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Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

STANDARD FORM
1.1

Significant Figures
Important concepts
Round off the following numbers correct to the number of significant figures indicated within
the brackets.
64 349

6 4 3 4 9

(3)

4<5 digit to be rounded 3, is


unchanged. Before the
decimal point each digit is
replaced by 0

64 300 ( 3 significant figures )


0.064 34

0. 0 6 4 3 4

(3)

4<5 digit to be rounded 3, is


unchanged. After the decimal
point digit 4 is dropped.

0.0643 ( 3 significant figures )

707.2

(2)

7 0 7. 2

7>5 , 1 is added to the digit to


be rounded 0, 0+1=1 .After
decimal point, digit 2 is
dropped.

710 ( 2 significant figures )


7.072

(2)

7.0 7 2

7>5 , 1 is added to the digit 0,


0+1=1 After the decimal
point, digits 7 and 2 are
dropped.

7.1 ( 2 significant figures )

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

Examples & Exercises


Round off the following numbers correct to the given significant figures.
Number
1

64349

80492

6739

3065

708.3

506.6

96.70

20.63

5.866

10

3.465

11

0.4979

12

0.2997

13

0.04567

14

0.03296

15

0.002902

16

0.0007998

17

0.00005823

18

0.00006435

19

0.00008395

20

0.00004097

1 significant figure

2 significant figures

3 significant figures

60000

64000

64300

7000

6700

6740

700

710

708

100

97

96.7

6.0

5.87

0.5

0.50

0.498

0.05

0.046

0.0457

0.003

0.0029

0.00290

0.00006

0.000058

0.0000582

0.00008

0.000084

0.0000900

1.2 Standard Form


1.2 a.

Expressing Numbers in Standard Form


Important Concept
In standard form a number is written as

A 10n

where 1 A < 10 and n is an integer


example: 2.938 10 3 , 1.688 10 2

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

3 Steps to express a positive number in standard form:


STEP 1 : Form the number A, where 1 A < 10.. Place a decimal number point after the first non-zero
digit
STEP 2 : Obtain the value of the index n by counting the number of decimal places from the new
position to its original position.
if the decimal point is moved to the left, n is a positive integer.
if the decimal point is moved to the right, n is a negative integer.
STEP 3 : Write the number in the form A 10 n
Example
1. 1 6 8 8 = 1. 6 8 8 10 3
Step 1 : Form the number, A.
Move the decimal point 3 steps to the left. Hence, A = 1.688
Step 2 : Obtain the value of n. The decimal point is moved 3 steps to the left, hence n is positive and
n = 3.
Step 3 : Write the number in the form A 10 n , hence 1.688 10 3

2. 0.0 0 0 0 5 4 6 = 5.46

10 5

Step 1 : Form the number, A.


Move the decimal point 5 steps to the right. Hence, A = 5.46
Step 2 : Obtain the value of n. The decimal point is moved 5 steps to the right, hence n is negative and
n = 5.
Step 3 : Write the number in the form A 10 n , hence 5.46 10 5
EXERCISE:
1. Express each of the following in standard form
a) 29320

