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The author wishes to thank many people who have helped

him over the years.

His parents provided help and support in

spite of many setbacks.

Several o£ his friends helped him

considerably during his work in the Physics Department on
Project Sisyphus. Special thanks are extended to the chairman of the
author's committee, Dr. Knox Millsaps, for his suggestion of

topic and his encouragement in completing the work.


other members of his committee also offered many helpful




extended to many people at the Orlando

Division of the Martin Marietta Corporation, especially Max
Farrow, Avery Owen, and Al Roy, who were generous with time
and equipment. The author's wife, Eileen, has been unfailingly patient
and supDortive for many years, so much so that it would have

been impossible to complete the work without her.
Finally, it is necessary to thank Terence
(185-159 B.C.)

who said:
Ita vita est hominum quasi cum ludas tesseris si illud quod maxime opus est jactu non cadit, illud, quod ceci dit forte, id arte ut corrigas.



I represents an idealized impulse delivered to the bird mass twice each cycle. dynes/cm. arithmetic decrement of the spring per cycle. T dimensionless variable related to time (x = x^/x^) (x = ut) X dimensionless variable related to displacement f ° dimensionless variable related to friction (f ^ = O F /kx ) 0^ I dimensionless variable related to the impulses ° (I ^ = o I/kx ' ) o^ b ° dimensionless variable related to those positions of the bird mass with respect to the sleeve where it locks and unlocks and where the impulses take Dlace IV . grams M a mass of the spring. dynes o X the distance of the bird mass from equilibrium.. frictional force opposing the motion of the spring. cm. grams dimensionless factor describing an effective spring mass k F ° spring constant. dynes u frequency. 4a X. cm. LIST OF SYMBOLS M-o mass of the bird. radians/sec. also where the impulses occur (x^ = ±x^) . displacement of the bird mass with respect to the cm. caused by the rotation of the sleeve on the shaft. grams Mot mass of the sleeve. sleeve .

LIST OF SYMBOLS R - Continued radius of circular arc in phase space v h 2 dimensionless speed in phase space dimensionless energy associated with energy given to the bird mass during an impulse the real amplitude of the motion of the bird mass. A y Ad velocity of bird mass in phase space half cycle sleeve . v . the amount the sleeve slips down the shaft each as a result of the unlocking of the cm. cm.

VI . usually in the form of a small woodpecker. 1974 Knox A. theory is proposed and its results compared with those of experiment. Den Hartog is An alternative discussed and shown to be without solution. Millsaps Chairman: Major Department: Aerospace Engineering A toy. An analysis of the problem by J. a problem in the area of self-excited oscillaP.Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE ANALYTICAL DYNAMICS OF THE WOODPECKER PROBLEM By Russell A. Roy December. is shown to be tions.

P.I. The toy can be idealized as shown in Figure is The solution given as s a problem on the course's final exam and Den Har[1] tog' analysis is found in the Study Guide for the course. f^((})) His - analysis concludes with the equation = = a^ + 6^ - Y^ 5^ (1-1) where a = 6 A^Ccosh A(j)-1} Ac})) (1-2) (1-3) A(}) = = = A(A(j)-sinh Y 6 (A^ + 2)(cosh A(f)-1) sinh Ac}) Ac}) (1-4) (1-5) -A sinh A<t> + A^c}) cosh with A and c}) defined in Appendix A. but this has not been done until this point. The problem and his analysis are included in all pertinent de- tail in Appendix A. "This I have not done. I. Den Hartog remarks I [1] that. In fact.T. shall be grateful if he or she will send me the solution. The solution of (1-1) would mean the solution to the analysis. celebrated course at M. on nonlinear mechanics Den Hartog demonstrates a toy "woodpecker" to his class." Letting X = cosh Ac}) . and if anyone ever does it.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the J.

fv 'SL (a) (b) Figure I .

2 A%^ ^^^!— 4(A'^ + 1) . This expression can be regrouped and divided by 4: ^A^*^ 4^^.+A((. after canceling and gathering terms 4 7 A^c})^ f^(())) = - A^4)^x^ 4 2 2 - 3 "^ 4A-^4)y + AA^<i>xy + A^(-4x^ + 8x-4-(t)^y^) + A(A<t>xy-A<i>y) - 4x^ + 8x - 4. and thence into (1-1) we have. The right-hand side can be factored and then both sides divided by x-1.1) = A%4 -x(^ + A-^-Hl) + y(A-^(}. 4(x-l)(A^ + l) x.4.l. ^ (1-6) . giving: ^A*^*^ 3 4A-^(J)y -^ZT- = 4 2 A%^(-x-l) + -A^[4(x-1) 2 + |-^] cb^v^ + 4A({)y - 4 (x-1). (1-3). ^] + A())y - (x-1). (1-4). and (1-5). [x-Hl .: and y = sinh A<}) and substituting these into (1-2). 1. Noting that x -y 2 a2 A +1 we get -..) - 4^ 2 (1 - ^^) (x-l)A^ 1 - a2 . = or y 2 = (x+l)(x-l) and dividing by ^A^*^ ^ = . A^ Rearranging this results in ^ » 4(x-l)(A^+l) = - ^^ ^ (x+1) -H A<l)y - (x-1) =- f*(*). + .

when it z2^"2 2n! is zero. the interesting factor of f^((})).. Hartog analysis is not satisfactory and the basic physical model must be reexamined. sinh cosh z = z -H |j. Thus is negative for all z z with the exception of the physicOne must conclude that the Den ally trivial case of = 0.+|^+.. £^(4)) can be written as f*((j)) = z sinh z - (|)^(cosh z+1) - (cosh z-1).^ Clearly ^ \i 'P) and f^((l)) have the same nontrivial roots so we need only examine f^(4)). . (1-7) Equation (1-7) can be explored by expanding sinhz and cosh in their familiar power series. -H ^2lTTTyT 2n ^ • • • z = l + Jy+4T-+.^ 2 3^ 4 . obtaining 6 6 6 ^2n+2 '^(2n+l) " ! ^2n+2 4(2n!) " z2(n+l) 2(n+l) !^ "^ The first two groupings are equal to zero and the third grouping is negative for all values of z except for z = 0. The n grouping can be written as 1 11 ^Zn+l " 4 ' (2n+2 ) (2n+l) >_ and will be negative for all n f*((J)) 2 for all nonzero z.. . By letting z = Ac)) . and then substituting them into (1-7).. 3 z ^5 2n+l -H .

this model was abandoned. with several parameters being critical. allowing intervals of one-sixtieth of a second to be observed. The motion is periodic with no change in frequency from start to finish. Figure I-a. it seems quite difficult. certain threshold energy input was necessary to start the characteristic slip-stick motion. the sleeve is locked on the shaft In a due to friction. the motion was videotaped and then the tape was played one "frame" at a time. above and below the sleeve. what was happening.Several models of the toy woodpecker were built and examined. . and one like that in Figure I-b was built. a a piece of broken capacitor. and delighted the author by working perfectly the first time it was tried. 3. By observing the motion for various conTo make sure of figurations several things became apparent. a That is. short distance. The following features of the motion were clear: 1. and shaft of aluminum rod. between these points the sleeve is un- locked and drops 2. The "bird" mass oscillates up and down. made using a a It was spring from a ball point pen. The first models built were like that shown in These were not stable and could not be cona structed in such way as to produce periodic motion. sleeve by a When this mass is above or below the certain amount. scrap of wooden dowel. While this may not be impossible. After several hundred variations were attempted unsuccessfully. "Hard" excitation is necessary to start the motion.

