

and p
An Introduction
A. Gupta and D.S. Van
E1..,,-i ..-
Il .. d", .... eg 29. 1'0 I30x 211. 1000 AE Ams'erda",. Tho Nern."land,
TIl< Boule,.:rnl. Langford [.=e. Kidlington. O'ford lGf\. UJ..:
Firs' <dilion 2006
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0607080910
TO grow
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. MINERAL SAMPLING
I. n-mtODUCTlON \
l.l. STATISTICAL TERMINOLOGY \
1.2. MINERAL PARTlCLliS DU' FERlNG IN SIZE - GY'S METHOD 7
1.3. MINERAL PARTICLES OF DIFfERENT DENSITY II
INCRE.'lEl'oTAL SAMPLII'G 13
U. OOm1NUOUS SAMPLING OF STREA.\lS 20
1.6. SAMPLING ORES Ot PRECIOUS METALS 24
1.7. SAMI'I.INO NOMOQRAPHS 25
1.8. PROBU'.M.S 28
REFEREKCES 31
CHAPTER 2 PARTICLE SIZEESTlMATION AND DlSJlUBUllOSS
2. )2
2.1. METHODS OF SIZ n
2.2. PARTICLE SIZE DlSllUBUTION 45
2.3. COMSINING S17J! DlSTRlSUT10NS 53
2-4. PROBLEMS 59
REFEIlID'CES 62
CHAPTER 3. SIZE REDUCTION AND !!NERGY REQUlREMIlNT
3. NrRODUCTION 63
3.1. DESIGN Of SIZE REDUCTION PROCESSES 63
l.2. EI'o'ERGY FOR SIZE REDUCTIO:'; WORK INDEX 65
3.1. ESTIMATION OF WORK INDEX I'OR CRUSHERS
AND GRINDING MILLS lit
3.4. PROBU'.M.S 92
REfERENCES 'YI
CHAPTER 4. JAW CRUSHER
4. NrRODUCTIOS
4.1. DESIGN Of JAW CRUSHERS
42. JAWCRUSI1EROPERATlON
4.3. JAWCRUSHERCAPACJTY
4.4. CRJTICAL OPERA TIND SPEED
4.5. POWER CONSUMPTION
4.6. PROBLEMS
REt'ERE/<iCES
CHAPTER 5. GYRATORY AND CONE CRUSHER
S. lNTlI.ODUCTION
S.1.
S.2. GYRATORY CRUSHER CIRCUIT DESIGN


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B. GYRATORY CRUSHER Dr[RATION
CAPACITY
5.5. POWEll. CONSU:vJI'TION
PROBUiMS
REf ERENCES
CHAPTER 6. ROLL CRUSHERS
6. IN1RODUCnON
6.1 . DESIGN OF ROll CRUSHERS
6.2. OPERA nON OF ROLL CRUSHERS
6.3. OJ'AC/TY OF ROLL CRUSHERS
6.4. POWER CONSUMPTION OF ROLL CRUSHERS
6.S. HIGH PRFSSURE GRINDING ROLLS (HPGR)
M . OPJORA'llQ:>I ItI'(jR
6,7. CAPACITYOfHPQR
6.1. POWER CONSUMPTION Of HPGR
M . PROI;lLEMS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7. nmUlAR BAll. MILts
7. u.,.IRODUCTION
7.1, DESIGN OF TIlBUlAR MILLS
7.2. OPERA nON OF TIJBULAR IIALL MILLS
7.3. ESTIMATION OF MILL CAPACITY
7.4. MILL POWER DRAW-MEClIA)<IlCALMETIIODS
7. S. PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
CHAPTI:.R I. TIJBlJU.R ROD MlLl.S
B. INIlI.ODUCTION
1.1. DESIGN OF ROD MILLS
8.2. OPEI!.A TlON m' ROD MILLS
B.) , ROD MILLCAPJl.C!TY
U. ROD MILL POWER DRAIT
8.5. MILL DRIVE
8.6. PROBl.F.MS
REFERENCES
CHA I"ffiR 9. AlITOGENOUS AND SKI.f!AlITOOFNOUS
9. INTRODUCTION
9.1. DESIGN OF AG/SAG MILLS
9.2. OPERATION OF AG/SAO MILLS
9.). AG/SAG MIll POW;.R
9..4. CHOICE OF omONS BETWEEN AO A,,"O SAG MILLS
9.' . PROBLE.\!S
JUlFERENCES
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CHAmR 10. )'lAltIEMAllCAL MOOOUJNG 1:-:
10. INTRODUCTION 255
10. 1, BASIS FOR MODELLING COMMl)'.'UTlON S YS'I'EMS 256
10.2. MAlllEMATrCAL MODEI-S or PROCESSrs 26)
10.3. MODELLNGCkUSlliNOANDGlUNDINGSYSTEMS 268
10.4, PROBLEMS 288
REFERENCES 291
CIiAI'TER 11. SCREENING
11. INil!ODCCTION
11.1 . RASle DESIGN FEATURES IN SCREENS
11.2 OPERATION OF STRAIGHT SCREENS
11.3. CAl' AClry ANIl SCREEN SELECIION
STRAIGHT SCREENS
11.4. OPERATION OF CURVED SCREENS
11.5. MODELUNG OFTHESCREEl\"NG PROCESS
11.6. SCREENfl'.:G AND CRUSlliNG CI RCUITS
1 U . PROBLEJ.1S

ClIAPHR 12. CLASSIFICATION
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12. lNll!.ODUCTION
12.1. OESIGN f L\ TIJRES OF ).tECI1AN1CAL CLASSIFI ERS
12.2. OF-S1GNING 'fIlE POOL AREA OF MECHANICAL
CLASSIFIERS 359
12-3. FEATURES OF CEl'-'TRIFUGAL CLASSIFIERS ]<,5
12.4. OPERATION OF MECIIANICAL 369
CAPACITY OF MECIlM'ICAl. CLASSIFll,RS 377
12.6. OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL CLASSIFIERS 378
12.1.IIYIJROCYCWNE MODELS 386
12.8. IlYDROCYCtQNECAPAClTY 388
12.9. IIYDROCYCtQt->E CIRClJlTS 392
12.10. PROBLEMS
REFERENCES 399
CHArrER n.
13. IN"il!.ODUCTION
0.1. FEATURES OF THICKENERS
13.2. THICKENER IJESIGJ' -BATCH PROCESS
13.3. THICKENER DESIO)<," COi'ITJ'-IIJOIJS Til fC KENERS
13.4. OPI, RATION OF THICKENERS
13.5. TIlICKENERS IN CIRCUITS
1).6. PROIJLE).1S
REFERESCES




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CHAPTER 14. SOLID L1QUIDSEPARATION FILTRATION
14. INTRODUCTION
14. 1. DES1GS FEATURES OF Ft LTERS
I U . OPERA nON OHIL TERS
10 . Ci\PACITY OF CO:-nJNUOUS VACUUM FILTERS
I H . WASHING OF DEPOSITED CAKE
14 S. DRYING OF OEPOSITEDCAKE
14.6. THICKNESS Of CAKE
14.1. FIt TERlNG MEDlA
148. FllTERlNGAIDS
14.9. IN PROCESSING CIRCUITS
14. 10. PROBLEMS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER IS. GRAVITY SEPARATION
IS. INTRODUCTION
IS. I. PARnCLEst::rTllNGRATES
15.2. GRAVITY SEPARATION
15.1. JIGS
154 MOTIO"'; TABLE SEPARATORS
lS.S . FLOWING FILM COSCEJ<.'TRATORS
15.6. DENSE(OR HEAVY) MEDIA SEPARATION
15.1. GRA VfTY SEPAKA nON PERFORMANCE
l H . PROBLHfS
REFERE."ICES
CHAPTER 16. FLOTATION
16.
16.1. FLOTAnONREAGE/llTS
16 2. FLOTATION EQUIPMENT
16.3. FLOTATION CIRCUITS
16.4. FLOTAnON KINHICS
16S. FACTORS AffECTI NG THE RATE OF FLOTA TIO:-l
16.1. OTHER FLOTATION
16.8 PROBLEMS
REFERE.\lCES
CHAPTER 11. METALLURGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT
11. INTRODUCTION
17.1. Al'ALYSESorCONSTlTtiEJHS
11.2. OI,"flNlTlON OF TERMS
17.J. MATERIAL BALANCE
17.4. CIRCULATING LOAD
lB. PROBLEMS

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fiJ. I J . l'ormol dislri ... ioo.
f OT bi:lomial urnplil\i unil of mi.eJ panicles !he: . ,"ttaa< of mincnJ A i .
O&Icu.l.,ed b)' odding LIJl oJl and by di.idin& their 'um by the: "WIlber of
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To dctcrmin< tho ...... "" of " T II> ..w.1Y tho dniotiOIllimiU .. \hal the """ under tho corve
between thr limi .. "m be 99%ofu..lObI ore>., ... Tobie 1.4 below.
From 1he IIbl., rornspondina 10 I probability of 0.99, !be value or tho <kviation &om tbc:
Ranojard unit i. B76.
i.e.
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x __ .. "" - ___ 0,077,,
0, x Hr.
SubsciIWn& in Eq. 0.12).
Tabtt 1.4
N - (37.G891(1.07164), .. 221.l0l.9
PToboohility P ... devillion X. relati .... 10 unit SWIdar<i deviotion [9].
Probability DeviOlion m,m
p ST"rld Uoit, X
x- "'<>x
090 L64S
091 L7lIS
0.92 1.7S0
0.93 1.812
O . ~ 1.111
O.9S 1.960
0.96 2.0S4
I'robobility

0.98
OW
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0.-
0.999999
!>evisJjon from
SWldald Unit, X
2-326
2.S76
3.291
3.190
4.417
4.19l
11.,.,. tho "..... of ..",ple __ ssary 10 gi .... on .... y within tbc: ""8< H 0.20 %. 99 limes
out "flOO lWUkI be 221,201.9 3.07 - 1OO.S79 II .. 701 kK-
l .l. )I.IiH .. 1 portio ... Ir dilJ ..... ' d ily
Wben: variarioos in dctIs.ity of individual pOrtio'" and their c:unpooi!ioo. occur, the
r o u o ~ ~ .,.y be adopted 1OfOVidc tilt S&!llplo Iizc [91'
1. o;.idt the material into n denoity fnooIi"" .. Ph Pl. 1'> ... P" VOIYina from J>II1Cl)' """
minoral lO the <>thor, '.11_ WjijXJ and quart>: in <OJ'PO'" =. aniI OOI\5idcr D size fractions,
do. ob. d, ... d.
2. Coolslder the !!WI pert<1l1 "fthe i" size &o.ction and j" density &action II ":'.I onII
3. CcnsKIa- A;; and Pi os Ih<: .... y and IlK: f'I1'IX>"iun of J'I'I1i<ks in the: i Ii", ODd t'
dem.ity fnK:tions
Por sampli,,& mixture of two oomponcOIl (miDoAl ood popel !be ptopu:tioo of
poniclcs in thc ij frw:tion WIl1lliI he;
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.. "lien: x - <levi .. ioo from ..... Iruo ...... y_
Now if A i. tho assay ond A" A" A, .... A,. , ore 1he individual "''''')'3 of 1.... "
!ample iocrcrocntJl then:
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!O >4DIpia ..-ere taken from b<ap of _ .-ucl> w<ig!>u, 2 kg. n." os"")'. f"" ""pper
"", ... \he follo",i"ll di5lribution:
s.np. No 1 2 ) 4
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"The final >4DIpk ;book! assay .... ithin '" S% of tho true .. "lIluc wUh confidmc<: of '1'1%.
F., tim", \he "limber of incrernenu _
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The Lg nf min", S mm m.,,:",,1 i ... b Ji,i<k:d w. ""b """'pk ma>' of lOOOg in the r, ...
Hlis 1 I<i of wnple i. then puh"eriood 10 minus O.S IJ'\[JI and dividl again to the
""lui.",. sampl. """" of]O 11'_ 1'0110"";"11\ ,hi . """,,,i,,>! ",iii ",,".lain the sampling
procedure below the ""I"im! samplin& """'.
To <k:rj, """,piing ["I' (1 ,S) i. U>Cd by cakul.ui"ll the sampling <:OIISIatIt K
from k""",." dato.
An oJ"""",;", vap/lkal rnc1h<>d is to pl<>t sample mass (M) " . lOp panicle oj", (0.....,,)
"",.-ing the oItcmali"" of si: and ",... mlO<ti<>ns lQ nWnLoin ... '""1JIl'b1e
samplilij! v.nonce, 1tO,'on>ed !he Oy r"""ul . (Fill. !.IO),
Thi. <an ... in ,!Ie m ...... :
( 1.43)
Thus fi)f' given val"" "r K and """pli,,!! ""","""Y. ,hi, .. bOOn""p "iii yiolJ. ,traight
Ii"" "r _<lop< 1 """,,, pI".,I "" "'-10& grap/l...."... ("Ii- 1.101, All fIO;n" ,.., ,hi, Ii"". (Ii ....
IlDF, fll- L IG), have const11It fundamontaI ,-ariance. <I'. The line "'J'I"'SC"f'. "wety Ii .. "
and "l'1;I> the graph into two ...... ,
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1\ roouy or< <ull<:r """pkJ ...... used l<> cUI ..."pb of a minenl by oonvqor belt.
'Tho """,pie cutter "''''' ploe<>d 7S em bolow til< OO'''<YOI'. """,,,h .... "'Iled ... -r-! of <10
mtmin and SO t or u.. mincnl per min. 'Tho BWlimum ruttcr opening \WS 1<m.
EslirnaIc:
1. Tho ,..."". .. gl< r<>Qui<t<l
2. 'I ..... qkWI'ity of sample taLcn per ew
REFER"'-CES
[n DraJl Au<lnIli ... SIandard, DR OOnJ 2000. Guide to Iho of PllrlkulOIe
Makri.h: Pari J:E"i"'al iRi "",,,piing pm:i.ion, Standard. A"",noIi,,, (2000).
121 T. All"", Pani<lc Size 21>11 <do .. Ch."",,,,, and 11011. (I91S).
(3) H. Heywood.. TIlIruI. I",mute of Chemical ElIg;nccn. 25. (1947). 14.
141 R.R. Inn; ard C.F. Colli .. Panicullltc Size "lCa'''''':'lICIlt. lnt<rpm.Uion and Appi """ion.
JoIuJ Wiley. New YOfk. (1963).
[SI D. LiSler. Mq Mao;a>ill<. Sepl . (19SQ). 221.
(61 P.M. Guy. IIlt<:rnational Jourral of Mi .... ll'r<>oeo1!i"ll. 3, (1916), 289.
17J P.M. Guy. Sarnrling of Panicul. M.lefial, lh>ry on<! PnocIi:, m"",> Sci.ntin"
Publi"';"" Co., AmSlrnlam. (1979).
191 B.A. \\C,U .. Mincrall'rt>cessi"ll Thnolog)'. 4th <dR., Pcr-gamon Oxford. (1'1&9).
[9] A,f. T""",," 11_ of Mi""r:ol Drnsinll. John Wiley and Sons.. l.ood<>n. (19S3}
[10J l .W. Mcr\Ji. Sarnpliq and Wrighinj; of Bulk SoIKl$. T""", T""h PubliClllions.
CLru.t/ml b JI.rt.ld, (I 'laS).
Pl l AS 1676-1975. Mothods r", ,he Sampli"ll of 11!1fd Coal. SWI<IaN. Assmia!ioo of
A..ualia, (197S)_
P 21 (,)u<>' ODd N''''<ll 2002. priVaIe comm""k. lion.
[Il l J. Eamo., Joinl Seminar by MICA.A]GAus.l M,M, 26th (199\1). 81.
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(2.9)
Simil ... I)'. til< surf"", m=I diamct<T, d" las boon Ikri,'1 by Coul"", ODd Ricl\ard;oo [2]
(2,10)
& <mtpkH
Oold nlllllle\s ""'" .'>mit>llll>k< 0 ond (I>< fteGU011CY di",;bo,ion
was obtoi roe<l ,
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' 16
"

1(>.)2
,
"' .....,ioa tho nuuou ...... of .imil ... s/Iapo. dcIorm,,,. ,he .iu dintit..ltion on m&>. f""'tion
ba,i"
(h,>: dc"";ty of - 17,10
Sol ",;""
St<1' I
Let M. equal ,he maM fr.octioo of .,..rudes of ,ize J. . r.d srifi< gravity p" at>d lei :-J . .... ",,1
(be: oorteSf'<'I'lilljl numllet of panicl .. in .ach fraction.
n i. tile: number of si", inl<"'3I . "'1"",1 to 6, (bm;
M, - kN. d.'f" forn - l-6
k is constan1 <qui>,.lent '" tho .hop< foetor, In ,hi. "''''"pie, k i. (ak<n as 1
I tho rna fraction for .. ch .i", int.mol ""u1d be:
TIle: <alculation< ""'" DOW bc: nta<I< as folio"', to <:slimato M. 1'. lue, for difTo",", ,'.Iue, ofn'
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Toble. and clwts ., .. i1ablc. ploning k>a I(t''''p.-A V r ':IRe' 1 Ii&iIW log I Rei and log
[(F" ip.-/W,') R. ' I ogai ... t R . T.bles 1.1 and 2.1 IIi"" tho reloboruhip ""'" a limi\ed _
for spIooricaI partid .. Ill. Thi$ daIa .. 01", pou,,01<<i in graphical fotm in Fig. 1.3. " to;"h...,
be do.h-.d from tho empirical """"'lotion 14):
R[1,84Rc""' '' +O,293 Re' ''r-
n V'
'" ,
(2.22)
A. tho tabIeo are aprJ kabie for sp/I<"rical """"'Ies. lte)"WOO<Ill l ""rodoce<l. """"",ion
roel ror PIIIIicl... To use ,be """"",ion f"'l01 Hcy",uod U ..
diOll'<e\et of 1toe p-ojo:1ed """" do lof. particle sittin& on il> ""'" , .. ble posi!ioo), Hc
"" .... ul.ted !be .. k.d,.' when: k ...... oorut>nt and function of shape
and tho (""101 (F"Ip, A V' ) Re'.
Oth<f shape foeton ha,"< been proposed, ru;:h ... tho sph<ricily facwr. S. defined
m.a!bematicol l), "IS. 61:
Nominal ""I""", dian>c\Cf d '
- -,-
Nominal surfoee d iameter d '

- diamclc"t of uphm: of "luoi w>lumc:
- diamc:'cr ofo >pi .. ,e of "luoi ..ru.c.: >=1
(2.13)
The values oflog r(F" I['FA V') Re" r and log r(F"'p.-A V,')Re' r cor=pooding to dirm-:
"aI ..... ofs/>apc facwr. k. .... 1Ii"en in Table 1.3, To use !h.i.lllble.1og [(h/p,AV,) Re"1 is
colculated fiom 0 .,. .. ured .. ' elocily. V r. "'i"ll Eq. (2,21) fo< a Oplocri<.ol particle and
tho "lui,-a!"" Re val ... fOOM from Tablc 2,2. ' Ihe correc1ion valut from Tollle 1.3 i. lhrn
appliC<l to ,be loa! R< val"" 1(1 a.c>un< f"" tho shape of ,be "",,;';Ie. Tho: partido
,ize can tot cal<uloll from lbi, wr=:lI ,,,I,,,, of Re, A .imibr pruc<d..--c follow. fo.- vol ...
of 10;; [(FoI",A V .'IRe' 1 calculotcd from ".h, .... of partide site d.
I-:XO"",u l.]
5p':<01", """"""i1. "",,;"Ieo from I..oi:>ta<lo< """'" ....,plod '" .leI<1mi". tho oize <>f ii\di"id .. 1
panicle . Tho: ."crago 1Ctmi .. 1 veloci1y of 1he particles was dc10rmined to be I mmI. by
allowing .i"llie particles 10 f.1I .hf"O<lg/\ tall <}1i"",", of "' ...... Tho: <\ei\S;'y of 'be ore
parti<1 .. ,,-as qlm' Wld tho ,,"'-<I" ... Icmpai01on< C. E .. ima!c tho: approxUrut<
.. '" of tho pari;"ks,
Da,.: (11,0) at C L 0.&904 mP..,
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FpRo' 0,4.'(1):1 . r) P,'
.F \"
,"
,he d.w. .. :
Fp . " U.OOI 06 ' , V,l , UI , (1120_""1) . ...
Or V'
Then from Tobl< 2.1.
log Re - 1.7143 or R< - S 1.7'1
- 2078.64
Fmm rabl. 2.3 tho OOI'fe<tion ".1 ... for Io!.: Re '''''''''J'O"O'Iina '0 >hope fae' ", of O,J
Q.00I47.
That is. lIle OOfT<">.W ,111 .. of k'Il ro. ,he IlOf'>.Sp(!eric.l p41\icle - 1.11 , 3 - Q,()4.:7 -
u,li%
and Re - 46.]3
Usually gravity segrq;a1ion method. or<: !!Sed to dc!onnioc: panicle oi"". Gown to 0.02
",' crons.
1.1.4. &Ji"''''/ali<m M<I/toJ _ C'''''ifut,ai S<di"""MIjon
Eq. (2.11 ) indic.t<. IlIat .he .. rm;'w I'docity of _ 1""'id< """ b< and lh< """;"11
pmod r<duc<d by ifIC", .. i"ll ,he ,-. 1.., of !he oc<ck-ration "" IIIe perti<1e. This OM """ily be
""too, ... both in !he laborawry and in iM",ry by .1>< """ of <owifugos 2.4), ,,-.,.,.. g
can oc ITfllaccl by r (j}' . ... tl<fC r ;. ,he rod,,,, orth< and", i . lIle ",,"1 ... , ', !oc;'y.
F", a >phcrial panick. S", ... , ' La .... Ill< motion of the partidc in the n' riful!< <an
be expressed by lhe <qua,ioo, for Rc < 0.2;
(2.14)
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"
Particle Size (microns)
],l. J. DUtrihlltHm
10 some OU<:I! ,,11= Ihc distributiQn i, .-. .... plot .,.., be obtained b\" plO!tina !he
lot of!bt CUDluloliVl: lIDil<:n;iu agoinst .... lot of lhe ....... , "1'<"'=. pr<fmobly on Iot-I""
papa (Fig, 2.7'\. S""h plot. on: knc>wn .. Gowdin-Schub:nan. pIo:s. 10 moot cues 1Iti, "",,"d
yirld. IItnlipi line. n,.,..montage of JudI plOIS is 1hat. lirni!<d numbtf of ,ieves may be
uocd '" "....."'" Ill<: ";ZIO of patticloo lyi<>a bttwettl on)' lwe .i .... ,i..,.. II 01"" ind"'-> ....
diolribution of Ii .... ofpatticles !hal rolll in sample.
It is .... """'nary '" pi", both \he cumulative oversi .. and \l!ldenizc: as eaclI is lbt mirror
.. ...., in Fill_ H .
u.. Goudi.-Schu/mwm diSlnbuilon i. xi_ .,
r-100( :r (2.30)
wber< Y - oumulalive ...... OK p<IMin& .....
- """"'" oj""
k _ . .... p.rome\er
_ poromt\ef
Toki"ll !bt lop ofbodl >ideo of !hit eqIIIIioo and !be:D:
loKy - lotIl00 " .\o&x" . lojk or
Io&y - .1oa' " COSSTANT (l.ll)
1bi. i. !be eqUllion of. waiplline if. ODd Y on: ploltcd OIl ol<>g.<og Tho IIopo of
tit< rtrlilht lin< will be: tho diotriburi"" paran>&r ... on<! "'" int=cpt of tho Ii .....
",hal y - 100 %, will be tb<: siz< panmct<r, k. Theoc _ ponun<l<1"! cba"""",,, tbe W:e of
Ihc: ..... pk:. 1h< diotribu!ion j, n "'''''' of tho rafll< of dilf<r<lllt """" in !bt
...,pk ond tbt size po:amcIcr i ......... urc oflb< til!' . in:.
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" plot of k>a 1"11 (lIl0/R) ",,'sus k>g, should gi"'. Ii ... The pararn= "r the
Kosi n_Komm:" dinnbuu"". b and x' .." obIair>O<i from lh< <lop< of the ""';lIhl Ii .. and It..
int<fp1 II the horizonlalli .. at It - 36.19. re<poxt;"oly. TOlIClhct !hey <OO1ple1cl}' describe
the ,iL:C distribuo;ioo. To ';mplify the ",lculation of It.. double k>i. speci.11I1'IfI/l paper i.
",-ail;obl< (R""',o.-l('onn'l<rIW<ibull 1"'1""') ,,1><.-. ,-al"", u( ,wn ..... '" '4 ","",'<d (.,.-
cumul .. i,-e % I""'inlll <an be plotted dim:tJy on !he A Ii"" "" 'he grap/1 paper at a
cumulati v % mail'ltd ,-.l"" of 36. 79 i. j""lodo:d t" a11o,,"' .<l;mat.", <>f1P>< p>/ameter x', 111<
m<\1>0<1 of ' '''''PU,inl! f", Rosin_R""'ml", plot is ill",,,,,l<J ;" 2.4.
Enmpk l .4
A ";"ve anaIp i ... '.owed the (0110,,'0& ... ull> (Table 2.6). PI", the daIa to a.udin"
Sehunm...., and RosinRommlcr and dct""",,,,, the ","", of Ih< liz< 1I1><' ion rn.oiocd on 200

f ig. 2.11 i. a pi'" of tho <"","Ial;'-o passing <"luron in Tabl. 2.6 ,-""" j:<t_ The
plot is re"", .. SU'>illJl! Ii ... thai \he fB<:hon of <nAlOrioi
a 200 I"" sic,," was OXpe<l00 10 be 10.1". by mas ..
Kosin-lUmmi., plot. <"" ,imHarly bo modo oithor by calculation, Q' u,ing 'I""io] 1<>1\
raJ'<' a< Weil>ull gtaph p.tp<t thal .. ," labout""'" <:.>kul .. """.
T)l'ieal calculO!ioos usina the data in Tobie 2.6 is illustrated in Tobie 2.7.
Thi s <OIl ,",W bo plotled .,., K'''fIII pop<1" (Fig. 2.12A) ... on Of>O<iO] Ro,i nlUmml ...
P"P<' (."ig. 2.12B). 11>< plot i. ""arty 0 . lraiKht lio<:. ioo;.,o" .. "'"' lho m ... ["",ti""
main! on 200 rruorum is oboot '1(1.6 % by mass or 9.4 %
"



,

,

,

<
,

!