a) 30 657 =

b) 19 42 = 1.942 103

b) 3458 =

c) 789 = 7.89 10 2

c) 210 =

d) 32.9 = 3.29 101

d) 76.1=

e) 5.32 = 5.32 100

e) 6.78 =

f) 0.672 = 6.72 10 1

c) 0.578 =

g) 0.0143 = 1.43 10 2

g) 0.0996 =

h) 0.00665 = 6.66 10 3

h) 0.00893 =

i) 0.00078 = 7.8 10 4

i) 0.000321=

j) 0.000085= 8.5 10 5

j) 0.0000992 =

= 2.932 10

2. Convert each of the following to a single number.


a) 6.851 10 4 = 68510

a) 5.874 10 4 =

b) 3.221 103 = 3221

b) 1.902 103 =

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

c) 7.685 10 2 = 768.5

c) 1.061 10 2 =

d) 8.853 101 = 88.53

d) 4.801 101 =

e) 6.001 100 = 6.001

e) 7.068 100 =

f) 5.861 10 1 = 0.5861

f) 2.218 10 1 =

g) 6.008 10 2 = 0.06008

g) 9.655 10 2 =

h) 2.45 103 = 0.00245

h) 6.319 10 3 =

i) 3.76 10 4 = 0.000376

i) 5.63 10 4 =

j) 6.73 10 5 = 0.0000673

j) 9.42 10 5

1.2b

Operations involving Standard Form

1.21 Addition and Subtraction

The smaller index is adjusted to equal the bigger index before


addition or subtraction is performed.

Examples & Exercises


Evaluate each of the following, giving answer in standard form
a)

4.5 10 3 + 8.1 10 4
= 0.45 10 3+1 + 8.1 10 4
= 0.45 10 4 + 8.1 10 4
= (0.45 + 8.1) 10 4

a)

2.3 10 3 + 7.1 10 4

b)

7.2 10 4 + 3.7 10 3

= 8.55 10 4

b)

2.2 10 4 + 7.4 10 3
= 0.22 10 4+1 + 7.4 10 3
= 0.22 10 3 + 7.4 10 3
= (0.22 + 7.4) 10 3
= 7.62 10 3

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

7.5 10 3 8.1 10 2
= 7.5 10 3 0.81 10 2+1
= (7.5 0.81) 10 3

c)

c)

9.5 10 3 7.3 10 2

d)

7.2 10 3 9.2 10 4

b)

( A 10 m ) ( B 10 n )
A
10 m n
B

= 6.691 10 3

9.4 10 3 7.3 10 4
= 9.4 10 3 0.73 10 4+1
= 9.4 10 3 0.73 10 3
= (9.4 0.73) 10 3

d)

= 8.67 10 3

1.22

Multiplication and Division


a) ( A 10 m ) ( B 10 n )

( A B ) 10 m+ n

Examples & Exercises


Evaluate each of the following , giving your answer in standard form
a) 4 10 6 3.6 10 2
= (4 3.6) 10 6+ 2

a) 5 10 6 4.3 10 2

= 14.4 10 8
= 1.44 10 9

b) 5.7 10 4 2 10 2
= (5.7 2) 10 4+ 2

b) 3.5 10 4 4 10 2

= 11.4 10 2
= 1.14 10 1

c) 6.2 10 2 3 10 4
= (6.2 3) 10 2 4

c) 7.1 10 2 4 10 4

= 18.6 10 6

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

= 1.86 10 5

d)

e)

f)

g)

8.7 10 5
2 10 2
8.7
=
10 5 2
2
= 4.35 10 3
7.2 10 2
4 10 5
7.2
=
10 2+5
4
= 1.8 10 3
6.3 10 6
9 10 5
6.3
=
10 6+ 5
9
= 0.7 10 1
= 7 10 2

3 10 6
600
3 10 6
=
6 10 2
3
= 10 6 2
6
= 0.5 10 8
= 5 10 9

d)

1.2 10 8
2 10 5

e)

8.7 10 7
3 10 5

f)

5.6 10 6
8 10 5

g)

6 10 3
5000

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

EXAMINATION FORMAT QUESTIONS


1. Round off 6 284 correct to 2
significant figures.
A 6 200
B 6 280

C 6 290
D 6 300

A. 0.03

C 0.04

B. 0.036

D. 0.037

6. 3.84 10 4 =
A 0.0000384
B 0.000384

C 3840
D 384000

2. Round off 10726 correct to 2


significant figures.
A 1100
B 10000

C 10700
D 10

7. 1.02 10 5 =
A 102
B 1020

C 10200
D 102000

3. Round off 2.673 correct to 3


significant figures.
A 2.6
B 2.67

C 2.7
D 2.70

4. Round off 0.00035118 correct to 3


significant figures.
A 0.000351
B 0.0003511

C 0.003512
D 0.0003521

8. 3.84 10 4 =
A 0.0000384
B 0.000384

C 3840
D 384000

9. Express 0.000072 in standard form.


1
A 7.2 10
B 7.2 10 2

C
D

7.2 10 4
7.2 10 5

5. Round off 0.0368 correct to two significant


figures.

10. Express 558000 in standard form.

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

3
A 5.58 10
B 5.58 10 4

C
D

5.58 10 5
5.58 10 6

18.

A 7.60 1013
B 7.60 1014

11. 2.6 10 + 66000 =


A 3.26 10 5
B 3.26 10 9
12.

C 6.86 10 5
D 6.86 10 9

19.

C 7.5 1012
D 7.5 1013

20.

(7 10 )

2 2

C 6.03 10 5
D 6.03 10 6

C 7.60 1015
D 7.60 1016

C 1.6 10 5
D 1.6 10 6

2000
=
16 4 10 3
A 5.00 10 1
B 5.00 101

13. 6.35 10 5 3.2 10 6 =


A 3.12 10 5
B 3.12 10 6

7840

A 1.12 10 5
B 1.12 10 6

4.8 1012 + 2.7 1013 =

A 3.18 1012
B 3.18 1013

3.04 1014
=
0.004

C 3.13 10 4
D 3.13 10 4

21. RM 1.36 millions is to be shared by four


people. Express the answer in standard
form.

14. 9.4 10 6 7700000 =


5

A 1.7 10
B 1.7 10 6
15

A. 3.4 x 10-5
5

C 8.63 10
D 8.63 10 6

C. 340 x 10
D. 3.40 x 105

22.

4.9 5 10 6 =

A 2.45 10 7
B 2.45 10 8

B. 3.4 x 10

C 2.45 10 9
D 2.45 1010

16. 5.4 1012 4 10 10 =

R
4 10 3 cm

3.0 10 2

Diagram 1
A 2.16 101
B 2.16 10 2
17.

C 2.16 10 3
D 2.16 10 4

0.098
=
7 10 4
A 1.4 10 6
B 1.4 10 2

C 1.4 10 2
D 1.4 10 6

In the Diagram 1, PQRS is a rectangle.


The area, in cm 2 , of the rectangle is
A 1.2 10 6
C 0.12 10 4
B 12 10 6
D 1.2 10 5
23. En Hassan has 1.01 10 5 acres of land.
He wants to divide his land equally among
his 8 children. Calculate the land area, in
acres, that each of En Hassans children

Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

gets.

A 1.3 10 4
B 1.3 10 5

24.

significant figures.

C 8.1 10 5
D 8.1 10 6

A. 0.003
B. 0.04

The speed of light is given as 3 10 8 ms 1 .


Calculate the time, in seconds, light takes
to travel 3 1010 m.
A 1.2 10 2
B 1.2 10 2

Round off 0.0368 correct to two

C. 0.036
D. 0.037

C 8.3 10 3
D 8.3 10 3

6.27 10 4 =
A. 0.0000627
B. 0.000627
C. 62 700
D. 6 270 000

3. 1.8 10 5 + 88000 =
5
A 2.68 10
B 2.68 10 9
C 1.06 10 5
D 1.06 10 9

4. The area of a rectangular nursery plot is


7.2 km 2 . Its width is 2400 m. The
length, in m, of the nursery plot is
A 3 10 3
B 3 10 4
C 4.8 10 3
D 4.8 10 4
SPM 2004 (June)
1