11. 8. 168]. 6.15 centimeter) twice each cycle. The above observations indicate that this problem falls in the area of self-excited oscillations. most notably by A. out [2. The frequency of the system is not the same as the natural frequency of the bird mass on the spring with the sleeve locked..3] although other As Andronov points people [4. describing mechanical clocks has been worked out. Andronov and coworkers [2. The sleeve moves a short distance down (about 0. The theory falls in the area of mechanical clocks. but somewhat less. 7. "A clock is an oscillating system which maintains oscillations whose amplitude is independent of the initial conditions. 9. The sleeve locks in both possible orientations. None of the physical parameters appear to be critical. 5. it More specifically. The steady state motion is independent of the initial conditions 10. To start the clock a large initial imtoo pulse is usually needed. A. p. UTien the system is started with a very large initial displacement the sleeve is observed to lock and unlock.5] have discussed it as well. but not to drop for several cycles. If the initial impulse is . UTien the sleeve is locked and the natural motion observed the decay in the amplitude is not geometric but appears to be arithmetic. 4. Running the woodpecker in a vacuum rather than in a normal atmosphere resulted in no change in frequency.

is important to note that the instant of time when the trigger mechanism begins to act is entirely In determined by the position of the pendulum. for the sake of brevity. all forces which the pendulum. then the clock comes to rest again. will be discussed.small.. There can be no question that the toy woodpecker is in fact a mechanical clock. addition. now revealed cuckoo. a pendulum. . Chapter IV includes a summary of this work and its conclusions. duration. a balancewheel etc. (2) a source of energy such as a weight or spring. oscillating system (referred to. The trigger mechanism usually very short period close to the position acts twice during a It of equilibrium where the velocity is greatest. p. as the pendulum) the trigger mechanism acts and energy is given to the pendulum during a In a good clock the impulse is of short impulse. . the manner of its action and the magnitude of the impulse also depend on the state of Consequently. (3) a trigger mechanism. arise in the mechanism depend only on the positions and velocities of the separate parts of the system. and can be analyzed with the aid of clock theory. and in Chapter III a comparison of the theory with some experimental results will be given. the theory of the woodpecker. connecting the oscillating structure For fixed positions of the with the energy source. autonomous system. He also notes 168] that Any clock mechanism can be broadly divided into three parts: (1) an oscillating system. Thus the clock is an and not on the time." [2. In Chapter as a II. for example.

a Clocks are distinct class of mechanical self-excited (1) oscillations." some kinds of aerodynamic flutter. These phenomena are characterized by definite oscillations which are properties of on the a specific system and not dependent One of the most interesting a initial conditions. and so forth. although the woodpecker is different in several ways from the clocks discussed in the literature. is is Soft excitation defined as when an arbitrarily small initial displacement needed to start the motion and hard excitation 8 as when an . Hard excitation is necessary to start the motion. out [2-5] Clock theory has been worked and. buzzers. the theory can be suitably extended to describe it. wind and string musical instruments. brake "squeal. aspects of these systems is that they can generate periodic process from a nonperiodic source. electric bells.CHAPTER II THEORY Self-excited oscillations form an important class of phenomena including some electronic oscillators. The physical features of the motion mentioned in Chapter I should now be more carefully examined in the context of developing the most descriptive mathematical model. and consist of three parts: system. and (3) a trigger mechanism or escapement connecting the two. (2) an oscillating an energy source.

: initial displacement (or other appropriate energy input) must be larger than a certain amount to start the motion. The bird continues to descend with respect to the a sleeve and when the bird is zontal the sleeve locks. Beginning with the bird mass in the maximum upward position with respect to the sleeve. The bird continues to its downward extreme and then starts back up. or dominated by Coulomb friction. 3. . The actual motion of the system is not complex and can be analyzed in a series of several steps. The hard excitation observed implies that the friction present is either of the Coulomb type (dry friction) . and with the sleeve locked the features of the motion are as follows 1. At this point the sleeve unlocks and the whole sys- tem begins to descend. 2. The idealization of this is an impulse applied to the bird at the instant the sleeve locks. The bird begins to descend and continues until it is a short distance above the horizontal. 4. A summary of an argument by Andronov indicating that Coulomb friction (compared to linear or velocity dependent friction) is the more appropriate type for clocks is given in Appendix B. short distance below the hori- At this point from the frame of reference of the bird it would appear that its velocity with respect to the sleeve suddenly increases.

^^'^^ using least squares to get the best value for During that part of the motion when the system is falling M would be given by . values would then be fitted by the curve ^ = 2T [m^ + aMj a. the system again begins to descend. 11° + kx. The general form of the differential equation describ- ing the motion can now be written as Mx. = ±F +1 (2-1) where each of the terms will be discussed below.10 5. The mass of the bird is The quantity a is a and M is the mass of the spring. It would be measured by locking the sleeve and then measuring These the frequency of the bird for various values of M„. The bird continues to its upward maximum and the cycle begins again. Mp. l\Tien the bird is just below the horizontal the sleeve un locks and as the bird continues up with respect to the sleeve. is equal to M„ + aM for that part of the motion when the sleeve is locked. correction factor used to introduce an effective spring mass. The mass. 7. The bird continues up with respect to the sleeve an d when it is an d again this just above the horizontal the sleeve locks can be idealized as an impulse applied to the bird. M. 6.

. if it were necessary. It would be measured by locking the sleeve and measuring the arithmetic decrement of the amplitude per cycle. The Hookes Law approximation is made and must be substantiated by exper- imental results. one of two that either assumptions is usually made in clock theory: CI) momentum or (2) energy is conserved during the impulse. p. k. 4a. For this situation the natural frequency would be ^^ = M (2-4) with M given by Equation (2-3). that of X.. ) 11 where M. p. The spring constant. a method [6. The term ±F^ is quantity describing the frictional The sign is chosen as opposite to losses within the spring. To handle such a term an approach such as the "phase-plane delta" 244] would have to be used. is concerned. is the mass of the sleeve.5 As far as the impulse term. = 153] that F o amw = ak ( 2 . it would be possible to extend it to in- elude a nonlinear term such as kx 3 ..-. Although the present theory is based on phase plane analysis with linear equations pieced together on the phase plane. has the usual definition and would be measured by the normal static means. and noting [2. I. a Since in the woodpecker uniform amount of gravitational .

is p. an amount which corrects for the slight rotational motion of the sleeve. [6. is To do this. the position of the bird is changed by x. The equations (2-6). to describe this motion. . However. (2-7). It is possible to consider a treatment with two variables. the second assumption seems to be the more reasonable one.: potential energy enters the system during each cycle. x' = Xt - x„ 10 < x„ (2-8) Where the impulses are pictured as occurring at at this X|^ . > Xq (2-7) Mx' 1 + kx' = ±F 1 °'110 . x. It also the one made more frequently in clock theory 168]. for -Xn < x. (J— = < 1— x„ U (2-6) Mx' + kx' = ±F x^ x^ + Xq for x. change of variable. and then let ' First the equations are divided by "^ = (m) and T = ut (2-9) . There is a slight amount of rotational motion present due to the sleeve locking in an "up" and a "down" position. = ±F +1 . one linear and one angular. it is pos- sible to do an analysis with one variable by approximating the effect of the rotational motion. for x. = -^n ' ^^'^ value of x. because the angular motion is relatively slight. the motion divided into three regions Mx't llo + kx. and (2-8) can be simplified by kx^ a .

13 so that F F" " ^ (2-10) where now we have f = a dimensionless time. Also let (2-11) 'O ^0 and h^ '0 = ^ Xr ^0 = 1. The x axis repre- sents the displacement of the bird with respect to the sleeve which is also positive for downward motion of the bird. There are two impulses per cycle which in this model are con- sidered to be of equal magnitude. (2-12) and ^0 = k^ ' ^''^'^ so that now (2-6). (2-7). Figure II. y. of the bird with respect to the sleeve is repre- sented by the vertical axis with upwards (positive) y corre- sponding to downward motion of the bird. The velocity. x. occur symmetrically in each half-cycle and take no time.00. The phase diagram is shown in The convention used in clock theory is to follow . and (2-8) take the form +1 X + X = ±£q + I for -1 i X for X > 1 < (2-14) (2-15) X + X = ifp + bp bp X + X = ±fQ - for X < 1 (2-16) This motion can be shown with a phase plane diagram.

14 Figure II .

15 the phase path in a clockwise sense. we have ydy (fQ-x)dx 1 2 2 and letting j (R -f^) be after integration y2 = a constant of integration. can be written as y + X = fp (x 7^ ±1) or V ^ = ^ ^ = fo- Rearranging.±fr. an impulse is At x equal to plus one the sleeve locks. then equation (2-14).±fQ+bp)).) or (0. positive (downward) extremum This process repeats itS. zero. This can be seen by x. self in the other direction ending at The phase paths in the various parts ot the motion are portions of circles centered at letting y = (0 . for example. at At point S the bird is its maximum negative is (upwards) displacement and its velocity falls. . delivered to the bird and it continues to its at f . we get 2fQX - x^ + r2 - £2 or y2 + (x-fQ)^= R^ (2-17) which is a circle in the phase plane centered at (Oj-f^). The bird then begins to speed up as it At X equal to minus one the sleeve unlocks and the system falls. the bird going slower with respect to the sleeve than before.

(2-21) Also. we have . Substitutinj first (2-22) v^ = h^ B and then (2-21) + into (2-23) we obtain - (1+f )2 ^o'^ r2 +f -1)2 (i-f 2^o'^^oo-^ + ) - (b and then substituting (2-20) into this. 1 ' . we see that (f^+l)^ (v. As shown in Figure III. (2-20) and R^ 3o2oo - (1-f )2 = R^ - (b +f -1)2 .16 For periodic motion we require that the speed at point A be the same as that at point B: ^A = ^B (2-18) This condition will allow the frequency and amplitude of the motion to be calculated. and v„. we have R2 + 2f o = R.)2 + = 4 (2-22) and (vl)2 + h^ = v^ (2-23) where A(y2) = h^ (2-24) is the change in the square of the speed in dimensionless units associated with each impulse. The equations above must be solved to obtain a relation between v.

17 —X Figure III .

Setting 2 2 = 2 ^B ^A = ^ ' and canceling. o i/:r2 o Rearranging terms gives .2 + b h^ - v^ = ?2 ^— 2£ o + 2b - o 2£ . the energy input during the impulse can be calculated by assuming it is due to this change in gravitational potential energy: g(Ad) = i (Av)2 (2-27) . Ad.4 -^ . squaring both sides. 4f^ = + 1 O h^ - 4b £ . (2-25) ^ ^ Dividing by 4£ results in . By noting that the system drops a specific dis- tance.^r2 16 o )2 (1+b +£ 0-^ = £2 o - 2£ b ^ oo2 + 1 - + b^ =^ J^ o2£ lot - 2 + . . we get 4f R. and again using (2-20) v^ + ^0 . (2-26) It is still necessary to determine h to be able to cal- culate V.1 18 B ^o ^o^ ^00^ 1 ol o Using (2-19) for R^ one gets - Cb„*f„-1)2 * 4(b^*f„)2 - 4(b^*f„)Rj. once each half cycle.

. we finally get h^ = -^ kx o [2g(Ad)] (2-28) The mass.^l. in this equation is M„ + aM and does not in- clude the sleeve mass since the energy the sleeve picks up will be lost when it is stopped by the friction between it and the shaft.19 where CM^ is = (X?) rz r-2.] or M 2" ^ A [(^v) 2t ] r /- kx and using (2-26). 2 . This must still be related to the dimensionBy definition X 3T '-x h ^ ^^h and using equation (2-9) we have d 1 oi W . ^x '2 o 1 CO ^ It (% ^x -^ Then substituting in the definition of u. less quantity h X. we get = M kx 2 h"- [^^1^2 Cxp. (x^)^ the change in the square o£ the physical speed as a result of the impulse. M.

the relevant t angles are a. R2 . 197]. p. . (2-29) By inspection of Figure III the angles above can be easily obtained in terms of known quantities: tan a = ^.^ . 3. and the period in be given by = units would T 2(a + 6 + 5 + Y + j) . and y. The frequency of the motion can be calcu- lated by noting "that the representative points move along the phase paths with an angular velocity equal to unity" [2. ^2 6 = ^ ^3 1+ (2-32) sm Y = -R *^3 — o f r2-33) ^ ^ In physical units the period would be and the frequency would be 1/T. 6. As shown in Figure III.f o ^ ^ ^ . Thus the time of transit in x units along one of the semicircular arcs is equal to the angle subtended at its center by the arc. and R^ using the equations developed above. o b sm sin o +f -1 o D B = f2-31) ^ .20 Now that h has been obtained it is possible to solve for V and then to solve for R^ .

Using (2-25) for A = R. the theory and (2-33) This balance is basic to can be derived another way by noting . and (2-28) into this results in A_ X o ^ Mg(Ad) 2akx o which is the same as (2-34) . A where A = o A/x o . Figure III. as A = o R^ 1 + b - o f o . and spring is on the order of The energy input for the bird 2 (M^+ M )g(Ad) per cycle and the energy losses per cycle are on the order of 4f A or 4akA where A is the amplitude of the motion measured from the equilibrium point. Equating these two energies and solving for the amplitude. we have ^ ^o = tL ^^0 Substituting (2-5). we have A = --fi^ (2-34) To the extent that the energy balance is correct. (2-11). this rela- tion should predict the amplitude. can be derived from the phase diagram. periodic motion the energy input per cycle must equal the losses per cycle.' 21 The energy balance is an important aspect of this motion For regular. that the normalized amplitude.

this would be unlikely and some sort of dynamic measurement would be necessary to establish some appropriate average value for f. In this it is like the Den Hartog theory where f. We also note the necessity for at least one dynamical measurement. First although some approximations will be necessary. In fact. We can understand why this is so physically because the peak to peak amplitude of the woodpecker will be 4b the amplitude of the natural system. Ad being the most appropriate. assume that when the sleeve unlocks it falls freely with an acceleration of Ad = g. and this will take longer. Since it starts from rest we have (2-35) i gt^ t where will correspond to that part of the period when the system is unlocked: ( M Mg^ 1/2 t = C6+Y) k(M+Mg^) (2-36) . The theory predicts that the frequency will be less than the natural frequency of the bird on the spring with the sleeve locked. is idealized as having the same value for motion as for rest. In the present theory it is possible to get around this necessity for a dynamic measurement. the coefficient of fric- tion between the sleeve and the shaft.Before turning to an experimental exploration of this theory. some general points about it can be made. longer than other things being equal. at least theoretically.

+ Y = R. after some algebra 8f o h ~ W 16f^ o 16f^ o 32f^]l/2 o (2-38) o . (i-f )^ ^ o (i+f )^ o 6r: 6r: and 2+6r ' -^ y = k 6r: f It f 2 is further assumed that o is small and terms of the order So we have and higher can be neglected. 6 + 3R I • (2-37) By substituting (2-20) and (2-19) and then (2-26) into (2-21) we obtain. and these can be expanded in a power series sm -1 .23 Now 6 = sm --n and y = sm -1 R. Y = R. X = X X - 3 ^ "*" -YY TT (this and X 5 By taking only the first two terms of the series other approximations remain to be justified in Chapter III) we have 1-f 6 1+f R.

) and h^ = B(Ad) where . result- ^3 " 3To (1 0)1/2 (2-39) h" a Expanding this in series and keeping only the first two terms gives approximately ^2 ^3 " 4f^ f^^ " ^T~ o 7T~'^ h or R 3 Tf 1. terms of the order ing in 8f f and above are neglected. (2-40) Substituting this into (2-37) yields o 6 + Y = ~2 16 3 ^ 2 h^-4f o (h ^ -4f J ) c^ The second term is neglected and substituting this for 6 + Y in (2-36) gives 1/2 ' Ad=f Letting '' SL k(M+Mgj^) M M f 8f "2 o (2-41) h^-4f M M SL 1/2 ^ 2 k(M+M^.24 Again.

Although only the steady state motion has been explored here it would not be difficult to extend the phase plane analysis to cover various types of transients present when the motion begins. and [3. p. 274. for example p.196]. In Chapter III this equation will be explored with specific data to determine its validity. 13]) discuss various types of transient analysis. [2. (2-42) This relation can be solved numerically to give a Ad for a particular M„. . Several references p. (see.25 and putting these into (2-41) gives 7 (BAd-4f^)^ = -^ 6 4L£^ . 178]. [6.

Because it was necessary to redo the theory. Many runs were made with the same bird mass with different numbers of cycles (for example. 40 and 50 cycles) to see if the woodpecker slowed down or speeded up as it moved down the shaft. 20. No such effect was observed. the measurements were made in most cases on the basis of rather limited resources. Because the original thrust of this work was not experimental.CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The present work was originally intended to be entirely theoretical in nature. most of the physi- cal quantities required are not difficult to measure and the results form a consistent pattern which unquestionably sub- stantiates the theory. These measurements a as well as many others were also made through the use of video 26 . The frequencies of the woodpecker model for various bird masses were measured first. Fortunately. it was felt to be prudent to include experi- mental results with the new theory so that a complete and con- sistent picture would be present for the first time. consisting of completing the analysis begun by Den Hartog and then exploring various physical situations with the completed theory. 10. They were measured by counting a forty or fifty cycles and timing them with stopwatch.

measuring deflection for various loads. was measured in the usual way.tape arrangement made available for this work from the Orlando Division of the Martin-Marietta Corporation.32 2.05 0. Table I Mg ± 0.70 21.32 2.70 2.50 16. k. Table I shows the average frequency.77 2.00 10.05 gram. The woodpecker was taped in front of a numbered centimenter grid with a digital clock reading in hundredths of a second also in the picture.1 Hertz. The masses were measured to an The individual frequency measure- accuracy of about 0. obtained for various bird masses. still picture of the motion every sixtieth C Appendix contains some examples of data col- lected from the video tape.83 2.20 24. f . M„. because the video tape could be played back and a "framed" to show of a second.20 18.10 20.50 12.05 4.21 (Hertz) The spring constant. but because large numbers of measurements were made the error estimate was cut in half.59 2.49 2.55 (grams) f^ ± 0.42 2.15 11.95 2. There was some scat ter and a slight indication of spring "hardening" at large . ments were only precise to about 0.00 13.

Table II gives the values of the loads in grams and the respective deflections. .28 deflections.

Figure IV .29 t: -7 g DEfLECTIOKl IN Ch.

1 grains and the following values for a were obtained: Mg ± 0. M„ . is 5.05 .30 f = 1 2TT 1/2 ^M +aM or. solving for a: 47T f M S The mass of the spring.

31 Table .

It is possible that the damping could be linear (proporThe tional to velocity in some way) rather than constant. many more runs were made and analyzed but these data are shown as examples of the data obtained. Since it was not a desired to fit a to theoretical data. is called the damping ratio. woodpecker system was run in a partial vacuum (<0. showing the experimental scatter and the precessional effects.Of course.044 centi- meters was assigned to all values of M„. the same No effect was observed and the system ran exactly as (frequency and amplitude) It is it did in a normal environment._ _. 201] by n+1 —— n = -27TV e (3-2) . In the case of linear friction the ratio of two succes- sive maxima would be given [6. or ^ = I¥ v Ln 5^ n+1 case of constant friction we have 2a = (3-3) where small. It was not possible to make a defensible statement with regard to the nossible variation of a with M„. still possible that the losses in the spring could be due to linear friction and this should be explored. and where the damping is In the X - ^^.1 atm) to see if there was any velocity dependent damping due to air resistance. + 1/2 = constant. p. value of 0. (3-4) .

woodpecker we note that at the end In of each half cycle the impulse restores the amplitude. We note the resemblance of (3-7) and (3-4) for small v and the wood- pecker's physical situation and conclude that whatever linear friction is present.037 = 0. — With this O 7T\) O value of V. can be treated as constant to good approximation. and substitute in the argument we have e"2^^ = 1-0. The final experimental quantity necessary to be measured is x . n+1 = vx n (3-6) ^ ' for a full cycle and ^n " ^n + 1/2 ^ 2 \ In the ^^''^^ for a half cycle. a the displacement of the bird mass with respect to the . If we expand e' ^^ in a power series. to a good approximation %^= n 1 - V (3-5) and X - n X ^. fact.33 Substituting some experimental values into (3-3) we have 1 2lr . Hence.18 or V = 0.963 . consider only the first two terms. if any.0059 to the correct order of magnitude. it is this exact relationship of energy balance which gives the woodpecker its clocklike behavior. "^ = L" 4799" 5.964. e is 0.

and the experimental frequencies are shown in Table IV. The final results of the frequency calculations. Table IV k = a = 5.43 grams Mg (grams) .75 cm 4.01 centimeter.54 horizontal at which the sleeve locks and unlocks and at which the impulses take place. give * an x o These measurements of 0. This was measured statically by rotating the sleeve up and down to its two locked positions without letting the sleeve move vertically and measuring the resulting displacement of the bird mass.623 dynes/cm 0. a sum- mary of data values used to get them.044 cm Xq = ctMsL = 0.75 ± 0.

Table V shows the calcu- lated amplitudes compared with experimentally observed ones. The experimental amplitudes here are taken from the equilibrium position and obtained from a least squares fit to five values. . most probably by using more accurate values of a. The agreement is not bad. although it could be improved.35 and is most responsible for error.

whereas the approximate formula + = 6 Y h^-4f o gives a value of 0. gives a value of 7.23 a frequency of 2. A smaller value of the acceleration would make the calculated value of Ad smaller which is the correct direction.36 Calculating Ad for an M of 20. which is higher than the observed value. is This higher than the original calculated frequency but is in better agreement with the observed frequency of 2.34 Hertz. An .42 Hertz. h^ o The approximate formula (2-40).262 which is also in very good agreement. The main source of error responsible for the two values of Ad not agreeing any better is probably in Ad = i gt^ fall but accelerating at in that the system is not in free less than g due to the presence of some friction between the sleeve and the shaft even when the sleeve is unlocked. is found to be 7.70 grams one gets a value of 0.626. With the original data for an M„ of 20. and with this value of 0.263.70 grams.622 which is in excellent agreement.23 centimeters. the actual value of R. Each step of the derivation of (2-42) can be examined to see how appropriate the approximations are. The actual value of 6+y is found to be 0.

37 accurate measurement of the actual friction between the shaft and the sleeve would call for rather sophisticated dynamic measurements and is probably not worth doing in the sense that In Ad can be measured directly much more easily. In this sense the analy- sis here seems to be one of the few cases where a real situa- tion involving impact maintained oscillations is studied completely. usually be idealized to a large extent for a class of problems rather a than dealt with for specific case. it is characteristic of this type of problem that the friction It must present is idiosyncratic and complex. . a fact.

and his coworkers. 38 . most notably by the Russian. A major step in the theoretical development is to recog- nize the toy woodpecker as belonging to a class of phenomena known as mechanical clocks. This physical model is then analyzed mathematically and the frequency and amplitude of the motion predicted for various physical situations. This theory was extended and applied to the toy woodpecker. A. Clock theory has been worked out. P.CHAPTER IV COMMENTS This work begins with an analysis by J. A. Several possible reasons for the failure of this analysis are discussed although a com- plete "negative" analysis indicating the exact reasons for the failure of the model and proposed solution has not been done. Andronov. The method involves piecewise linear differential equations matched together on the phase plane and is very suitable for handling the impacts assumed in the model. Den Hartog and shows that this approach to solving the problem o£ the "toy woodpecker" is not satisfactory. This work proposes a different physical model for the woodpecker than that chosen by Den Hartog and one which corresponds more closely to the toys actually observed.

4 -i— ^ -T- ^"^'^^ The work. The arithmetic decrement must This can easily be done. spent in overcoming friction will not depend on the velocity (for Coulomb friction) but only on the path. (4-1). If. W. for example.2. the theory can be extended to cover various other situations without too much difficulty. This could be analyzed in the same fashion as that in Chapter II if some changes are made. appropri- ately constructed. would make a useful mechanical analogue for dealing empirically with various types of self -excited. The be recomputed for example. The calculations and measurements are not difficult to do for the most part and it is suggested that the toy woodpecker model. impact maintained oscillations described by equations like (2-1). we consider a situ- ation with a nonlinear spring we could have = Mx + k^x + k2X^ ±F . The agreement is very good and it is clear that the theory successfully describes the physical motion of the toy woodpecker. potential energy for stant is a spring with the nonlinear spring con- V = . Although the analysis is necessarily more complex.39 Actual working models of the toy were built and measurements of several variables of the models were taken and com- pared with the theoretical results. .

of the ^ first maxima and x the amplitude of the first minima. the work done in overcoming friction will be The potential energies at x^^ and Xq2 are 2 .4 ^2^02 2 from (4-2). 2F ^^ I r4-41 with 2a ^^L as = ~ Ix ' Ol' I -Ix 02' I ' (^4-5) noted in Chapter II.40 If X ol is the amplitude. For \^ not equal to zero we have ^ (x^l-^02^ ' "t- ^AvAl^ - U^oil^l^Oll^P .4 ^2^01 4 ^1 and .2 ^1^02 2 2 ^ . By conservation of energy we know that or. substituting in we have — I 2 — II 4 2 4 U^oi' 1^0 2''"^ • For k equal to zero we have the situation for the linear case.- _ ^1^01 2 ^ . measured from equilibrium.