;


MM,
U
-


. ,



"
'00
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,
II

_1:2110.1>:
,
I

--- .. .

--- ... j
, r
.... ... -... ., - ..
..
I . t 10. n" '" ..
I
I)
I !,,::::;"'-
,

,
i
,
,
, II

i II
... - ... -....
'I dl: !!".:;,., = ....
!J
,"
.. -.......




Ii
.1
_:l'.,
II

,.
. --- ....
t
.. :11>
I
,
i
!l
I
,"
j -.
" !I
;-.. ---
...
.i":"

-..
I
, ,
I
;;;;;i
" .

I
.. .,-.. ..
:1Ii.!:!
".
!

. !
I

-... .. ... ..
I
., ,
,


:,;
-".'''.
,
--- ... -
N

','
J
h

.. !!".



,
i.IJ
.,
N
i.I I H
,,"-


...
e,
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Table 2.9
cf cyd .... i' .... <lola Ic "" ........ dala using the shop: factor. 11 - 0.636
S""
P.,>i"ll Cwo % PaMing Conwn,:d Size. (micruns)
(
microo
9. (mi<:rotu)
" "
N,
117.9
.,
"
S96
m.'
" "
499 S] .4
" "
337 377
'" "
230
2S, I
"

lU 1&.9
l.4. P..,bkm.
" 0. .. obtainal <HI onaly;ing' IWIlbJing mill producl i. below. PI", the data using the
Goudin-Schumann and Ro,in-RammJer melhod .. hom ,he ploU ""'imok ..... m ... [""'lions
r<:1IIin<d Cn 200 lind ]4 ;om .... recm.
S1",. "'"
feed. mass % .... ioed
"
1200 600
LS
300 ISO 75 _7S TOIaI
10.0 22.0 no 29,S ]00.0
"'" follo"'inj: da1.a. plot Ro>in_Rammlcr di>lrib<llion curve ..,d <lelerminc its eq ..... i"".
2000 1200 8SO
nuss % 4.0 9.S 125
2-3
..
15.S
""
19,0
,W
16.0 '" 13.0
.,.
10.5

100,0
Sample> .,r!be foed 10 boll mill .... the prod"", aile< IS min> of _rat"", ,,"'" .... ly....t
ond the: ,.,..,1" ""' OS r.,uo",'",
&lima,. the rate cf rtductioo cftbe 1000 '"'" feed size duil\i the mill
" Th" prod"", from ifir.dinj: miU ""' ..... rI<d e'C'I)' 30 minot .. rOt the fi ... 1IOur, then hwrly
for 4 houB. n.: sample> ""r=ro;d I01d onol) ..... yielding ..... follo..-illg "''''''II'' ,i..,
di"";."."ion:
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Chapter 3. Size Reducti on and Energy Requirement
3. I.YfRODUCTION
In n.tu .... tnir.eral' exist in 1lh)"SiJ and chemical eombinalioru "'ill> each OIher. To....,....te
min<rol. of eommrn:ial in",re" ftom' ''' 00" 00th and ch<",iclll or<
<mployl , Most tnifl<'nl' an: mined in til< form or Iari!. ro<k . 01. ...... like til< ilmenite. rutil
ziwon. 1<Il00 . ........... ,). mi ...... l' 01 11l.,ial plOC<1" deposits of Ilold .... found clc<imatl
0ItI0DV' S?nd in be""..,. '" in riv<rbod>. To """" .. the: in tho 00>1 rod.",. they ho,. to
be crushed aDd e"dl When a fIl4Xim"", omo"", of !he mir>etltl of ino=.. i , ....,....,1
by oomminution from thc: par<n1 ro<k.!hat "'" i. 1lIua\ly bo"'T1 U tho liberation Ii",. The
Illm of comminu,ion i. '" m.tXimi .. the Iibe .. 1ion of til< min<ral from the boot rock. Uwally
the COIIC<ntralion of useful mi.....-al. in 1>051 ro<k ..... low. theref"'" large tonr'IageS of host
ro<k5 ha,. '" be mined ' 0 rt>"<-r >umeidll quantities of \he useful mincnI 10 """'. til<
OperatiOD CO!lIlIl<-r<ially ,isble. The fItS' step in !be reco,''''Y proces.< of mineral. ftom "It: 00"
ro<ks thet<-fore i. 10 til< Ii", of rod by orwhinl: and llrilKiin\l. The equipmen, used and
thri, ope""ion .. " in , uMeq"".t chople .. ,
J . I, lln ll G of Slu RIuollon p, ".." ..
The pt'QQtl& of oi", .-..:II><li"" i. ""rmall)' do,i&ni to 1.\:0 pi .... in ,inlli' .... open
eireuil. sinal. SIal!< closed duil 0< mullipl. '!ai' opot! or ,Iooed ciU;1 In"""" cues 1
combination of tho .. _hod .... adopted, In inill. '\agO, lingI. paso, """" duil size
r.<h><tion """",. ion, the prod ... " con,i ... of of pankle si",. whioh .. Idom ",hi" ..
!he do,ired doi= of liberation. II""". oeoood or e,'dl third su.,;es of size .... 01\ ..
1'!eC0S!Il'Y '" I"""ebi .. l)' til< f<!l'\Iini"i 1*11<le .l .. 10 libe-rolt mi ...... ) puticl .. to on
otCcptablc dei= (Fill. ] , I),
III olO!l<d 'i":,. tho prod"" from tho of size i. imo relatiwly
ro ... ond 000lX f"",iOIll. The ooarx:r Iiaclioo is lhrn coll:ted ond m:ru>hed in . be """" UlIi
.. seen b Fill. 3.2. In.., doing tho load WI tho equipm<rlt for .ize i. i""ruled..-.l a
d .... inll' load i, cstabli5hl, but the toW rrumbor of..ruts fo< ob!";ni"i!he """"
doii' of . iz< i. 10".
Se>'eraJ options in <bill" exist in oIosod d rcui. llrindinl: "'_ups, The.WI) ""''' """""""Iy
used do, ices for .iz< redUdion are the o""hen ..-.IllrindilOj mill,. The orushen ore normolly
fN with rooks, up to oboo, 1 ... 1 .. in lize. "hilc tho grinden ...... ually fod "ith rocks
<rusIItd do"" to nuximum .ize of about SO mm. Lori " rock, p.-.,ducN .. !he mi .... ore
initiall y ....,.....1 by llrizz!;"" ""'ken by hamme" and tbcn fed ' 0 tho <ru.non
The ",""!lani.,,,. of . ize d"';na cru,hina ond irindini .... diffo-mu. The ,hi<{
diff .... ru beifll! tho1 in crushing operation. tho ,i", i, more by compres,ion and
impo<t and 1_ 11)' attri\\orl "lIile in grilKiing. tho forte' of attri.ion .... m""b 1ifUI .. The
grilKiing operation i. mbOT compl.x and ilS WI rouahly be illustrated by Fill. 3.) ,
Spberi<;al bo.lI. or cylilKi ncol rods .... """'I)" ........ the &rind;_1: modi>.. no... media
c. ,code within & mill ond impinge on tho "'" thOil pro"idi",. <rushin& ""tiOft. AI tho ball,
and rods .umbl. " ilhin tubIIl ... mill" they pro>ide KrilKiini ""ion and fore .. of onri lion. oU
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lbe >a.iuc of W. C&Il be oonsidertd to be ilIdepen<Ieo! of illY classifier placed io !be omuil
The termJ f and P .... usually writ!M .. flO and rIO. the ",1>oaip!S der>o!illll the oi.ze of
feed find prodUO! ' .. pt<O!i .... ly!hroo.o!;h "hid! 80% of!loe f=I and proOxt ....... The termJ
* one! R .... .. , .. \Jie ....... bet 10 mic:roru.
By defonitioo!be opeci& jlrindinl eneraY il!he """'lP' ""Iuirtd per w>i! IlWII oflht rod<.
The opcciGo arlndina ...... 1I)' of I minmol il wriuen ""
(loS)
NOTE: I. kWMIl600 - JoWcoil.
2 While 80% _illll pooni<:uJar sieve is _oed .. IIUdard fur de!<;rmioillll
!be W<rl: I"""", .. rt<Xm._drd by Bond, """"' .... 75% imteod
In Bond, equation. (Eq. (3.3)). the griroding eneri)'. Eo. ""Iuinod for Ii .. rcdu=!ion arrod,.
in ;odllAiol mmbli"ll mills WII baed 011 mill Wft P"""'", Pw, ond Oft mill """";!y (Q) The
.. lation>hip ""- _.un 10:
_ 'M.
Q
(3.6)
For..,y rook ...... r""' !be ...... C ""Iuind for romminutioD may be <kkrmiDod.. provided
!be Wori index WI;' known.
mmual ond di";"iqpolion of . rook with hammc:r, or durio& mcclIanicaI
oruohin.!: cpc::micm. the size .... ""tion of 1_ oizcd roou ond ""'" is llIOOtI.y by sbatp impact
Ktion. ODd las"" by !be imJ-"i on<! ottritiOD ""pcrico<oil iD !umbllnf mill .. The equoi:ion
used by Bend ;0 inappropiaI< IC d<Io:nni ... !be energy quirtd rot crushing. To cover ihiJI
dis=pmcy Ob ond M';imo [9) f"""" tlooa iro sucIo <UeO !be <xpota:>d of n (loS) in equation
3.1 shonId be tq>I.....! by (!+[WD. Thio equ&Iioo "",",,0 IC !be Boo:w:l equ&<icn (equation 3.3)
by Wcina the vol .. of B .. 12 and iro\egmlna, thus;
(H)
wbiclI ift effa:t is Iht Bond equatiOIL
Bood". oriainol milk on eJ\Iblishing the """II)' for oi ...... oction wa es\Obli!hed in I 2.44
m (I foot) irolenlal di .......... "'"' rindin3 uv..oow type boll mill. Dwb< i, III>W exp,n.d
_!be derived empirical equati"" i. applicable IC hiah I>esou .. roller c:ruMcrs "bore
one: otagc op<iI oircui! taka 1'1 ..... A......tina to K1ym<>wsky """ Lin [tSl indiCOlions ..... thai
!he: Rininll"" exP" "M,1l - )( (lIP is mote opplioabl. for IIize teduotion by high
JI"OSS"'" rolls.
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Alkr the o<riU by the "";king 0< inpul pero;julum, ",ben the block Of .. "I Of rrlIound
pcoduhmt '''in&> from it. pooitiQa orm(. \hi: ,'.Iocity of the ,.,_ pendulum woWd

where II. - IheVMicaJboight.no.inedbytheblockpendulLll'll....!
' - Ibt velocity of"'" I>I<>ok Of tebotu>d pendolom oftet ;mp.cl.
oro;Ilbe o:orTeSpOnding energy ofreb:Jund will boo

(3.16)
After the impecl, the vclocity orllle suikina pendulum dca 5" 7 and V, ' MW will be jlive:o
'"
(v.' - v.' l
Vs - vo - -. . (l .l?)

WO-
vo' - the velocity or .... bIod bd"", impo<t
v,' - the oftht Jlriking pendulum.uw >"'1*1
AI II>< initiol velQcity of tbe rrl>o>und bIo<k pcodul"", i, :we. lPPlyioll NewI<>ol'. J..&w of
"""..,....;"" of <td..,. the "",trIO;"'! of fnlitution "'ill boo,
, ,
(V,_V,)

"
(l.II)
Tho CIlCIJIY for crushin& Eo" tbe diITcren: tid",=, "'" cDa'f.l' "r tbe input ptnduIwn and
!be tiKi" oflhe ",bound pendulLlm ond is COIDpIII<d from the followina; txp'C .. ion:
(3.l9)
Uniu: E'.nerirtemu(ll) - k\\'h/t - l6OOkJlt
M... _ 1<3
n..,1lIuecf. - 0- 0.2
Tho n:ouIts obIaintd "jib the \arjeI' ..,"';1 blocl: ba .... been fouod 10 agree Vltll ""Ill Ibt
ttlCr8Y C<>nSu/'IICd ill AUMSo "'II< and Semj.AIII<>QtMW Grit>iina (SAG) mills. while n:sulu
from the omaIlcr onvil more .. ith ball IIn<l rod ",ijl O<ITllnIioutioo Tho
... imlIli"" of m<rVY for c:ruollina by thi. _ <:auld be Jenatbr ..... tc<li ......
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(l.B)
In .... Bond I ..... io ....... fO! F is the ~ to the iJindilli ,ircuit and the product P. i. the:
prodoct fiom the: i!indina citt"'t. In on opal ,in:ui, this i . straightforward bu! in c100ed
cif"Olli, mill. where. classlfier;' irulallod '0 return the <:OW>< fraction to the mill, !he work
i!>de>: i. b;>oed "" .... work dono in rmucina:!he size of the . "" ... fcod, that i1. th< oriSinai
f .. d plu. the coane frx' ion from tho product "'i>""'Lod at the cl4Mifier and mumtd to the
mill fcod.
n.. oprnt' ing ,,,,rk ioo.. i. uord for:
L Recordina: mill perfunnancc OIl ",KUI..- twi. (b<>url),. Gaily etc.)
2, Con'"",it\i cumnt pcrfonnancc with historical d.1I
J. Comrorinl! cir<:uit:! in multi-cir<:u.i, plall"
Si""" the optnti"ll worl ioo.. i""lud.. motor, dri,'. and i!irx:lin& incffici""ies. it i. 001
dire<tly <OtItp .... bl. to the W<lf' ;00.. ob\aiDOd from loron,.,.,. ~ I i t y ..... , Ifmo<of and
drive lewes .... takeo into .':<0",", then fr.e openting i!ld<. divided by the l. bor>.tory
irindability work index .... c"" be ttsod ... tneaS\Il'e of gri r>ding dlicimcy in .... pi""".
(J.24)
w ~ Woo: ~ op<n' ;"i work i!>de>:. oolT<"C1od ro. IlOOJIoIHIord condition. and """.
optimum fetd,
w, ttn - I.bor:>.tory i!indobility w"rk index,
J.J.J 8mod Rt>d ,1/;1/ Stondm"d r."
Standard conditions for <lctcrminini the: ",ozk index of rod mills t.m<kr loboralor)' oor>d; ,iQn!l
~ .
Mill Si.. _ J05 mm (inlemal diamelcr) 610 mm (internal k nljlb) with _' .. type lini"ll
M .. terial Dry mir.eral
5i.. _ redocedtoIOO %< IJ2001""
Quantity _ 1250 em ' (tlIpp! clown to i i ~ . ",producible bulk d ..... iW)
(; . 38,1 mm di 0.53 m loni ,,..,1 f"O<bplu.
2 x 4 . 5 mm dia x O,S) m loni .teol rod.
total mas 3338 '<II
Mill Rota,i"" _ 46 =Imil\. 100 % circul.Uina klad.
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7. Corncti(}ftfociur: F7 Mill
The arindina .fficitoe}' chanaes";!h mill diameter. The change ...... from the eIwlgc iD
po ..... dro""" by tho mill ond tho tl\ang< u mill _ilf with wOll><ln. The oo=i:OOn foctoT
i:I 8iV<1l u;


n _ _
o
f ... D < l .l lm
F7 - 0.914 for D HI m (3J2)
the m,U D, i. in .......... 11 .... b<en _ by Ilond u... f ... mill ..... IbM
HI Ill, tho reda::tiarl in grir"04in& ener&Y reoulting from mill dioo'r"!el ....... ond tho
COJl'<I<:tion _ i. constant at tho 3.11 m nl ... ofO.914.
"- C""",,,ioIofoctor FI! Rod
The oor=:tion _ for rod millina i:I complex ODd oIcpcod. 011 tho feed JAcpwlllioo:o. IIond
auggestJ twI) conditions;
1. . '", .. rod mill only applkotion, .... on <fJ"ociency focto< of 1.4 """'" the foed i.
produced by open ,irc";l cruohina. ond "'" I _ of 1.2 w!Ie1I the mill feed i.
prodO<i:d by <lox<! cimJj( <nI!hina.
2. For rod millt.11 mill &0 '''''Wly. mill di_ o:omction for the b&ll mill.
If lhe rod mill feed u prod......:] by open ci=il cn"'ri"i "'" I _ of l.2 for the rod
mill >lOge only. If Ill< rod mill f=;[ i:I JO% 12 mm or ..,.. (<0.11- from
cifoJil <rIMer) do DOt apply rod mill .fflCiency facto<. 0lhe1 o:rrre<:Iion fattorJ sucb
.. mill diameter ond m:!uctioo ratio .. do lPPly.
The in this correo:tiorl f..,tor f'O'n.!Ioa1 illla li1ll. val ... iD calouJotina. Wee
and \be of,.om rod mill pe<f..."..,..;e. lbus \be test wort. index val"" multiplied
by tbt prod.." of1he oOIl:li"" factoro will fJi'<lvi<I< on eobmate of llot true (pla..,O """*- index
....
(3.33)
he",," r", ..,...!ilion not applicable obouId be tak ... .. I.
The Bond W",t Index ,'Ill ... c/wop with the si ..... oize dllring .. porUculor __ For
""",,,pie. in_d of the oo:r<>eZI tlirouBb wbich &0% of the "'" P" = , u.. """I
size 1htou&h ",hich 15% "fthe ore p" .... may be ch<>oen '" oW, I por\iculII' condition ofmill
opemiOll. Bond', ""&ina! upteS$kon [or u.. work iodu i. _ IlII BO% o[ the onaterW
PUS;"lI """"'" ,i .. , Thi. hos ""w b<en adop<cd as tho __ Any do-.-iatioro from !hi.
rlaRlanl would fUjuire tho delcnnillllion of ..... ' ...... odin& "'IlIi .... """"'. The method of
de!o:rtnming !he Iui,'o1"""" may be <l<Pl ained by the [ollowiJog .. ample.
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oo ... i'" i. n>:Ordod. TIll. "...... Moo IIIK>uld be equal to tho nru, Me at a eirt:u1atilli
lo.d
10, The oo'<J>iz< 1nJl"i rot. k. i5<.kuIo11 """iii tho <quat;"",
k n(ln M, _lnM.,.)
N
- number of mill ,....'ol"Ii""" pet minute
- nurnb<f of mill =-'o lulio", in the fi"I "' ..
).to. - ...... oflI ..,reen o,= i afu:.-lOril>dina
)..t., - Ina .. ofto't ..,rmt ,w"";zo at the beiiMi"i of tho pil>dins toot
(l,J7)
I I. The toW number of mill ,....olulioN f'" :he: K<C>I>Ci ilil>dina test (N,) i. clicW.,,,, from
11>0 equati",,:
N ,
,
0 .38)
12. The mill i, loaded with the occond c!wgo and irirw:l for N, .. >oIuli"",,
13. Aft .. (Pindillj!. tho rntu. mill charge ;, ",rernc<I <>II tho test "'''''''' and the oo .... izc
ond und<:nizc weighed, The o,'em..: IIhouId be oppro. imatdy equal to (2.SMI3.S) and
It" maD of the unders.i M",. should be "W"xima1<ly equal to MIl,S.
14. The . i ...... IY'i. of the 1<01 OCreeJl undersize i. deocnnine and the 80% "",",ina oitt
(PIO) of the prod"" calculaled,
I S, The ne", w>denizc per mill ",,olution. G. in the oecod a:rind ;. Ibm determined u<in&
tho equation:
,
M. __ M(I_m, )
G . 3.5 (3.39)
N,
16. The ore WorI< Inde. i. then calcul .. '" ",illi the &nd formula (Eq.
Thi. rn<thod """" .. the Ii"", o[ """,uromrnl and "ncr. !be on: i. """'-Ii,'"
"'..,... inde. vol""" "ithin 7Y, of tho Bond method. Howe".,. tho ore contaim 110ft and
Iw-d OODlponrnts, '"'" Bond ..., ",;11 110, ... .-..:irculatilli I"", .. fuclI i. oompo.ro
of .... harder componenl ond brn<e " i ll higher WorI< IndeJ< ,-..1""
""",i.,,,,, "ilb c\osro drcult Brin<!il\i- Sir>e< the Mqd>.linmic method ""'. lhe!lllme [..ro to
step.. thi, biordor material in .... e;n:wati"i l<>ad i, "'" ,imulated and he"". th<
metbod "'ill ii'.' 10"'" WorI: Index ,-al.,..
1. M .. lUl"I ,.iU.otd <
If. 0Iandard Bond mill i. "'" .. -allable then an approxirnat< Wor\;: lodex val"" can be
obIoined if . sample of ore of known Won; Indo. i .. vaHable 1281. The """.,tandar<I mill <on
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1bo """"loIion b<tween Bond Wor\; Index and ,. .. il. ,.nmp i. an indication that.be
iJ'indina mhanism in Ihc: ",oIl< index t<>l favtHlrS oIn.!ion t)']>< !nab&< .. n thI" 1<"';1<
' 1I'milh ;. a fair indi""tion oflhc: . _iv ...... of a rock.
Briggs .. "" meorurcl Ihc: brc:aUgc rat< and bmlbge dimibulion function of .... 0"" and
rat< and Bond Work Indc:<. Then: wi" iI'J<'d oonclatm _= tho
rock data and .... bre>k' ic '"'" wilh ""'naIh rock! , lower b-""'i<
nI1<. How,,'u Ihc: data !eI for _ tesb was mml and further ,,'0<1< need. to be don< to
"""finn tho ... la!ionship,
Bearman eI ,I (3 81 .... asurtd . "i<k !"8I'Ii< of rod 5Uenilh prop<1Iies and C<Jrn1at<d ......
lO.be JKMRC drop ""ight 1<5( dota. C"""IU5ion> w ... that Ihi. thoi""" "ill .... bl .....
do", required for comminution pi.". <lesign 10 be oblaiotd from metllanlcaJ 1<5(, "" drill core
.ampl ...
1. SI.,iAlk..J
Chakl1lharti ho. , .imple OWistk" =llOIion method of .stimating ",<>rI;
index .. ini Ihc: Rosin-R.amrnler ond Oo..Jin-S<huhmann oi", disuib."iOfl
Chakrabani ooruidered .... RosinI\3mJnI., and Goteo-GandinSchWunaron functions of H
dm..,. co,'''';ng wort indke, b<twe<n S.36 and 23.93. The .... t coml.lion "as found "l.n
\he Ro,iniWnInl .. param<1<fS.
A:Ording 10 Chakrabatli. Ihc: ",<><It. iMox of an W>known rock mat<ri.o.l <an be obWncd by
firs.l), crushinll Ihc: ro<x 10 10" than 3321 microns, ovoidilli b), ",ina low
_IiY impact 0< com"",,,i,,,, and by c1o";ng.be cirruil .. ilh. 3321 1bo
crwhed product i. , ized LIIinil a T)'I<r standard ,i ... " I>Ost oct bet..-..." 13s() ond n micro",
and Ihc: R<>si,..Ramml .. di,nibulion 1"1""' ..... <l<tennined. The .. " rl; indo>; is \hen calculoted
from .be .... ti"iC2l PO"-'" ... IIlIion:
(3.45)
",-bore x, is .... size Xl. of .... R<>s;"'Rommler oqllMiOll of 3327 mi<ron food and x,
i. tho di<uib!Jt;on panmd<r. b. of Ihc: Rooin Ranunl..- di>trib!Jtion of the same: f<Cd mat<rial
(sec Chapter 2,2),
Chakrabarti '''"''''' that a modified form of .... RosinRmunlcr oqWllioo gi"" bett<r fi t
to .... experin><ntal ,,;"" disuibutions. 11>< 00",,-",,", a. d, < ondf""'''' found to Ita, ... be
values of:
a - B &t 73361 &, b - 0.003845. - -14,81&65321. d - 9(1]1 x 10"'.
< - 1 0.000189264
11>< oom:lalion bctWO<l\ and cakulatcd work indices i, oho,,'11 in Hi. 3.9
based on !Ix unmodified and mndifiod R",inRamrnler function.
Wbibt Fii- ) ,9 sb<ms lbat Ihc:re is. 1r<nd.!Ix equation ...quire. I'urtha .. flIl<Jl>ell1 from
lorS<1 doh. ><I, beOO it CO/\ be odopted.
),3.9 WorkInJuofDr<BI<nd,
The blondinlt "r ditT=m """ t)-p<> i. rommon pno<. icc ' 0 provide. oorui.tent feed '0
pn><e" in ,.."" or""irorm hardn<so o ..... y, Whon ",,-era] diff<r<nl 0 ... deposits of ''3I}ing
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" 'I><r< A and B ore "'" 'r>ific conSlanIS and Eo i, the opifio commi"",ioo """"Y. '!be
parame1 .. A "'1"'I'",n" t .... "a1"" ofT,. (see fig. 1.11), fot hard OTt< the
".1 .. of A "l'P"'xim. "" SO ...... ,.1"" A.IJ (tl>o im""" ,,"",mel .,.) i. t1>; .k>!>< of tho
T, ,,.. E c"".., .. zero input <"""iY.
'Jbe T, .... tIIIt" diwibution ruT\'< i. t=ful .. it i. a description of the p><\UC1 'it<
di!i1ribntion and tht T" caJl be c"",ide"", ." i,..jex of the dove<' of breal<aa<. Tbe harda t1>;
tht low" the Too ,.,J ... for gi, .. n input """"il'. K",,"ing the T" ,1Il ...... ult inl! from a
input """g:.'. tho compk'" prodUC1 size d i.uil;rnoo... can b: calculaI<J . 1<>
Nopi". Mnnn .. a11241:
For crushing - T,. i. u>U&lly !()'20% and
For llri.oing - T,. ranges bctv.een 20-5(l%.
,------------,
"
, .-.-
-
,
.
,
- ,
-'
.
,
-
, ,
"
-
"
,

