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Drafting is one of the first computer applications used by many users. It refers to the engineering model is communicated for manufacturing or any other application.

BASIC FACILITIES IN AUTOCAD:The release 2000 screen is shown in fig1. This has the familiar windows look and feel, in terms of the various buttons and an easier interface. It has set of dropdown windows for various menu options. From among them: New: This allows for starting a new drawing. Open: This allows opening an old drawing for editing. Save: Allows saving the current drawing. Save as: Allows saving the current drawing with new name. Export: Allows for exporting the current drawing into other format. Suitable for other programs such as.3D studio. Eg:BMP: Device-independent bit map. DWG: AutoCAD drawing file. DWF: AutoCAD drawing web format. DXF: AutoCAD R14 drawing inter change.

SCREEN DISPLAY:From fig1.the status line is the bottom most line. On the right side a column is displayed for providing the possible menu selections. The column can be removed from the screen if necessary by changing the option in the AutoCAD set up. At the bottom a command area is provided which is generally designed for three lines. Rest screen is designed as the drawing area.

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MENU:AutoCAD is a completely menu driven system. Also no. of menu commands available are many. Direct command entry. Through the side bar menu. Through the pop-up window from the menu bar. Through the button bars located in any portion of the screen.(fig2)

PLANING FOR A DRAWING:This is carried out by set up operations.

UNITS:This lets us set up the units in which the AutoCAD would have to work. It would be working in default co-ordinates called as drawing units. This is achieved by using units command. [fig3] It offers following types of units. Scientific. Decimal. Engineering. Architectural. Fractional.

CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM:It generally uses the rectangular Cartesian co-ordinate system which follows right hand rule. It also uses rectangular co-ordinate system designed as x, y, & z axis. Co-ordinates can be imputed into the system in a no of ways by direct input of co-ordinate values in their respective order. COMMAND: LINE<LR> FROM POINT: 3.5, 12.0<LR> CR: Carriage return. Fig: 4 show the co-ordinate being given in absolute system.

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LIMITS:
It is normally necessary to specify the limits of the drawing that one is about to use. The actual size of drawing would have to be specified using limit command. Limits establishes the size of the drawing and the associated drawing guide such as grids, rullers etcin proper format. However, limits check option is kept on, and then AutoCAD would not allow you to specify any point beyond the limits.

GRID:Working on a plane drawing area s difficult since there is no means for the user to understand or correlate the relative position or straightness of the various objects or entities made in the drawing. The grid command controls the display of a grid of alignment to assist the placement of objects in the drawing.

SNAP:The resolution of the cursor can be effectively controlled by using SNAP command. When the cursor is moving in the drawing area, it moves in increments of the snap spacing value specified. This is useful for inputting data through the digester or mouse. Functional key: F9

ORTHO:It allows to control orthogonal drawing mode. As a result all lines and traces drawn while this mode is on are constrained to be horizontal or vertical. Functional key: F8

HELP:AutoCAD provides complete help at any point of working in the program.

OBJECT PROPERTIES:LINE TYPE:


AutoCAD allows the user to draw various types of lines in the drawing. To change the line type of existing object, use the CHANGE command. To control large line type use LAYER command. It can also load line type definitions from a library file.

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BASIC GEOMETRIC COMMANDS:The various entities that can be used for making an AutoCAD drawing in 2D are: POINT LINE ARC CIRCLE ELLIPSE POLYGON POLYLINE DOUGH NUT SKETCH TEXT BLOCK

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POINT:It is used to specify a point or a node in the drawing for any given purpose. It is also used as NODE in object snap option. It is also possible to specify the co-ordinates in incremental format as the distance from the current cursor position in the drawing area. The distance is specified by using the @ parameter before the actual value. COMMAND: POINT<CR> Co-ordinates of point: @34.5, 12.0<CR>

LINE:It allows you to draw straight line. You can specify the desired end points using either 2D or 3D co-ordinates. To erase the latest line segment without exiting the line command enters U. Lines may be constrained to horizontal or vertical by the ORTHO command. The close option uses the start point of the first line in the current line command.

CIRCLE:It is used to draw a full circle. We can specify a circle in many ways. For specifying the circle we need at least two values. Centre point and radius. Centre point and diameter. 2p\3p\ttr methods.

