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AICE Biology Lab Review AS Paper 3

Ms. Evans GHS

A. Cell Structure
(a) Use a graticule and stage micrometer to measure cells and be familiar with units (mm, m, nm) Example:
A lysosome measures 0.4 !m in diameter. What is the diameter in nm? A 4nm B 40 nm C 400 nm D 4000 nm

Calibrating an Eyepiece Graticule

Images from Measuring Leica microsystems

Measuring With A Graticule

Images from Measuring Leica microsystems

Practice measuring

Images from Measuring Leica microsystems

Measuring With A Graticule: PRACTICE

The diagram shows a graduated slide, with divisions of 0.1 mm viewed using an eyepiece graticule.
Pollen grains were grown in a sugar solution and viewed using the eyepiece graticule. Diagram 1 shows the pollen grains at first and diagram 2 shows them after four hours.

Calculating Magnification
Magnification = Image / Actual Example 1:
The diagram is a plan of a transverse section through a leaf, drawn using a x 5 eyepiece and a x 8 objective lens of a microscope.

The actual distance across the leaf section is 7.5mm. What is the magnification of the diagram? A x5 Bx8 C x 20 D x 40

Calculating Magnification
Magnification = Image / Actual Example 3:
The diagram shows a drawing of an electronmicrograph.
What is the approximate length of one mitochondrion in this cell? (Assume the line = 7mm) A B C D 5 to 6 !m 7 to 8 !m 8 to 10 !m 10 to 15 !m

A. Cell Structure

(e) Compare & contrast the structure of typical animal & plant cells

A. Cell Structure
(f) Draw plan diagrams of tissues (including transverse section of a dicotyledonous leaf) and calculate the linear magnification of drawings.

B. Biological Molecules
(a) Carry out tests for reducing and non reducing sugars (including semi quantitative use of the Benedicts test), the iodine in potassium iodide test for starch, the emulsion test for lipids and the biuret test for polypeptides.

Benedicts Test for reducing sugars

1. Mix equal amounts of test solution and Benedicts. 2. Heat until nearly boiling for color change. 3. Identify relative concentrations of reducing sugars based on degree of color change.

Benedicts Test for reducing sugars

Heres a good example of some possible test solutions

Testing for non reducing sugars (sucrose)

If you get a negative result for your Benedicts test, you can rule out the presence of reducing sugars like glucose, fructose & lactose, but further testing is needed to rule out sucrose. There are two methods to use Benedicts test to test for Non-reducing sugars: Acid Hydrolysis & Enzyme Hydrolysis.

Testing for non reducing sugars (sucrose): Acid Hydrolysis

After a neg result, get a fresh solution and add dilute HCL. Heat for 10 minutes to break any glycocidic bonds present. Then, add Hydrogen Carbonate to your sample until it ceases to fizz. This neutralizes the HCL in your sample. Now, add Benedicts Solution to your sample and heat for 1015 minutes. If you see a color change where you previously had a negative test, this is a positive test for non-reducing sugars (eg. sucrose) or starches in the solution. Use the IKI test to narrow down your results +positive IKI means you have either starch only or a mixture of starch & sucrose -Neg. IKI means you have sucrose only.

Testing for non reducing sugars (sucrose): Enzyme Hydrolysis

This is just like Acid Hydrolysis except you can use an enzyme like Amylase to break the glycosidic bonds. When you use an enzyme you need to be more careful when you heat the solution to ensure that you do not denature the enzyme. No hydrogen carbonate is needed when using the enzyme. After adding the enzyme & heating gently for 10 minutes you add the Benedicts solution and proceed as usual for any Benedicts test.

Iodine in Potassium Iodide (IKI) test for starch

Iodine solution (IKI) reacts with starch to produce a dark purple or black color.

Left: starch solution and IKI - Iodine turns dark in the presence of starch.

Right: distilled water and IKI

Emulsion Test for Lipids

This one can be difficult to interpret. Look closely for small droplets of oil suspended in the emulsion.

Biuret Test for peptide bonds (protein)

+ Positive test is lavender to purple, - Negative is sky blue


C. Enzymes
(c) Follow the time course of an enzymecatalysed reaction by measuring rates of formation of products (for example, using catalase) or rates of disappearance of of substrate (for example using amylase).

