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27.4755-5(497.16Kotor)13:75.057.033.046.

PRO REMEDIO ANIMAE XIV


:

XIV .
. pro remedio animae , ad pias
causas, XIV .

.
XIV . ,
.

XIV .
.
, , , .

.
.1 XIV Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend. Readings on the Saints, vol. 2,
Princeton, 1993, 280. ,
1

274

Balcanica XXXV

.
, XIV
, .2
,
, .
. , ,
.
.
:
, ,

,
. , Depositio Elevatio . , cfr. . Le Gof, Nastanak istilita, Sremski Karlovci Novi
Sad, 1992, 163191, et passim.
2
, v. V.
ivkovi, Zidno slikarstvo u crkvi Svete Marije Koleate u Kotoru, 21 (1999),
119155.

. , pro remedio animae XIV

275


, ,
.
,
XIV


- .3
XIII XIV .
,
, ()
, .
IXX .

,
, cif. S. Ferber, Crucixion Iconography in a Group of Carolingian Ivory Plaques, The Art Bulletin XLVIII n. 3&4, September-December 1966,
323334.
XI , ( , Bibl. Nat.
Par, gr. 74).
XIII ,
. XIV
, cif. S. der Nersessian, Recherches sur les miniatures du Parisinus graecus 74, Jahrbuch der sterreichischen byzaninistik (Wien 1972), 109115.
3

276

Balcanica XXXV


. XIII
,4
. , , .


. 1518.
(Epitaphium Bernardi Pimae poetae laureati) : :
, . (Has ego supremas tabulas in
morte relinquo, Nudam animam Christo, putrida membra solo).5
,
, - ,

XIV . .
,
.

. ,
,
. post mortem

,
, .
,
XIV .
,
. pro remedio animae , .
, 4
5

. Le Gof, op. cit, 265.


G. Gelcich, Memorie storiche sull Bocche di Cattaro, Zara, 1880, 197198.

. , pro remedio animae XIV

277

.6
,

.7
, , (, , libri anniversariorum,
libri annualium). ,
,
. Commemoratio mortuorum
.8
.
.

XVI , .9 reclusa-,
, -

6
, , ,
post mortem , v. R. N. Swanson, Religion and Devotion in
Europe, c. 1215-c.1515, Cambridge 1995, 115, 191234.
7

, , cif. J. Henderson, Piety and Charity in Late Medieval Florence,
Chicago and London, 1994, 163168, et passim.
8
J , cif. . , Necrologium Ragusinum (A. D. M. CC. XXV), XI-1
(1970), 149173.
9
Serano Razzi (15311611)
1589. 1592. . . : Vita della revernda serva di Dio la madre suor Osanna da
Cattaro, dellordine di San Domenico. . ,
.
. Vita della Beata Osanna da Cattaro,
, . ,
110 . , , cif. . . , XII XIX , , 1996, 102129.

278

Balcanica XXXV

,
.
XIV , XVI
, pro remedio animae ,
, XIV XVI .10
XVI ,
. , ,
, .
,
.

. , ,
,
[],
, .11
, ,
, .
, ,
, .12 ,

XVI .
pro remedio animae
. : , , .

.13
Caritas,
, XIV, XV XVI .
11
. . , 117118.
12
Ibid, 118120.
13
The Golden Legend, 282, 284. XIV , 1400. ,
, unus liber voraginis , .

10

. , pro remedio animae XIV

279

,
, .
, , , ,

,

. XIII .
. , XIV .14
,
,
ad pias causas
. , , XIV XV ,
.
. ,
, , .
,
. ,
. .
,
.15

XIV , ad pias causas.
XIV ,
(33 14 ), v. .
, , CV
(1956), 19; . , , , 1980, 155156.
14
. Le Gof, op. cit, 299301.
15
Ibid, 235236, 299.

280

Balcanica XXXV

, . , , , , .16 ,
.

, ,
. 1336. : Ego Johannes Marini Glauacti iacens inrmus, sanam tamen memoriam et loquelam habens, facio meum
ultimum testamentum de rebus meis.
.

,
.17

,
. .18 , , ,

,
, , , post mortem pro remedio animae. 1326.
,
(Ego Paulus Nycole Dabronis jacens inrmus, timens, ne mors
me subito aggrediatur, facio meum ultimum testamentum.) , pro missis pro anima mea.
, (vigilias) .19
(ut roget deum deum pro me),
1331. .