ARC:It enables to draw an arc as specified by following methods. Three points on the arc. Start point, centre and end point. Start, centre and included angle. Start, centre and length of chord. Start, end and radius. Start, end and included angle. Start, end and direction of start. The arc is always drawn in counter clock wise direction. Depending on the data available it is necessary to plan carefully the sequence in which the data is specified.

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Drawing a circle is easier than arc. The arc will be generated n which the points are specified.

LAYERS:A layer is basically one which contains some information which can be geometric or alpha-numeric. The reason of distributes all the information present in the drawing into various layers is that at any given time some of the layers can be deleted from the view(off) or can be made visible(on). This helps in organizing the information in a drawing. Thus each layer may be considered as a transparent sheet having some information. Each layer has a name which can be up to 31 characters. Default layer name given by AutoCAD is 0. A layer could be ON or OFF. When a layer is ON the information present in it would be visible on screen. A layer is either current or inactive. If the current layer is ON then the information being entered would be visible on screen. Each layer has a colour associated with it. The colour of individual information can be altered by using CHANGE command or by using COLOR command.

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DISPLAY CONTROL COMMAND:-

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ZOOM:Zoom is used to change the scale of display. This can be used to magnify a part of the drawing to any higher scale of or closely observing some file details in the drawing. There are no. of options available within zoom. SCALE<X>: A numeric zoom factor. A value less than 1 zoom out and greater than 1 zoom in. ALL : Zoom out to original drawing limits.

DYNAMIC: Graphically selects any portion of the drawing as your next screen view. CENTRE : Pick a centre and picture top and bottom by selecting two end points of height.

EXTENTS: Shows everything in the file. LEFT : Pick a lower left corner and a height of how much drawing information you want to Display to fill up the screen.

PREVIOUS: Restores the last zoom setting.


Choosing the dynamic option displays all the drawing up to limits in a small window. So that the entire drawing is visible in the display screen. The current visible window would be shown in rectangular linked to the cursor.

PAN:It allows you to move the display window in any direction without changing the display magnification. This means the display being seen is through a window in an opaque sheet covering the drawing limits.

OBJECT SNAP:By selecting the OSNAP option the system would be able to automatically calculate the tangent point in the region selected. The various OSANP options are as follows.. CENTRE: center or arc or circle ENDPOINT: closest end point if line/arc etc. INSERTION: insertion point of text/block etc INTERSECTION: intersection of lines/arcs/circles etc MIDPOINT: midpoint of lines/arcs/circles etc NEAREST: nearest point on line/arc/circle.

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NODE: nearest point entity. PERPENDICULAR: perpendicular to line/arc/circle. QUADRANT: quadrant point of arc or circle. TANGENT: tangent to arc or circle.

TEXT HANDLING:AutoCAD provides a large range of text entering capabilities including various fonts and other text handling features.

EDITING A DRAWING:Editing capabilities are the most useful part of AutoCAD to export the productivity potential, making use of the already existing objects in the drawing. ARRAY: places multiple copies of objects with a single command. BREAK: cuts existing objects and /or erase portions of objects. CHANGE: Changes spatial properties of some objects. COPY: makes copies of objects. ERASE: Allows selecting objects in the drawing file and erasing them. MIRROR: creates a mirror image. MOVE: picks up existing objects and puts them in another location of drawing. ROTATE: Turns existing object to any angular position. SCALE: Scales object up or down to your specification.

MOVE:It is used to move one or more existing drawing entities from one location to another location. You can draw the object into position on the screen by giving base point and second point. The selected objects will follow the movements of the screen crosshair. OBJECT: the default selects a set by picking individual objects. WINDOW: objects are completely inside a window drawn by the cursor control device. LAST: uses only the last object created. CROSSING: works like a window, it also includes any object which is partially within the Window.

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REMOVE: it removes any objects that are accidentally selected by any of the object. ADD: used o adding when the remove option is specified. MULTIPLE: allows multiple objects in close proximity. PREVIOUS: adds the entire previous selection list to the current selection list. UNDO: undo the last selection operation. SELECT ALL: selects all objects in drawing. WINDOW POLYGON: Here, rectangular window is replaced by polygon of as many vertices as Required. CROSSING POLYGON: similar to the window polygon except that the polygon here is not Would be selected.

COPY:This command is used to duplicate one or more existing drawing entities at another location without erasing original. You can drag the object into position on the screen. The selected object will follow the movements of the screen cross hairs. To make multiple copies, respond to the base point prompt with M. when you have made required number of copies give a null response to the second point prompt to come out of the copy command.

CHAMFER:It creates a bevel between two intersecting lines at a given distance from their intersection. It can also trim the lines from the bevel edge and connect the trimmed ends with a new line of TRIMMODE variable is set to 1. Chamfer can only be applied between line segments and not any other objects.

FILLET:It connects two lines, arcs, or circles with a smooth curve of specified radius. It adjusts the length of the original line or arcs so they end exactly on the fillet arc. The fillet valve specified remains in force until it is altered by another valve. If the fillet radius is 0 then two lines will meet exactly at a point which is normally used to make a sharp corner. Filleting can also be done to two circles, a line and a circle, a line and an arc and a circle and an arc.

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OFFSET:This command constructs an entity parallel to another entity at either a specified point. You can OFFSET a line, arc, circle or polygon. Offset lines are parallel, while the offset circles and arcs make concentric circles. Once object is selected it is highlighter on the screen. Side to offset: Through point: The selected object will be de highlighted and the select object to offset.

ARRAY:It makes multiple copies of selected objects in a rectangular or polar pattern. For a rectangular array you are asked for the no. of columns & rows and the spacing between them. The array is built along a base line defined by the current snap rotation angle set by the SNAP ROTATE command. For polar array a centre point needs to be supplied. Following this, you must supply two of following The number of items in the array. The number of degrees to fill The angle between items in the array.

DIMENSIONING:After creating the various views of the model or after preparing the drawing it is necessary to add dimensions at the appropriate places. AutoCAD provides semi automatic dimensions. As a result once dimensions is created. AutoCAD gives great control over the way dimensions may appear in the drawing. The dimension familiars are as follows Linear Diameter Radial Angular Ordinate Leader Aligned

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3D- MODELING

Creates 3D polygon mesh objects in common geometric shapes that can be hidden, shaded, or rendered. Command entry: 3d Enter an option [Box/Cone/DIsh/DOme/Mesh/Pyramid/Sphere/Torus/Wedge]: 1.BOX Creates a 3D box polygon mesh. Specify corner point of box: Specify length of box: Specify a distance Specify width of box or [Cube]: Specify a distance or enter C

Width Specifies the width of the box. Enter a distance or specify a point relative to the corner point of the box

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Specify height of box: Specify a distance Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Reference]: Specify an angle or enter r

Rotation Angle Rotates the box about the first corner specified. If you enter 0, the box remains orthogonal to the current X and Y axes.

Reference Aligns the box with other objects in the drawing or relative to an angle you specify. The base point for the rotation is the first corner of the box.Specify the reference angle <0>: Specify a point, enter an angle, or press Enter You can define a reference angle by specifying two points or an angle from the X axis on the XY plane. For example, you can rotate the box to align two specified points on the box with a point on another object. After defining a reference angle, specify a point for the reference angle to align with. The box then rotates around the first corner relative to the angle of rotation specified for the reference angle. If you enter 0 as a reference angle, the new angle alone determines the rotation of the box. Specify the new angle: Specify a point or enter an angle

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To specify the new angle of rotation, specify a point relative to the base point. The base point for the rotation is the first corner of the box. The box rotates by the angle between the reference angle and the new angle. If you want to align the box with another object, specify two points on the target object to define the new angle of rotation for the box. If the reference angle of rotation is 0, the box rotates the angular distance entered relative to the first corner of the box. 2.CUBE Creates a cube using the length for the width and height of the box.

Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Reference]: Specify an angle or enter r Rotation Angle Rotates the cube about the first corner of the box. If you enter 0, the box remains orthogonal to the current X and Y axes. Reference Aligns the box with other objects in the drawing or relative to an angle you specify. The base point for the rotation is the first corner of the box. Specify the reference angle <0>: Specify a point, enter an angle, or press Enter You can define a reference angle by specifying two points or an angle from the X axis on the XY plane. For example, you can rotate the box to align two specified points on the box with a point on another object. After defining a reference angle, specify a point for the reference angle to align with. The box then rotates around the first corner relative to the angle of rotation specified for the reference angle. If you enter 0 as a reference angle, the new angle alone determines the rotation of the box.

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Specify the new angle: Specify a point or enter an angle To specify the new angle of rotation, specify a point relative to the base point. The base point for the rotation is the first corner of the box. The box rotates the angular distance between the reference angle and the new angle. If you want to align the box with another object, specify two points on the target object to define the new angle of rotation for the box. If the reference angle of rotation is 0, the box rotates the angular distance entered relative to the first corner point of the box. 3.CONE

Creates a cone-shaped polygon mesh.

Specify center point for base of cone: Specify a point (1) Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: Specify a distance or enter d Radius for Base Defines the base of the cone by its radius. Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: Specify a distance, enter d, or press Enter

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Radius for Top Defines the top of the cone by its radius. A value of 0 produces a cone. A value greater than 0 produces a truncated cone. Specify height of cone: Specify a distance Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: Enter a value greater than 1 or press Enter Diameter for Top Defines the top of the cone by its diameter. A value of 0 produces a cone. A value greater than 0 produces a truncated cone. Specify diameter for top of cone <0>: Specify a distance or press Enter Specify height of cone: Specify a distance Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: Enter a value greater than 1 or press Enter Diameter for Base Defines the base of the cone by its diameter. Specify diameter for base of cone: Specify a distance Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: Specify a distance, enter d, or press Enter

Radius for Top Defines the top of the cone by its radius. A value of 0 produces a cone. A value greater than 0 produces a truncated cone. Specify height of cone: Specify a distance Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: Enter a value greater than 1 or press Enter

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Diameter for Top Defines the top of the cone by its diameter. A value of 0 produces a cone. A value greater than 0 produces a truncated cone. Specify diameter for top of cone <0>: Specify a distance Specify height of cone: Specify a distance Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: Enter a value greater than 1 or press Enter 4.PYRAMID Creates a pyramid or a tetrahedron. Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: Specify a point (1) Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: Specify a point (2) Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: Specify a point (3) Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: Specify a point (4) or enter t

Fourth Corner Point Defines the fourth corner point of the base of a pyramid.

Specify apex point of pyramid or [Ridge/Top]: Specify a point (5) or enter an option. The Z value of the point specified determines the height for the pyramid's apex, top, or ridge line.

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Apex Point Defines the top of the pyramid as a point (apex). Ridge Defines the top of the pyramid as a ridge line. The two endpoints must lie in the same direction as the base points to prevent a self-intersecting wireframe. Specify first ridge end point of pyramid: Specify a point (1) Specify second ridge end point of pyramid: Specify a point (2)

Top Defines the top of the pyramid as a rectangle. If the top points cross, they create a selfintersecting polygon mesh. Specify first corner point for top of pyramid: Specify a point Specify second corner point for top of pyramid: Specify a point Specify third corner point for top of pyramid: Specify a point Specify fourth corner point for top of pyramid: Specify a point

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Exp: No: 1 AIM: To develop the given model by using auto cad 2D commands and to specify its
Dimension.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AUTOCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS IN USE: - LIMITS,ZOOM,LINE, DIMLINEAR. PROCEDURE: - In order to obtain given model the following procedure will be followed COMMAND: - Limits:
Specify lower left corner : (0,0) Specify upper right corner : (150,100) Command: ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All Command: LINE: Specify first point: 0, 0 Specify next point or (undo): 100[00] Specify next point or (close/undo): 20[900] Specify next point or (close/undo): 40[1800] Specify next point or (close/undo): 120[900] Specify next point or (close/undo):20[1800] Specify next point or (close/undo):120[2700] Specify next point or (close/undo): 40[1800] Specify next point or (close/undo): C Specify next point or (close/undo): ESC Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

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PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object. RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified.

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EXP NO: 2 AIM: To develop the given model by using auto cad 2D commands and to specify its Dimension. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AUTOCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS IN USE: - LINE, CIRCLE, DIMLINEAR, DIMDIA. PROCEDURE: - In order to obtain given model the following procedure will be followed COMMAND: - Limits: Specify lower left corner : (0,0) Specify upper right corner : (150,150) Command: ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All Command: LINE: Specify first point: 0, 0 Specify next point or (undo): 150[00] Specify next point or (close/undo): 150[900] Specify next point or (close/undo): 150[2700] Specify next point or (close/undo): C Specify next point or (close/undo): ESC Command: CIRCLE Specify centre point for circle (3p/2p/ttr): 30,30 Specify radius of circle or (diameter): d Specify diameter of the circle: 10 Command: CIRCLE Specify centre point for circle (3p/2p/ttr): 120,30 Specify radius of circle or (diameter): d Specify diameter of the circle: 10

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Command: CIRCLE Specify centre point for circle (3p/2p/ttr): 120,120 Specify radius of circle or (diameter): d Specify diameter of the circle: 10 Command: CIRCLE Specify centre point for circle (3p/2p/ttr): 30,120 Specify radius of circle or (diameter): d Specify diameter of the circle: 10 Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object. RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified.

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EXP NO: 3 AIM: To draw the isometric drawings by using AutoCAD 2006 2D commands and the Dimensions can be determined by counting the no of grids. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AutoCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS USED: LIMITS, ZOOM,LINE, DIMLINEAR. PROCEDURE: Highlight the grid option. COMMAND: LIMITS Specify lower left corner: 0, 0 Specify upper left corner: 300,300 ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All Command: LINE. Polar: on setting 30 c Specify the first point: 0,0 Specify the next point: 24[1500] Specify the next point: 16[900] Specify the next point:24[300] Specify the next point:16[900] Specify the next point: 24[300] Specify the next point:16[900] Specify the next point:48[300] Specify the next point:78[300] Specify the next point: c Specify the next point:104[1500] Specify the next point:72[900] Specify the next point:24[300] Specify the next point:48[300]

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Specify the next point:80[1500] Specify the next point:104[1500] Specify the next point:48[300] Specify the next point:c Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object. RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified .

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EXP NO: 4 AIM: To draw the isometric drawing by using AutoCAD 2D drawing commands. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AutoCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS: LINE, LIMITS PROCEDURE: change the view to isometric view. COMMAND: LIMIT Specify the lower left corner: 0, 0 Specify the upper right corner: 200,200 ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All COMMAND: LINE Polar: on setting 30 c Specify the first point: 0,0 Specify the next point:50[900] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:20[300] Specify the next point:25[900] Specify the next point:12[900] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:12[900] Specify the next point:25[900] Specify the next point:12[300] Specify the next point:20[1500] Specify the next point:25[900] Specify next point or (close/undo): c

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Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object.

RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified.

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EXP NO: 5 AIM: To develop the given model by using auto cad 2D commands and to specify its Dimension. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AUTOCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS IN USE: - LINE, LIMITS, DIMLINEAR PROCEDURE: - In order to obtain given model the following procedure will be followed COMMAND: LIMIT Specify the lower left corner: 0, 0 Specify the upper right corner: 200,200 ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All COMMAND: LINE Polar: on setting 30 c Specify the first point: 0, 0 Specify the next point:8[900] Specify the next point:32[300] Specify the next point:20[300] Specify the next point:8[900] Specify the next point:16[300] Specify the next point:12[900] Specify the next point:16[300] Specify the next point:12[900] Specify the next point:56[300] Specify the next point:20[900] Specify the next point:16[300] Specify the next point:12[1500] Specify the next point:8[900]

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Specify the next point:12[300] Specify the next point:5[1500] Specify the next point:16[300] Specify the next point:8[900] Specify next point or (close/undo): c Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object. RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified.

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EXP NO: 6 AIM: To develop the given model by using auto cad 2D commands and to specify its Dimension. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: - AUTOCAD 2006 Database. COMMANDS IN USE: - LINE, LIMITS, DIMLINEAR PROCEDURE: - In order to obtain given model the following procedure will be followed COMMAND: LIMIT Specify the lower left corner: 0, 0 Specify the upper right corner: 200,200 ZOOM:[All/Center/Previous/Scale/Window/Object] : All COMMAND: LINE Polar: on setting 30 c Specify the first point: 0, 0 Specify the next point:63[1800] Specify the next point:75[300] Specify the next point:50[300] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:22[300] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point:22[300] Specify the next point:75[300] Specify the next point:12[900] Specify the next point:16[300] Specify the next point:25[1500] Specify the next point:16[900]

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Specify the next point:25[300] Specify the next point: C Command: DIMLINEAR By using this command give dimensions linearly for drawn object to indicate its Linear dimensions.

PRECAUTIONS:1. Limits should be given before drawing the object. 2. Object should be drawn from a specific point of location only. 3. Ensure that proper sequence should be followed to draw an object. RESULT: Hence by using auto cad 2006 2D commands we have drawn the object model and Dimensions are specified.

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