. = Substituting in (4-5) and defining ^ " F ^N. as the k^ (4-7) nonlinear value for the arithmetic decrement.L. the equation is rewritten in the form ^ although is required.^ ^^ - n X + p^(x+6) = (4-9) .L. as ^[1 * W^ (Uoil'*|x„2|2)] (4-8) the formula relating a to the observed amplitudes. 1 7 - F and letting we have ••^r2 or ^^2 3-F 2. .41 Canceling like factors results in: k k This can be factored and written as ^2 2F i^ fl^oil-l-ozl^ti * 2I7 Uxoil'^lxo^r)] . . .2. 2^-. It is a possible to solve (4-1) on the phase plane more involved process of geometrical construction First.1. we get - ^N.

4] and can be applied necessary. 244]. it is remarkable that the toy woodas pecker can be dealt with as effectively requiring more advanced methods. On the whole. more sophisticated methods may be useful although the phase-plane delta method can still be used. p. it is without .where P Equation (4-9) is now in the standard form for solution by the phase-plane delta method [6. Linear friction can also be included in a very straight- forward way if it [2. is proportional to the simple velocity 170]. For small nonlinearities a as variety of methods are available [3. This method in- volves approximating 6 as a constant over short intervals of the motion and constructing the phase paths as short arcs approximating the true path. p. is For linear damping of a type proportional to X where n not equal to one and may be fractional.

the same value for Let x be the downward displacement of motion as for rest. When M stands still. There will be two such pairs: 43 one good while m . for negative values the friction Here is the nonlinearity reverses sign. The sleeve m of length The birdie (mass M) Si fits loosely around the fixed stem. (a) Discuss the static equilibrium problem and write an m. (b) Set up the two differential equations of motion of the system. tilts the sleeve slightly within the clearance. the a torque of the sleeve is released and the sleeve slips down bit. X then is The system is self-locking at rest (y = 0) and constant in time. so that point contact occurs at A and B. For y negative (upwards) there may be slip. When M moves upwards. Let the friction coefficient be f.! APPENDIX A The problem is stated by Den Hartog as follows: The toy woodpecker demonstrated idealized as at the end of the last lecture can be shown in Figure A-I. the sleeve and let y be the downward displacement of M rela - tive to the sleeve m. this is a self-locking frictional system. measured from the position of static equilibrium. Assume the sleeve mass m (including the arm to the left) to have its center of gravity in the center of the vertical stem. expression for the net downward force on is This expression used only when positive.

44 (a) (b) Figure A-I .

by exact. Since all individual equations are linear.e. .. divided into two parts. 6^. . Since in general 6 is not equal to Ztt (but 00^. t = First the .. Check and polish until you have as many condition equations as there are unknowns. the bird is down. 45 is slipping (variables (variables x^ . and unknowns C.. .. periodic. (00 0) (}) until B(u < (jo t 6 = <i> ) when is Between t < . there exists steady.. ^^. the solution contains many (up to 6 or 7) integration constants (e) C. e ). . (w t = . ..). piecewise.. i. x. These will involve the C^ . . another good when m is at rest As you have seen in the model demonstration at the a end of Lecture 23. the sleeve m is (the y shown locked on the stem and only the bird M moves above is positive. write the (good from general solution of the four equations for ^tjYi A to B above) and for y^n'^? ^S°°'^ from B to C) . C^ . Set up the boundary (continuity) equations at the C points A. B. somewhat greater probably) the natural frequency is not Study Figure A-II until you clearly understand its physical implications (d) Now. motion which is shown in Figure A-II in its general characteristics. The period is co t = 6 . binding the sleeve on the stem) .linear method. sleeve slips from A seizes by friction.y.79) (c) . . cf) . this can be done without great difficulty.

I 46 So = t^nt Figure A- I .

y = for 0. i.7 = . Then the downward force must be negative or at least not positive: ^m_2fa_-. but does not move yet. it must be in static equilibrium under forces as shown in Figure A-III.l With these values . (b) and (c) Now consider expression (A-0) to be the down- ward driving force on the sleeve during slipping motion . the normal force N is diminished and the friction lock is broken. i. f ~ j.47 Solution (a) IVhen the sleeve is just ready to slip downwards. . and it is clearly self-locking when not vibrating. negative. The vertically downward force on the sleeve then is (M+m)g + ky - 2fN = (M+m) g + ky 2 2fa (Mg+ky) Mg 1 m 2fa I M ky 1 - fa] I The toy's dimensions are approximately — Ma = (A-0) 1 10. j = 4. because for upward y.e.e. Moment equilibrium about the center requires: (Mg + ky)a = N£ or N = (Mg + ky)a/ii. 9 <r.. the downward driving force (a) becomes -^ Mg - ky . upward values of This is physically clear. which means that it drives downwards only for y..

48 £^fM -^ N .ri£s^ il mg ""S^ Figure A-III .

Then: .-g-=4. 49 (x > 0) . y. from equation (A-1) into equation (A-2) •• . -9 (For — Ma =10. iNHienever x = 0.3) for X (from B to = C) My* + ky^ = (A. divided by M: g(l ^^ . + .f = -^we have 1 -A^ = or A = +3) .4) (d) To solve these differential equations 2 oj^ (all linear) use the notation n ^ = k rr.. 2 (jo -'I n ^ M yn+— m 1 -^ ^ + m 2fa-^ ir7. M^ This co^ n is the natural frequency of the bird on its spring when the sleeve is fixed and not slipping. Substitute x.—n— ) ' M Si ^ + k — -^1^ m yT (1 f^ - 2fa.. the expression fN . The differential equations of motion are: mx^ for X > (from A to B) = Mg(l + J - 2fa^ + ky^(l - ^^) (A-1) M(x-^ + y^) + ky^ = (A-2) X2 = (A. (a) is meaningless. or Now let ^ m "^^ Si ^ ^ ' a constant of the system. because the friction is no longer but smaller than that. —I— „ ) ' = f. it is not the frequency of the periodic motion including slip.

(A-6) Now we pass to equations (A-3) and (A-4) for the X2 tions for the no-slip domain. D. x^ -(a2 .72 func- leave equation (A-3) without further work out. t=e = no no t=e ^^-'^ no fv 1 no (A-10) .. (A-5) To find X.. and integrate equation (A-4) to: y^2 = C- sin w n t + C^ 6 cos m t n (A-7) The equations to part (e) (d) (A-5). t=o n (^I -) ^^I'^u} = ^^2^. we return to equation (A-2) 1 n = i ^ " . We . (A-3). C3t - C^. and (A-7) are the answer Now the boundary conditions. we see that the conditions ^^l\ n t=0 (yi). g x^ = - ^ 5 C^e-^'^^] . Referring to the figure for the y motion are: (A-8) on page 46. g|i . (A-6).^^^C^e^^^ [C^e^^n^ - C^e-^'^nt^ . : 50 with the solution: = y^ C^e^'^^ - C^e-^"^^ - -\ n .

we have seven condition equations and apparently we have eight unknowns: to (A-14) But we notice that the constant C. drops out in Thus. but at point A it just ceases to The net driving force at A then just breaks away from zero. and x. from now on we will ^ .C2 . we have seven unknowns C^. Just before A (before co t = 0) the sleeve was self.C^. motion. so that n The acceleration just before B zero. that the constant C. (A-6) itself. (oo t = * ) is not necessarily (A-8) Summarizing.C^ '"^G'^o'^o in the seven equations (A-8) to (A-14).locking lock. . and we see from equation the differentiation.51 no n no The geometric conditions for the x motion are: n o There is one more (and very important) condition for the x motion of a mechanical nature. but only x. The seven condition equations (A-8) to (A-14) do not mention x. only occurs in equation (A-6) for the x. . In what follows the letters ^ o and 6 o occur many times.

and (A-7) into (A-8) to (A-14) gives: C.e-») + . (A-12*) n Solve for C^ and C. leading to: ^1 [C^(l-e^*) - C2(l-e"^*)] + -^ CO c}> = . C3 = -(A^ + l)\^(C^ + C2) g = Eliminate C^ between (A-12) and (A-13) A^ + .: just write (p and 6 without subscripts. 6 cos 6 (A- n = A(C^ - C2) C cos e - C.e"^* i - A C„e'^* Z C^ b cos (J) - C. for simplicity. S-* n . sin 4) -(a2 . -^ 12^25 + C„ - = Cr sin + C. (A-3). sin 6 C^e^* + C^e'^* ^ n = = Cg sin <i> + C^ cos <t> A C. . C2 from (A-8) and (A-0) C2)cos Cg = (C-j^ + - -£2-)sin e + A(C-j^ - ( n S " '^'^1 "^ "^2 " -^)cos e - A(C^ - C2) sin . D^a (Cje** - C. Sub stitution of equations (A-5) the condition equations (A-6) .

" = ^ (A-10*) ^^^^ 9 A C^e^*-A C e"^* ^^I'^'^z' -^^ cos cf) - cos 6 sine})) % (f) + A(C. involving the four variables C2 . and (A-14).: .e^*^e:^ Ci = 4 = 2-e^*-e-^* ' where we have introduced the abbreviation n = p CO g 7 7 ^ n ^(A-^ + l) ^ Then we substitute (C +C2) C. We now solve for C^ and C^ from (A-14) and (A-12*) r 1 g " 03 l-Acj^-e-^'^ ' n 2(A^1) ^ 2-e^*-e-^* l-A»-e^^^ r 2 " R .-C2)(cos = e COS + sin 6 sin 4)) A C e^*-A C2e'^* '^^l"'^2" -S-)sin (9CO cj)) +A(C^ -C2) cos (e- 4>) . By this time the set of seven equations to (A-14) have been whittled down to four equations (A-12*) (A-10*) (A-11*) C. " (A-11*) (A-8) . 55 C^e^'^+C e"^*- -^ 0) = (C^ + C2" -^) cos CO (6- cj)) -A(C^ -C^) sin (0- ({)) . and C2 and the two combinations (A-10*) and (C^-C2) first into equation and later into (A-11*): .3 2-e^*-e-^* with the combinations C• + C"^ = —9—^9 ^(A^ w P = + 1) P [see equation (A-14)] 2A*. ^ 2 n 2^. . (J) and (9-4)).

) -2A^Cl-cosh A(|))cos \|j + 2A(Act)-sinh A(]))sin ^ or . Dividing all terms by p and multiplying them with the denomi- nator of most o£ the terms gives e^* - Ac^e^* - 1 - e-^* - Ac^e"^* = 1 = (A^. (A-H**) These are two equations in the unknowns have the form: (j) and ^. divided by - 2 [-2 A^ + CA^ + 2)cosh A(j) - Ac}) sinh AcJ)] = [A^Ccosh A(|)-l)]cos ij. and they .^Ae^*-Ae ^*)sin ^ or 2 cosh = A<i> - 2A(t) sinh Acj) - 2 - 2A^(l-cosh H) - 2(l-cosh A^.: : 54 = [p - pCA'^ + Dlcos ^ - Ap "' '^ 2-e L ^-e ^^"^ "-A(i) ^' where we have used the abbreviation: = i|j e - 4). + [A(A(})-sinh A({))]sin i|j.l) (2 -e^^-e"^*) = -A2(2-e^*-e-^*)cos ^ - (-2A4. + [A(Acj)-sinh AcJ))]cos i|j. we find equation (A-ll**) : [-A sinh Acj) + A^cf) cosh Acj)] = -[A^Ccosh Ac})-l)]sin ij. (A-10**) In the same manner.

where a = A B 2 (cosh A(f)-1) A(j)) = A(A(t)-sinh Y = 6 (A^ + 2)(cosh A(J)-1) - A()) sinh A<}). We now eliminate from the above pair by squaring each one of them and then adding: Y^ + 6^ = (a^ + 6^)(cos^iJj + sin^4i). to be from to to 3. so that no direct conclusions can be drawn (we have . which must be positive.55 T = 5 ot cos 4^ + B sin ^ 3 = -a sin i|J + cos i) where ct. all four expressions a to 6 go zero. is a character- istic parameter of the system. The quantity A. For A > 0. Ac}) = -A sinh A<i> + A 2 (p cosh Further analytical work does not seem to yield any simplification. there is a self- locking at rest. Our final result in the analytical part of the investigation thus is : a^ + B^ - Y^ - 6^ = 0. 4> y. tion f For A = [see equation (A-0)] the fric- is so small that the sleeve is just ready to slide down with zero acceleration. so that we now turn to numerical computation. and 6 are complicated functions of c|). expressing the amount of dry friction locking. 6. The range of practical values of A appears For A = 0.