, cif.. S. K. Cohn, Jr, The Cult of Remembrance and the Black


Death. Six Renaissance Cities in Central Italy, Baltimore and London, 19972.
17
Momumenta Catarensia, Kotorski spomenici. Druga knjiga kotorskih notara
god. 1329, 13321337., vol. 2, ed. A. Mayer, Zagreb, 1981, (: MC, vol. 2), . 1042.
18
Timor mortis conturbat me v. R. N. Swanson, loc. cit.
19
MC, vol. 2, . 54.
16

. , pro remedio animae XIV

281

, , : Ego Marinus Junii


Bolie inrmus iacens et mori metuens intestatus, cum sana mente mea, memoria et loquela facio hoc meum ultimum testamentum. - pro missi cantandis.20
1331.
(tamen dubitans mori intestatus). ,
,
.21
1326.
, (inrma iacens, timens mori),
(sana tamen memoria et locutione). pater spiritualis,
pro anima
.22 , , 1336. cum sana memoria et loquela . ,
, (in
primis volo) , .
pro anima mea, pro missis, pro vigiliis.23
, 1335. , uxoris condam Nuce de Gonni.
quod rogent deum
pro me. ,
quod rogent deum pro anima mea.
,
fratri Laurentio, guardiano de Catharo, dompno Vite, patrino meo.24
1336. ,
: In primis volo, quod dentur pro missis perperi quadraginta
quatuor pro anima mea.25 Georgius Cerneli 1336. , 20
Monumenta Catarensia. Kotorski spomenici. Prva knjiga kotorskih notara
od god. 13261335, vol. 1, ed. A. Mayer, Zagreb, 1951, (: MC, vol. 1), . 802.
21
Ibid, . 732.
22
Ibid, . 13.
23
MC, vol. 2, . 1372.
24
Ibid, . 1142.
25
Ibid, . 1604.

282

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,
.26
1327. .
(transcribere et
reducere ad publicam formam). , ,
- .
Basilius Mathei inrmus jacens, sanam habens memoriam et loquellam, hoc ultimum testamentum meum de rebus meis dispono
, . , ut
mei defuncti non jaceant sine memoria
.
(teneatur facere vigilias duas fratribus minoribus, unam quarum in animauersario patris mei et aliam in animauersario matris mee).
quod rogent deum pro me,
,
patri meo spirituali, presbitero Ricardo ... quod ipse me habeat
recomandatum in suis orationibus.27
,
, (unum prandium pro anima mea). 1327.
(pro anima mea pro mille missis).
,
: Item volo, quod de vino, quod debeo habere in vineis, et de vaca, quam habeo apud Medoye, hominem Belcatii, at
unum prandium pro anima mea. Item habeo, apud dictum Medoye unam vacam et unum bouem de la pripassa, aut dictus Medoye det vacam aut bouem
predictos, qui uel que iungatur alteri vace pro uno prandio supradicto.28 ,
1335. (...
vache cum pecoribus...vendantur et dentur pro anima mea).
(facere vigilias
Ibid, . 1616.
MC, vol. 1, . 438.
28
Ibid, . 365. pietanza , v. J. Henderson, op. cit, 167.
26
27

. , pro remedio animae XIV

283

tres in animauersario patris mei unam, et aliam in animauersario matris


mee, et tertiam in animauersario meo).
vigiliam omni anno in animauersario
meo. , ad cantandum missas mille pro
anima mea et patris et matris mee.29
.
, , , .
- 1327. .
, , (in aliquo de
peccato), (... Petrus dixit
dicto calameto animam se habere cariorem...).30

, ,
XIV .
, , ,
,
. ,
post
mortem , .
PRAYERS PRO REMEDIO ANIMAE AT 14TH-CENTURY KOTOR
Summar y
With the growing belief in the reality of purgatory in medieval times, the
hope was also rising of the salvation of the souls dwelling in that abode. By the
fourteenth century the concept of purgatory had already been developed, and
prayers, services and charitable acts came to be regarded as the most ecient aid to
the souls of the dead. The hopes that people coping with the imminence of death
placed in the eectiveness of prayers and masses pro remedio animae, and the belief
in the existence of purgatory will be discussed by using the example of Kotor in the
rst half of the fourteenth century, on the basis of wall-paintings and wills.

29
30

MC, vol. 2, . 1204.


MC, vol. 1, . 491.

284

Balcanica XXXV

In the rst decades of the fourteenth century the souls of the dead were
depicted in the scene of the General Resurrection included in the Crucixion
painted in the apse of the Collegiata of St Mary at Kotor. In the context of euharistic
and soteriological symbolism of the iconographic programme of the apse, the motif
of the General Resurrection the souls of the dead depicted as babies that, wrapped
in swaddling clothes, emerge from their sarcophagi explicitly expresses the idea
of supplication.
But the peoples concern with the eectiveness of prayers for the deliverance
of souls from purgatory is fully conrmed by the surviving wills dating to the
1320s and 1330s. Every citizen of Kotor could order in his will that masses,
commemoration services and prayers for the salvation of his soul and the souls
of his ancestors should be oered. The number and solemnity of the masses and
prayers depended on the amount of money a person was able to set aside for that
purpose. The imminence of death, timens mori, made people think of repentance.
Still, the conventional formulae of testamentary provisions for pias causas reveal a
genuine fear that death may catch them unprepared, i.e. with no charitable acts, with
no repentance and, especially, with no insurance that their souls will be delivered
from purgatory through masses and prayers.