.
/


O.! _
"
-
-
-
-
-


-
.
-

.
..
" -
-
-
-
-
, ,

-
.

"
--
,
,
.
" "
;, .'

.. .. , , ..
"
, ..
"
,.
Comminu'ion E .... rl/Y
FilI, l ,lI,
N'pi",.Monn '" 01 (24] indi""". p" .. ibi< oor,"'.1;o" .... tht imp,",' pan>rt><;1or (A.B)
ODd the Kond ball mill work ind<. by tho equation:
A.II _ _ l .SW, 117
(l.47)
The o.t<rmination of the Too val ... and ilS US< in <letmninins the opilk _age <nergy
i, il lu""., oo in tho Enrnpl. 1.2.
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"
TIle averqe size anaIy .... of III iron on: If\cr poT'im;"", OJulIbini sbowro. Po. .. I"" of 1113
microns This wa rod to _ rod min v.hl<b prodoood product 10 % of which po"" 15(1
miotOllS. This .... tbc:n 0baticd <:OntitJ .. "wdy to ball mill, which was I'ftjuir<d 10 prod..,.
product of - 34 micf'OllJ fot the pwpo .. ofptlletbin& tht ore.
Tho 8<JW>b<e1 <XJIISidcml wu dry ope:n ciJrui. <:nWtintI and _ rod and ' Ho"d circuit
!lrindina bell mill grindine;.
Tho inIanoI diom<tcn of _ rod on<! boll miD. wue 2.5 m and thzoo&hput of 100 tIh
...... pec!<d. E.stinwc tht toIIII ODd po ....... roquiml f.,.. grinding b)" the rod
and t.ll milll.. The .",yI"" loOOniory.....n: inOOc of tho <>Ie ..... lB kWblt.
"0'
,-


_.0.

3.10
A ",.. : nw;"" WJ\{lk of on: (_H.hll.S IIIIII) wu tnlObod iD ... imJ*'l _ and tho pn><Iuct
... "' ...... The "" ..... onaIysi. i . iiVCl below:
EstimaIc:
m
17.6
. ,
...
u
Cum ...... %
""""

" .
55. I
21,0
"
l. '('be ".h ... ofT,. T OJ. T .. Odd T ,",
2. Tbe IfJ>"<.'ific oommiout;OII aWOl"" for Ibo: on: if A "'IuW 35 ODd B is 2.
HI
AD on: OIIIJIple 1.2 q and particle IIiu - 35.S min <lU mm,.. crushed in.
llbo>ratory impo<:t orudx:r. Tho,.."..., """ and i. F""" bolo",. Tbe ""'" i..:leJc of the
."., wu 1).2 kWblt and tho limiri"3 val"" of\h: imf*l A"' .... "'IoallO
50 lid B is 1.R5. Eotimate the Too , ,,,,," ond okt"",,; ... !be ""'i1' requil<'i in \be
. "
[Him: AmIn>e NopicrM .... n'. Eq. Or%) is applicable.]
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Chapter 4. Jaw Crusher
INTRODUCTION
The fi"t SUi" of oi reducti"" ofhard an;IlOfIlC 1"",1'1 of ,.",..,f mi". (ROM) ore i. to crush
.00 red""" tb<ir Ii",. Soller 0",", lik< place, deposi'" of tin. [!old. rui,..,.] sands etl:. 00 not
"'lui .. wch IrnOlmenL large soak <N.lting operation' ... gentrllily perfonne<l by
mech.anically operated jaw <Nihers. aYT.to,y crusher and roll <ruolle ...
fot vcry I-"J!C 01"< ;>ios (hat .... It><> big f'" reivilijl IIoppers of rI<C ..... ' iuHy <!riven
<rushers. pelClW;OO rock break .... Of . imiw 1001. are used 10 break ohern ooW" 10 si>t.
The me<banism of orushing is .ithn by .Wlring im.,.., force. prtM= Of COO'IbiDlliotr
of both. The jaw ONsber is primoril)" on OOOlps.ioo. ,rus/>or "illi. II>< othon ope .....
primarily by !he: """ticillion of impact ..
u . D .. of Ja ... C" "b ...
Jaw crusl>ers are de<iiJlOd to impan on iml*" on . rock paniok plad bdw<aI. fIXed
and "",,ina pla (jIW). The floc .. of !be: pla1e3 are made of llardened . teel. 80111 pl ....
could be !\at '" tbr: fix<d pw< flat ond tbr: """ini pla _vex. The surf.,,., of both plat ..
could bc plain Of corrugal<d. The m,,,i"i plato 'Wli .. tho foo:< of impoc1 on tho panicl ..
b<ld "a,"<l tho sutio""r)" plat<. Both plil\el boiled 00 10 h<&vy blod. The movinl[. plate
i, pi'"01<d at tho lOp end (8lok. <rushe-r) Of at the bottom end (Dodge-lype crusber) and
conne<:ted to on Octontrk '''ft. In u.,i,orsa.l crush<rs \he pi ....... piwted in tho middle SO
that both the lOp anJ bonom mi. un moR
The Blok. crushers ... . miJt Of oouble lOute <!rives. The func1lon of <he touJc(s) i"0
mo, .. <he piVOltd jaw. The t .. ,ri,,"i"i ""lion of !he jlw from ilS furthest tot! of ","vel i.by
.prilli' for . man cru>hen .... by pitman for larger c",ohm . M the "",iprocalinlt oction
Tcmo,"d tho movina jaw away from the f",ed jaw the broken rook panioles dip down, "'" ore
again oauant . , tbr: ,",xl "",,emtnt of tbo owinain&jaw and OTIISbed. 111;' jl<OOdO i. repeated
until tbo panicl. size. oro small .. tlwI the UTloIl .. , operllnS _""" tb< crusb<r plate. at tbo
bonom of tbo crusher (tbo clo...! ""j. For. """"th Te<iprocati"1[ "";on of the """inti jaws.
heavy flywhe.I' arc: u...! in both 'Y1"" of cruv..n.
Fia. 4.1 """,., a sketch of . Blal:< Crusher operot<d by doubk toul .. and controlled by
pibTWl. "These commonly used os pri'TW), <rushon io tbo min<r.t.l indu.try. The oi .. oftbo
feed <>p<::ni"1[ is r<fhm:I 10" the _ . The "I'<ni"1[ at tbo discharl[t rnd of tbo jaw:; ;.
.. fer=! 10 .., the "".
Fil[.. 4.2 i h tch of. Dodll' 1J"p< of oruoh<r.11>cy .... oompouoti,. ly in c""""ity
than the Bloke CN""" .oo arc more: commooly Wl<d in labo""",ico.
Th< f><ton of importance in dtoigniT\i the oi"" of primary crusl>ers, like jaw cnuht..,

(4.1)
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10.1
Ikductioo ratio, R * 10 1:7
Throw,Lr * 1-7=
Speed * 10010)59'1""
Frequen<)'of01roke,. * lOO - lOO<ycltsrmin
Lenath or stroke * O,OSOh
10 praoctiot. tbt <>]lttttOr hu 10 okcid< OIl tbt of tbt tel 01 tbt dj ... N'1I" ODd. Thi.
oeuiIIa hoo 10 jnclo<le tbt maximum ond tbt "'inimum pMitiOlllIhOl !be boMm lw 10 opeD
the o",illation of !he _ cod of !he ja ... , The ..... uf""'''''"" of jaw cnut...n
pnwidet aU !be control. 10 adjU<! tbeoo 1I:!tina., lbt ""toa] di-.:a ""' best masumd by
takioa "'/\ meul, Lil<. Itlod or . boU of aI"",ini"", foil, ond oqua:zinII it the ja,." . 1
!he dtsiml width formiJli hnd of tempYW. This pi"", of Itlod tnetaI it used 10 ,ho>:k the
of II<IIins durina op<nticln.
During tho operuiOIl of . """"'"' the booll <it".ity of tho rnaI<riiol i",,,*,,,,, lind tbe r-rtiCle
size d=tases. With time, "ur 011 !he )!latc surf..,.. de.elops ......tling in c:hang<: 10 tbe
crusbot surfac<, profik. lhi. could alter !he tltroo.J&bpuI mel iii: of tho crusbot product,
The operati"" of j.w o:nab<n lw been best datribcd matbemalicaIly Iry Whltal [2) .
... .,."".,Jina 10 Whilen, if . eertain portitk . in:, d, in tbe rize dimibution curve of. minmol
(Ha. i. I ... ilion K, tbtn it 'O-nuId paso thtougb lIIII:nI:ObaI, >malIer than tho
opening <>flht .... Sui atl pOtti<k.u,.. 14 IOIaIler than tho lqeot opmin&
tile j .... oftbe jaw tnI>bcr ODd \btrtfon: "ill al_)"I be <=1becI. lbt probobility P of
paltic\e heina orust.c.l or oot may be wrilkD .. :
"')
"')
"OJ
- 0 f.,..
I rOT
- '-[ "-'j'
K, _ K,
d < K,
d> K,
The val .... of K, IIld K" .... primarily fiu>criono of !he crusbet oct 1M at"" dq><nd 011
throughp.>t, fot<! w and li_leniIh lind "'" <IobetDi'Dod Iry ,..", .. ion 0Dalya.. of
operatina data. Such rtlatioD!hipo """' initially <ktcrminod Iry Lyrw::b [l) and levi""" Iry
Andenon [41 u:
K, """r.....,. -.,Q ... , F .. ""lur<.a
K" tr. b, L_ " b,Q "b,F,, - bo tu.n .. It, Lt
wberc tao. i. tho .' of tho liner in boon ond t.-. i . tbt I ...... length.

K L & O.67L_ 1.9X>nun
K, l.tll 1.Imm ( 4.1}
- the fn<tio>o> > 25.4 """ in Il>e foed ond
on in\etpOlaliD,/l spline: 1'unctio!l ofIoMO/!"
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F.q. (4.12) tJ>.I the ca!clty, Q,. iJ dirt>cdy proportiooaI '" frequency. AI ruter
m,,,'efJlrIl! oflho jo. .... ",,= .... ponicle WUI foil the oompiele di!llanCe, ... during the IIaIf
"",Ie. Q, was f.,..,..j Ie be inv .... ly pmpoJtional !O freq""""Y on;! coold be ..... "d by the
relation:
Q, _13H3S W (2L_ +
,..""",, Q,. - C"l*"il)' (fut &oquency) in t<nn5 orval""", ofrnalnial p<>ducI p<r boor.
The rtlati<mdrip be,,,,,,,,, tho fmqumcy of ope.iIIi.:>n and of tho jaw <nIShor ton be
..,." in Fig. 4.S. Thi. figure i , ploued for val"", ofL, O.22S m, W - 1.2 m. L.m. - 0. 10m.
R - 10, 0 - I and the val"" of y ...ned -...., SO ODd )00 rpm.
FiK. 4.' Indi<&t<s that wxIc: tbe cooo:titi""" <>f op<nlion, 911:JClcslmin iI obout tho critkaI
f:rtq1lellC)' beyood which !be productivity de=ua. The critical crusbI:r Yc, i.
given .. :
, (' -'J"
Yc-
47
(L,r

,
.-
,
>
<
"



"

"

"
"
,


(4.14)
-
""x
./
a,
0/
,
,
,
,
,
I
,
"
,
' 00

Frequency (eyel .. ""ln)
fi t- 4.'. Chanp of upocily ,,11Il 1I't.1""""y "'''''' J .... pIaIo _illl to Eqo. (4. 12l ond (4.
4 - 0.221..., W _ ).2 ... t.- - 0.1 0m. R - 10,G- lm.
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'"
., id inK fine 'U< "" (he "fICMinK fao:;es of ,he i. P'<'"",ted and will ted""" lhe
l'I""luction raI<. The """>lw,, Off"'1 is II>Of'< matl<ed scwndaty moshillil. I
lliilher proporlioo of fines .... flR'<nt in lbt f=l.
The f:d fllC1(X k, . aw1ieo to tho rnlnn<r in "hioll the: 'N,her i. fed. For example.
manually fro inl<nni tl<ntl)' Of cOO1i".,.,...ly by a helt 'pM". In "'" latter c""" tho
ra'" of feeding '$IIH)'" unifontl_ The foll",..ing H I"", r", foclOr " - "'" gene .... lya,<oep<<<l ,
For cootin""", manual fcodin;.. l, - I
For """,im'::'''' IIlhani<:a1 (=li"I!. k, - O.1S - 0.85
T oggart used ,II< wmpara';'" red"".;"" 10n (tonne) to <>lim>\< the nu of the BI .... I)l><
cru.ocr Tjuircd for a Bi,-rn dul y aDd its prod,",'i"ity_ Tho is S<lI!lJIl.arioed helo,,',
11>c Xl"",;"" flu;O of !he opcnIlion i . estimated from 5<Tot" ORaI),si. of the fe! aDd
1'1'0"10",,. 'I\'hore. sen"" anaIy';. is "'" .vailabl .. a IWIl" .. ,imat< can he <>btained if "'"
re\a'ion betw""n the <,."ul",h .. m ... perc,,,' """ing (or rct.>iocd) for difTe","' .iu
i .... umo:d (0 he liD<ar (Fii- 4.7),
Fill_ 4.7 is Ii""" plot of tho $COlped and un!<a1ped 0"",. The superimpo""" data f'Oin",
of . cru>hcr prod..:t indicott. II>< fair . .. umption of a I""ar """st,""ion. In th< a i,
,I>< cumulati,,, oj", diotribution of ,he onscalped feed 0 (u<otn<d li", .. ) ODd b i. the
cumula,;,-e ,i .. distribu, ;on of'he ""aired 0"'. " is ,he oponure ofll ... OCfWII and d ,
.00 d, the co""''I"'Dding of .... ",,[pod onJ unseal,"", f'll at " . <u",ul.live ""'''
porcenla/lo. Takina x q..al '0 20% (IL> "'C an: ""'Iuim! 10 <'Iimale 80% lIlal i. PA";m:
il can t.. ......... I" , implt &t<Jmctry ,l\al tht ratio of the 80% f>II"ing ,V.c: of ....
-,<alp! f<l "' ,I>: W% .,.",;nw ,in: of lh< """"'lpcd f<l i, gi'."" 1":
'00
00

00

0

,.
-


00
,
00


00
,
00
,
,
,.
0
..


(d,-d, ) _ 0 2,<




,
,
.. 00
SI ... (mm)

Fit O. L;"" ... '0/" ....... "'" <>f"" 1f>l (b)ond """,al p! (0) <n.<"",, _
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(431)
E.:<!endi"lO the >n<qlI ro (/10 <n,;re cho.mt>c:r. Bn>maII o.:du>d ""pac; 'l <>f (lit .",sIt. Q,

-
-
,,;c!th Qfth< crushing cavity. m
Speed, rpm
(432)
-
cOOSlA/lL d<peMont Oft the prop<rti., of the f<ed mat"';01 and ""'gn
In Eq. (4.]1), v ohould ht Ie" !han the critical ,-oIuo abo,.. "hieh the <apa<ity dec=ses.
BI'OIIlMI critical >peed as Iimi:tiOfl of crushor throw and nip angle u,
h
-, ............................. ,
. .. 1--






:
... . . , .. ,.




:
....... .. .:....L __ J
I. ----i .1 c,
"
Fi&. 4.9. Step bynep iII"""ward 00 ... of """eriol .jaw crum.r [10].
(4.33)
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I 1 I
J


, ..
!

-
I
'.
, .
J
i .

".
I
'- '-
I
, ,

... ...
'."'., ..



Pi .. R .... "" l h""" ...t
oritOi:aJ (R - III
4.5. .. " Con ... mpliofl
f'il- 4. 12. Rei .. "", b.' ... .." ,"",""ion rotio...:l
speed (l,
(4.46)
A numb or 13 j, I. 19]. ,,"W ,ri! """"",k.l W ""i","" tt.;
PO"-'" oonswnpl;"" of j.,. 'rusher. In m<:>S! case. u...c deri,'td ,'aloes .... .. t>ost.
"""",,,im"ion . The mcthudslMSl comrnooIy usIl<l'Id [woo ((l )' ieklsat;,f""lOfY ... ",1 .. _
de>Cribed.
4.5.1. Rouaruif.ng/i>h
'Ill< <, ,,,es,ion for ,he P'"'"I COIUU1I1l"ion (PI derivc:d thromic.1l1 1- Rose and
Engli.h [9] im;olve<! thr l oowl.dg. of Bend', Wod; ioo.x (W,)_ T" ." .IIllIe ,he w"rk index
tt.:}' con.<jdered the maxim"", ,iv: in the feed and 01>0 "'" maximum ,;,-" of panicl., in Ill<
dis<Oarg< from the crusher. To dct....,i,.., Ih< ,;,-" through ,,-hich 8Q 'Y. oftt... f<eJ pa .....
'hey con,;dcred data"" ,.l.ui "ll tho rnoximum particle "'" and <he undo .. ;"". From
the ",\alion i ...... ron<ludeJ !hat p .. w .. appro,imatoly to 0. 7 times , bo i:>rgost .i"" of
partjck. Taking the large51 si", of the panid< that should be <""'sed to aj.", crush<r .. 0.9
.i"",. tho pp<. r ..... "" .. Ti"<n as:
r .. - 0.9 x G, 0.7,10" - 6.3,10' G microns (4.47)
wher<: u.. PP<. G i, in mctm.
At..,. to .. ",bl i,h Ih< P
oo
ftQm tho prod"" ,i ... fl..,... and o.,...,i<ltred that
tho largest pulide ,ite d''''hared from the: bon"", of tho orush<t ",,,,,kI U<OUl at tho
maximum opon ... 1 posit;"" and bence:
roo - 0.7{1...",+L, )Ir/ - 7.0 . lo'{L_ + I.; )m,o"'rIJI (4.48)
where bolh and L, are in m<k'r>.
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Inl<rval P<dl
"
S, 01 Si S. + SCI
,
" .
'"
279,0
,
0.82 50.0 88,0
,
O.B 3,18 38.0 32.0 70,0

. 0,)3 32.0 25.4 S7.4
,

25.4
, .
31. 8
,

"
,.