C. Enzymes
(d) Investigate and explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme - catalysed reactions, and explain these effects.



D. CELL MEMBRANES AND TRANSPORT (d) investigate the effects on plant cells of immersion in solutions of different water potential;



(d) *describe, with the aid of diagrams, the behaviour of chromosomes during the mitotic cell cycle and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope, cell membrane, centrioles and spindle (names of the main stages are expected);

(c) *describe how to investigate experimentally the factors that affect transpiration rate; (d) *describe the distribution of xylem and phloem tissue in roots, stems and leaves of dicotyledonous plants; (e) *describe the structure of xylem vessel elements, sieve tube elements and companion cells and be able to recognise these using the light microscope; (i) *describe how the leaves of xerophytic plants are adapted to reduce water loss by transpiration;


Plants: Monocots versus Dicots

The flowering plants (angiosperms) are classified as either monocots or dicots based on characteristics of their pollen, leaves, roots, stems and flowers. Monocots include lilies, corn, rice, palms and grasses. Dicots include pretty much everything else- including all woody plants.

The three tissue systems in the plant body


Tracheid (xylem cell)

Sieve tube element

Vessel element (xylem cell)

Phloem tissue

Xylem Tissue


Vessel element


Phloem Tissue

Sieve tube element

Companion cell




Monocot Root Cross Section (cs)


Dicot Root Cross Section (cs)

Monocot Stem


Dicot Stem

Monocot Leaf
Midrib shows vascular tissue: Can you ID? Leaves have parallel veins (visible here) Do you see the stomata?


Monocot Leaf: Zea Mays (corn)

The mesophyll of Zea is undifferentiated. Note the large bundle sheath cells and that stoma are found in both the upper and lower epidermis.

Dicot Leaf

These leaves have a more obvious mid-rib (central vein) Veins are perpendicular to the central vein. 40x . This image shows the large central vein (vascular tissue) in the middle of a dicot leaf. The white areas inside the leaf are air spaces, which allow the cells to take up carbon dioxide gas for photosynthesis. The rows of elongated cells near the top surface of the leaf are the palisade layer, where most of the photosynthesis takes place.


Mesophyte Dicot Leaf: Ligustrum

Mesophytic leaves are adapted to average conditions. Note the well differentiated mesophyll with a palisade mesophyll on the upper surface and the spongy mesophyll below.

Mesophyte Leaf: Prunus (Laurel)

At 3 different magnifications


Identify the guard cells that both form the stoma and regulate its size.

Hydrophytes: Water Loving Plants

Hydrophytic leaves are adapted to an aquatic existence. Note that the upper palisade mesophyll is well developed for photosynthesis while the lower portion of the mesophyll is very loosely arranged with considerable open space which helps the leaf float to the surface. The loosely arranged tissue of the lower mesophyll is aerenchyma. stoma are located in the upper epidermis.


Xerophytes : Ammophilia (Marram Grass)

More Xerophyte Dicot leaves: Pinus

The pine leaf is well adapted to dry conditions with a thick epidermis with stoma recessed into the into the surface. Beneath the epidermis is the thick walled cells of the hypodermis which helps reduce water evaporation from the leaf. The pine leaf has an endodermis inside the mesophyll which is not seen in either of the other leaf types observed.


More Xerophytes: Oleander 200X

More Xerophytes: Oleander 400X


G. Transport: Mammals
(l) *describe the structures of arteries, veins and capillaries and be able to recognise these vessels using the light microscope;

Artery & Vein Cross section Comparison


(a) *describe the structure of the human gas exchange system, including the microscopic structure of the walls of the trachea, bronchioles and alveoli with their associated blood vessels; (b) *describe the distribution of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells and smooth muscle in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles;



Lung Tissue

J. IMMUNITY / Mammalian Transport

(n) *describe the structure of red blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes and explain the differences between blood, tissue uid and lymph; (Transport) (a) *recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope;

Blood smear
Medium Lymphocyte (yellow) Neutrophils (green) Bar = 50 Microns (!m)