I shall be grateful if he or she will send me the solution. 1. take A = 0. we can see in the light of Chapter II that several things should have been included in the above analysis 1) Losses in the spring. most of the excess energy seems to be dissipated in the spring as the sleeve is not observed to start dropping for several cycles. Since operation has occurred at the end of our analysis. and if anyone ever does it. There are probably With- several reasons why the analysis is not more fruitful. Then put in <i> in steps of one degree from 2 to 360 degrees It and find the zeros of a 2 2 - 7 - + B y 6 .1. 3. Hence. This concludes Den Hartog's remarks. When a larger than necessary displacement is used to start the motion. is a possible squaring that several such zeros will be found. out considering any of the experimental results as to the relative stability of the two models in Figure A-I. 2) The impulsive nature of the motion when the sleeve In this locks. light boundary condition (A-11) is incorrect and probably should read ^^1^0. n t=* ^o " % = ^^2^0) t=* n ^o . the motion has This have not done. These are assuredly present and do influence the motion. to be computed and inspected. 2 . For each I (|). not all of the ({'-solutions may be valid.: 56 to employ a limit process).

57 where II. These would relate directly to whether stability is theoretically possible since if energy input per cycle is not equal to energy loss per cycle the motion will either delay and cease. or grow uncon- trollably. v is related to the drop of the system as in Chapter 3) Energy balance considerations. .

y ' = A half cycle later it will be (B-i) o y-. Just after the impulse the velocity is thus yo = + [y.APPENDIX B Let us consider a situation where there are two constant energy impulses delivered each period and let the losses be due to linear (velocity dependent) friction.. h ' ] or y2 = [Yi'e-^ - h2]l/2 y2 for periodic (B-3) using (B-1). Just after an impulse let the phase velocity be y.77-^172 • ("-^^ . and let the phase velocity be y.e"^/2 '1 _ Just after this an impulse occurs which changes the velocity: y/ - y„^ = h^ 7 CB-2) The quantity h is a constant representing a constant energy input during the impulses. We require that y^ equal motion so that we have yi-r2'y. Let the loga- rithmic decrement per half cycle be denoted by d.

For a stationary oscillaa tion equals y^ and this is represented by straight line through the origin. a phenomenon which is not observed physically. If the initial amplitude is yi . . sometimes called "Lamerery's diagram" is [2.59 This defines a closed phase path corresponding to periodic The motion can be further investigated by con[4. Andronov concludes his analysis [2. then the subse- quent amplitude will be yl be Yj on the y-. The next amplitude will be yl on the y^ axis and the sequence of amplitudes will continue until y is reached. 172] with the statement. In fact. y-. y^. It is necessary to . The vertical axis plots values of y^ and the horizontal axis. p. structing the graph of the sequence function (B-3) 433]. a model with linear friction does not explain the need for an initial finite impulse to start the clock and must therefore be rejected. oscillations. "Again. a Physically this corresponds to situation where initially the energy introduced is greater than that dissipated and the oscillations grow in amplitude until is a stable energy balance reached. This shown in Figure B-I. p. p. and the corrected amplitude will axis. 161]. If the oscillations are not stationary the sequence of amplitudes can be determined by (B-3) and Figure B-I. at which point a stable limit cycle exists. This implies soft excitation possible. The important point to note is that y^ can be made arbitrarily small and the oscillations will still grow until a is stable limit cycle is reached.

60 >? n^Cy.^e-^^v.^]^ X Figure B-I .

" 61 assume that the clock is friction.0) This is shown in Figure B-II. . a phase trajectory of the actual woodThis trajectory . II The quantity b used in Chapter can now be seen as a parameter describing the friction lock of the sleeve as far as its effect on the motion is concerned.0) -^ which characterizes the zone of static friction. the amplitude of the bird mass is not sufficient to cause the sleeve to unlock initially. terminates on the x axis between the points (-b -f fb *- and o +f o . ' When a trajectory does not emerge from this zone the motion Physically. this corresponds to the situation where ceases. a self -oscillating system with dry The fact that Coulomb friction is appropriate can be seen by considering pecker.

Y Figure B-II .

a The times listed digital readout The hundredths position The elapsed time is more a was sometimes difficult to read. X. second The position readings refer to positions in a centimeters ±0. definite with each reading occurring one-sixtieth of after the last. were read from an electronic timer with and are accurate to ±0. APPENDIX C The following are examples of data collected from the videotape made of the woodpecker motion. 11. 30 labeled grid behind the wood- Vertical displacements are labeled y and horizontal The first series of readings are for a bird mass of grams Sleeve y 0. ones.15 read from pecker.005 second..2 Bird x Bird y Time .

G4 Sleeve y .

65 Bird X 11.7 Bird y Time .


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Den Hartog, Jacob P. Nonlinear Vibrations Study Guide Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Mass





Andronov, A. A., Vitt, A. A., and Khaikin, S. E., Theory Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., of Oscillators 1966. Reading Mass
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Butenin, N. V. Elements of the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations Blaisdell Publishing Company, New York,
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Minorsky, N. Introduction to Non-Linear Mechanics Edwards Brothers Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1947.





Den Hartog, Jacob P., Mechanical Vibrations New York, 1956 Book Company, Inc.
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Jacobsen, Lydik S. and Ayre Robert S. Engineering Vibrations McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,



in He has a physics from the University of Florida in 1967.S.A. Kevin and Katy.BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Russell A. Florida. Eileen. in physics in June. 1960. in Norristown. Pennsylvania. Roy was born February 7. 69 . He received a B. wife. He completed most of his secondary education in Pennsylvania and was graduated from Winter Park High School in Winter Park. and two children. 1942. from Swarthmore College in 1964 and an M.

Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering . I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate. as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Malvern Professor of Engineering Science. . Mechanics. Sierakowski Professor of Engineering Science.certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is full^ as a dissertation for I ence . certify that I have read this st/idy and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate. Robert L. iri scope and quality. I \jLAJi^y^eU. and Aerospace Engineering -/' ~:?. Engineering I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate. Fe arn Assistant Professor of Engineering Science. in scope and quality. Mechanics and Aerospace . as a dissertation for the degree of Eloctor of Philosophy. TJ^^uJjMw^ nee E. as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. in scope and quality. />"^ Richard L.

— certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly' presentation and is fully adequate. as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. in scope and quality. 19 74 jT ^r^C-<^''C^ College of Engineering Dean . Graduate School . Pop6v Professor of Mathematics This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Engineering and to the Graduate Council. I Vasile M. December. and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.