, .
,
St<p 2.
From Eq, (01): C-2S.4 . 0.32 - 1.21
H...." by suMtirutinll in Eq. (4.54) th< CWT<1It, I. "ill be:
1- 14.2 0,0822 X 8 21" 0,00305 X (8.2!)'
- 15.l z 1.8Amp
Slep ),

0,248
0,028
0,045
. ""
"

0.32
AssUmina IlIt "olliS< - 41 5 V. 1'0", ... """"""plion - I 5.1 X 41 5 - 6.3
4.5.1. ,/Mtr .. n D",J .\'''P;'' MWlln
113
Tho mo<kl. for detcnnini", the "",<lim! for opent"" jaw eruoben lui.'. lI>05Ily been
den.'ed ""ni Bond' , work in.dox. Whil, thos< pvc: sati,f""",'Y atim.>tiom of PO"''' it m""
be rem<mbe=l tIut Bond', nl""'ion """ derived "'ina' twnblina mill .,bert the fome. of
oomminution .... "'" qui,. th< _ os that in j.w crmhcr3, Andrnen <t .1 [4] tbertf"",
attempted to oom:lol. th< <Il<'V)' of ,rudUn& a, &l<rminod by a staBd.atd lab<nlory
P,ndulwn t ... (0 Se< 3.2.3) with thot ""iuiRd by a ja,,' orusbtr.
MorT.Il. l\"I'i ... ).-\unn, and And""",, rll1 tIIat 1h< lOW <n<ri}' b)'
jaw eruobn " ..... functioo of tbr 0Jln'8Y operate rusher undotr IGOd and M load
<ODditi""". Apin, tho powe, on lGOd Ould b< diffi:rcnt for di!ferrnt panicle: oi"" in
the foed. Tho> i .. tho POW<I" "ill be <I<r<!>dont on th< panicl, si", distrihLltion of the foed,
Th ... if j ... 1M number of inknlll, in the di,tributioo of panid .. ohitt i. th<n til<
",..., flow ..... ofpArtkle",,,, i ,ook! be olien as M, tIh. If P; "'P"""" th< probobility of
brealogo of pouticl .. of .ilt i ond the t1"Itt"l!Y of """"iflll of ,;It i i. Ee ... T" 1'<".1. then
the ollioul.ted pmdulum p<"'''' (Pc) (0< sil. ; breakage "wid be:
Pc . t Ee." .., P, M, in kW
;.,
(4.5S)
(4.56)
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"

13.0
O.7S

O.w
5.2
2.1
"
'"
Th. 1"''''''' requir..:l to cru<.h II>< limest<>ll< was 8 kW. E$1;ma/e tl>e rt<Ioi rtd (Kick' ,
1..0"') '" cru.'" ,ho...,.., li""""one h,w'ng ........ ;i.e of 2 mOl. 1\"",,,,,,.11 m .. "';.l
hod to be uohc<l,
4. 11
11>< ck<d XI of"" op<,.,i"i j aw cN>h<r ,,-'" 125 mm. i\ coolin\lO\l. st,,,.m of ore was fl
at In. "". oflO tI1't. On an ",'or,,!!" lQ'YH f the on: "'as Ie .. than the .1<1. The p .. , ... .., 4 \ 0 ",,"
in ,;z." Tho ,rU>h<T " .... initloll y opc""ed " 200 rpm .. . .... UC,;"" "';0 of 1:4 but It.: louie
w .. to be ;""",,,,,,d. Cal""tak:
I. n.e maximwn !iJl'I"'d, vc. at "hich it con b< op<ra!<d.
2. n.e maxirnW'l! cal"""ity . ' ,he nw<imum op<ntinll ..,.,.,.t "f Itt< 'ou\<.
v.la: S.G, of''''' Of<
RHERE:"o' C[S
I II E,G. Kelly ..-.d D,). Spo1t;'"ood. J"trt>duc1;on '0 Minora] Proc ... inlj. Miner.tl
E"ii-n"i s...,.,.i=. 19S9.
(21 WJ.Whj,rn, )",,","1 S. A. In>!.. Min. MeuU .. 12(1972)257.
III A.l . L)'IIC"- Mill<rlI eru,bini and Griodini Ci",uit Ebc,,,,,, Sc. Publishin!!. 1977.
(4] j,S. And<:rsen .rId T J. Napier_Mum. J" )..!ill Opcrn1ou Cobar. :" ..... li ..
(I onS).
(5] T.l . N..,i.r. )..lW1r1. S . . \1"",,11. R. Mooi..", ond T Kojo,-k. Mi,., .. 1 Commin ution
eire";., Their Opcrnti"" and Optimi"'t;oo. JKlRC. 1'1%.
!6] E."'. H=-m. T...,.AIME. fI (In.l) -Il>J.
[7] A.M. G.udin. f'riodple, ofMi ........ Dressinll, M<Graw-HiJl, ... -YorI:. 1939.
lSI A.J. Toggor\. 1l.",;lI><>M of Mineral !)re"im:. Jorn. I '!-IS.
]9 ] fU:. Rose and J.t:. t:m:li>lr. Tram, IMM .. 76 ( 19(7) C32.
]10] J. Broman. Engin=in ond Joornal. JUDe (1m) w.
11 11 S. 10.10",,11. TJ, Napi<T' MWIll and J, Ander>rn. in Communi,i"" Theory and Practi.
S, K, Ka",,,,, (od). 1992.
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1.11
".
MOIlIf rali!\j!. kW 16.8 83.9
,\cooroina l<l W.i", shat\. c",!ben an: prcsauly 001 in use I>I:t ..-. btina ",pla=! by
S"'" Sh"t\ model ,
',I. ), SeconJaryand r",;ary ""n< CT"'!>."
Cone: c"",non .,ore ori2i .... lIy and <lncloped by S}mon. around I'no and tno",rOf<
at< ofir" deocribo\l as S),"'oo,ront o:n>AAtrs, As \he mechoni"" of cntshirtl in lhest OfUsi>crs
at< .imi l..- to orn>h< .. th<ir ooillfli Of' ,imi l .... bul in thi, 'a;e tb< spiodk i.
,uJ>POf1<d ... tb: bonom of tho ""no illSlald of bti", ""'!'Codod '" in I",Cf
crust.. ..... Fig_ S.l is ",hematk di.gram of. 00fIe <fIlShtr. 1 ... t.r<al.: in2 head ii' ..... ' iMido
OIl in,"m<d ,runcated cone, n.o.e ,rushers .... designed .., t,,", th< head to depIh ratio i.
larger Ih." the stanJar,j IOY<"lory crwh<r or-.d the oooe 01< mu<h Il.,l<'r and ,ho . lop< of
th< nun'I ... .. 1""'.Ild .... <,",n 1'1>< ""'" .. ,gl .... 1'><1( .... ",,,,in
the j>IIl1kles Ioni<r I><'''-<e!\ ,I'>< ,""'"ing....race. and thc",fon: pn><!= moch finer j>IIl1kl ...
To p,..".."t <Wnallt to Ihc: ""rfo<es. the """,",,', 0.- 'I'><1i of Ihe cruYltn an: I><ld in
plaa by <troog <f"ingo '" h)-.lroulk, which yirW l<l pe-moi. u'lC:n"l",bl. ""mp .,.!<ri.1 '" pas.

Tho ,,,,sho;rs "'" ""'igrwl<.-d .. Sla"';"d 0_ <N'bcf; ""'-; Hi stepped Ii ..... and
teni..,. Short 1/.00 CO"" ,rushers. whiob ha,- 1t'IOOCh<r <rustU"Il r"" .. and SIeep<T >n<
OIIVOS of the tm-akiog bea,d, 11-.0 approximate distm: of the annul .. Sf"U >1 tl>< diochari!<
end desiifl"" lho , j- of , ... <n< <N,hm;. A brid ,wn"..". of ,ho design <haracl<ri>lics i .
in Tabl. S,4 for Ctu.t.er opera' ion in open cift.il and ck>std ci",.il ",,",1;"'<11
Fi" Sk .. ,h ""'" <M-I><,.
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erus.h<T in-'ol,'cs only "",,half of its ,urfaeco whil< in jaw cru<ben !be m,i", clUShins .uri"""
i, iovoh'ed.
V, iOIl this """"opt o&rly "<rl= (6.7.91 <\eri,-ed o'PI_ion, fOf capoci'ies
of IO)ntory oru<hen. Hona/n', opproaoh (9] has been deocribod in chapter 4, but its use d.on
not ollon IaIly "ith ..,toal ponOfnl.ll'lOO. Tho ,'.notion i, probably rl"" 10 tho """...wnty in \he:
.'01110 of K. GauJdj. (6.7] theoretically dorh'ed"" oxp''''';on for oo.p.:ity by \he:
""ille of ;nclit'latioo of ,he brealJ1\II hood and tho distanco ","velled by "'" partido' durina a
. inilo oycl. ofbrcok"iC. GlUldio' , .,p<e>.ion f(Jl" optimum u p.dty io:
Q * 0.33 'in 9 (l""" + l_) II H ('in 9 - l' coo 9 r (S,l)
- MIlXimum dinance bel"-= I!}'raU1\II head and oooe.,,'<
- Minim .. ! di_ betwten 1I), .... i"1: bead and C<><><a1'O
- Inclio";"" of <011< \0 the horizonlal
- Aclnation duo \0 gnl'ity
- Vntioolhoightoftbecharnbor
O""ldio', o' pmsioo i, dimcul, to apply in I"*"i: .. !be "",1< of ioclill41ion;' diJfu:ul'
10 me .. "",. An easier method 10 o"imate oo.p.:ity ;. 10 apply the rnett.c.l ad_.ted by Rose
and English f<>f jow erushen.
j, 4.l. Dr"""",
Broman II 0] an pression f<>f the upadt)' of il-ntory cnuhers based 00 the some
l"IIie usrd for jaw erushrn. r", dmvinlthe . """",ioo, Broman ronsi<l<rm. ero ... =tion
of a .urfooce of materiol in. OIUSher and <letenniDed the time taken and distance !nII'olled
durinll """ <)'<1< of tho bead. Tho optimum loolumetric ">,,adl)' of . ijTOl<lr)" <;rusher i. Hi",."
by !he <xpr<.'.ion:
""""
""
-
""
-
C_ -
C,
-
"
-
<
-
0
-
",lomc:trie """",ity of II>< 1!.' "'101)' c."II.n.-r. m' !It
rrw\1l. head oot .. diomtter lithe di.eftal'llo point. m
ok=dsn,m
I<!lith of throw. (S1f(lko I..,iith). m
"umb of il-""ioo> prr minU1<,
malerial con>W\t ,.O!U< _ . ..., 2 - J,
ongkofnip.
(SJ)
Broman JUSi<"" tho, ,I>< fre,qurnc)' mould DOt <xC<! cnnc.1 "alll< .. it would R>uk in
a <k<re ... in production and has shown thai oal*ilies ooleulated us;", Eq. (5.3) agree "ilb
proctic<.
5. 4. 1 Ron Qnd "I{/i>h
The theoretical worI< of Rose ond English (11] \0 determine tl>< copooil)' of jow eN>hm i,
al.., applicablo to i)'raIor)' crusheB. AO<di", to Rose ond Env,1i>b. E<j. (H) <OIl be U>ed to
dc:tcmti"" tho capacity, Q of iI)T1.'OI')' crushers:
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1. The "",imum Ihroughpu! oflhe crush<r.
Z. ""lUi"" r", motmal "",jng . Il<tnd W"", Inde. of 13.4 k WM,
3. Minimwn of WYT"'ion.
"
'"
I. imc:.wnc: ,,",i0.8 a III<lIIl partido sin: of SO mm jHru.!MXI in oonc c""",", the product iii",
"",..,.

... 42.0
,.
M 18.0

..,

The po_ t<>n<umcd for the oprndX>n ,,, .. 1.0 WItJ- Th. feed oj,., " ... then a llCrcd 10 on
"v<a/!< >Ii ", of 20 mm, ... product of O.S mm (m<M .. "') "'a<! required. E"i","", the:
con,,,,,,,,,",,, after tho chani< in feed size.
,..
A gyrlIIO<}' "'" itlStalied in ifOloJ mi"" ",hc:re il "as <><pct<d to cruolJ Ih< OJ<: ...
rate of 660 tIh. n." cruJ,c, "'''',gl "' 14(1 <)'<, ....... ,"'" ., an .. !Kk uf J<f lo Ihc:
boriz.on. F..1tim.uco
L /U,d; us of the oonc.
2. Change in throughput ... hen the <Imber 'I'oU .",itched to dolomit. (S.G. -
3. The change- J<qUir<d in , ....... to maintain tho """'" Ihrough""," !be QOId oro.
"
A ""'" cru<h<t of I><igh! 2.1 m. """" f<C4 oprni"ll 30.4 em and cloocd oeI " S.I em
gynm:l at 480 rpm to c""" quany limestone ocaIped " 20.3 om <>PCIlif'tll OCreet'l. Tho orosbc:r
was expoclCd "' crush alllI< ral. or ]000 tIh. c.kullltc:
1. The 1<>'.1 at which lhe cOatge has 10 hc mainlained
2. Angleofthecrush<lbeo.d
" A crusher oj, .. 33-55 " ... dooillf\<d t<> acpI feed of ,j", 611 em \ i8 om. The: <>pen
side: oetting of Ihe diochargc oprninS "',.. lO.2 em. Tho rale of gyr.t1ion ,.,.. ns per minUIe_
C.ko1 ... :
I. The oap<><:ily af crusher fur an occ<ntric thro .. of 1.6 em,
2. What would the =entric throw he if the crusher "'f'OCiry Iud '0 be 10 600 tIh
.. the ........
3. If the open lide O<ItioJl of the opro;tljI ",'as ",,,red tu a ",'ling "f 12.1 em ""haI
,,-;11 he It.: per <:<:nt in production.
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-
6. /. I. RoJl O",iot, Sizes oJtd ()"II"
1be ... uaJ oru>her siza and pow'" rati"i' for ditTo",,, typc. cr. roll f..,.. .. dnchbed by
"sri"". lil<n1UIn are """,m.vi!l<d in Tohlt 6.1.
Toble6.1
Roll C .... her , i.." .
Crosbtr Surf"".

Studded Rolls
Sil<o nun
'"
"'0

Roll OrU>ha-o an: arbitrarily divided int<> liib' and buvy duty <lWh<", Tho diam<tcn of
\he light duly ,,",!hers vary beI"ffil 228 mm ODd 760 !IIII'I ",ilh. f_ lenaW 250 mm
md 460 mm. Tho . pri"III"""sur< for light dirt}' ron, vari .. btn<= l.l.kglm lI\d 5.6 kilm.
1lH: heavy duly "",dxr diom<1<T'll -= 900 mm and 100Il mm ",ith fare 1..,11'1>
beI"'ffil300 mm 10 610 mm. In 8...,..,..] I.hc sprin8 pr<S.urtS "fib< heavy duty roll. rMlI"'
bot"""" 1 '''m to 60 kg/n'_ The li8ht dUll' roll, ."" lksiV>Od \0 uperat< .t fo.k, .P=I<
to hero)' duty ron. lha! .... designed to <;>pont. at lower speed._
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U. Opc .. 'ioo or Roll C ... ,h.n
Th. (oed to ",II c"""",, is ", .. II), dry. Moim.r. tond. to cI<>g the aD<! oould Suit
in lhc form.tion of hard ""'''. "hie. impair> opor::di"". 1I0ne< dt) . ""hio, i, 'ef<=d.
MIT-.:\i ....... wOter i; odckd b<.-\",n <h< roll .. ",hich help 10 PfC'''"' formalion .,fthe cNS1 and
.1.., to .. mo". ,1It!\atd llullend, to form "" IlK: roll "",roo<:, W<\ griOOin;' us .... ,y
carried out "hen f,,.,. iuequircd.
Rock panicle> "'" ...... lIy fcd throu&h a eh ... <l<sigr>Od to distrll>ule ,be charto .'-only
.t"I'II! lilt "';J,h (!eng"') of the roD. Abou1 , w(Hhird. of. roIl-",idth is acti," . ru in &Il)'
cruw . panide sil., .... than the dislan belween lhc roll. lend 10 p;o5S un<rushod.
Parli<k:. lhal OK tUfa <han the opening i. nipp<d and .""fl<d. n.. ...... imum ,l .. of """iel.
th.al ;. nipped ,"';Ihou\ >lippo!!" <kp<nd. on frM;,i oo, di."",,< beI"-<ef\ roll. and roll ,ize.
'[he oiz.o of ,he prodtiCl depeoo. on tho crusher """ tho distan<. 1:><\,,= 11'1< rollo. Due '"
,i"<lie pa .. <>peralioo i l is .'-idel1\ lila, no middlings"" 0..,.._';'.0 is pr<><Iuced.
The ..,.."..J .peed of operation of oommcrdal lii,h, duly rolls i. I Jll..-3()1) rpm oom!'l=l to
hea,'), dut), roll> v,00>c opcmini ore in , he "'iion of 80-1 00 rpm. . 'ow ral<:
or f=ling uV ,<,'.,nly 11<,..,.. Iho: ", .. th of roll> i. pr<fmro wbrn <lC>S<d eireui,
opera'i"" is odortcd ror fi .... prodOC1 .oz<.
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--
I, orera<ina pn".'u""
2. nip ongle,
3. PII.
4. roll speoed and
S. "'" .j,,,_
6.6. I. e";"u;",, fh;",",<
'"
........
Tn operate ,ho II!'GI!. Polyoom grinding mil! the "...""re f/\Iiml j. oppiied hy<ir1>ulicaJly
through four cylindcn to the roll thal i. d.$igned 10 me".., Imnlly, Tho roll is
;lTIITIOVIIblc. The cru>hing I'f=I'l'" "!'JII;..! i , of the order 0(200 MI'>. but for Iw<l
orcs. iii" .. ,,. ....,.....". ore requirtd. For e .. mpie. in CYJ"U" Sierrita, a p=.oun: of J4() MP. is

The pr= req.im! fo< crushing sboold be in <JI <eM of SO MI'a [191- Battorshy,
Kdlenoo.,...,1I111d Obcrbcuse, ]20] Slates that the k>f<:e required was in the rang< 0( 100 kN
per linear meter of roH width. Sci,,,,,,,,, 121 hM ... i"""N """""",oily the sp:ific
comminution prenun: on mirJaal l"'Iicla lnipp<d b<1--= the roIl> .. ,
p p(LOr'NIm' (6.9)
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. ro
f
,
! "
!

fig. 6.1. P .... id. si .. of from btll mi ll on<! Hl'GR
A popular WIY '" des<rib< <""",ity i, 10 "'I"'"' it in '=n; of specifIC throoihput rat._
Sccbeo:b and Knobloch [24] and 10,.,. [22] ho"" eJlpraxd it in dimrn.iool ... form u ,
Q Q.DWVpp,
specific ''''''''ghpulr1le.
- di>m<l<r of roll, m,
- width of roll. m and
- m . .. riaI density.
(6.16)
00. (1918) oxl=1"'d Ihe capacity of HPGR, in rm, of the di,1MlC< "'""'= .... rol l. and
the operation .. dtn";t)' of the =, IS:
(6.17)
From labonolO<y oxpcrimentl Monell iDilica",. lilat the: .pifio throughput ""u ",I.,ed to
Ihe specifi, &rindinil f""",. F .. by. linear fun<1ion .f\be form;
Q, - l ( H CIojj F,l (6. 18)
",b= F. - specifi qUindi"i force,
-. foetor d<pendant on roll . peed
C - . maim" COII>tUI1
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A ... of roli. """ "",wred to " .. " ]nne.1Ont from """'ndary C<lI>t <_ '" the
ra .. of S2 u'h. 1bc product ,i,,, """" tbt con< crusher was 1= !hall mm. The prod ... 1 ,ize
from roll . " ... expt<led to be 1= <han 8 mm. The ""'po [""lOr of the foro """ <l<IenniflOd to
be !.S. Usilli "'" da .. Wve" belo"-, ."imO/:
1. the diarJl<l<:r of roll
2. the ,,"'ld'" of ,t., ",II .,
0.. .. : The b<.olk <kruity of li""""'1>< - 1.6 tim'
Speed of rotation - 7S rpm.
Nip IIIgle - 2'1'
Rn:Ju:r;cr...o;
[11 K. Scbol><rt. in Ad,-..n:S in Mi ... rol I'roc<,,;ng. p, Somasunda,... (<<I). Sl>1E1A1ME.
Cb.ap! .. I. 19116. Pr. l"-J I.
PI K. s.c"(If.:rt, 4'" T,wbb",)' S, .... _,i""', Melt>ourn<, 1979, p. ) . l.
(3) 1'01),';"" Engineering Mad< by Report 2001
[4J ),IL Friedrich and W. flaum. f'ro<<<di"l!'ofHiddrn Weal'" C"nf=nce.
SoLllh Artie ... In";'UI< of Mini"1I and M .... II ... II)'> 19%. 1'1>. I H - 130.
[5] o. cm." Proceeding. of the Third Mill Opet>ton Coof.",ncc. A"'tr>I .. ;m In<!itutc of
Mini", and Metallurgy. C_. M.)'. 1938, pp. 131- 136.
]61 B,A. Will .. Minefal J>r<x=.i"ll Technology. ]"" ed. P"gamon P"",- 19\19.
[7J R.II. Perry and C.H. ChillOrI, Ct.""'i .... Jlandtook, 'I" edition, McGraw
Hill. 1913. I'P. 322.
[81 A.t. Tauort. of Mincrn Drnsing. John Wiley and Son., 1953.
191 K. StI>Oncrt and 0 II.. " ""blod. 7A""",-KulHJ'PfM 11.193-1. P S61.
[10) K. Sd lllnerl, in Ad,'"""", in Mineral P"",e"ing. O\apI<r I. P.
19'%,N' 19 )1
II 'I N. PoIl, J. and W. Bourn. Mini,,!! F"'Sine<ri"" Jill>< ( I99S) S24.
(12) p. MO,.ky. ).1. lUe ... ui and T. Knuutinrn, P,,,, cedi"&, of the Intemalio",,1 Mil>Cfal
1, ....... Mi" CIoap1<1" K 19'J5. pp, 55 - 58,
113 J 1.11. Klyrool'w;y and J, Lill. in ComminLllion i'ncticc. S. K. K."at .... (ed). SMflAIME
Lilli""",. Chapter H. 1991. pp, 9'f. IOS.
114J KnJpp P,,')'>i .... E'ptl ito> .. ith Hi;h p,.. .. 1ft Griildi'3 RQII, in tli< I"", Oro lildU>11}'.
pp,l -l .
I IS] N. P.>Cl<it. J. Kn<eht. E. [I"",haM and K. KI}m<J,,'>ky. Pr<.oc=J;"1I' of .... s.e.-rnth Mill
Cipm>,.,.... Au" ralMian l""ilUt< of Mining and KJilgoorli<.
2001). pp, 47-55.
11 6] J.e. Tn:mbky. Skill,,,,, Mining R"' iew. March (2001)) I,
11 71 w. &um. N. PlIIZ<l, and J, """"'ht. in Comminution Ptactic<. K ..... """"'
SME Linl""",. Chopl.,. 16. 1997. pp, 111- 116.
T. Aller and G, ma.,,,)'k. Mbod and Apparo1U$ for Two SUoyt C",.lii,,!! (H)'brid
Patmt appli!. Section 8379--16 (DE I':S 3S 20069.3).
(19) K. tlei ...... L. Gem ..... II. .... I..-.J Zj...,lntar. EW'Up<aIl Patent 0 084 313.
19S3.

[20] M. Bonenby, II. IC.n........,...,1I an:l O. In\<'ma:O>n&l ConE" .. "" in
E><lI1I<1i"" M<1&I1UfJl)l uf Ould ODd Duo M<tol., Aosl,M.M., .. 26-21
Oetobe<. 1m. PI> 159-165.
[211 R. Klyn>ov.>l<y, N. J. KD<ch. and E. Burcbanlt, or Mineral
I'lom n...ian I'lw:ticc lind Comol SME CmICn::oc., V"""""""" I, 2002.
PI' 636-668.
[22J S. MorreU, W. lim, F. Shi ond L TODIh. .. SlC Ko.waua. (ed).
SME/AIME, L.inlttoll, 1997. pp. 117_120.
[23) D. M' ''Dft , Mina:all'ro<essi"", A.\UM, July, 200J. PI> 113-117.
(24) M. Scd *:h and O.R. Knobloch, SME Annual MoetinJ, Den_. FeI>. 1987.
[2'J U. l,utjuhn and 1(. Scllonert, 1'1' ,lings or xvm lrUmaIiooaI MInertI PI"'" " ;nll
ec..g:ra;o, Sydnor. 1993. PII. 161 1611.
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-
-
-
Fia. 7.2. l obo l .. mi ll ')'1'<0.
A ''''''OJ'' 40 induotrial mill> in A n];' found lhal ll>< """,;mum ball mill diom<!er in
.... ,"" S S.H m ...... nd 100000'h &,84 melers [I]. AIIIO!;O'I\O\I' mill. range up I 12 _ ... in
Jiamet.,..
1hc knith to diomctor ratio indicated in Table 7.1 fOf ball mill. arc for oormaI use. Iu for
primary ifiDding the: 1111", oould "ilrJ" bc\w= LI ..-.d 1. 8: I. For fmc: Wldc:r opcn
Oi"'.;l Indilion, ,he lenath 10 <Ii"", .. .". no!io i. ""trio!<d 10 thc: 1.5:1 to 1.3:1.
Som< mill< ha", compartments ",parol<d b}' gr>ICS thai permit part;'l", hoxinll ,;'.c, I"".
,han , .... size of !he V<" . to p"" throuv. but hold bock lorg sized particln from ... torin, , ....
... , do"'II.uoam oompartmenl >0 tho, r""lIer ,j .. reduct;"" could tale rkac<. In oome
in,Wli:c,,- thc: J ilT,,,,mt compartm<"" ha,', Jiff.",,,, ;ize. of ,iooi"ll boll", rOO" ""'''
griDdini\.
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How,,>-.. , M"""n (1) <k"",I\Sttll' od that lorgo <m)I"J could bo <DOO...,'''''II with Eq. (7.7)
for Srn4II ball o l w ~ IeM tIWl about 20%.
Whil. lbo <!wit bell/h1 and the",rOf< the "olum< oocupied oan easily be "",asurcd ..
shown in Fill. 7.3, it <an be """, .. o;enl in """'" case. to "'""'''"' the <har&. beillht from
dimen.;oo. sho"TI in Fill. 1.4.
In IW. cos< the bed height. H i. tUrn from !he: bott<nn of the: mill. Thi. h<iibl "'ill be
gi>'m by:
(7.1)
and W. lR.in9 (1.9)
'" i, ii difficult to ~ the OlIil< 8 in p<aClice, il ill mon: "O!'Wrnicnl '" <liminale il
from Eq . (7.') or.! (7,9). Tho bed h<ight ,an tl>erl be "-';1= io mo. "(.adi,,, R and wiClh.
W, oft .... cha.lI< in tI>e mill .. ,


I ..... u"'"
"I Mm



.......... .,. .... _-
I
w
, ..
R - O.SH. + O.!2SW'IH. p .IO)
Tho;: r"""iQrl ofmill mlume <>"';od by can olIO be ,al,.loted from Ihc: .. ..,....
IIC<tioml .... ,.. of the charv< and ,be mill , An apprm:imllliott "f''''' 0tUSS kOlionai .... of 11><
mill cIIar<. tX. of. circl<l "iii bt (8]:
(7.11)
Si""" Ih< om .. """tional""", of!he mill i R'. tbe "01""", Ih><\"", filled by the char<
ww.ld be:
(7. 12)
(1.1l)
and from the .implc rclatiooship< r""" Fig._ P_l) and (7.4):
H - R_ H. and
(7.14)
Tbt ball mill filliOi ,on be estimated from \he i/WmOlI}' of the ball """ge at .. ",
Ho.,-", ..", in teml, of Ihc: ong!o a, ball (Jal ""'Y .]'" be oomputed .. i Healed by
Au";." aJ lSI. Tho.., .. I.'ions/'lil" art illo ... ' ''''''''' in Fia. ?S. The: chari" c.,,"re of va"ily
may also be 100.led in ;milor waphical w' }' .. $hown in Ra- 1.6. II.., is Ole dj,,,,,,,,,, from
"'" om"" ofthe mill to Ih< charge C<111re of II"""!}'.
711. &111 size &11
Ball .j"" ""mm,,,,i"'), "".,lo1:>le [0< clwiina in i'inoJi,,>: mil" rona' from 10 _ 150 rom.
1"'" il<: and rna .. of . ach bal l .j", oucd dc!><r.d on Ihc: mill lood and ,,1\<1hey tbc
","lis are bcinj fot lbe Ii"" ,iroc to oommrnco an "l""ati"" 0< ., <q>I.oC>' ''"lI. for
".-om out bzll .
In the .iLo of to he c tlarge<i to oomm"", milli"<C and
U. v""<)' I H'I) indiea<ed thai the initial 0aJ1 . ize ""'" ",Iated to tho """i",um s.i u of tl>< foed.
Empiric.ally they ", 1>1ed tl>< ball size ... ith f=l .i by tho "Goati",, :
,
.-
o
0 "
m

. "
~
Hall anllle, 9
50 "" 10 "" ""
" ,"
.
--b
,L
' ~ - -
V
wm
J
th
1"-
0 0 0.' 0.2 0.3 0.' 0.5 0.& 07 o.e 0.9 10
Ratio WIO, HJO
fi l . 1,S. RoUt ... be,,,,,,. boll fil l"'a (%) aIIo:I .,ill <h>r&< di ..... jo,1! ( ~ l .

~
~
$
e .
,
;; 25
0
,

"
"
,

. ,
'"'"
I

,ro
-"+

HelD, Hcog/tJ
-1<

,
,
,
,
,.
",
(7.15)
wt.<r< f - !he feed ,j". em,
d. - the ball dill'h<t<T. em 00<1
K - . p"'pon;ooalil)" corul2nl do""ribod ...... gri ndability (""tor.
f ... hard 0"'" lr.. ,'al ... <>f K " ... 37.4 and 29.8 for 001\ "' ... Lowri"", [11111"''' value of
55 ror ,brn and lS for dolmlitc. 11>:: j!riOOabiI;,y ,""tot. K. ;""""'"""'os im]lOlW1' opefllil\il
,'.nabl ... n.... op<"rating ,'''';..,1 .... iok."if, N [Of !he f...J as:
l. Wor k ind<:x
2. particle.<i.e and :IiLe di,lribution
1, S.O ... f!he solid, aoo siuny ",,",ily
and fa< .... mill:
I. Mill di"",.""
2. Speed of rotation (tT8<!ion .. ftho Critical Speed)
Rowland and KjQs [2 ) ...... ,-.,iabl .. fOf determining the IMgw ball ,;", that
st.>uld be used LO conDIlCIIC< griodi"&, Thill i f do ;, (he ball diomelCf (mm). W, ..... work
index of ,he maIcriaJ F .. the (oed ,i", (80'% """;"11 .ize in micron') and +< ,Ile
("", ion of Ihe critial .!'<'<-'l of I"" mill. th<m Ihe oj>c of tile ball ma)' be <SIim, led by
[ 121:
d, _25.4 [ (f-)" Dr' f' ] in mOl
(7.16)
whero [) - thc;osi .... di.""''''r oflh<lDi ll(m) and
k _ . """"'l/lt de,igna1<d .. 1ht mill focw.
For "0<1 Of cO>! iron 00l 1. \be , -.1"" of \be ,,,,,,,tan. k i. dependant on the mill type and the
grinding eire"' I. The ,-.1 .. , of k OS de\"",ir>ed by Rowland< ar.l Ki<>s 121 for Alli. CJuolmcn
mill . arc lIi,'ro in ToOk 7.2.
Tabtr7.!
IJalI Mill k factor 121
"_
Diaphragm
rn.,_
Diaphmrn
'"
For calcuLtli"" of the dWnelt. of oylpebs, dc. to u ..... replacement for boll., D<>erina
lntemaLiooal [[31 pro_ide modifla! Bood fmmula:
(7.j?)
Tl>e .... ofF.<l _ (7.16) 0I>d (7.17) i. illu'lntW in hom"l. 7.1,
If the modia Ii .. form. l .. estimau a ball Ii .. I ... ,han 25 mm or <)1peb si .. \ns than 22
x 22 mm lhnI ;. i, teCOIlUlIa'Ided that lilt .i .. be j!'lCJ'l:a.Il by 20-30% [I J ).
&""'1* 7.1
The ti .. analy.;. of . gold bearil\i 0fC crusb<d in a jaw <1'II.tlet iDCIieatod tIW 80 % paI
"'fOUih' 2000 micron Fwd"" size <edOClioo ,,'" wmpleted in 0 1.0, I.S III wei ball
mill ,owin& a, 78 % of <II< critiC&! .peed to libome the gold. D<t<rmine tho """imum ,i .. of
the ball. at the COOl",.,.., ."..,,' of iJiMinac
Data: S.G. o(the ore - 3.86.
SolI/JIM
Stol'l
In this c&><.., 1h< .. un. ind.<. and ball mill conditions...., mer lO ....
and find Ilia! the "m tnd<JI of. ao1d on: i. typ;c.olly 14.83 kWhlt.
$1<1'2
To doe,,,,,,,i .. tbe lIla.>.imun> ball size lO be chaJvd to L'" 0 .. Eq. (7.16) may be oppliod.
as all til< ",1",-1IlIt .... 'lOW lno"n. The .. r"", ""bsliluting in Eq. (7.16) \he 1000t!l
diOJl'lcl<r of Ijrifldini balls lllat should b< added W'<i<r "fl open circult Wlldit;"" of llrindina
is:
d 2S 2000 ' 386,IU
"[ lW
1- .4 ()sO) 78.(3.281 x 1.0)"
25.4 x 2.39 x 0.739
- 45mm
The .-oommercial b&ll size .,-allahl. i. 51.8 rnm (Ot 2.0") and woold bt """"-
IfCoghiIi ond de van<y" t<jUltion is U""" .. a m0d<r01<ly ..,!'I 01'< "ith ,-01"" of K
- 31, Ih<n:
d . .. O.4K.JF - 0.4.31 . (0.2)"' - 63mm
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SlOp)
AccmJing to A7zNOni'. Eq. (7.20). tt.. NflI""""""" di ....... ", of ball ,.",..Id be:
U mm
The oi,-"" of oommerci.1 ball. mo.dt "'" 90 mm and 16 mm. The opel'''''''' will
probably chooo< tho Iarvr .lao tun.
715. Ball Wear
Dwina a mill <>pCflIIion. Iov.mng of tho pow ... =JWr=><nt i. OIl i!>dicatioo that ball we", ;,
1"00"'" The: phc:noo!eOOn ,,( ball "'<:<If i. """'plie.ted .. it j, .[[<clOd_
onl)' by mi ll .pee<!, mill dian>e<Of, S.O. of ,he 00: or.! ,,"or\< m..\e., but also by liner l}-pt, NIl
hanlnc ... the (""' ":'ing within tho mill. and th< pH of Ill< sJ"''Y "hen ,,-ct grinding tales
plO<'. 111< <",on' of "cor oould be of ,t.: order of 400 to 1200 vams per tonne or mo", of
mat.rial ",;Ued 121 I. A i1c ... 0""""';"" i. that for .'.1)1 I % in mill speed Iht
change in ball oon.umption i. >bout 2 %.
Durini IOC ljriOOinllC ",0<<>, . .. (II< particle si= d imini$h ..... spo<if>e surfac. arto Qf the
p;II'Iiclc. i""",o.ses and !he diamClcr of the ball dimini>hc:, " i th ball man The ball woar \aw.
c .. th< ... r"", b< ,,,,ted .. :
aon ,,-.'" '" Boll ourfllC< orea [141.
l!.all weor '" IlaII 1101""", [22).
A .... i" and Klimp<I[11 J ex!<n<led ,he empirical ",I .. ions of Il<>nd [6.141 and Ro"' laTld j 2J]
by theorrti,al buis to ,he ,eI.,,," bet,...,.,n ,.., c,"""I .. i, .. .....,. ["""ion, of b<.II.
charged "'l h their "..at. To ,1>0: <J<pr<'$ioo they a.<sumcd ;
I. Boll w= "'" equal to ,he .,.. in boll maso.
2. Boll "eaT ""a f_.ion of ball siu.
3. Frtsh .... 11. ><pl..,inH , .... " "'" boll, had ,1>0: same chorac,erU,ics.
,hi. cooccpt !hey dc'mnincd the '"""II" in !he en, i,. sin distri"'ion of 1>011,
in a &rindin& ')"(<111. Ae<:<mii"i '0 """in <I 01 [51. tho c"""g< in tho cumulat i, ..
""'" f"""ioo of boll. in the charge d .. to ,,'."" is:
dM, _
"
,,"'hm: M. - Cum"lati, .. rn ... fract ion ofbalb of size r in ,be c!wll".
m, - M ... r.1< ofrq>1aceme", boll, per uni, mas. of ball ..
nlr) - Cum"lat;,,< number ,i", di,lrit>u,,,,,, of ball si"" roJi", r.
fir) - . fw>etiooofballr.>di ...
(7.21)
,
Po - S.G.oflhrball .
1bc:tcnnK,,, ddincd,,,: K _ J.!,dm(T)

'"
(7.22)
who", m(1) - 1h< <urnulm ... rnaloO fraction of ball. less (han size r in tho up <!wi'
2. Tho n,ake up ... 11. ,j"" ""'" coo,iJ.:r,;-d . och (he si , .. ""AX - ,,> r, > > f>. > ... >
' . ,_. and
(7.23)
j. 1'0< (he ",.1.. op t>oll "umben, " , ,.n,. , .. > .... .., \hOI til< "con ..... di"";""Ii"" of
. j", 1\ i1:
(1.14)
(7.m
whero could ""I'e "th.r. 01 ""'I,"i,'e ""] .... and WlIs equal to u.. "=di"",,,.
per unit time. Eq, can be: ",",-';n<1l os:
(7.26)
TIle "ear ""0 oould a1"" be "Tit" ,,<:
(7,27)
(7.28)
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Table 7.4
Com...-;on of flail SiH Ui..nbution (25).
'00
,
, . 20.1 20.1
. ,

'"
"
47.1 47.1
, ,
14.0
n.,
'"
26.0 2.1S . 75.4 n.4
0.19 . ,n 149.5" 11.8 4.42
M'
0.11 w . 3.57 IS. 1 10.0 95.1

00.'
4.61
"'
12.2 9S.7
, .
9S.0

17.0 13.0
'00'
, .
100.0 7.67
"
48.7
'"
"
S1.5 12.76
. ""
S3.7 16.46
'.000
.. 21.24
0.425 w., 27.39
Tbo. 81% will be 11 4 """ b.n.lIld!be n:n will mW: up LO 13%.
N .... l muhiply 001""", (lJ. Tabl. 7.3. by 0.17 for edI LOp boll oj", lIld lIIlWIIlolali"ll !be feed
ball oj"" distribution n:cordcd in <01""", S. Tbot io:
23.0.17 - 20.1
(31 x 0.17)+20.1 - 47.]
- 62.7

Srep 5 for <olumn (6)
Tbc mnaindtt (US) eft ... ball, _. mw",,,,,, si .. 01"63.5 """-
To oomp<ilC!be feed si .. dUtrlbJIioo oft .. U.!lavina thi. muimum Ii .. the <:OII1putatioo
indiuIod in Oltp 4 i. '<I M wiih the muJtipirini _ of O.lJ. no .. colllDlD (6) i . DOW
o:alo::ul&l<d as:
14 x O.1J - 4.42
(43xO.ll)+4.42 - 10.0
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'"
,
"

,
,
S.II "111"\1. J.
7,1.9. Mill Co..Ji/l"", &11 C/owI/<
The grinding action, at ,"2IiQU$ P<""<"1ai;<'< of the <rilieal !.peeO hit", ompirkally and
qualilllti,,,ly dcocribro in Tobie 7.S "be .. the """'bel$ 1. 2 and 3 ind"""" the 0Cgrec of action
in ...,ending Older.
Tobl. 7.6 p ...... ides a qualilllti", <>IimaIc: of ,undilions i",i<k the mill wben diff.mll
volwne! of btIl .." charged 01 diff ...... , speeds of.......,... TIl< nurn""" 1. 2 and 3 ogain
indicate !he degree of "",ion in ascending order.
Table 7.5
Erred of mill spc<d <>n grinding action (27)
%Critiool Sliding ClO!<:ading C lrifuging
Sro i
"
,
W
,
m
,

, ,
m
, , ,
00
, , ,
m
, , ,
W
, , ,

, ,
Tobie, 7,S ond 7.6 indicate thai I"" opIimum wr.Jiti ..... "r l!rioJi"ll WQU]d be bel-.=. 7li-80
% of the critical ..-d ... "- ball vfl.l-4S% of tl., 'nill ",I .. ,,,,. It i. vt....wJ fAA"
Ih<s< tabl .. that the position of the charge in mill depends on the 'J"'<'I of l'Ot.1lion.
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Stop 2
The critical 'pox<! i.IP'o. by Eq. (7.J S) .,,,
423 ' , . V, _ . rpm

th<r<:fOT< ... - 21124,8 <I.SS
51<1"
Mi ll capacity con row he C<JmpUll by ,"""',!oIi"" dOlO in the: F.q. (7.46):
6.13 .<3.0'" ( " ) 7.9(0.35- (0,937.0.35') '{ O.gS-
Q _ 3.0 \ 2
I )
,,75 .120000
- 21.ltih
Mill Capoocil}' for Dry griroJing
1'0 ob<ain dry IInoo,"<l Wod Jr>dcx from W", GriOOinll bdex multiply Vi .... ,. by 1.3
In ,.i, caoe ,hon:f(lft". ,00 ,,<><1< i., ... for dry grind;".;: - ilJ" I.J - 11.8 \I'M
Subs,j'"';ns thi, ,".h .. fOf W" in Eq. (7.46):
Q
,"
Eq .. (7.46) and (7.47) ,an help an <>(>Cf'Uor to control mill prod"",j,-ily. FOf .,ample,
comidcr a mill of diomct<r 1.5 m ODd J.A) ... 0 of 1.1 . The mill i. ,harged to 35% of its
,'01"",. "';lh rock. ha,i,,' Vi, 'EST ,'01 ... of 12.5 kliNt. The ,,I ball, used .., grindillj!
medium h.iod. S.O. 00.9 em' . I. ili.l ly ,he fffi\ ,i;:e (F.,) "20 12.00IJ ""hen II .. mi ll
prod""od prodU<1 ha,-ing , 1' .. nluc of 500 microns. A fID<r prod.." ,";u, "'as ""luired for
00"" str .. m <>P<"'atioo. M It.. feed particle .i, .. dut '" ,banI!< in mine
operatio .... Exami"" the dnng. in mill oi l othcrs f"' tO<'! nomaini"ll u....,....
tI. !he mill .ito i. 1<!S lIwI ],81 mctcrs, (7.46) call be: u.oo to ",'oIWIle u.. mi ll
capaoit),. If u.. ""Iuirtd pn><i<><1 . i ", oJe,:n:ed to 250 mb",,,. lbon to 125 mia-om or..!
funhe, to 65 micron then Fig. 7, 11 is drown us1"1! Eq. 0.46) to doet.""i". to< , hong< in m;ll
"""""ily "ith . 'hango in fom , izo. Fig. 7 , )2 simil.vly i, drown to ill"""",. the .ff"" ""
e""""It) duo "' changing doe""",", ofprodu<l "'" "rule fllo fee<! ';ze r<m.ined un<hanicd,
7.4. Mill Po .. u D"' .. .\I"'ba.i .. I .\I .......
"The n>OIot power ""Iuirtd to h"" milt r""",.. .. '" the .P<d is <ksigr>l '"
include lIIo initial .tanin t"'G"" and rnechonical an ... (0 rotate tile mill. Attempt' '"
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I. Mill do...,.., ... ,
2. Mill length,
).
4. Mill 'IIOC<I.
S. Mill typ"_

- mal ;n k W.
- foetor of .... mill diameter.
(B4)
- flroclOt il'll:<JfpO<atiDj! the % <bar&< _ing:and th; mill type.
r..,tor j""", "'" aling the mill """"" and
- thc mill length.
,.,
Nunlbcr take; thc mill di.vncter Lo be !he insid< Ii"", di""",,,,, ... .,jell <an be estimated as
the in, id< ohell diometct min ... IS2 rnm (lWWI'Iin8 ' liner tlticln< .. of 76 mDI). Nordberg
111"" tho vol ... of the mill I'acIor> A. II ond C in tabul", fOrm but are ICI .. ",,,tal graphically
in Fiil'. 7. 14- 7. 1 S.
=
-
7f-
,oo
+f
<



-
;;If
"
'oo

I U
,.
7

1 1
, ,

,

,
Fii- 7.14. NfH'd ..... rae"" A .. . fvn\:,"" ofmill dw.-, [9J.
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,"
2. MilllD > 2400 nun.
T<> '''''''''' fQf thi . Il<>nd intn>dU<'Cd a foetor <l<>crib! ... ,n. slurry '" .1""'1' foc'", and
ddined it n:
,. ", .... , I
' L1 _
50 8
(7.61)
"here tl><1W1 <Ii ......... d
MAX
i. in nun.
To <Iew""i"" ,t\c """",,, mill PO"'''' tho , ...... of r , i. subtraotod from ["I_ (1.58).
Rowland [31 J foon<! thai. (7.61) had to be modified Lo >IIi! mill. of <lio"",'"", sn"'''''' than
3.3 m. The modif!ed !J.ull ,;;0 foel(), i .. dded to Iiq. (7.58) owl is ah ... as:
r _ 1.102(""'" -IBD) ,W'
50.8
(1.62)
where D i. in mctcrs ond .... "" in rrun.
l;q. (7.58) oppropriot.ly modir,od by l;q. {7.61).md (7.62) l"""ide "",""",,",Iy goI
indication of ot.>:,,"'cd in practkc_ In order 10 determine the 1'<'''''' requirtd by
dry gnu. "i",'=lIe mill. E'I _ (7.SS) lhookl be multipliod by !he fa<."lor 1.011 and for ,,<"t. low
lewl vale dil<lIaJie mil". ,he multipli""'ioo r"",Of i. I 16.
W,,"," ,he mill P{II"..,. i, OOf11l'1'led ocoordil\i 10 on<! Sullj,,,,, '. .md the ... ull>
oompa=! "ith thaI fl'OOl Boo.h <q .... Iioo. it i. ob>cT',od!hat the f,ac,iooal fillin at ",hich a
ball mill "no,... !be ntalCi"M" PO"" could dilfer. Ru"lond.md Kjos 12.21U2J ha, ... pplied
Bond", F.q . (7.SII) and ,""<$led a ,lightly modif><d form the eq .... ion ",ben """h.d to
tl>< I"'WCf fOO' ",'" <l"CTfiow ball mills, 1hc .... S8 .. ted "'lualion it:
!.L . 4.879D" (J.2-1J" (1- 0.1 )_ .
M
,,<
. -
kWItbo.ll. (7.63)
Eq. (7.63) i. opphc.bl< for mill 1"''''''' ... imotion. of "'''' mill. hasi"i diometcn
gr.:al<f than J.J m. Bond' , oquttion for mill 1"'''"<1' ""imlllion (CI\apt<f J) "'as <Iori"ed from
k""",ledge of tt.: ,pedr., "hkn "'as rcl.:td to the wor\; lode. (W,) of the
matmo!. K",",'land and K.io' lind AUStin'" at hay< "'1IC',o;l!hat ,be folioVoi"i
cor=tions ore n<UMary "hm Bor.j', m<1hnd, Th<se C<>t'm:tioru OWl)' bo!Il f",
boll mill and rod mill COI'1'eC1ion fOClOrS ,uggesled by Ro",'lond and KjM [28J Ihal
apply for bo.ll mill. "'" Ji,-en below. Com:ctions for rod mill. &1'< ,i"," in Chapter 8,
I, Correction for d!y grindi"i" Bond', work iodex i. cortiod oUl under Wet cO<\dilion<.
2. C"""",ion fOf "et op<fI e;",,,it grindi"i os <xtra I"'W,-",;I wben rornpAred to
"fl <\ooed <mou;t grinding.
), C""""';OO [Of 0'''' sia of fC<d. i,e. feed .i gr.:.tc, Ill'" the opllmum ,jzc, 1lte fee<!
o' .... i"" corrt<:\ion r"""" is defined a,,,
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,.
Then from Eq.
f::rIrmpl<l7.5
A 2.1 m x 2.1 rn dry hall mill n, dllll'll"d "itk "",k and 30 mm diameter ball, of den,ity 7.8
"'m'. At "'" tho bed ", ... 35% and tho load "'" 4"'. of'he mill volume. The
mHi was o>peraIed II 70% of ilS critical speed and tequirc.J l<! .. (he rato of 35 tih. The
baJi dcruli.y i, 7800 kiim' and rock <Io"';'y is 2100 <i/m', o.(<rmil>O'
1. The ....... oftl>< l!1indh'lI media
2. The .... mill PO"'" roquinxl to the mill
J. 'n,. PO"'" n:quinxl to 'he.am< minrn>l in a """,,er1low mill

St<p I
M ... of glioding medii (boll. ) i. gh'OfI by IOQ. (1,59). M. - L "" (1-
SuMiluti"i do .. i'''S:
M. - (3,1 4159x2. 1'/4) xO.4h2. 1 x 7.S . (1-0.15) - 1M!
SICp 2
1\, the mill d""""ler is k:s. lhan 2.4 m, US< Au"in', Eq. (7 .6'1) 10 calculate tile .... mill p"wcr.
Sub"i'uting do .. ,-. Ioc, II;''''''
P
w
110 x 2J" (0.70- 0.1) (l-({).9J7 x 0.4$) x 16.6
(1 +/5.95 (0 AS' ))) ( I + <>p (15,7 (0.70- 0.94))1
95.6 kW
3
AIt<mllti,,,'y. using Rose and Sul liv",,', I'q. 0.5 I) r", dry grindi"ll w'-es:
r.rs, ly, fO. ) . (),().IS. 0.45)+ (4.55. 0.45' )-(20.4x 0.4S' HI2.9xO.4S' ) 0.962
[or ,111"" "fV - I.
'"' ,
To compute the 1"''''''' foo- gtiOldit\i; in ,,-'" o,-erf\ow mill, Au'tin' , oqua<ion i.
modified b)' multiplyi"t\ by "'" foetor 1.07. Thll'l:
Po. - 9H. 1.07 - 102.3
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' . - - ~ . , ~ - - - c - - - - - ~ . ,.
: 0-- 0 , 0 OJ
: l oo.. : l e. .








~ ,


u
,
------ ----
,
"
. -.- . . . -... . . ... -....... . ... ..-. ... -...
1"
..-... ..... . . .
"
'-.
R
o .
wb= "t - tar\jlenliaI .... locity of . partido I .... .,ed II any diJlanot R from Ibe """In;
in """ lind
PC - daWtycflbelQtlJ<horao,tIm'_
10.1
~ '"'" of puklltiol """'lIY (PE) IkYdup.d in Il>c: porticloo and boll> ,,",old &pcnd <>II tb<
brigl>t \0 which !hoy .... raisod. [fthi. bright illl ilion !be -.cia1Cd pclenti&l """'iY -.ld
~ .
(1.72)
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107
+a,
= onJ
".
(1.14)
[
-( j"
_ 2R,ina, - oin<. , )
" .
,
(185)
.. """' R i. 1h< "",on radi .. po,i'i"" of ,"" "" i,,, part of ,"" 000 i, ",b,ed ' 0 ,he
f""" ion of 1h< mill volume oc<upied by 1h< It i. J,i,...., by:
(7.86)
The fr.><rional ball filIin;. lc 000 J .. ",fer to the oylindrical """'ion of ,"" mil l. The i ..... ,
rodi ... of 1h< <har!i<. can now he .ktmnined 1' 1h< val ..... from F-'l" (7 .SoI) -
(1.86) into Eq. (H2).
To dctrnn;ne the de"'ity of the totoI 'hare<, i, i . ""' .. "')' to kt>:)w 1h< J'O'"<>":ty of the
cn"'1tC. \be pulp <kn'ily and th!: &.ctiOTl of bn".-.. n balls thai. is """upied by the
'"wry. The fra.c,;"nal of 1h< <iwgc "... btett 101;." .. (1,4. The f'OCI iOlllll solid.<
ron"'" of!he ,"UTT)" (by voI u"",) """ be m""-,,,<l f" ... ''''' di""ba'lic of lt!< mill (il
"'.s ,""on OS (1,5 by Morn-II [I]) and ,be fmc,i"" ofthc mrdia """upied by
00; ,,'os tak.n .. I. Wi'" ,he><: "-"""' p<;om the: derWty .,fthe lOl.1l chari" i, J,i''''' by'
(7.87)
lhi, US<I""" <hal the pulp densi,y in the mill i. the ..",. .. t"" discharge density.
Sub&iluting the cokuloted ,"3l"" "f R, ,p<: in F.qs. (7.10) and (7.8 1 the P<>"'" n:quired by
\be <)'Iindric" and ''''''' portiOll is cak"I"""" The total 1'0"'" "'I"ired b)-th< mill i. (iI<-n:
I' - [No load po .. ... 1 +Ipo"'",. dlennined 1' Eq . (7.80) (1.8 1)] (1.88)
Mon-<II 111 in,jico.,e<I ilia! !he )XI"" de1<rmintd by ,hi. mclhod well "'ith ob.erved
' -al"". from > ""'""<Y of oW mill . in Aust,o.I i. Io'i(h 95% <001,,,,,,,,,,, in1<r"a1 of l O, S%
!au,'. <flor.
7 4 0, EI""dc"} llriw 0/&11 .\fill.
For driving a ball mill. Rowland and Kjoo l2J recommrnJ lbal the oonnc<tion to the mill
>!>wId be <ilbo:r ... "; , ,,,I,,,,h Of flexibl. roupi i",. Th< motors ",,",ld pr<:1'erably ba,-. lilt
folIO""'ing ptOIX'ni .. :
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(27) Aoon, Nordberj; Bulletin 315, Mmy MiU [)jv;,joo IIIkl Barber G=" Th 1luI1. &2()..
91'1,1970, pp 1- 11.
(2gl C."'. M"",lond ond n.M. Kjoo. in C"",minulOon 1'Tactices. R.K. ](a..."".. (cd).
SMEIAI ME. 1997. pp. 319-)31
(29) H.E. Roo<. ODd ItM.E. Sullivoll. Ball. Tub< aOO Rod Mill .. ConwIbk. London. 1957.
[301 Doerina in!emati<tnal. Retrieved: 10.2003, (rom

[31) C.A. kowlODd. Tenth Int<matiooal Mi"",aI I'rn<cssin]l Conw=, M.J.
JOD<O (ed). I.M.M. (London), 1974, pp. 47-41.
1321 C.A. Rowkw>d ond [).M. Ki<>o. I'rincipi., of Minero! """","sing. P.
(ed). SME 199'),
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8.21, /I,>dMiliC/o(I'I;t
Rod mill usuaIl)" ocrupy about 45% ollbo int<ma1 ,,,I,,,,,,, of Ibo mill, A <lo.ely
ot.ug< of single sized rod. "'ill ho,c a pOro.i,y of 9,)%. Wi,h a mixed chorgc of
smoll aod large diome1e< rod,. the po"";t)" of . ""'ie load could he red""OO O''eII further.
close of Ibo chari" IllrCly oocun aod OIl OJ>CIlI1ing b<d porosit)" of 4OY. i.
COm""'" Ch'<"'I\orli"ll """Ito i" poor ao4 10."" d"" 10 . brasion of rod. ond Ii .......
Urw;I=ho' gLnil al"" 1"""""" """" obn<>ion of ,he rod.. The .... ij;h, (Of depth) of <harilO i,
in th< """" manner .. fo< ball mill, The '"'" of feed to . rod mill i.
!han fOf. ball mill, The """"I foed ,i", ra/ll!<' from 6 _ 2S mm.
For the effiei"", II!< of rod. i, i. no<:es,ary that 'hoy 0j>rn0t< parallel ""he <""lIal ."i, and th<
body of th< mill . Thi. i. "'" always JIOMibi< .. in practice. p""'H.l ali&fil'\<fll i . usuall),
ltampcred by th< ""cumulation of on: .. lbc f<Cd ond wbcrc Ihc charge nd. '0 ,,,,,,!I.
Alnsion of rods ocrun mOl'< in tIIi, ."'. ",,,,I,i!ij! in rod. llOin!ed 01 one mj, Wi!h
!hi. oon,inOOllS in shape of ,I>< <1''''/'&<. , .... grin.di"!! ehatot,";Slic. i.
impaired.
The density "f .. "",,,,' rod <haro;< i. _, 6.2S tim'. Willl d"" '" ,be bull
d<ruity dropi. The l"'llcr Ibo mill diomctcr the grcat i, the lowering of Ibo bulk <kn,i,)", FOf
examplo. the bulk density of ""'" rod, aft a .<pc<ifo< tim< of .,nndint woold he S.I tim' fm
o.ql m di&meler mill. Ur>dor the am< oon.ditions of op<,"'ion th< bulk den, ity "'<>1M he S.4
tim' fOf 4,6 m di>or>elt! mill.
Duri,, ..... grin.ding. Ibo pulp cl\aJ)led 10 II'c mi ll is ",'''''')' hdd be,,,'" 60 - 75% ""lid.


Rod 1mi'M "".ter th,n 6 """t! "'" ""Idom trul)' , traij;h'. len' rod> promuI< or.d
should be , "0>Jed, The rod dim<TUion i. also ... in" .... fuoction of .pe<!. "'IIk" mcaru U""
with higher ,peed, of """'ion. """,Ilcr rods in 1"'lIt! "umben may be equally dTroi,,, os
"",.n", number of 1.rg<1' di""",,,, rod . ' ,1>< ", . .. ,n fo< ,hi, i. at hi!J,hcT . p<l .""'1)' i .
im]'*r'l<,j '0 ,ho '" brcok !he ore panicle .00 the numb of im,*", per uni, ,ime ,,ill
01,., bc hi"" . 1'h. rods """"Id be 152 rnrn sho>ncr!han ,ho in.ido: "'<>rkini length of "'" milL
Rod. have. rell<i<-r><y to btnk d"';!ij! ,,,,.,.'ion ' ...... fol'< the of rod ""'uld be
e .... fully <no.e" .. Acoonli!ij! '0 Ro,,1arxI and Kjo> 12 1 the m;ommtn.ded ""io of rod 1."lIth 10
mill "<>rki"l! diamrt<f """" be belw<en 1.4 and 1.6, to yield """"p",bIe 'ife to "'" rod. "illl
mirumum br-cal<aj!<>
R<HIdiame,.,
ROO diomcr . .. ha,,, to be c=full}' .ince duril\,ll lhe: p<OS1 the)' wear in
dill.""" ,n",,,,,, ... For <"""'pl< ... II-.< f<"ed rnd "here !he wnr i$ """,imum, the rod "'"n
do",,, '" poin'ed ,h..,.. AI "'" mioldle il "'<"'" in'o on clliptical shapo wtlii< .. the discharge
rnd i, """"'"'" oonical. This prod""", "'>e,...n .......... loaM , .. as a raull lhc rods
""'ok' in.., smaller ' <<n, n.c <hoice of rod diamcre, i. aI", .. lorN to Ihc "'" cllaraclerisli<s.
chioHy the w<>rk ir.de_, 0'" feed . ize W .. ) and II>< dco;i,y of"'" 0 ... R"",laod aod Kjos [2J
ha,'. co ... i<k:,ed Ihcsc ,ariobl .. and ""e .<tlblishc<l ,he ""ation in Eq, (8.1) 10 c.leul.,,, the
md diamo\Of'
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Fi. 1.7. EfJoco ofJeClL><1i<>o. raIio <JO .... _it)' of rod millo for dilfcmlt .. ill dimen. m , (d'utwter
... gtlI) '"
n.e of lArger mill ..... """" oenoiti .... to <bi ns "! of...t..ction ruioo. WortriD;!
with ciKln rod mill. of di(fm:nl oiz.,. from 1.2 2.4 m '" 4.1 1 m at _ level ..
t;: urimoIo [61 nIflrmcd 1Iti. oboer>..riool. fii-. 1.7 mow. \hat rod mill ca".cili .. varied
in ....... .. 1he !<>duction rvio.
1. UmiwionJ mouel milb 10 prod..,. porfecdy lnip. """,I J<><b """" 1IwI6 m Ion&
2. "fl'l>llo
3. Swellin& oflbt ollarll. porIioularly ..... the feed end
4. lJ>o<-. si'\il oluny density ..... '" 1000 or_
5. Fonltyh","OJKI liftors
J.4. Rod MYI r-.r Dnlt
Ju in t.ll min .. tbe p<>w<r 4ta/'t of . rod mill i. u.. prodLlCt of oapKity and ""'" index, "bicb
i. !he "",-".;Itd '" .......... of . Ii""" liz< to tho requirod oi2IO. 1 .... mill pow
i. oJoo iLu ' aM by inl:ruoino; tho rod chari< ond Ibo miU wbilo tho mill p<>w<r and
_i11 ate boIII iDcreaoc<I with in=aoiDa mill Ien&\h.
Bucd 011 Ihtoc and wort<.i".;.", wet "",,",ow min. Rowland and Kj oo [21
__ tho! til< pow<:< dn.w .. the: pimM IIhatI per unit mass of.oo. i'giVCll by:
(1.6)
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n.. optimwn fcal llin lUi", ,,,I by R<>wlmd and KjM [2] fun rod mill iI:
F . 16000 [ 14.1 ] "
- W
,
(1.12)
The val"" of W, iJ bnt tak"" from "" impo!l"l "' .. or a roc! mill ifindability tost. whiclI .>"tr
;. tho i""""'. FOJ' boil mill. II>!: vol .. oflht COMWU ill Eq. (8.12) oquol. 4000 to
RowI&ad ond Kjos. [2].
Tho cotTCCtioo rae.". r, iI [liven in """'" of_ iId<x by Rowland and Kj .. [2J U:
(1.13)
w'-" R - 11M: .... ""Iion nlio
FOI'I - optimwn real llin
nu, _ i . "'" ",,!.nmJ fOJ t.ll miD fcd by IUd mill or ifF, ;. ""'" u.... 1.0.
S. Com>ctioo rm fin.cnou of (!riocl.
A eor=tj"" f""","" fm Ii ........ of a:rind i, owlioable wIl<II IIw> 10% of tho II1fI'II'd
prod"'" b .... _ 7S miornns in ,ize.
Tho ..... , u:tion facIot is:
,
PO!
, .
lHS PO!
(1.14)
6. Cormo:Iion fur _iun .. 00 (ltno. or loiglo).
1bi. corr:Iion i. "";"ly for low .... octioo ruico. The focta" F .. !ItCd "'" be
opplied if;
-2 R_ k ' )<+2
R' a ll+ &
D
L. - imp ofrodo, in ID<I<n
D - irIsidc lintt diomet<r of rod mill. in nMei ..
Corr.ctio<o _ F. i ... ti_Lcd uoin8 lIM: cquatioa:
F, . l + 0.0067 (R - RO)'
(I. IS)
(8.l6)
Tho """",\ioo i. not ol"OYO nee<\elj for hip .... 'IC'ioo ratios lou! b U>Od if Wi for II>!: rod
mill and bo.ll mil! i. il ......... thon 7.
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Grirdabili.y ,""", for.he ball ",ill
ProdUCl sj"" from , .... ball mill
- 12,Ok\\'h/1
- 150 microns
Drtermi ... d>e size oflb< ball mill opcr.>. oo in dosed ,ircui.,

S,'1' '
The diocharie from ,t.: rod ntill i. , be feed to the ball mill. n..",r"", in this c ... the: """"',
W, .. illl>::
W _ 12.0x 1 1 "'"
,,150 JIOOO
- 6,0 kWh.'1
S,'1' 2 Con<ctioru '0 ,he work ir>dex \"Oh .. ,
Correction fa<lOn 1' , at>J F, do 1101 OWly
C"""",ion factor F, "ill be ookuL>.1<d .ft" Ib< m;]1 di .......... boo been de!ennir 1.
Comoc,ion frtor F , :
for ""<""l< "'""lI [:<I, (S, Il),
F"" _ 4,.l67micron.
l2.0
The f<"ed . ize (1000 mOerom);' k,,!han this optimum food oiu, thcJ<:1On: tho CO<'l'Ulion
does no' have to t>o """l iOO.
CorTeC1ion f""OT F, is not opphcahl< .s in thi,,_ p .. :> 7S micron ..
C"""",ion rOC'Of F. is d<l<m1incd aft", mill dimen,;oo ha,'< been <stim.,oo,
C<>rm;,;oo rocto< r 1 i. r>OI awlii as , .... =luclioo nolto i. llwt 6 ( IOOOII Xl - 6, 7)
C"""",ioo fac"'" h is "'" al'Plicobl<
Step 3
Mill Po..-er ""I"ired - 6.0. 200 - 1200 kW
Sl<p 4
To <l<I,rmi ... d>e oornmerci.Uy .,'.ilab!. bal l mill tha, would sui, ,I>< cor>di'ion .. ,..fer <0 the
monuf0<1Ilm" S litomun:, f"" example. Alii> Chalm<n' .. I'I1bli>hcd by Rowlat>J and Kj os
{2{, From l" tabul. "" """" t'" mill dWjl<' . tId ",hot 10
I"'''''r<lraw ofl273 kW arc:
['oi l
-
. 17 m
Boll mill di ....... ' or
-
4,57 m (imide Ii"", di>m<1e, - 4.39 m)
Ball mili lOlld
-
'"
Ball mas,
-
III ,
BoI l .i",
-
Mmm
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I. The ca"ldly of the: millllOlkJ city and .... jrindlna condition.
2. 'lbe powa """"""pti"" .. !be pinion IhaIt .-dry IIIliI .... oor>:Iitiom
1. The opec;fl< lIriOCinll ~ wukr dry mel W<\ CMditiooo of grindlna.
.,
"Tho tefI......mr index of the feed to. rod mill .... 10.1 kWh!\. !IO% of the: fotd 1'"' .... 2 mm
and ' 0% of tbc: produn trom tho min 1'"" ..... oW microm. The .,ill dilll'O<let ..... 3.9 m and
tbc: l1D m;., """ 1,4. The fonna! ","dina foetor illilially ..... 0.3S but la!er _m 0.4S,
iOAirnllC tbc: <ban&< in grindinjj <ap1I<ity oftbc: min .

Gold ore """ cruahod IIIOCCSSivdy in primary mel thai ill oo=odary CNSber. I'rndIlOl trom
!be IXlDIIaty Cr'lWlcr O<Ialyotd !IO% pu&na 2000 miaono. The ob;e<l ..... to t'unb.r """"'"
!be ,iD: by grirodi", to oclIj..-., the lib<notion .. '" of 4S microns. It ..... ~ IP"""'i ill
wei rod mill 2.8S m x 4.21 m IlIina ~ I rod, of 4, II m iD kngIh. The taW ow. of!he: rod
cborg. " u 63.B tonoos. The te>I _ ind<x .. u 13,2 kWM. Ouri,,"""""' ..... &rindin&
tho min ~ MI kWltofrods. Caleul ... :
I. The I'<t=, mill volume oo<opie<l by Ibo clwv< during ..... opm cil<:uit grioding
2. Optimum open1ina IIJI""d (rpm) "f!hl: mill
3. Millcopoo:ity ( til)
Data: (lulk dtnaity of""" - S.611m'
I.D, of!bemiU - 2.'Sm .

Cruoho<! .,;.,hl .... """ lI1<'...-.d in a ..... " ..... _flow rod mill with on inaid< Ii ..... diarne"" of
4.17 Ill. 40% of tho mill volwno was fil led wilh ota:l rods l>lviJtQ; maximum diomeler of 70
mm and "",, I}: 6c:w.ity $,6 11m'. The mill ..... openUcd .. 1$% of tho aitital speed to JllQloo;:e .
tlcady prodOCl oize of r.oo lI1icroru from I feed si:or of 1200 micn>ns. !'owor OOIlSUIIlptiOll <>f
!be mill ..... 1.7lS kW. &I",,,,,,,
I. The rod dialncltf III o:rmmtfIClO of crushina
2. The rod length
0..10: '" - 4, S 11m'
B, 1O
A wei oV<'rll<>w rod mill WIU """ ed '" 75% of tho orilical .p>d and found to draw '.S kWIt
of rod ......., tbc: mill w.u k...scd 10 JS% of il' ",Iume. A certain nllTlber of rods were then
~ 1IId!be mill power increaoed to 8.9S kWIt <>f rods.
L VolUJD< of mill <><><:Upicd by the new char"
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Mill, ho>lng equal D and L
Mill, .. ;th small DfL ratio or hill,h UV ratio (Low .. pect mill.)
=-,
llIL - O.l) 0.66
(UD I,S 3_0)
Mill. _ <k:,iiJl<d ";th <>p<mI coni,.l o-nd (Fia, 9_1) or sq ... <od, (Fia 9.2). Uiah
.. pect mill. ",jth oonk. 1 end, Of< ..,.,..ime .. to .. paltCG" mill, while ",;n, v.ith
"'I""'" <nd. L .. czIled "Iuan mill . 1lw: diamn,,", and knith1 of milb lin: nearly

