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1.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Following one of the deepest downturns in recent times, the global economy staged a smart recovery during 2009/10, especially in the latter half, driven by an extraordinary level of coordinated international action in the form of policy stimulus, monetary as well as fiscal. As per the International Monetary Fund (IMF), world output is estimated to grow by 4.2% in 2010 after a decline of 0.6% in 2009 with the emerging and developing economies led by China and India set to grow by 6.3% in 2010 against a modest 2.4% in 2009 and a sharp rebound by advanced economies with a growth in output estimated at 2.3% in 2010 against a decline of 3.2% in 2009. However, the pace and shape of recovery remains uncertain with concerns about the recovery losing momentum once the stimulus is withdrawn. Recent developments in Europe, with Greece, Spain and Portugal facing severe challenges in honouring their external debt obligations, have amplified such concerns. While high levels of unemployment and fiscal deficit and contraction of credit to productive sectors are the key concerns for advanced economies, developing economies are faced with the challenges emanating from high rates of inflation, sharp escalation in asset prices, exchange rate volatility and increased capital inflows. The Indian economy entered 2009/10 against the backdrop of a significant slowdown in growth rate, with the GDP growing at just 6% during the second half of 2008/09. A delayed and severely sub-normal monsoon coupled with continued recession in the developed world for the better part of 2008/09 served to exacerbate the macroeconomic context. Yet, the economy staged a remarkable recovery to grow at 7.2% during the year, facilitated by policy stimulus and increased government spending. The enhanced allocations for social sector schemes like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), higher spends on rural infrastructure creation, the implementation of the Sixth Pay Commission recommendations and the scheme of debt relief to farmers acted as powerful catalysts to induce a consumptionled recovery. Much of the growth was fuelled by the Industrial sector, with renewed momentum in Manufacturing which grew by 8.9% during the year after eight

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS consecutive quarters of decline in growth rates since 2007/08. While Agricultural output declined by 0.2%, the Services sector grew, although at a slower pace of 8.7% against 9.8% in 2008/09. The broad based nature of the recovery, a faster pace of growth in investments after a marked decline in 2008/09, the sharp pick up in capital inflows and a resurgent stock market are some of the key positives that augur well for the economy. The major concern during the year was the rising food inflation especially in the second half. While the overall wholesale price index (WPI) based inflation was 9.9% on a year-on-year basis in March 2010, food inflation was as high as 16.6%, reflecting the severe adverse impact of a deficient monsoon. With persistent supply side pressures, inflation became more generalized towards the end of the year, with inflation in non-food manufactured products rising to 4.7% in March 2010 from () 0.4% in November 2009. While inflation is expected to moderate going forward, the trend of rising international commodity prices, particularly oil, and the revival of private consumption pose upside risks. This apprehension is reflected in RBIs view that the domestic balance of risks shifts from growth slowdown to inflation. Accordingly, a related challenge in the near to medium term would be the effective management of the burgeoning fiscal deficit. The Indian economy staged a remarkable recovery to grow at 7.2% during the year, facilitated by policy stimulus and increased government spending. A faster pace of growth in investments, the sharp pick up in capital inflows and a resurgent stock market are some of the key positives that augur well for the economy. Although consensus estimates point to a robust performance of the Indian economy in 2010/11, with the GDP growth estimated to be above 8%, it would still be well below the average of nearly 9% per annum achieved during the 4 years preceding the economic slowdown. As aforementioned, the combination of the threat of inflationary pressures and the inherent risks to global economic recovery poses a tough challenge to maintaining and stepping up the growth momentum to the desired double-digit level. With a fairly young population, skilled manpower, rising savings and investment rates, a vibrant service sector, a potentially large source of domestic demand (particularly rural) and the emergence of globally competitive firms, India has multiple growth drivers which hold out the promise of a stable and sustained future growth. The economic impact of these strengths will get

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS further augmented by the current and planned investments in infrastructure development. High levels of sustained economic growth is a critical necessity for India to realize its oft quoted demographic dividend through the creation of employment opportunities for the nearly 15 million people expected to enter the working age each year, the majority of whom would be from rural India. As observed in the Economic Survey 2009-10, growth is necessary for eradicating poverty but is not a sufficient condition. In other words, policies for promoting growth need to be complemented with policies to ensure that more and more people join in the growth process and, further, that there are mechanisms in place to redistribute some of the gains to those who are unable to partake in the market process and, hence, get left behind. Equally, the manner of industrial growth continues to take an immeasurable toll of finite natural resources. Indeed, the key challenge for India is to sustain high rates of economic growth even while addressing the problems of inequitable income distribution and over-exploitation of environmental resources. A comprehensive growth strategy for rural India, including the agricultural sector which continues to underperform, is necessary to address the serious issues relating to sustainability and inclusive growth. The governments focus on social sector programs such as Bharat Nirman, NREGS, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, food security legislation and strategies to improve benefit delivery mechanisms have the potential to transform the Indian rural landscape.



Tobacco is a principal cash crop of National importance. It has been playing a prominent role in the development of Nation's Economy. Although the cultivation of Tobacco is restricted to 0.3% of the total cultivated area, it provides employment to large number of people on the one hand. On the other hand, it makes significant contribution to National Exchequer by way of excise revenue and foreign exchange earnings. Tobacco being a labor intensive crop provides employment to more than 60 lakhs people who are engaged in the farming curing, re drying, packaging, grading, manufacturing distribution, export and retailing activities. The bidi industry which provides employment to around 44.00 lakhs essentially unskilled rural folks mostly women is also arresting the influx of rural labor to urban centres. Although there is nationwide anti-Tobacco campaign, the commercial importance of Tobacco can never be underestimated due to the revenue earning potentiality and employment generation capacity of the crop. Presently there is a call for substitution of Tobacco with other crops, but the research findings show that there is no economically viable alternative crop which is as remunerative as Tobacco to the farmer. Botanically, the Tobacco plant belongs to the family Solanacea and genus Nicotiana. The genus embraces over 60species of which two alone are cultivated. India grows the cultivated species, viz. Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica. The largest area is under Nicotiana tabacum which is grown all over the country where as Nicotina rustica is confined to North and North Eastern States i.e., Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam. About 5 to 6 per cent of the total area under Tobacco is accounted for Nicotiana rustica varieties. The cultivation of Nicotiana tabacum has country-wise spread and this type also accounts for more than 80% of the exchange earnings. Specific types and varieties of Tobacco have been developed for use in cigarette, bidi, cigar, cheroot, hookah, chewing, snuff and hookah paste. Rustica types are used in chewing and snuff whereas tabacum types are used for all purposes.

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Even though the cultivation of Tobacco is spread all over the country, the commercial cultivation of Tobacco is concentrated in States like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharastra, Bihar, Tamilnadu and West Bengal etc. Cigarette Tobacco is mostly cultivated in Andhra and Karnataka, whereas bidi Tobacco is grown in Gujarat, Karnataka and Maharastra. Cigar and Cheroot Tobacco are also grown in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal and Chewing Tobacco is grown in Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Bihar, West Bengal and U.P. Hookah Tobacco is grown in UP, and West Bengal. The total area and production of Tobacco in India for the year 1997-98 were 463.5 thousand ha and 646 million kgs respectively. India ranks fourth in the total tobacco consumption in the world. But India's cigarette consumption ranks tenth in the world. Out of the total production, only 19% of the total consumption of Tobacco is in the form of cigarette whereas 81% is in other forms like, chewing, bidi, snuff, Gutkas paste, Jarda, hookah paste etc. The per capita consumption of cigarette in India is one of the lowest in the world in comparison to major Tobacco consuming countries like Zimbabwe, UK, Brazil, U.S.A and Pakistan. The annual level for demand of cigarette in India remains the same at 96 billion sticks as it was 15 years ago, despite the cumulative growth in population by nearly 35 percent during the same period. However the consumption of Tobacco has been a matter of national debate in view of the emerging anti Tobacco drive in the country. Tobacco is traditional item of India's foreign trade. India is one of the leading Tobacco exporting countries in the world. India accounts for 5.8% of the international trade and ranks 5th after Brazil, U.S.A. Turkey and Zimbabwe. The principal market for India Tobacco is U.S.S.R, U.K, Japan and Middle East countries. Market and marketing system play a dominant role in ensuring remunerative price for commercial crop like Tobacco. There has been significant improvement in the marketing of VFC Tobacco with establishment of Tobacco Board. The production and marketing of VFC Tobacco have been statutorily regulated by the Tobacco Board. But the growers of other varieties of Tobacco are at the mercy of unscrupulous

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS traders and middlemen. Excluding VFC Tobacco, the method of marketing of Tobacco in India differs from type to type and from State to State. In case of VFC Tobacco the Government of India and the Tobacco Board are announcing Minimum Support Price (MSP) from year to year with the objective of protecting the interest of the growers of VFC Tobacco. There is need for establishment of organized marketing system for all types of Tobacco so that the Indian tobacco can achieve significant share in the International market. Research on Tobacco has been playing an important role in the development of Tobacco varieties in India. India grows different variety of Tobacco under different agro-climatic conditions. As such the problem of improvement of different varieties of Tobacco in India are numerous and complicated. The main research work on Tobacco is being done at Central Tobacco Research Institute at Rajahmundry and its Research Stations spread throughout India. Apart from conducting research for development of different varieties of Tobacco for maximizing production, the CTRI, Rajahmundry has been presently doing research for development of alternative crops to Tobacco. CTRI, Rajahmundry has also been entrusted with the research for development of alternative uses of Tobacco in view of anti-smoking campaign. Earlier the Directorate of Tobacco Development was running two Non-Plan Schemes on bidi Tobacco viz. (i) Seed and Seedlings Scheme and (ii) Farmers Training Scheme at Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, but both these scheme have been terminated by the end of March 2000. As a part of all India Comprehensive Scheme to study the cost of cultivation of the principal crops, this Directorate is running the scheme for Assessing the Cost of Production of VFC Tobacco in Andhra Pradesh from 1974-75 onwards. Under this she me the data on cost of production are collected by cost aounting method by Field staff posted in selected clusters in Tobacco belt of Andhra Pradesh. After collection and compilation of such field data, this Directorate has been regularly sending such Information to Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Afterwards, the estimates of cost generated under this scheme are passed on to the Commission for Agricultural

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Cost and Prices (CACP) for its use in recommending the Minimum Support Price (MSP) on VFC Tobacco from year to year basis. Tobacco Industry in India contributes in a unique manner to several important facets of the Indian Economy, covering revenue, export, employment, and GDP growth. The Tobacco industry in India mainly covers manufacturing of cigarette, bidi, cigar and cheroot, hookah, snuff and other chewing Tobacco like zarda, gutkha and other pan masala. Cigarette industry in India is essentially capital intensive in nature. The growth of cigarette industry both in domestic and international market represents a big revenue opportunity for the economy. But the burden of Tobacco tax has increasingly shifted to cigarette with the removal of duty on raw Tobacco since 1979, resulting in discriminatory rates of duty compared to other Tobacco products. India's share in world cigarette production has remained at around 1.7% whereas India's exports of around 2.8 billion sticks of cigarette per year accounts for less than 1% of the world export of cigarette. There is significant opportunity for cigarette industry to extent and consolidate its position in intentional market due to some recent trend like withdrawal/reduction of agricultural subsidy and escalating cost in the traditional cigarette exporting countries. Bidi industry is one of the foremost cottage industries in India. Total amount of bidi Tobacco production was 150million kg and that of bidi was around 700 billion pieces during1994-95. Around 37% of Tobacco production in India goes to bidi making as per Indian Market Research Bureau (IMRB) report 1996.The social significance of bidi industry derives from the fact that it generates more employment in the economy compared to cigarette industry. During 1993-94 the bidi industry generated around 1310 million man days of employment. There is scope for development of bidi industry in view of excessive and biased tax treatment of cigarette.

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Cigar and Cheroot industry is one of the oldest industries in India, and is mainly concentrated in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh. But presently this industry is in deep dwindling condition due to unorganized marketing system From the beginning of 17th century, Tobacco has been playing a important role in international trade. Recently there has been world-wide anti Tobacco campaign which resulted in modest fall in area and production of Tobacco. But consumption of Tobacco in the world has remained more or less stable. Similarly the world cigarette production grew steadily up to 1997and started declining slowly during 1998 and its again shows upward trend during 1999. As per the projection by F.A.O, the global Tobacco industry is poised to increase at the rate of 1.9% annually which will result in an deficit of 2% projected global demand. Assets such as experienced farming community confer a significant competitive advantage for India. With an increase in the world import requirements translating in to a rise in export potential, Indian Tobacco industry is presented with significant opportunities to consolidate and extent its position in the global market.


Chewing tobacco has been a tradition in India for centuries. Of the total amount of tobacco produced in the country, around 48% is in the form of chewing tobacco, 38% as bidis, and only 14% as cigarettes. Thus, bidis, snuff and chewing tobacco (such as gutka, khaini and zarda) form the bulk (86%) of Indias total tobacco production. In the rest of the world, production of cigarettes is 90% of total production of tobacco related products. The per capita consumption of cigarettes in India is merely a tenth of the world average. This unique tobacco consumption pattern is a combination of tradition and more importantly the tax imposed on cigarettes over the last 2 decades. Cigarette smokers pay almost 85% of the total tax revenues generated from tobacco.




The major players in the Indian tobacco market are ITC Ltd Godfrey Phillips GTC(Golden Tobacco Limited) VST Industries Limited

1.4.1 ITC LTD

ITC Limited is an Indian conglomerate with a turnover of US $ 6 billion and a market capitalization of over US $ 22 Billion. The company has its registered office in Kolkata. The company is currently headed by Yogesh Chander Deveshwar. It employs over 26,000 people at more than 60 locations across India and is listed on Forbes 2000. ITC Limited completes 100 years on 24th August, 2010. ITC has a diversified presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Information Technology, Branded Apparel, Personal Care, Stationery, Safety Matches and other FMCG products. While ITC is an outstanding market leader in its traditional businesses of Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards, Packaging and Agri-Exports, it is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel, Personal Care and Stationery.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS ITC's aspiration to be an exemplar in sustainability practices is manifest in its status as the only company in the world of its size and diversity to be 'carbon positive', 'water positive' and 'solid waste recycling positive.' In addition, ITC's businesses have created sustainable livelihoods for more than 5 million people, a majority of whom represent the poorest in rural India. List of products Cigarettes: W. D. & H. O. Wills, Gold Flake, Navy Cut, Insignia, India Kings, Classic (Verve, Regular, Mild & Ultra Mild), Silk Cut, Scissors, Capstan, Berkeley, Bristol, Lucky Strike and Flake.


The success of Godfrey Phillips India is the result of the Companys commitment to innovations, enhanced operational efficiencies and adoption of internationally acclaimed business processes. Driven to excel, innovate and win, we intend to emerge as one of the most respected Company in the tobacco industry. As the second largest player in the Indian cigarette industry, our annual turnover exceeds INR 2200 crores (approx. US $458.05 million). We own some of the most popular cigarette brands in the country like Four Square, Red and White, Jaisalmer, Cavanders and Tipper. Over the years we have also set our own benchmarks in innovation with revolutionary brands like Stellar, the first slim cigarette and I-gen, the first euro norm cigarette in India. Products are distributed over an extensive India wide network of more than 500 distributors and 800,000 retail outlets. With the Corporate Office in Delhi, the Company has offices all across India in over 8 locations. Godfrey Phillips India has two major stakeholders, one of India's leading industrial houses - the K. K. Modi Group and one of the world's largest tobacco


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS companies, Philip Morris. The Company also enjoys a strong backing of over 12,000 shareholders. Range of products Stellar Igen Four Square Jaisalmer Red & White Flak Northpole Cavanders


Golden Tobacco Limited is a professionally managed organization in the field of tobacco and tobacco related products. Established in the year 1930 by the late Shri. Narsee Monjee, Golden Tobacco is the first wholly owned indigenous company in the country, taken over by Dalmia Group in the year 1979. The group is headed by Mr. Sanjay Dalmia as Chairman & Mr. Anurag Dalmia as Vice Chairman. Nurtured under the leadership and guidance of Mr. J P Khetan the Managing Director of Golden Tobacco, the company offers customers an exceptional variety of the finest tobacco products, which meet world class standards of quality and consistency, and is a valid example of contemporary manufacturing techniques, professional Marketing, good HR practice and quality control systems. Golden Tobacco has manpower strength of 2000 employees spread across manufacturing, purchasing, processing, sales and marketing. The Company has two major production facilities in Mumbai as well as Baroda. To keep the pace with its strategy of providing quality cigarettes to its national and international customers,


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Golden Tobacco, Vadodara has recently implemented ISO 9001:2000 and has been certified by worlds one of the most reputed accreditation agency RWTUV. The companys offerings are grouped under the Brand families of Panama, Chancellor, Goldens and Steel. Each Brand family has several strong offerings in its portfiolio, such as Panama Virginia Regular and Panama Filter, Chancellor Browns and Chancellor Exclusive, and Goldens Gold Flake. Product range Products Variants Panama Virginia Regular, Panama Filter, Panama Panama Premium Filter, Panama Gold, Panama Delight, Panama Menthol and Panama Mini Kings Chancellor Golden Style Mini Kings Taj Chapp Steel June Chancellor Browns, Chancellor Royale, Chancellor Exclusive, Chancellor Harvard Luxury, Chancellor Light Goldens Gold Flake , Goldens Major No Variants No Variants No Variants No Variants


VST Industries Limited (VST) is an India-based company. The Company is engaged in tobacco and related products business. The Company has sales in India and outside India. Its products include cigarettes, unmanufactured tobacco, cut tobacco and other articles of paper and paper board. VST Distribution, Storage & Leasing Company Private Limited is the Company's subsidiary.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Product range: Shah-I-Deccan, Gold Reserve, Gold Premium, Charminar, Start Up, Moments Charms, Think, Vijay, Shaan, Xl


India is the worlds second-largest producer of leaf tobacco. It is also a very large consumer of tobacco products. Tobacco is one of the important cash crops in the country, and makes a significant contribution to the Indian economy in terms of employment, income and government revenue. It generates nearly Rs 20 billion of income per annum. The economic importance of the crop can be considered at three levels: farm households engaged in tobacco growing and processing; major tobacco producing States; and central government level.


There are an estimated 850 000 growers of tobacco in the country, characterized by small family farms, with farmers owning less than 2 ha of land forming about half of all tobacco growers. However, based on field surveys carried out by Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, in selected tobacco growing districts in Gujarat and Karnataka, the small-scale producers account for about a quarter of the tobacco area. In total, nearly 6 million farmers and workers depend on this sector for their livelihood. In addition, the tobacco sector provides direct and indirect employment to a large number of people in many related industries.


The tobacco sector contributes to the States economies through crop production and to the exchequer through excise duty, as well as from their share in the net central excise duties. Tobacco cultivation is concentrated in three states: Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Karnataka. The additional excise duties on tobacco, which is distributed only among tobacco growing states, increased from Rs 3477 million in 1979/80 to Rs 28532 million in 2008 /09. During the fiscal years 2003 to 2008, the State Governments received annually 47.5 percent of the net proceeds of union excise duty


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS levied on a number of commodities, including on tobacco products. It amounted to around Rs 240000 million annually, of which the share from the tobacco sector is estimated to have been around 9 percent. These are an important source of revenue for the States.


In India, excise duty is imposed on the entire range of manufactured tobacco products. In 2008/09, tobacco contributed about Rs 79400 million to the central governments revenue or 10.6 percent of total excise collection. Tobacco contributed Rs 17790 million to export earnings in 2008/09, which was around 5 percent of the foreign exchange earnings from agricultural products. In addition, the central government also realized on average around Rs 9000 million per annum from tobacco enterprises in the form of corporate tax during the last three tax years. However, raw tobacco was exempted from excise with effect from 1979/80, primarily because the administration and collection of excise duty on raw tobacco was expensive as well as cumbersome, and control was ineffective. The consequent revenue loss from the exemption was more than compensated for by steep increases in tax rates on manufactured items. Although most manufactured tobacco products attract excise duties, tobacco products from cottage industries (bidis, etc.) are taxed at a much lower rate than those from the organized sector (i.e. cigarettes). Bidi manufacturers producing less than 2 million pieces annually do not have to pay any excise duty. Bidis (other than paper rolled) produced without the aid of machines pay Rs 5 per thousand pieces. Other bidi manufacturers currently pay Rs l5.5 per thousand pieces. Pan masala is taxed 40 percent ad valorem (24 percent basic duty plus a special duty of l6 percent). Chewing tobacco and snuff with a brand name attract 50 percent excise duty (ad valorem).





ITC is one of India's foremost private sector companies with a market capitalization of over US $ 22 billion and a turnover of US $ 6 billion. ITC is rated among the World's Best Big Companies, Asia's 'Fab50' and the World's Most Reputable Companies by Forbes magazine, among India's Most Respected Companies by Business World and among India's Most Valuable Companies by Business Today. ITC ranks among India's `10 Most Valuable (Company) Brands', in a study conducted by Brand Finance and published by the Economic Times. ITC also ranks among Asia's 50 best performing companies compiled by Business Week. ITC has a diversified presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Information Technology, Branded Apparel, Personal Care, Stationery, Safety Matches and other FMCG products. While ITC is an outstanding market leader in its traditional businesses of Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards, Packaging and Agri-Exports, it is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel, Personal Care and Stationery. ITC's diversified status originates from its corporate strategy aimed at creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies: unmatched distribution reach, superior brand-building capabilities, effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering. Over time, the strategic forays into new businesses are expected to garner a significant share of these emerging high-growth markets in India. ITC's Agri-Business is one of India's largest exporters of agricultural products. ITC is one of the country's biggest foreign exchange earners (US $ 3.2 billion in the last decade). The Company's 'e-Choupal' initiative is enabling Indian agriculture significantly enhance its competitiveness by empowering Indian farmers through the


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS power of the Internet. This transformational strategy, which has already become the subject matter of a case study at Harvard Business School, is expected to progressively create for ITC a huge rural distribution infrastructure, significantly enhancing the Company's marketing reach. ITC's wholly owned Information Technology subsidiary, ITC InfoTech India Ltd, provides IT services and solutions to leading global customers. ITC InfoTech has carved a niche for itself by addressing customer challenges through innovative IT solutions. ITC's production facilities and hotels have won numerous national and international awards for quality, productivity, safety and environment management systems. ITC was the first company in India to voluntarily seek a corporate governance rating. ITC employs over 26,000 people at more than 60 locations across India. The Company continuously endeavors to enhance its wealth generating capabilities in a globalizing environment to consistently reward more than 3,60,000 shareholders, fulfill the aspirations of its stakeholders and meet societal expectations. This overarching vision of the company is expressively captured in its corporate positioning statement: "Enduring Value. For the nation. For the Shareholder.

Sustain ITC's position as one of India's most valuable corporations through world class performance, creating growing value for the Indian economy and the Companys stakeholders.

To enhance the wealth generating capability of the enterprise in a globalizing environment, delivering superior and sustainable stakeholder value.




o Cigarettes o Foods o Lifestyle Retailing o Personal Care o Education & Stationery o Safety Matches o Agarbattis


o Paperboards &Specialty Papers o Packaging

o Agri Commodities o Leaf Tobacco




2.4.1 FMCG CIGARETTES ITC is the market leader in cigarettes in India. With its wide range of invaluable brands, it has a leadership position in every segment of the market. It's highly popular portfolio of brands includes Insignia, India Kings, Classic, Gold Flake, Silk Cut, Navy Cut, Scissors, Capstan, Berkeley, Bristol and Flake. The Company has been able to build on its leadership position because of its single minded focus on value creation for the consumer through significant


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS investments in product design, innovation, manufacturing technology, quality, marketing and distribution. All initiatives are therefore worked upon with the intent to fortify market standing in the long term. This in turns aids in designing products which are contemporary and relevant to the changing attitudes and evolving socio economic profile of the country. This strategic focus on the consumer has paid ITC handsome dividends. ITC's pursuit of international competitiveness is reflected in its initiatives in the overseas markets. In the extremely competitive US market, ITC offers high-quality, value-priced cigarettes and Roll-your-own solutions. In West Asia, ITC has become a key player in the GCC markets through growing volumes of its brands. ITC's cigarettes are produced in its state-of-the-art factories at Bengaluru, Munger, Saharanpur, Kolkata and Pune. These factories are known for their high levels of quality, contemporary technology and work environment. FOODS ITC made its entry into the branded & packaged Foods business in August 2001 with the launch of the Kitchens of India brand. A more broad-based entry has been made since June 2002 with brand launches in the Confectionery, Staples and Snack Foods segments. The packaged foods business is an ideal avenue to leverage ITC's proven strengths in the areas of hospitality and branded cuisine, contemporary packaging and sourcing of agricultural commodities. ITC's world famous restaurants like the Bukhara and the Dum Pukht, nurtured by the Company's Hotels business, demonstrate that ITC has a deep understanding of the Indian palate and the expertise required to translate this knowledge into delightful dining experiences for the consumer. ITC has stood for quality products for over 98 years to the Indian consumer and several of its brands are today internationally benchmarked for quality.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS The Foods business carries forward this proud tradition to deliver quality food products to the consumer. All products of ITC's Foods business available in the market today have been crafted based on consumer insights developed through extensive market research. Apart from the current portfolio of products, several new and innovative products are under development in ITC's state-of-the-art Product Development facility located at Bengaluru. Leadership in the Foods business requires a keen understanding of the supply chain for agricultural produce. ITC has over the last 99 years established a very close business relationship with the farming community in India and is currently in the process of enhancing the Indian farmer's ability to link to global markets, through the e-Choupal initiative, and produce the quality demanded by its customers. The Foods business is today represented in 4 categories in the market. These are: Ready to Eat Foods Staples Confectionery Snack Foods

In order to assure consumers of the highest standards of food safety and hygiene, ITC is engaged in assisting outsourced manufacturers in implementing world-class hygiene standards through HACCP certification. The unwavering commitment to internationally benchmarked quality standards enabled ITC to rapidly gain market standing in all its 6 brands: Kitchens of India Aashirvaad Sunfeast mint-o Candyman and Bingo


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS LIFESTYLE RETAILING ITCs Lifestyle Retailing Business Division has established a nationwide retailing presence through its Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive specialty stores. Wills Lifestyle, the fashion destination, offers a tempting choice of Wills Classic work wear, Wills Sport relaxed wear, Wills Clublife evening wear, fashion accessories and Essenza Di Wills an exclusive range of fine fragrances and bath & body care products and Fiama Di Wills - a range of premium shampoos and shower gels. Wills Lifestyle has also introduced Wills Signature designer wear, designed by the leading designers of the country. With a distinctive presence across segments at the premium end, ITC has also established John Players as a brand that offers a complete fashion wardrobe to the male youth of today. With its brands, ITC is committed to build a dominant presence in the apparel market through a robust portfolio of offerings.. Wills Lifestyle was named Superbrand 2009 by the Superbrands Council of India recently. Wills Lifestyle has been twice declared 'The Most Admired Exclusive Brand Retail Chain of the Year' at the Images Fashion Awards in 2001 & 2003. as well as 'Most Admired Fashion Brand of the year - Fashion Forward' in 2009. Wills Lifestyle is the title partner of the countrys most premier fashion event Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week. Taking the celebration of the event to its stores. Wills Lifestyle has partnered with several leading designers whose new edition of Designer wear is now available at Wills Lifestyle stores. Wills Lifestyle complements the range of premium apparel with a tempting choice of fashion accessories. This season a wider choice of accessories will be offered across ties, cuff links, socks, caps, hand bags, wallets, belts, eyewear and shoes. John Players offers a complete and vibrant wardrobe of Casual wear, Party wear, Work wear, Denims, Outer wear and Suits & Jackets, incorporating the most contemporary trends, an exciting mix of colors, playful styling, trendy textures and


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS comfortable fits. The brand is available across the country through a nation-wide network of over 225 exclusive stores and 1200 multi-brand outlets. At the Images Fashion Awards 2005, John Players was declared 'The Most Admired Shirt Brand of the Year'.At the Images Fashion Awards 2007, John Players was awarded the 'The Most Admired Fashion Campaign of the Year' award. PERSONAL CARE In line with ITC's aspiration to be India's premier FMCG Company, recognized for its world-class quality and enduring consumer trust, ITC forayed into the Personal Care business in July 2005. In the short period since its entry, ITC has already launched an array of brands, each of which offers a unique and superior value proposition to discerning consumers. Anchored on extensive consumer research and product development, ITC's personal care portfolio brings world-class products with clearly differentiated benefits to quality-seeking consumers. ITC's Personal Care portfolio under the 'Essenza Di Wills', 'Fiama Di Wills', 'Vivel Di Wills' 'Vivel UltraPro', 'Vivel' and 'Superia' brands has received encouraging consumer response and is being progressively extended nationally. Extensive insights gained by ITC through its numerous consumer engagements have provided the platform for its R&D and Product Development teams to develop superior, differentiated products that meet the consumer's stated and innate needs. The product formulations use internationally recognized safe ingredients, subjected to the highest standards of safety and performance. EDUCATION & STATIONERY ITC's Education and Stationery Products are marketed under the brands "Classmate" and "Paperkraft". The Paperkraft range of products aims at satisfying the stationery needs & office consumables need of office executives & working professional. The continuously expanding product range under Paperkraft includes Premium Business Paper, Paper Stationery, Markers & Highlighters.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Classmate Notebooks, Classmate Math Instruments, Classmate Scholastic Products(HB Jet Black writing pencils, erasers & sharpeners), Classmate Writing Instruments(Ball Pens: Classmate Safari, Classmate Ilet & Classmate Edge and Gel Pens: Classmate Glider & Classmate Octane) SAFETY MATCHES ITCs range of Safety matches include popular brands like i Kno, Mangaldeep, Aim, Aim Mega and Aim Metro. With differentiated product features and innovative value additions, these brands effectively address the needs of different consumer segments. The Aim brand is the largest selling brand of Safety Matches in India. ITC also exports regular and premium safety matches brands to markets such as Middle East, Africa and the USA. The successful acquisition of Wimco Ltd. by Russell Credit Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of ITC has consolidated the market standing of the Company's Matches business through synergy benefits derived through combined portfolio of offerings, improved servicing of proximal markets and freight optimization. Through its participation, ITC aims to enhance the competitiveness of the small and medium scale sectors through its complementary R&D based product development and marketing strengths, especially the breadth and depth of the Company's trade marketing and distribution AGARBATTIS As part of ITC's business strategy of creating multiple drivers of growth in the FMCG sector, the Company commenced marketing Agarbattis (Incense Sticks) sourced from small-scale and cottage units in 2003. This Business leverages the core strengths of ITC in nation-wide distribution and marketing, brand building, supply chain management, manufacture of high quality paperboards and the creation of innovative packaging solutions to offer Indian consumers high quality Agarbattis. Mangaldeep Agarbattis are available in a wide range of fragrances like Rose, Jasmine, Bouquet, Sandalwood, Madhur, Durbar, Tarangini, Anushri, Ananth and Mogra.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS In line with ITC's Triple Bottom Line philosophy of every business contributing to the nation's economic, environmental and social capital, Mangaldeep agarbattis are manufactured by small scale and cottage units, providing livelihood opportunities for more than 8500 people. Six out of 11 Mangaldeep Agarbatti manufacturing units are ISO 9000 certified. Mangaldeep ASHA (Assistance in Social Habilitation through Agarbattis) is an ITC initiative to improve the quality of raw agarbatti production and provide better value realization for women rollers. Under the project, ITC has extended support to NGOs in states and like Bihar, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, who are setting up agarbatti units, training village women in rolling agarbattis and employing them in these units. In the latest initiative, ITC signed a MoU with Orissa Government run Orissa Rural Development and Marketing Society (ORMAS) for marketing raw incense sticks in the state- a move that is expected to provide employment opportunities to over 3000 rural women.

2.4.2 HOTELS
ITC Welcomgroup, Indias premier chain of luxury hotels was launched on October 18, 1975, with the opening of its first hotel - Chola Sheraton in Chennai. Since then the ITC-Welcomgroup brand has become synonymous with Indian hospitality. With over 100 hotels in more than 80 destinations. ITC-Welcomgroup's properties are classified under four distinct brands: ITC Hotels - Luxury Collection In 2007, ITC-Welcomgroup entered a new phase in its collaboration with Starwood Hotels & Resorts. ITC-Welcomgroup now has an exclusive tie-up with Starwood in bringing its premium brand, the 'Luxury Collection', to India. These are super deluxe and premium hotels located at strategic business and leisure locations. The seven hotels which are part of this collection are: ITC Maurya in Delhi, ITC Maratha in Mumbai, ITC Sonar in Kolkata, ITC Grand Central in Mumbai, ITC


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Windsor & ITC Royal Gardenia in Bengaluru, ITC Kakatiya in Hyderabad and ITC Mughal in Agra. WelcomHotels WelcomHotels offer five-star hospitality for the discerning business and leisure traveller. Currently there are three hotels under this brand namely,WelcomHotel Rama International Aurangabad,WelcomHotel Vadodara and WelcomHotel Grand Bay Vishakhapatnam. Four other ITC-Welcomgroup Sheraton Hotels Sheraton Rajputana Hotel Jaipur, Sheraton Chola Hotel Chennai and Sheraton New Delhi offer warm, comforting services to the global traveller and a chance to connect. Fortune Hotels Fortune hotels offer full service properties all over India, including smaller towns and cities, ideal for the budget traveller. Fortune Hotels have a strong presence in Ahmedabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Calicut, Darjeeling, Jamshedpur, Vapi, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Indore, Ootacamund, Madurai, Jodhpur, Vijaywada, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Mahabalipuram, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Navi Mumbai, Tirupati and Port Blair, while several more hotels are expected to be commissioned soon in other key locations in India. WelcomHeritage Welcome heritage brings together a chain of palaces, forts, havelis and resorts that offer a unique experience. WelcomHeritage endeavours to preserve ancient royal homes and the historical Indian grandeur and opulence for the future Indian generations. WelcomHeritage provides a fine range of hotel services inside these architectural legacies present in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharastra, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Puducherry.




ITC's Paperboards and Specialty Papers Division is India's largest, technologically advanced and most eco-friendly, paper and paperboards business. The business caters to a wide spectrum of packaging, graphic, communication, writing, printing and specialty paper requirements through its four world-class manufacturing units, 6 sales offices and a network of more than 50 dealers in India, along with an international trade network of 15 distributors / agents. The product range includes: Packaging Virgin Folding Box Boards Solid Bleached Boards Recycled Coated Duplex White back Coated Duplex Grey back White Liner

ITC's Packaging & Printing Business is the largest value added converter of paperboard packaging in South Asia. It converts over 70,000 tonnes of paper, paperboard and laminates per annum into a variety of value-added packaging solutions for the food & beverage, personal products, cigarette, liquor and consumer goods industries. The Division supplies value-added packaging to ITCs various FMCG businesses. Its client list includes several well-known national and international companies like Nokia, Colgate Palmolive, Pernod Ricard, Diageo, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International, Agio Cigars, UB Group, Tata Tetley, Tata Tea, Reckitt Benckiser, Radico Khaitan, Akbar Brothers, Surya Nepal, VST Industries, etc.



ITC's pre-eminent position as one of India's leading corporate in the agricultural sector is based on strong and enduring farmer partnerships that has revolutionized and transformed the rural agricultural sector. One of the largest exporters of agri products from the country, ITC sources the finest of Indian Feed Ingredients, Food Grains, Edible Nuts, Marine Products, Processed Fruits, Coffee & Spices. ITC's Agri Business Division is the country's second largest exporter of agriproducts with exports of over Rs. 1000 Crores (Rs. 10 billion). Its domestic sales of agri-products are in excess of Rs. 1500 Crores (Rs. 15 billion). It currently focuses on exports and domestic trading of: Feed Ingredients - Soya meal Food Grains - Rice (Basmati & Non Basmati), Wheat, Pulses Edible Nuts - Sesame Seeds, HPS Groundnuts, Castor oil Marine Products - Shrimps and Prawns Processed Fruits - Fruit Purees/Concentrates, IQF/Frozen Fruits, Organic Fruit Products, Fresh Fruits Coffee & Spices - Coffee, Black Pepper, Chilly, Turmeric, Ginger, Celery and other Seed Spices Farmer empowerment through e-Choupals ITC's unique strength in this business is the extensive backward linkages it has established with the farmers. This networking with the farming community has enabled ITC to build a highly cost effective procurement system. ITC has made significant investments in web-enabling the Indian farmer. Christened 'e-Choupal', ITC's empowerment plan for the farmer centres around providing Internet kiosks in villages. Farmers use this technology infrastructure to access on-line information from ITC's farmer-friendly website Data accessed by the farmers relate to the weather, crop conditions, best practices in farming, ruling international


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS prices and a host of other relevant information. e-Choupal today is the world's largest rural digital infrastructure. The unique e-Choupal model creates a significant two-way multi-dimensional channel which can efficiently carry products and services into and out of rural India, while recovering the associated costs through agri-sourcing led efficiencies. This initiative now comprises about 6500 installations covering nearly 40,000 villages and serving over 4 million farmers. Currently, the 'e-Choupal' website provides information to farmers across the 10 States of Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Over the next 5 years it is ITC's Vision to create a network of 20,000 e-Choupals, thereby extending coverage to 100,000 villages representing one sixth of rural India. Choupal Fresh Choupal Fresh, ITC's fresh food wholesale and retail initiative, leverages its extensive backward linkages with farmers and supply chain efficiencies. It focuses on stocking fresh horticulture produce like fresh fruits and vegetables. Five Choupal Fresh retail stores are currently operational at Hyderabad. The company has also set up a complete cold chain for ensuring the availability of fresh products in the market, besides directly sourcing farm fresh produce from the farmers. Marine Products ITC has been a significant exporter of seafood from India since 1971. It exports frozen as well as cooked shrimps and other seafood products to Japan, USA and Europe. Its well-known brands include Gold Ribbon, Blue Ribbon, Aqua Kings, Aqua Bay, Aqua Feast and Peninsular.




ITC Infotech, a global IT services company, is today one of Indias fastest growing IT services and solutions providers. Based out of a picturesque 35 acre campus in the heart of Bangalore city, ITC Infotech, through wholly-owned subsidiaries in the UK and US, provides outsourced IT services and solutions to leading global customers. ITC Infotech offers IT services and solutions across five key industry verticals: Banking, Financial Services & Insurance (BFSI), Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG) & Retail, Manufacturing & Engineering Services, Travel, Hospitality & Transportation and Media & Entertainment. ITC Infotech enjoys the rare advantage of having a practitioners expertise in some of these industry verticals, which has in part been bequeathed by parent ITC Limited, which runs market leading businesses in these verticals. While an enterprise range of technology capabilities and world class quality processes form the foundation of ITC Infotechs cutting-edge IT service strength, a sharp domain focus ensures that IT and ITES delivery always places business needs ahead of technology. ITC Infotech has carved a niche for itself as a leading global IT solutions provider by addressing customer pain points through innovative solutions. ITC Infotechs leadership capabilities also accrue from business critical engagements with leading organizations across five continents, and a service delivery footprint spanning over 140 countries. ITC Infotech conforms to the highest standards in international process quality, with ISO 27001, ISO 9001, SEI CMM Level 5 and BS 7799 accreditations. These reflect the companys ongoing enterprise-wide focus to ensure that every engagement, program and project delivers international quality consistently.



The practice of Corporate Governance in ITC is at three interlinked levels: Strategic supervision Strategic management by the Board of Directors by the Corporate Management Committee by the Divisional / Strategic Business Executive management Unit (SBU) Chief Executive assisted by the respective Divisional / SBU Management Committee

The three-tier governance structure ensures that: (a) Strategic supervision (on behalf of the shareholders), being free from involvement in the task of strategic management of the Company, can be conducted by the Board with objectivity, thereby sharpening accountability of management; (b) Strategic management of the Company, uncluttered by the day-to-day tasks of executive management, remains focused and energized; and (c) Executive management of a Division or Business, free from collective strategic responsibilities for ITC as a whole, focuses on enhancing the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the business. The core roles of the key entities flow from this structure. The core roles, in turn, determine the core responsibilities of each entity. In order to discharge such responsibilities, each entity is empowered formally with requisite powers. The structure, processes and practices of governance enable focus on the corporate purpose while simultaneously facilitating effective management of the wider portfolio of businesses.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 2.5.2 ROLES OF VARIOUS ENTITIES Board of Directors (Board): The primary role of the Board is that of trusteeship to protect and enhance shareholder value through strategic supervision of ITC, its wholly owned subsidiaries and their wholly owned subsidiaries. As trustees, the Board ensures that the Company has clear goals relating to shareholder value and its growth. The Board sets strategic goals and seeks accountability for their fulfillment. The Board also provides direction and exercises appropriate control to ensure that the Company is managed in a manner that fulfils stakeholders aspirations and societal expectations. The Board, as part and parcel of its functioning, also periodically reviews its role. Corporate Management Committee (CMC): The primary role of the CMC is strategic management of the Companys businesses within Board approved direction / framework. The CMC operates under the strategic supervision and control of the Board. Chairman: The Chairman of ITC is the Chief Executive of the Company. He is the Chairman of the Board and the CMC. His primary role is to provide leadership to the Board and the CMC for realizing Company goals in accordance with the charter approved by the Board. He is responsible, inter alia, for the working of the Board and the CMC, for ensuring that all relevant issues are on the agenda and for ensuring that all Directors and CMC members are enabled and encouraged to play a full part in the activities of the Board and the CMC, respectively. He keeps the Board informed on all matters of importance. He is also responsible for the balance of membership of the Board, subject to Board and Shareholder approvals. He presides over General Meetings of Shareholders. Divisional Management Committee (DMC) / SBU Management Committee (SBU MC): The primary role of the DMC / SBU MC is executive management of the Divisional / SBU business to realize tactical and strategic objectives in accordance with Board approved plan.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Executive Director: The Executive Directors, as members of the CMC, contribute to the strategic management of the Companys businesses within Board approved direction / framework. As Directors accountable to the Board for a business / corporate function, they assume overall responsibility for its strategic management, including its governance processes and top management effectiveness. As Directors accountable to the Board for a wholly owned subsidiary or its wholly owned subsidiary, they act as the custodians of ITCs interests and are responsible for their governance in accordance with the charter approved by the Board. Non-Executive Director: Non-Executive Directors, including Independent Directors, play a critical role in imparting balance to the Board processes by bringing an independent judgement on issues of strategy, performance, resources, standards of Company conduct etc. Divisional / SBU CEO: The Divisional / SBU CEO is the Chief Operating Officer for a business with executive responsibility for its day-to-day operations and provides leadership to the DMC / SBU MC in its task of executive management of the business.








Like any other ITC division even the ITD (Indian tobacco division) is headed by Chief Executive Officer, Finance Head and Marketing head who monitor the activities of all the 5 five factories which come under ITD. These officers are accountable to the Board of directors. They play a key role in the accomplishment of organizations goals and policies. Five branches of ITD situated at Bangalore, Munger, Saharanpur, Kolkata and Pune are headed by Branch managers who control the activities of their respective factories with the assistance of various other departments functioning in the factory.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS The organization structure of Bangalore factory is shown below:

2.6.1 BRANCH MANAGER Branch manager is the head if ITD Bangalore, who takes care of all the activities of the Bangalore branch. All the other department managers report to the Branch Manager regarding the progress and development of the functions of their respective departments. The Branch Manager reports which he feels are of importance to the head office located in Kolkata. All the five Branch Managers of ITD (Indian tobacco division) meet once in three months to update each other about the proceedings in their respective branches. .


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 2.6.2 PRODUCTION MANAGER Production Manager is in charge of the two manufacturing departments in ITD Bangalore, namely, PMD The primary function of PMD is processing of the various types of tobacco leaves procured for manufacturing different brands of cigarettes. PMD production plan depends on: SMD Consumption Plan (Bulk) SMD Niche Requirement OCM Requirements Current Stock in CTS PMD (Primary Manufacturing Department) SMD (Secondary Manufacturing Department)

Sequence of Activities in Planning: Plan Order Created by HO in SAP. Plan for next month communicated by month end. Production Order Plan Orders in SAP converted into Production Order by PMD on a daily basis. Operation number generated at this stage. (Continued till end) Release Of Production Order Done by Leaf Godown Clerk on availability of material. Bill Of Material Material issued by Leaf Godown on the basis of BOM. Start Of Operation Material fed in operation lines and processing starts.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS SMD In SMD the processed tobacco leaves processed in PMD department is rolled in cigarette paper. Then the cigarette paper is glued and later the cigarette rods are cut to required lengths. And the final product is delivered out as cigarettes. All the activities that come under PMD and SMD is monitored by the production manager. If there is any breakdown then, the Production Manager should visit the spot within a specified time frame and take necessary action so that the production resumes as early as possible. 2.6.3 CES CENTRAL ENGINEERING STORES Central Engineering Stores (CES) in Bangalore procures stores & spares for all factories including OCMs i.e. 5 factories and OCMs of Indian Tobacco Division. This is with the objective of having centralized control and to reap the benefit of low prices procuring all the spares centrally.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 2.6.4 EHS (ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, SAFETY) A commitment from the top management to ensure health and safety of the organization, its people and the environment as a whole. All employees to adhere to Corporate EHS Policy.

EHS SYSTEM AND STANDARDS Sec. 1: EHS Organization & Management EHS organization set-up. EHS committees Communication of EHS policy Training requirements Risk management (Safe Work ) Audits & controls (I. Audit, Law) Safe work procedures w.r.t contractors Documentation & record keeping Sec. 2: Occupational Health & Hygiene Evaluation of occupational health issues & measures of control (Noise, Dusts, Stress) Medical support (Ambulance, First Aid) Housekeeping & cleanliness (Hygiene) Personal protective equipment (PPE) Sec.3: Electrical, Mechanical, Buildings, Housekeeping & Safe Work Practices Electrical Safety &safe working practices Fencing & Guarding of dangerous machinery & parts Safety in buildings & housekeeping


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Sec 4: Environment Air pollution, Noise pollution & Water pollution management Water conservation & rainwater harvesting Wastes management Hazardous chemicals Energy Ozone depleting substances Sec. 5: Fire Safety Fire organization & management: Measures of restricting & controlling fire Alerting occupants Emergency escape arrangement Control of Fire Sec. 6: Accident Reporting, Investigation & Control Recording Accident / Injuries / dangerous occurrences Investigation of all accidents / injuries / dangerous occurrences

2.6.5 MIS - MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM Entire MIS controls lies at Head Office, Kolkata. In B2 1 NT Server maintained for login authentication. HO Central Help Desk Central functioning cell for all locations. LN access SAP access Applications collected at B2. Processing, Approval and Creation no control. Book a Call. takes place from HO. BCF MIS team has


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS For any MIS issue, B2 has to book a call with the HO team and they take care of it. Hardware Desktops provided to all managers and office associates. Laptop given only to Level D managers. Other manager - Need basis, HOD approval. Software Microsoft Windows XP Professional, Version 2002 (SP-3), Domain ITC.IN Connectivity LAN Local Area Network for all computers in the factory. WAN Wide Area Network access for connectivity with HO and B1.

Dedicated leased lines for WAN. (BSNL & Reliance 2 vendors for contingency & backup) Security Restricted with individual passwords. Automatic lock if unused for 2 minutes. Password to be alphanumeric with special character. Changed every 90 days. Employees not to share their password except with their HOD. Personal laptops No LAN connection. No Company software to be installed. No personal software can be installed on factory computers.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 2.6.6 PILOT PLANT Pilot Plant forms part of Centre for Process Development (CPD) team, Head Office. Operations controlled by the HO. (Chief blender in HO).Project initiated by HO. Trial runs in PP & results communicated to HO. Analyzing results, iterations take place in blends. Continue until satisfied with the result. Development of samples for new products (i.e. new brands) Based on the recommendation of Marketing Team Survey

Straight Grade Analysis Changes in crop chemical composition analyzed every year.

Development of grades for existing blends Change in crop chemistry to ensure that blend remains the same

PMD processing for Niche Operations of SMD Minimum Operation Size- 250 Kgs, Maximum Capacity 540 Kgs.

2.6.7 HR DEPARTMENT Major Functions Maintaining harmonious Industrial Relations in the factory. Assisting in preparation of LTA with workers. Recruitment of workers for the factory Appointment of Contractor Labors in the factory. Responsible for functioning of Canteen, Ambulance Room, Transport Processing of wages for all workers Providing training and development facilities to the workers. Maintain various welfare schemes and funds for workers


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS HR Statistics Total number of workers in the factory Total number of managers in the factory Total number of confidential secretaries 1148 99 26 450-500

Total number of contract workers in the factory -

Long Term Agreement LTA is the Memorandum of Settlement entered into between the Management on the one hand and the Union on the other hand. The need to enter into MOS is as prescribed by Section 12 (3) of the Industrial Disputes Act. Current LTA is with effect from 1st August, 2007 for a period of 42 months. It prescribes workers entitlement and other T&C of employment in the factory. Signed by BM, HRM, BE, PM from Management Side duly witnessed by CM.

PROCESS FLOW For Wages Processing Master Data Base Earning Details Time and Leaves Recording Computation of


Release of Net Payment


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 2.6.8 COMMERCIAL / FINANCE DEPARTMENT The commercial department consists of the six divisions as mentioned below: CAPEX (Capital Goods) Fixed asset is an asset held with the intention of being used for the purpose of producing or providing goods and services and is not held for sale in the normal course of business. Different types of Capex Plan Project - