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# Lecture Notes of Control Systems I - ME 431/Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Control System - ME862

## Lecture 14 Polar Plot of Frequency Response

Lecture Notes of Control Systems I - ME 431/Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Control System - ME862

## 1. Review of Frequency Response

To specify the behavior of a system to a sinusoidal input at a particular angular frequency i.e. the frequency response G(j), we need both the magnitude | G(j)| and phase of G(j). Recall that both the magnitude and phase are functions of the input frequency and therefore vary with . As we have seen when calculating the magnitude and phase during the section of our course on Bode Diagrams, G(j) is a complex number and can be represented in the form x+jy or the rectangular form, where x and y are the real and the imaginary parts, respectively. An alternative to represent G(j) (calculated at frequency ) is the use of a polar plot, as shown below.
Im |G(j)|

input Re

In the above diagram, the output, for a unit amplitude sinusoidal input at frequency , has magnitude |G(j)| (i.e., the length of the vector ) and a phase angle . Example Find the expression of frequency response for the system with a transfer function of 1 G( s) = , and then evaluate the magnitude and phase angle of frequency response at 1 + 2s = 0.5 rad/s and represent the result in the complex plane.

Lecture Notes of Control Systems I - ME 431/Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Control System - ME862

## 2. Sketch the Polar plot of Frequency Response

To sketch the polar plot of G(j) for the entire range of frequency , i.e., from 0 to infinity, there are four key points that usually need to be known: (1) (2) (3) (4) the start of plot where = 0, the end of plot where = , where the plot crosses the real axis, i.e., Im(G(j)) = 0, and where the plot crosses the imaginary axis, i.e., Re(G(j)) = 0.

## where is the time constant. Representing G (s ) in the frequency response form G ( j ) : G ( j ) = 1 1 + j

Multiplying both numerator and denominator by the conjugate of denominator, i.e., 1 j , one has

G ( j ) =

1 j 1 = +j 2 2 2 2 + 3 14 2 2 + 3 1+ 14 4 1 2 1 24
Re( G ( j )) Im(G ( j ))

## The magnitude of G ( j ) , i.e., G ( j ) , is

1 1 G ( j ) = + = 2 2 2 2 1+ 1+ 1 + 2 2

Lecture Notes of Control Systems I - ME 431/Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Control System - ME862

## And the phase of G ( j ) , denoted by , is

1 + 2 2 = tan 1 1 1 + 2 2

) = tan

Now that we have expressions for the magnitude and phase of the frequency response, we can sketch the polar plot using the 4 key points.
Point 1 The start of plot where = 0 .

G ( j ) =

1 1+ 0

= 1,

= tan 1 = 0

0 1

Point 2

G ( j ) =

1 1+

= 0,

= tan 1

o = 90 1

Point 3

## = 0 = 0 and = . These are the same as Points 1 and 2. 1 + 2 2

Point 4 Where the plot crosses the imaginary axis, Re(G(j)) = 0.

1 1 + 2 2

## = 0 = . This is the same as Point 2.

As Point 3 coincides with Points 1 and 2 and Point 4 coincides with Point 2, we need more 1 values of G ( j ) evaluated at different frequencies. Taking = , then one has

G ( j ) =

1 1+1

1 2

= tan 1

1 o = 45 1

Lecture Notes of Control Systems I - ME 431/Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Control System - ME862

## Sketching the Polar plot for 1

Im (0, -90 )

(1 + s ) , one has
=0

=
o

(1, 0o)

Re

= 1/
(1 / 2 , - 45o )

Example
Sketch the polar plot for a third order system with a transfer function of G ( s) =
Solution

1 2s + 3s 2 + 3s + 1
3

Replacing s in the above transfer function with j, one has the frequency response
1 (1 3 2 ) j (3 2 3 ) = (1 3 2 ) + j (3 2 3 ) (1 3 2 ) 2 + (3 2 3 ) 2

G ( j ) =

1 2( j ) 3 + 3( j ) 2 + 3( j ) + 1

(1 3 ) + (3 2 )
2 2

3 2

= tan 1

)

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