Some dry mill, cpomi", in C&nda Or< I_S m in dillln<ter IOd I .S m in l<ngtb_
The<c: Ia>oWIl as AaofaIJ milb, Tht Cad;" Hill SAO mill i. 12.2 m in
with I 20 MW motor and in 2004 was the larae!l diameter mill in operalioo in the
""rid. Mill sizes up to 13.4 m diam<ter ... comidrn:d f""ibl< with ounmt tochoolOiY [21-
1k volWII< miU in Ih< world wu OOO>truct<d for T Ilkwa, Ghana in 2004, 111< mill i.
8.23 m diam<1e-r bl' 12.19 m .ffth" arindinl! length (EOL) <>r inside liner I'""th. 1lw: mill
i. op<ro<l in .tlg< arindi,,& drruiL
Most AO and SAO mill. ha, .. olott<d """I and rubbt-r iinersand If< fitt! with litt.. bart,
The liners ate <i!hcr ,,-..1 '" grid t)'P<, The (lrid linero ... be-i"i increosinil), used dut to
their 10000er lif. brought about by.,.. and boll. boinM trapped in tho arids Tho ""wed om.
and l<tll. builJ "I' I h2rd =-face on thr li .... 1$ I""tortillj; them ..,,,,,,,,hat from w=. The
J=X1111<ndcnoy ;. 1<> \IS< ",mpo"''' linen with lii'lcn at thr foed <od of. mill to initiate
im"",t ctuMin.a fuU"v.-ed by v.-a, .. linen tiona the ...., of 1ltt lo-nath of Iho mill. Several
combi .... kms ore ronstantl}' bei", lrled to impro'" liner and ",.lI lif., The basi< objt "f
linor desii" i , to pn>mote """""in .. ion by impa:< and attrition inst<ad ofobruioo.
The dischari< ends ore fitte<l with octi", as . diop/iJoim . .. flioh hold. t.a.ck
tbe larier particles from di..:harii'& into tbe product " ... am. 1lw: ,i,." 'l'odllj; and de,ii" "f
the hoI .. in the JiapOrapti ... important as they illect the ,..,., oftJu-ouahput ond prod"", ... ""
Oprn-cnded belp:! to ..,Iv< J"Oblcms .-i>ina OUt of hiahsp:d mill rowion in the
.. ........ the -'JlO<d i l in .x .... of9O% of thr critical sp:d_ To improve the . ffidmcy of
., hish .p<!. of roIatioo, "",,-eo;l lifte .. hove been used 13]. 1bRe typ .. of
di..:harg. end .... used, l\IU\\il' mill. v.' ith wide peripheral di""hatgo. mill. howi",. """"I'
oller ,be p< to lift the produ<:' and mill. hln'ini the di""Mrge through tnmnion.
9. ' . IIi", a_t .. tOo A{1SAG milt
v.-iIh pot,"".>oJ """"",I 0nd,.
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u.", aspea mills lilt besI",il<d '0 low to medium COOIpeIeI\l ore, ",hil< hig./l asp1 mill
.... """" commonly'- for compe\<n' ...... , as .ingl .age ci ,mi" or aulog<...,.,..hall
mill '''0 .... Il' ci,mi", 11>< ' '''i''" diam<te< and.oon 1<TIllth pro"id<s b<tl<' impact b, ... l"\le
for \he """'f'<Irnl on:.
9.2. Op<"'"'" of A(",JSAG Mi ...
9,1 1 F .. dSiu
11>< to high osp1 AGISAG mill ........ ually p",f....-.d from lI)TI>tory crust-..B. "flile ....
feed 10 low aspeC' mill' .r<: po-d<ITed from j . ". ",,"'-.ers, Doprndina on lho SCI. ,ho "'"-'imom
,i,,, of .... particles rfOlll gy"""'Y "" ...... i. """'" 300 mm oM fr<:>m j. w
cru,he" i . abou, lllO- loo mrn. thu. the .",umum 10ed "'" may be ulon '0 '>II" b<twecn
15().)OO mm.
to MacPht""" and To""" 171 the op(imllm r""" 0;"" con,;"'"' "jth m""imum
po ... e, d ... ,, i. IlivCfl by tho Klation:
(9.1)
- 80% l"""i,1I. .izr in mm.
- in,i<Ie diomtlel of I ... mill in m<ters.
1h< f.ru in AG and SAG IT.i l" oortUin, fraot ion thai XIV"" ... , he griooing medium,
Thox IariCf 01"< f'<>clioru bre .. tho """,ncr panicle. but .. ", breakdown , hom",I"", and , . i,
,be mill as ,xodutl . In due C<J<rr>e. , be on: ked <Ompc1rn<y ""'" 'hOlli' as fn:sh<T. IIardcr 0""
i. m;r>ed at deept, 10".1. , Thi, " 'ill a lto, ,he bal."". be.wee" th< lump wiooing media and
the solter com"""""" of the ore a. ,00 Jt.nkor l\lntflS "ill breakdo"l1 """" . Ioy.-Iy. CoTaduall )'
I ...... fore. steel ball. " 'ill ha,. 10 be ch"'<'i 10 help breal,be _ com ..... n, lumps 10 ... ,.i"
, ... balaoco .... ,n,"nwn thru"jIl'PI'I. ,,, II,,",' "'on!., .... oo",,,,in"ioo proc<'" i . gtad ..... ,y
I .... 0'''' by the ball .. 11>< nurnbcr of,,,,,,. ball. and .... i, . i", depend on 1hc hatdnc ..
of 'ht ore . .... original Ort Sil.<: ond II>< si,o di>1ribo,ioo., IftC ..... in>; tht ball ,i and
d<c",.,u,g the;, number would .... kinetic coerw of bt<alase but the f'"'l"""'Y of
impo<.1 """,tl tken:.... On II>< oll-.er hand iftC"""I"" ball numbers iTl<"""" the I=al<ag<
,a' , and tOomore ;!>C,use. II>< thn::lUPPI'I "'0, Ilonce a balor.ce be',..ee" II>< nwnbe, ..... sl""
of balt. is "'Iuirod, Ball size. used ....... A""",lilUl ooOOilioR> rronnally ""'ge bo>",n 100
mm 000 mm "'I,h m .... imum of rnrn. For ore, lilal < .. II}' clisintei'8'" (<tossed as
iftOOO'l ... ",n'). SO mm . ize ""1. moy ht "' ................ <kt "". may "'loire lStl-17S """
ball. to mointain II>< '"'Iuirod tonr\Og<,
'Iho .. Ie of of pani<l .. i . fOlllld '0 be dcpcrden' 011 pulido . i", .. """'11 in fig.
9,7. "'tIS,in C1 al. lSI oon.iJc-rcd the inili" ill<"'_ in brtal0iO rate III be dominaled by
.nrition. AI some 'ize. , he partido .... too big to ht SUC<OeS,fully niwed and <N,htd
and i>cftCC brtak.oJe , .. '" d.<c""."" A, , hi. point .""""'iaJly """'ts &om .bra<ion.
A, the panicle size ' PP'"",he> the modi. siLeo b",aug' flI',," i""",.", agoin .. impoet
h<ealage bee"",.. domi",",' ,
9.1.1. Milll'Q/um<
"'. U", I;"t ""V in ,,,""i,,g ,niH'"g <; n:", [S. i' i. """"">lIlY 10 n t; n"'" ' ho II,i n ,vl"me 10
calc"'. " the E" imarion of c),lioori<;.1 mill .-01"""" i, "" probl<m but SAC, mill.
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1h' i" "ill i a,

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2. J,
], 0,8.
Au.tin ",sse", th;,t the mill po"e, '" obI2in<d is _hcobl< 10 both AG 000 SAG mill .
N<ale and Edward> (11) hu u<cd!hi; model to OOI11tol AG and SAG mill' and IIa, iOOi<a,oJ
thal111< pre<li<!<d and rne;uured "0"'" 110"'.," ... Nc:J, .v>d Ed",3fd,' 1<>. work """
limited 1<> a f,ow O .... T .... tioon< only_
'" ob<cr>'<d before. tho:: mill 1""'''' u,ua1ly i1K,. .... wilh an irocrease in !o.ding ""'il
it moo"' " ,,",oX ond thon 4:< ....... _ AU$lin 191 hu detorminod the maximum load at ,,"loh
the PO"'" draw peak,_ Thi, i. ""wn in Eq_ (9.18):
, -['- ''''' ("'" -'ll(-' 1
""" (I .. ) P. 1A
(9,18)
ToXing 111< ,"""",,,,,,Mod , -. IL1< of A .. 1 _OJ . Eq. (9. 1 I) mtnsfomu to:
(9.(9)
The follQwing gc,..,raI ,*"",,111;"", C2l> be ">ad< on mill power coruumplion (3):
I. Sintc mill p<>v.tf is to 0"'. diamtl., mill' "ill draw"""" POW"," ,,",'
mi ll volume ,han >mall d iame .. , mill. . How",'.,. long mill. (low .. may'''''''''''''
more po",e, than hip:osp<Ct milb doc 10 a 13r2Cf cl'oarK< mas< "'" "cipilijl the effect
of mill diamet<r. Low aspecl mil1. "'tain r, .... ' and o, .. rgri"" """..,.;. 1 and hcl!<o may
be Ujl to 16% Ie .. <ff"",,,' than high "'f'I'Ct mill>,
2_ Diaphngm mill. d,aw 16% mol'< POW<T tlwt ",aHow mill. with 111<...". cffc<liw
O\finding lmath.
1. SAG mill, 11"'"'''' ,han 9 0'1 ;n Ji""""", dr.,,' oboot 10% I." pow .. than tbeomloal.
4. In OJ>C1lltio .. it is ...... 110 i ...... l1 lO--21W. ""',,, power", meet ,"";at;O'" in
load primarily doc '" clwtgc in ore ,hal'OOTeri"ics, dargi"ll rat< <1,_
9,J. /, /'I,,,,,,,,l&;N (Rtf",;.".) Mill P".,.,
For de,ign and .,.,...-.tins P"'1""'" il i. otl ... n<'5a!)' '" bct"U'II
mil];, A <oo"""irnt ""Y for """'pari""" i, to "'" II>< COO1't of """"'li>eJ mill po"".'.
Au"in dcri.'ed tho exll'<"'sion for normolisO<i PO"'" " 'hieh wilen subslilUte<! in Eq. (9.17)
p""ide, ,he relati ... mill power, p.,,, [t I):
(9_20)
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Hit mt1hod of <k1tnnining T" ODd the <:<>n>ImI> A and B i. <. plain! in Chapkr 1. n.c
'JlCCif>c c""'iY of breahg<, F." is \hen calculall.'1,! ond >ISC<l in simulalioll proarams
JKSimlolct (Aus'".lia.) ond BRGlol IE"""",I. Thco< P"OV<"'" provide quantitali,'. ond c""",,,
estintalioos of lOOol mill PO""" of difkrcnt oombinaliom of mill ci""';". Th< bui. of tbcs<
"",grams i. lhat tho PO""" ;. oontribuotd f""" . sen .. of physi<.1 _ion. ti"" im""""
.\>r3sion ond attrition. Her>e< theoe !lave to be deltnnineJ ind;"iJual iy, Determi"",ion of these:
pormn<tm bas b<en del>:ribcd in Cllaptcr ),
For """" '"""'" 10111< QU!I01i,y of OJ< i. _ .vailabI< for '.'tina, Mooml [2S1 has
de""lop!. SAG Mill Comminut"'" (SlolC) lCSlIO 1<'llmlC the A and B 'al ..... , The: SMC
.... i omaIl",*,c """'on of the drop w";gh' , ... that CUI bo used on snuoIler oi"""! samples
cui from drill oon:, The: 1<>1 <ilimata. dro!> ... -right index (OWl) that i. """"i.ual1O the A
and B .. I .... pro,h>eed b)' the full oized dl'Ofl wdgh, tOSl,
T)'pical """It. of te"" lakcn from rando::>mly el>o ..... Tcn>orn Gotd Of< opct8lion in
AU>InlIi.s willi tv.<> di/f<=ll ball load. os rcpo<tcd b)' McPhca! and Morrison [24);' iii""" in
Tal>Ie9.L
Toble9.1
Laboratory Tm K=tIts on Temora q",1d 0.-" [nl-
"""""
Autog<""us Scmi-aulogero>UO Scm i-OI.II<>genous
, ,
B.oIl Cbarg<. %
N,'


Feed Rate. kglhr


Milll)i.d,.r&e Solido %
" "
"
Mill CiIarg<. %
"
'"
"
Product Stz.. Po.

j))() jlnl
jlnl
Nct Power. kWh't

,.,
, .
hom the t2bk it CUI b< """" that the 1">"'" required f ... aut<>gf>OW grindi"l! ..... ltighc ....
It can Ihcn:fOf< be: """"Ioded that grindinll "',.. 001 ",itabl. ",ith this particular
aold Of< but .. Opcntion ... ith about!% ball chari< ""'" til< prcfrnro option.
Ihsod on thost test .. . 6,7 m diameter. 2.1 m I<-ngtlt SAG miU and. ) ,) m x 6.1 m
ball mill we ... i ..... lII for ""mmerci.aI opcratk>o in 0105<>1 circuit with. hydro<yclone. n.c
SAG mill had 6-8% ball <hari< and th: 1">""" <onsumption "',.. I kWhlt, whidl "",II
"ith the expoct<d val ....
Prob .....
" In. SAG mill the dimcnsionsoftho mill were 9.75 m x l.S", and tho """"ifw IV"v; lincfthe
mineral and that of tho bolt.. charged 4.1 and 7.9 .-.spcctivcly. The mill ...... rot2t<d.,
75% of i" cri,ical .peod .. hen % uf the mill oiwnc was clwgcd with grindinll ball ..
fot imatc:
1. The:milll""""fd",,,n.
2. Th< ..... imum mill filii", possible.
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Chapter 10. MathemalicalModelling in Comminution
HI. 1l>' TIlOII UCTION
n.e pr<>: .. of co"""inUl;"" Iw been <>bscr.'od lind 'tudiod ""<f th< ) 'o.>D, SI.,i"ioal
<0 ..... 1.,;" "f "oriahles ha been ...J to do,-. I"" malr..m.tical m"dol. doocribing ""il .....
integrated """rati""", Th. approach has """" .. arily been meehani""', (1). Wilh bo'te,
W'l<kT;latldin8 ofth< pr<>: .... , and oppli'a1ion ofba.<;c of p/ll"5i<.-o. mAthe:matical model,
b .... """" do,'.loped to dooc,;be """tiltion' """" fully, n.e dc",I""", modcl, l>clp 10
.imularc the "",,'>s. Wilh the aid of computrn 0 range of <>\lIio"" <on bo ... il)' .imulatcd and
opIimum ronditioru of oproui""" and ,i",ui, <lnii"" dctrnnilXd "ilh ",I.,i, ...... and
""c.....,y. Thi, <"n'quo 1"U"i<\n rapid on.w.,... 00 pi"" Je$;l!'" and oprimum of
ope1ll1iQll LU>der .poc if>c pillflt conditions,
Thc w ie oppr<>a<h in ,t.: modcllina of eonuninuoioo 'l"5le1T\l; i , lO rt<<wll'" the f""'lha,
all tile comminution """'.""'. aocer<"" an.d imp.uting <"ne1l!)". ciisrupl the biDdillj! f"",.,
"'""""" particles ,,,,,,,;,uoin& the: Ole. OIl tile pro:< u.l<d, ci,ller ingle: impooct
or multiple impa<" .... oppli1 till di, integration and ,I,. tWo<tion ""'" pl ... 10 o<ptabI.
",I"""
In !he mcoallu'l!i<.1 iDdU5tr)", .u:. rt:duction ... 5000 .. ""'''' .... minod or
quam1. By tile "rr, naiw-.: of mtninil iI!ld qUlUT) i"i """""ions, the m.ucri.1 ron'; ... of.
range ohi"" .. W. ha,'. _n in thc ClOSe of <rus""'" Ihal r"""i"" of mined material could be
too small ond 1"= lhroogh. ok" ieo ",ithout funhet iii", tWUoCtiQll _ Tho '"""'-i,-.,k.-
Iw 10 be ,ubj""cd to a oomminUlion pme."._ Eooh iDdj,iduol p.utid. IlI"lI<I" than !he size
""lui1"Cd has '0 be "'''''en <10"0, lbe r ."" from eaoh parlicl< lhat "fJ!X'3r dler fim
h:ak0l/.< again may ronsiOi of. f""'t;on that !"Iuires bn:al<aa.;<:. n.e probobilily of
further bn:akot;C would rkp<nd on lhe paniel d iSlribUliQll in the prod""l ond
. 1>0 "QUid l>< machinc: """"ifie,
Commioution i. a ,....,.Iilh. prooc ... It i. ,,,,,,inoed ,;Ii all ,10 partido< in. ""nain "7e
f"",tion ha,'< hc:cn broUn <Io..-n to on aocepuolo " 7-"_ Ihu, !he ,""igo oflhe equiprn<m...J
to bn:ok partiol<. ond lh< <Iuralion the "",,<riol remain. in the br .. kinll :ron< )<It",I. the
uiti ..... e ,i7-" of the product StaodanJ .... ' .. an: '-""<110 obIain ntirnal of lh<
. " ent of s ize red""ti"" , UlIUolly the Tyl .. , WIdani .. ri ... "ilh ..rio "f il,':I b<t,,"
.ach sic,c. is uoed. Thi' r>eoI of sic", "'" hc:cn ocoep<cd as th< iDI<fTU.tioo.a1 <I3ndard,
In modelling comminution systems. !he bask ide.> i. to "btlin ma!n.tnalical rlation
"'""'=II the foed iI!ld prod""t . i7'<. It i. to 13k. into account 011 !he ,"'-;abl ..
;ovolvorl in the ope,",,," inelt.Ji,, ItIt """,bine <barac,.,.;"jco.
The proce .. of oommim.tioo i, """"d<rl to bo t<pt<S<"Otcd b)' I,,,} """' ...... 0:
I. a parli<1< i .. eJected
2. broken pctide prod",.ul:i'-.n di>triootion of fragm<Tl1 ,,;res,
Tl>e diMriootioo of .iu. prodoc..! from a br>:ahge ' kp i. kllQWI'I" lh< Of
"PP'aTllllC< funotion. It dono, thc relari, .. disn-ibution of "",h ,ize froct iQll .n.r ""'''''''go.
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An "tcmaI< m<tbOO of !be Inok'g<" fun<.1i<H> .... been od_akd by Napi ....
MUM eI oJ. and oI""""Y di","""" in (:hap< ... J . In !hi, method Ihe .. iv< .ize
distribution a/\er i. plottc<\ api .... 1he cumulative "".U,,, pasM"II and Ihe Too im...
<lctcnroined. A plOl of Ibo irod .. T (fnootion ()f %) agoi .... TN (f"""ion or % pasoiott
lIN of tile parent .. "') gi, Ihe mat<rial """"''I;< Thi, ",1ati<tR$hip i. npm ....
"191:
T, _ 1_(I _T.):::r
(10,4)
- _'<rial 5pifi<
Anoth<r ":mpl< m<tOOd to determine IJ , ....... in botch grinding i. to take
omount of _Ie of on: of 00< size fraction. IPind fur """" ,ime and dei<nniroe it. si""
disuibution ..... 'c anodysi . The _Ie is then returned to the mill and the tumbling oction
.. pc;atod (<< diff ... "" \enlllhs of 'i ..... Aft<r each ,ime iiilerVal ...... pI .. are takm 001 of the
mill and IIiz< distribution drtonninod. A oompromi.c is made between too """" IPirod
time to pro,ide insufficicn' .".... for occllf'ate "eving and 100 ""'Ii jlrirod time to live
""""",iv< ",.breakage A correc'"", i. oppIial to oocoun' for ""y .. -breaI:ag<
tJuot docs _or. f.,,- ""ample. tho: BI or BI1 n>:Iioods of AuMin and LudOe IIOJ may be used.
B VlII...,. Tm)' be nonnoIi..bt. and .... oced to. \<Cior.
In the BII method, _bo I.ge of r>riomry progeny fragmrntJ ... COIJl!l<llSl'tod fa- by
""",,,ina Ihat the prodoct of the t>r<akqt "' .. func1ioo and the breakagc distribo.o1ioo Nnet;"".
SJu.. i. constant. IJ1Ider theoe condi,;"" .. the breolUg. distribo.o1i"" f_,"", i.
obt.tinod from:
when: - c"",ulativ., moM &action I .. , !han .. '" do at time: n.
pm - romola,i.., moM f....".", I ... ,han si.., d, at time and
(10.5)
8,., - cumu!a1 .. <..,.... li1ooc1jon of panicle. pasintt the top .. "" of intervol i from
breakage of roni<''''' of"ze I.
The trend i.1O "'" bock..,.c.'""''' metioods to obuoin the B ,-..I .... , This motbod of
cak,,, .. io.,, i. beyond the ocopo of !hi. book. ,he in"'"","" is di"",..., to Ih< oriWnal
won. by A .... in .. at. ]2].
I IH
Thi. is numerica, ""ample of tho: methods of <"",ulatina the bre"agc function from a sic, ..
_pi. of 'ingle partie'" brulagc in "'ill, foO m,nu'","- F,"" brul...,.., of
single W ... _2400 + 1200 mit"", .. Ih< sic, .. """I) ... is:
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f"""ion i. coruidonbly &miter compared to tho omaIl<r sius. llw is . ocnain proportion of
panicle. within .... h oi,., rani i. pn-fOl'enlially reduced in size. n.u. .. Ie<tive """ 'age
00<"" witb in a si,., ''''I\<. The proportion nf """id .. "'ilhin eoch iii .. ""'* lhat i5 broL ... i.
repn=ntcd by S. Th .. S,. S,. S, ... s" ",ill be the f"",tion of material in each .u:. f..:tion
tNl """'kI be xleelcd for . i", red""tion with the mnoini"l! """leI<. 1""';0& """"&h ",ithout
..,y change in si".. Thi, i. kno ...... as .. Im/()oo foJtcliml (or the .pec!fic 'aU of bnaJ.ag.)
,,""iclo can be matlocma!ically expreSS! '"' diagonal malrix ,,'her< """h clcmeJO. of the
lhe 1""1""'"'" of po<to:lcs that ..." the probol>l;ty ofbrcal:OIjlC.
In. batclo procc ... if tho !OIaI ."... ktaJ in ,t.: mill i, <lcsignat.>d as M. tho mass
f",,"Iion of.u:c i in tho mill 100<1 i. m, and the """,if", _ of bmokage (or the fiKtional rate
of ton->kogc or the ....... of ,ize i broken per unit time p<r "';, mus of w.. i p<Drn1.) i. s.
thon for. first oro.. process,
(10.6)
0< _ d[m.(1) Mj _ _ S m (., "

(1O.7)
wh<re So - , .... r>"'I""'i"""lity >n<W'lt .nd
m,(t) - tho moM fuoction of si", i .n.... pind time. l
Since Ihe IOt.oI rna.. i, conotan1 in 0 bal<h mill on.:! irS; i. i""".,.,.,.Jent of timt. thon on
in'e&ndion. Eq. (10.7) bcaHn""
m,(t) m,(O)exp(-S,t) (10.8)
"
1000rn,(1) - lOIIrn ,(O) -rtw (10.9)
A plO1 oflOll m,(t) again>< "ind time. l should gh-c. stnoigh1.1i ... of sl op< HV2.101) ..
shown in 10.1.
10.2. MO'_"' ''''1 ......... 0' "" ..... In.t.,., P'"""""'""
The "PI>f"(*bc> 100'" t<Jmmonly occ<ptc<l for the: moddli"i of comminutioo ptOCCl" ,'"
1. 'Ibe rnurix """"I.
2. 1be kiocto: """"I.
J. Tho """'BY """""t
"Ike te<hniq ... adopIed for developing 0 model io to <Stablj", material balance of
oompOntrl" and .., babnc< of tho <OIIlIIlinution o)"'tern. The m.ucri.o.J balanco. of"
romrniro.l\ion ')'>lCm in "P"fIIlion may be SlII!cd u :
(10.10)
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161
lGrt<ofdisappo""""",ofsi",j - S, m,{t) M (10.19)
R.te "f"ppean""", of";", i - b."S, m,(tjM (10.20)
( 10.21)
(Hl.22)
Eq. ( 10.22) i. the huk .;".""", rar. /;JaIanc< model for batch grinding of rock. and
1bc r.>IC of prodoc'K>n of material 1. tlIan sino .. i. th< sum of Ill< """. of production of
material I .. , !han . ize X; by of al1 1"'l!t" sizes and i. gi,-en by:
'"
dP(X"') _ L " "()
",, ",m, t
"
"
-.
,
,,1><re I'( X,, ') a L m,\t)
,-"
(10.23)
r"" tho of contin""", ...... millo, ,be bmWolI'" "'Iwotioo i, oomb;nc.l "ith
the material ""idrocc ,ime distribution. The "'" ex""""" of rcsidcnoc ,ime diltribu!ions ...
piugjlow orvJfo/ly ",Iud. For pl"i flow. all rnalerialllt,,c tilt ..",. resideoce time: and btnce
"'" halch griodi"t "'Ius/1M i. """,able when in1qjt2ll from lime: ""'" 10 ,1>0 "",dcnce
tim<:. lDc solution '0 this intqptioo was I''''' . , j by Reid 11$1 and is known ..
tho ReW,O/.,w...
,
m,(') - La .. "
e

"
..,(0) - [ ..
, -
'"
'" ,
rS,b . ...
, .-,
(10.2<1)
.. ; <j
b ;';
f"' i > j
(lO.n)
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In ordtr 10 de .. ribt ,II< opcratioo rruIIbc:nuoicall)'. Whi,cn 1161 .... L)'l'Ch III <:<>n.Udemi
til< mass bal"""" ...... feN .... pmdUCI end> ond \he .. I .. "", between cnIShcr ked
ond prod"", u :
(1 0.31)
"lK:re P - vt<:WtfOfprOO"",siudislriblJtion(orwo),
I - uni, diaj;on>I matti, hav;"g 011 el<tne"", - 1 (",,,,,"ning",,, - 0).
C - classi/i"",ion f""",ion ""ri" ...... a diagonal mallix.
f - feed oj"" distri\lution (mass).
F-'I_ ( 10,31) i , the wid:1)' 0<t<'J'It<I model of crushe<s 1,,", i, used to pttdict ,IK: silt
di"";\lution of prod""", in differen, types of crwhers,
While \he abo.e .spoolS of modd of <rushcn i, i, imponant 10 rcmcntbel
that the oize "",,,,,,ion J'I">C<'" .. commercial """rat"""" i. contin..,.... 0 ..... long periods of
tim<, In actual pracli"" .... refote .... same <:>peration ;. .. ]>Ute<! o"or Ior>i periods SO the
e,fI"tSS"'" ro. prod"", lilt must lake this ["'lOr into 0<1<IIII. I [<nO< paramdcr i ,
iDlroduccd to ' .... ' .. nl .... n ..... beI' of eytle. of "I"""'iOil. Ao 011 eyel .. "'" idc-n,i<4l
tbt trnmJ _I Ji= in Eq. (I 0.31) >hould ohcn:f"", be modified u:
p - )('. r (10.32)
when: X - (1-C) . (I-[J . Cr'
The meIhod of evaluating acrushtJ modd i. ill .... "'ltd in hanopk 10.2.
Ex-.pk 1Il.2
The size diSlri\lutioo of an on: to be fed to .,.,.., ,,-..<:
S;,",. mm .50+2$ _25 +12.5 12,6-<{)
10 Jl
,
o,ss
" " " '" " " "
"' "' " " " "' " "
"-
C _
0 ,12 OH 0.61
" " "
O.4S
"

""'
".,
0.57
" " " "
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A, IIIeady ..... the m. of cba"ll" ofmill """,,,,,,, i."..." Ot: _ 0
H...,., F..q. (10.34) would be:
(A. R _ R _ D) .. .. F _ O (10,)5)
Sina: P - D- ... - V'P . ..-.: con ....tt.tittllC for in Eq. Simplifyina the ,""Itinj
equation the IDI1htmatieal modo! for NIl millo may be ,,-ritlen .s;
P - D-R' -(VK' H _ A)" 'F (10.36)
Thi. perfca othina mode! !lao beat 5"' .. full), uocd to 1Iirrulo!< boll mill and tOO mill
operotionL It can be uocd fOt 1IIeady.u.t< ond dyntntic: til'rtul.nono of millin1j
It ;. pt>Uiblt: to ""ah, ... F.q. (lO.m pIQYidina the model ponmtIm A. R ODd D ore
knovon. Tho poram<Ier1 R and D ..... .,., it>l<1dq><ndmt and CUI. only be drlormint:d if
duo. "" the mill COllI""" .... ovailabl . This io not oIways kooWII ;" ind",1riaI mill .. Thi. may
be ovctt:om< by Iwtpina the I'M> Xttbin<d ponrneI..- D-R'.
To '01..- Ihe model ..... minS .-,. IItato< OODdition: Eq.
(10.35) ODd oubsti!utint: _ D" . p :
0 - F +(AR - R- D)-. - F" A' R'U" P- R'U',P - P
or F- P - (I - A)'R'U' ,P
'" P _ D-R"'(I - Ar'{F -p)
From Eq. (I O.H):
R' o - (I-Ar'1,F-p)
ODdbon P _ D-R'R.
(10.37)
(1G.18)
(10.39)
(10.4<1)
(10.41)
Eq. ( 10.40) con be ",IV! if tho in""", of (I _ A) ;. known. but this i ... Idom .vailahk
Eqo. (10.010) ond on: """ oimuI-. eq...na.. in Ro. Both tbne
equatioru .... trionauW matrix eq'-'lllions ond .... be 001.1 uain& the botok .., ... tution
I<cltniquc. To "'" thio tc<:1miq ... the equalions 1>0."" Ie be arnna.o in tho mattitt form:
(I- AIL ) 0 0 0 (R . ), (F, - P,)
- A"
0
"
(R '.J, (F, - P,)
-A" -A. (I - Au) 0

(R . ),

(f, - P,)
0
- A"
- A. , - A., (I-A. ) (R ' 0).
(10.42)
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I .... ..rtioT ....,.tr:. "ustin <I 0[. [l3[ kItt1lim. thm: ..... of oarnely.
IIOI'mIJ rr.:tur.: ........ by baI.b ltld l.r&< pcbNcs llW fonned Ihc gtio;1ios medium, tbippWlI'
off of [llfIloles A:IIdcrina them roondish ...ct ltld fioolIy abrasion. 1/0""'"<1.
Loveday ODd lI,,,iten [25] have tho of " .... in . dootL
To deftlop model of !he 1"""'" Amtstica <I II. (2.1 considered 1h<
dlKIwi< grate .. I cw.;flet. Their oorr::cprual model is ilIustrIIed i. Fi$. 10.8. The doncd
lines in 1h< f>glll'< indic"" tho m<>V=IOIII of ma10JW in tho mill ,..,...., tho
.....m,. .. clusifier 1'OIumed it. """"'jIo-.. \0 tho IDIin feed ... _. for funbor .u:.
ODd ilS _, jIo-.. formed tho fillll prodUCl from 1h< miU. The meawccI c!o.ifK:otion fun<Ilon
i .rown in 10.9.
F
0
,.
" ,.
f :.
,
j o.
.. 0.'
_
1 o.
0.'
"
,
o
00
"
,.
p


f









/ F 4;;-
,=
St .. (mic,,,,,.)
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, .
s tho , .. ,,;cal >lined mill. (f ow"," mill , Vrnimill. 1>ktroprolh mill) and borizootoll)' >lir=l
mill. n," b.,"' .... them is in t .... stirling me<:iIoni,m n .. Mill
uses ol>el ical sere'" "hil. ,he IS,t,mill.,..,. olmiZ<>lltal shaft with ">riou. shapes and ,j.." Qf
disc1 11>0 "",di. IlI<d are hardened ""<:1 boll., ';'-cr >and ur ceramic .
The f>.J .. ", (r
llO
) to the mill' tango. """" ... ",,n 4S on<! 100 mi.ron, ond the prod"'" oJ",
"",urid 3 micron. and 1"",,_
Th< me.:h..,i"", of .iz. tedUCt; .... is ""'rely dilTetenl from the ball mills. In this cos< the
. i", ""J"",;on is mos1ly . "rit;"", M"""II .. aI.[3 1] ",,"mir>ed the "PI'H"ability of tho rote-
,ize ma>s balance """""I ond the p<rfoct mi.illi \\'hilm model to ultra li"" in
To"", Mill. "'Oft in thi, i. io ,
\GA. Probl, ....
Mosl "'ising old a/lhI, cMpltr ".1 1M lISt 6/ """PUN' progrWtU, A f.'" ,/tar ,tilt
.Giwd I>}' ""lid h<1d calc.ld"'" tlT< indlMi<J Mn.
10.1
In nummc.1 .. ample 10_3, the product from the lim >Ug< of bualat< "''''' cal<:U!a!ed.
CootiDuc calcula,ions ro delenni ... the prod"m from the seoond ond lruN SIaj!eS.
H}'2
V'ioo: ,he """iete::lilt d;.tributiM oo.ai o"l<d from I b .. Wi,.;! aI ,""" gnr><l lime. <IeI.rmi ...
Ihe btta<Ol!e Ji. uibu,"", function the FIll for an il'>Compl ... of
0.01.
In .. ,,-al
SiL.<. """
% f<tair><d
,

78.7
, ,,..
OM
,
"00
S 16
,
],12
,
"00
1.76

,""
0.87
,
,,"
0.41

"
".w
10.l
t\ boll mill " 'as de,;gn!to operate '" .... '"'" of 1 million tOl\lle5 of iron.,." per year wmkin&
360 day. in the year. The chara<<<ri"ic. of'he Krind are lIi"en in tile lable bolo,,",
,""
. ,
U
""
16.0 H
""
25.0 11.7
,,,
20,0 IS. I
"
11,0 12.2
."
11.2 53.4
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[28[ I, G. "'-'sIin. KR. W.11er ond I.L Lim,!'roo linp. XVIII lnIemotional MU>etaI
f'roceniD3 CooQc.., Sydney, 1991, PI' !7-9S.
[29[ K.. ScbOoc:lI ond U. Sander, Powder TcdInolO!)', 122 (2002) 1l0.
1l0] u. Lubjuhn ond K. ScbDnort. Pro< d'np, x vm lnIemotional MiD<nl
Sydnoy, 1993, PI' 161_163.
[31) S. UJ. SteiftJ ond K..K.. Well .... l'roo:uIinp of !he XV[]] In\emationaI MU>etaI
p,,,, ,";oa Congress. S)"dney, A .... ]"". MininJI ond Metall., 199), PI' 61-611.
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The: n1t<h of. SCreen i. d<flDCd 11)' the ",Iation M ~ (L. + dor' for 1l><4.'l>=nml. iII indle'
or M ~ 25.4 (L. + d.r' for ......... """""1> in milli mttm. \VherI M i. ",bstilUled in Eq .
I I U) 0lId (11 .4), the mesh size rnoy be calcu1o.ted. For example the mesh number of
"'IIW"< oprniIli of ""1fI "ill be,
100 L' ,
The: OX of tho .. oxpmsioos for d<.ignitli "" ... '" i. ill",tr>I<d in Examplo 1 LJ .
Ex."V'h 1/./
(11.6)
A .... in! ......... 1 ,mun ",ire ""teen "ith "I"""' ap<n= had an apoItur< ] .18 mm "'Iuafe.
Thc: diamoter " f the wire WIll 1.2 mm. Dc1om:ine:
I. 11>< PC'''"''' open arc. whrn tht ""'""" _ cpomed in art bori_ jIO!ilion.
2. Thc: pen:enl cpon arc. "'hott lbe "" ... " _ cpomed at Icpo of21t,
3. 11>0 m<1h size "fthe ""reen.
SO/MIUno
Slep 1
Ai!hc attire "",""" i. r.brica,al ",itlt ",ire of dilDlCl<f of 1.2 nun, Eq. ( 11.3) i. oppliatbl<
for the horizont.1 ""reen.
Th", for an horiZOIllal sc=n:
SI,,!, 2
For an illcliDal ...,000:
S,Op]
- ( 3.18 )' ,00
].1$.1.2 .
- S2,"'"
M _
100 I.' ,
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.. t th.n in spite of Ihe partid. size beina . maller th.on th!: ap<rtur< it may .. p<>rt ..
o,<r.Ii>:c, Thus the I.n"" of th!: sc=n i. impo;>rtant. 'I'll. 1'lIith of ot=n proviOes the
scrttnina effi<ien<y and the ",idth indic .... th!: tJtr.ou;:hput .. t . Ulti ...... ly the probability of
l"'"in, will <i<'pend on the initial mass of portiol .. in the feed 0\rQm \hat ... 1>Uld paD all .. N
opproaoche. to th!: apertur< and the 11'''''' f"",ion .. thot had ""'l""d. Thi. con he
wri"", .. ,
M ,
L
M,
.I.l;
-
M
-
"
-
,
-
the initial tna&> ofunde .. i..., in tl>o feed strum.
the ""'" of undo"; .... ...,.;nilli on th< .. ...", oft., l\: attemplS.
the nwnber of presenwions per unit of ""m:n and
the probobility of . pmid< pusilli through the scm:n.
(Il.!)
Eq. (II . D) impHcitly .....",.. th .. \be p.-obabilitics of all particle> ",,ina in overy
ancmpt "'" <qual. Substituting the value of p /h;Jm Eq. (II, II) in Eq. (11. 1) ,i,-.. :
M I l,,-d,
[
'J"
M, - -k.,.)
1l.l 4
On simplifyin, Eq. (I L 14) by nrilocting the higher powers ond .. placin& d, by doc" the
particl. size that i.<equal ly <plit botw= tbe overflow and undrnl<lw, " .. ,., Eq. ( I US) .. ,
' ..
I _ C.833(L. +d,,)
. l " N"
(IUS)
Eq. (1Ll 5) i.moat'" \hal if the d., " .. exp<ri .... determined olona the !en2Ih of th<
ocreet1 of kno"" " 'i .. diamner !be:n the opcrton: and number of anOJllptll ooaid be
detennined.
The ",...",ini pro .. i. <omplicated by the u.:t \hal in 100'er of
are cl\ori<d "" to OOm:n ond the: prubobility uf partido. at the bottom of Ihe layer
ond aaainsl the 5Ut'foce pu.ina lhrouih !be: ..,...., "ill he: &r<Oter th.on _ at Ihe top
of the: la),ct', Abo the pmicle size di>trib-" ion on the: lI<=n surf", lon, the Icn&Ih "ill be
different u ill.atml in Fi,l, I Ll "m. i, caD he -. that '"<>Oil the lcn&lh of
II<run i, "'" uniform. T"" are in operation. Fim. doe to 0""'-'" stratification of the
portiol. Ia)UI on !be: II<teen 'urfaocc:, un&rsiu panicle< may "'" ",..,h the ""= surfac. due
to .. <e"i.'. beJ depth. ScoodlY. Iht probability of "'lItn the wtdcnize PII:";C,", 00
"",.,11 the ,urface, Thu. Eq. (I LIS) i. "'" . ",,,tiy oppliClbl< to ",.1 . ituotion, It can ...
he 0S<>d .. on indi<. to<.
F""" the lbo, .. di",,,,,,,,,,, it i. steIt thai oboolote otpatation of different ,ized partiel ..
using " ICree<! i. difficult IS i, in,,,I,-.. probabili,i .. of """"'""",I of pani.I., 01 di/feret11
that may b. diff",,,I' to d.et<rmine.
A 11<= is .aid to i f. in mixl"'" of diffcn:nl sizn of material .. all
"",tori.1 oh pattieul..- . iu I ... ..... , lhe sem:n apertur< is .....,.,..><l from the mix. In
" screenina opention doe> no' p><I_ " pene<1 oepamion thet\:f.,.. il i, n ...,-y to .X",""
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""
n.c bed <k.,w. ;, olso related 10 ,t.: sl""" of lr.c """"". While. q"""liwi .... re(ali ....
bcIwcrn ,he>< par3I1l<'1CB 1= "'" bocn c!itablWlcd, the followins <>bscrariOOll can be IUd<
121:
I. For """"" widths of - 2.S "' the i""li...woo sbwld not 1M: Ie .. than 16" ond
m""imuID of obouI 26" fo< """""ilies IS - 270 1Ih.
2. WIlen !he . Iope i. SJW .. ,han 21)" ,he capa.city is rnar\;:edly rtdoced .. the elT""t;v<
.perture orca i. rodoced by 0.9] Ii....,.,
J. For """<nS. <&- 4.8 mct<. .... "'''0'''' m"".f"",1IrCfS =omm<:n<l a fur'll>ef addi,;.,.,
Qf:!" ond r", ..,..... .. _ me\efS, 4'sh<;..tld be .. Ided
I I..!. C.pMity d 5< . ... Sf ........ of StnliKbt Sc_DS
111e >bov< di..,..,.;oo io.l;"",'<1 th.al ,he __ il)' of ocreen is ",100:<1 ., the """""
ch.vxtcrinia and ,he mal<rial The IICI'Ca1 chaRctcri .. ;"" include:
I. . ""i bl*./,,,.
2. . pcnurc (. ize and type).
J . 1IIop<.
4. mcd.oo.!<>fvibr.uion.on<I
S. number of deck>.
l. size and >hap< of IIIlIICrial
2. moisture
3_ I2l< ofth""'l!Jlp.rt. inchwli">l depth ofm.tcrial layer.
4. dry 0.- wei !l<JUnins-
"The """",ity of JCI'CC1I i. rcfcm:d '" citlJcr in "'"'" of the ov."..;'" or in term. "r thc
Wldenia producI Wtam . For mesh sic,-... a :\IopI: of 18". ",hen: ruuirnwn
efficiency i peeled. Taggart IS J " UI!1It'U thai !he Clpao;,y of. JCret1I should be _ on
thai ..:"" ("""jon in thc rOC<! """ is mos' difficult to sq>amc_ This fr.ction " described a< thc
.... ..... of critical "'" and the basi< fW>CIion is des<ribed beT< .. F .
",h<:n:
"
C,

C
-
-
-
-
basic fe<:d raI<. IIhIm o(""R:<.'II ",;.lib.
opefture in nun ("I ....... meoII),
fI12U ofrrmorill'",.'. ond
( 11.35)
!><='" of .. ,I>< pc"'<TIt of f=l bc<WCCfI ,I>< ailkai,ju
of 0, 75 to 1.5 ufthc SCI'\:t'tO ." "., ......
TIM: OCIuai f=l ml<, F. in l<Jnn<s pcr how pcr mclcr of ""-.. "itjlh. i. rel",cd to !he basic
feed "'Ie. F .. by !he ",lotion:
( 11.36)
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INDEX
Abtuioo 89,9O,172,21l
Adtotplioo 552
Bi.. I
Bubbk ....c..., oreo fi"" 592-59)
Capocity 104, un,JOI, 121, 125, 1).(
13-6, 137, 154,1&4
1116-117,189,214,221, m
315, 118, n&, 3S6, ln, JSI
Circu!otinv: 101IIII
Circulatin& rotio
Cla..moos
00"
hydrocyd"""


-,-
""""""
CommiDLIIi""
ottritiOll
,-
jpaIe di,dwgo

Mjebotl...."
nip angle
189, 190, 403, 470, '1'
617, 619
."
,,.
m
162. 229, 236, 251
36S-367, J7331O
382. 3116-J91,
396, SlS-SJ1, 619
620, 641,
M'


367, J9S, 197, 6SS
'52. 553
'" 105.114-117. 127
135, 141
162,163
65. 16!I
116.117
,,.
Roo. ord Ene1iih 10S106, 101, 111>-
!19, 135. lJ7

Rowlond ond "i<>o
CommirwliQ/l Uwo
66-&9, 71.91,93,94,97
119-120. 123 1201, 136
119I40,ISO, 166, 171
174, I n . liS, 190
19JI91, 200, 210, 211
214,211,222.229,2)0
I.H, 24'246, 2SO, 254
6IHI8,621
K.id: 66,97, 126,127
Kin. 66,67,97,125, 150
C<mUninlllion _llin<:
to "'iI" functioft
cl-.ilicorio>l funclion
pcrf:\ mixina:_1
Reid ootution
CommirwtiQn testillll


prnduhDDIm
257,239
269,2IS
'"
'"
17,51,91
II,n, 16, II, 91
68,123
251,671 SAG miU comminution 1m
Confidence imervaI
Confocl<to<:<: k"d
Confodcoc:c> limit
Confodon<e range
Comact angle
'""""
" ..
,.,..
.,...,
"""
,..
roll speed

"-
ori1hmotic .,....,
FCI'I:t"
pomctric meaD
Martin' ,
M<llor',
Pl'liected

Distribution factur
"""-

7,10,14
"
,
,
550,SIJl

'"
99,101
121, lJJl14, 136
]42. 149,156, 159
236, 238, 287
99,101.102, 106, 114

142-1,,",,146
"
"
"
"
"
"
32, J6, 53

olwpI>eu of ocparatiOll
Filter
3,59. J91

..
--
..,
473,475,4n
.m
443, 444
F1itndiOll
,,;,now numb..
cell size
noodina
flotation oitouit
I\owkIn oquipmenl
/lotatioo rat<

Kclllall mD<lcI
Klimpel modol
pr<>I>eility modol

....,>'et)'. lime CUI'\IC
two modol
F101>t1on

oollc:e1ors
., ....
438-439. 441-442

'"
'"
'" SS I-SS9
'" 561. SfioI56S, 57l
S19. SS6. !S<!. 591
m
,,.
,,.
SS9-S'IO
561. S6J. sm. 511
579,512, SB3, SIS
516, SS9, 592
'"

hydrophiLi< ow*"
bydropbobic sun_
552554.582. StlS
S52-553.511:2
552, 554
5SO-S51,S12
SSO-SSS, S82sn
-
""_.
, .....
Froudo number
Goudi ... SclJulurwIn
""'" Gravity ocpoo.uo..
jias

>piral,
Wiltny blbl.
Grilldability
Bond Wo<'< IDd<x

'"
'"
'" lS7,3".JS9
47.S1. S9,fJ)
"0,601.621
SOl, 512, 531
521, S2lS24. S26
S24S2S
'"
116, 76-79.81,84
Il6. 11. 88.19
1)9.140, lJ4
65. 67-6'1, 76-n, II
90.93. IJl. 114. III
172.117
'" !Iotvoy mrdla ooporaIioD

Lib<miooJ f_
UbenlioD li",
Log.oonna! diilribution
lo!I'p-Obobilily
Malmal balance
two prodoct formula
thtte prod"", formula

..,.;!hmt1io
........
"""""
"";ihd
Mooi ..
Middli"l
Mill.
,; ,1 'l!' 10" ....
ballcbqe
t.J.I min
""""
ball "'e ..
capooily
Hanlillj]e mill
BO.552

111J IJ,JX1J81
,,., '"
'.'
9. to
%
%

""
'"
'.' ,
,
,
,
517.51 1.5'1.604
601,612,614
242. 244. 241
179,224
ZQ2, 224. 229.
168.224.139
172,174
186.117,221.229
'" 1S9.252
211.212.221 . m,211
78,212.,223
ocmi.aulog<J>OUl 71 . 73. lJ4-2:14, 2&2
283.286.217. 291
640. 641--6S I. 670
>IU11'1P footot 19S
op:ed 191
MiDetaIogical fllClOr 9
M"" ,
l'artiti"" oodf",itrrt J 79, 381 S 52
F'atoubiljly 438. 44(1, 449, 4Sl.""
478-479,4&2, 48S-487
100.101,119,12<1.123125
t4&. 1S6.1I7. Is<!. 193.198
201. lOl, 2<lS, 206, 2<1'1, 216
21B, 2ll-2n, 227, 2211. 243
241 249. 25 l. 1S4,356. 662
I"rirnatyi..:_ 14-19
Procc .. oontrol
", .. ade control
'"
fouylogk 663
Laplac< tnrufonn. 629,630.632,634
MOCCA 661), 661. 671
linu!lOid3l function 628
sUp"I"i><>ry control 622
tnrufer f.1'I<,Ioo 630,644
Random aro.- 1. 17
Ran,,< 4,.1
Reoo"<1Y 607. 612,
ReducUon,.uo 103.136.222
Rooidencc time 55!. 571. 573
Rooin-Rornmler
Sarnplina
oritlun<lio mr:an
Arithmetic m<lID
'"
Ubcmion f""or
M'M
'"'",

!'lonna! d;,tribu,ion
>hope r"",,,,
!UOOard <kviotion
Staodatd deviation
,on_.
s..,!ef diomelet
S.,...",inll
'"
.. .t
&-

Crowded I<retninll
ScttIiOli
hindered .. nlir.a
576.577.580,5&5
S86. 592
513.600
17.299.321.344
]57H9.361)64
496498.501
50,51.53,S<)


8. ::6.19.158

90. 92.94. lOS, 127
,
27,29
,



1. 4-9.14. l?19. 27
29,30-32.609.610
".
m
"
"
411.509.517
",'" ""'"
8. 34]5, 39-40.42-4]
56. 58.59. 61 . 1\3
125.126. 141. 159
]60.).62.364.476
491-498
Sizinll
Stokes diamelet
W.Ibull
l2. ]6. 53
5<1. 51. J37
4,6, 1,9,10.17
19. 46

43.3S7
Standard deviation
Stati"icai ooro,
Stokes Low
'"
,
36.31, 38.39.53
SuperlkiaJ i>< "ol""ity
Syotcrnatic <rror
T<IminaJ "01""ity
Thickener 401. 01<12. 405-406, 408
411-412. 42Q.H7. 429
430.432-436, 642,651
critical poin,
Ky""h
oettlina CUM:
O<ttlinaflux
Tromp our".
V"';oti""
coefIicOentQf
Visco,ity
'" 41)..416
4(16. 01<18-410. 436
407. 424
417,420. 421
310. 312313.379
543, 54S. 546,
1,4-9, 14. 17. U,29

4.6.7
36,37.61.282. 299.]21
357.361 .178, 1S4J85
387ln, 398. 4(16, 431
438,440. 454.459.467
473-474. 482. 484 87.
491,496,491.503.509
SII. 528532. 534. S37
552. Sag. 652
86.HO
Was.baMity C",,'es
W.ibull graph paper
'"
"
'"
Work of odho>ion
This Page is intentionally Left Blank