2
SPM Past Year Questions
3
SPM 2003 (November)

Round off 10 875 correct to three


significant figures.
A 10 800
C 10 870
B 10 880
D 10 900
State 7. 06 10 5 as a single number.
A 70 600
C 7 060 000
B 706 000
D 70 600 000
The length of a reel of red thread is 1.3
10 6 mm and the length of a reel of blue
thread is 65000 cm. Calculate the total
Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

length, in cm, of one reel of red thread and


four reels of blue thread.
A 1.56 10 5
C 3.9 10 5
B 2.73 10 5
D 7.8 10 5

0.0002
=
4 10 3
A 5 10 8
B 5 10 2

2.03 10 5

B
C
D

2.03 10 6
203 10 7
20.3 10 8

4.86 10 2

(3 10 )

3 2

D 0.00250

A 22 10 6

C 2.2 10 6

B 22 10 7

D 2.2 10 7

A 2.53 10 3

C 2.53 10 4

B 3.50 10 3

D 3.50 10 4

In July, the mean number of shirts produced


by factories J, K and L was 14 000. Factory
K produced 9 600 shirts. Factory J produced

three times as many as factory L. How


many shirts did factory J produce in July?

A 2.43 10 4

C 4.2 10 4

B 1.62 10 4

B 3.24 10 4

D 4.4 10 4

A 1.62 10

5.4 103
SPM 2005 (NOVEMBER)

D 5.4 10 4

B 0.03

3.2 10 4 - 6.7 10 3 =

Express 0.0000203 in standard form


A

C 00.00249

Express 22 million in standard form.

C 5 10 7
D 5 10 1

SPM 2004 ( NOVEMBER)

A 0.02

Round off 70615 correct to three


significant figures.

4.21 10 7 2.6 10 8 =
8

A 1.61 10
C 3.95 10
7
B 1.61 10
D 3.95 10 7

A. 70 600

C. 70 610

B. 70 620

D. 70 700

Express 7.564 10 6 as single number.


A. 0.007564

Round off 0.08108 correct to three


significant figures.
A. 0.08

C. 0.0810

B. 0.081

D. 0.0811

SPM 2005 (June)


1

Round off 0.002496 correct to three


significant figures.

C. 0.000007564

B. 0.00007564 D. 0.0000007564
3

0.03
=
5 000 000
A 6 10 3

B 6 10 4

6 10 8
D 6 10 9

SPM 2006 (NOVEMBER)


Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

Round off 50 941 correct to three


significant figures.

A. 509

C. 50 940

B. 510

D. 50 900

3. 8.3 1010 2.1 10 9 =

C. 3.51 10 3

B. 3.51 10 5

D. 3.51 10 5

8.09 10 9

B 6.2 1010

D 8.09 1010

4. Pak Abu has a rectangular garden. The

Express 351 000 in standard form.


A. 3.51 10 3

A 6.2 10 9

length of the garden is 45 m and its width is


20m. Pak Abu wants to enclose his garden
with a wire fence. Calculate the total length, in
cm, of the wire fence required.

0.0000025 1.3 10

A 1.2 10 6

2.37 10 6

B 1.2 10 7

D 2.37 10 7

A 6.5 10 3

C 9.0 10 4

1.3 10 4

D 3.6 10 5

SPM 2007 (NOVEMBER)

A rectangular floor has a width of 2400

cm and a length of 3000 cm. The floor

Round off 30 106 correct to three


significant figures.

will be covered with tiles. Each tile is a

A. 30 000

C. 30 110

square of side 20 cm. Calculate the

B. 30 100

D. 30 200

number of tiles required to cover the floor


2

fully.
A 1.8 10 4

C 3.6 10 4

A. 1205

C. 1 205 000

1.8 10 8

D 3.6 10 8

B. 12 050

D. 12 050 000

SPM 2007 (June)


1

Round off 0.05268 correct to three


significant figures.
A. 0.0527

C. 0.053

B. 0.0526

D. 0.052

0.0078 6 10 5 = .
A 1.83 10 3

C 7.74 10 3

1.83 10 5

D 7.74 10 5

SPM 2008 (June)


1

Express 1.205 10 4 as single number.

Round off 8 157 correct to three


significant figures.

Express 7.564 10 4 as a single number.

A. 815

C. 8 150

A. 75 640 000

C. 0.0007564

B. 816

D. 8 160

B. 75 640

D. 0.00007564
2

State 4.06 10 4 as single number.


A. 4 060

C. 406 000
Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

B. 40 600

D. 4 060 000

6.1 10 5 1.2 10 4 = .

A 4.90 10 4

C 4.90 10 5

5.98 10 4

D 5.98 10 5

3.1 1015 + 6.2 1014


A 3.72 1014
B 6.51 1014

Diagram 1 shows a rectangle representing an

agricultural zone and a square representing an

D 6.51 1015

industrial zone.
4

Agricultural zone

3.72 1015

Diagram 1 shows an empty tank, which is

3
Industrial 4 10 m cuboid , with length 800 cm, width 500 cm

zone

and height 300 cm.

300 cm

Diagram1

5 10 m

Calculate the area, in m2 , of the agricultural


zone
A. 1.84 10 8

C. 4 10 7

B. 1.84 10 7

D. 4 10 6

SPM 2008 (NOVEMBER)


1

Round off 0.6782 correct to two


significant figures.
A. 0.60

500 cm

800 cm
Diagram1

A worker fills up 80% of the tank with


water. Calculate the volume, in cm3, of
water in the tank.
A 1.2 10 6

C 9.6 10 7

1.2 10 8

D 9.6 10 9

B. 0.67
C. 0.68
D. 0.70

Express 0.0000101 in standard form.


A. 1.01 10 6
B. 1.01 10 5
C. 1.01 10 5
D. 1.01 10 6
Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

1 sf

2 sf

3 sf

80000

80000

80500

3000

3100

3070

500

510

507

20

21

20.6

10

3.5

3.47

12

0.3

0.30

0.300

14

0.03

0.033

0.0330

16

0.0008

0.00080

0.000800

18

0.00006

0.000064

0.0000644

20

0.00004

0.000041

0.0000410

ANSWERS
Chapter 9: Standard Form
1.1

1.2
Standard Form

Panitia Matematik SMK Seri Intan

1 a) 3.657 10
c)
2.1 10 2
e)
6.78 10 0
g)
9.96 10 2
i) 3.21 10 4

b) 3.458 10
d) 7.61 101
f)
5.78 10 1
h) 8.93 10 3
j)
9.92 10 5

2a)
c)
e)
g)
i)

b)
d)
f)
h)
j)

58 740
106.1
7.068
0.09655
0.00563

1902
48.01
0.2218
0.006319
0.0000942

1.21
1a)
7.33 10
c)
106.1
e)
7.068
g)
0.09655
i) 0.00563
2a) 7.33 10
c) 8.77 10 3

b) 1902
d) 48.01
f) 0.2218
h) 0.006319
j) 0.0000942
b)
d)

4.42 10
6.28 10 3

SPM JUNE 2004


1
D
2
B

SPM NOV 2004


1
A
2
C

SPM JUNE 2005


1
D
2
D

SPM NOV 2005


1
A
2
C

SPM NOV 2006


1
D
2
B

SPM JUNE 2007


1
A
2
B

SPM NOV 2007


1
B
2
B

SPM JUNE 2008


1
D
2
B

SPM NOV 2008


1
C
2
B

1.22
a)
c)
e)
g)

2.15 10 9
2.84 10 5
2.9 10 2
1.2 10 6

b)
d)
f)

1.40 10 1
6.00 10 2
7.00 10 2

EXAMINATION FORMAT QUESTIONS


1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22

D
A
D
C
C
C
D
A

2
5
8
11
14
17
20
23

B
D
B
A
B
A
A
A

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24

B
B
D
B
A
D
B
A

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS


SPM NOV 2003
1
D
2
B
3
A
4

Standard Form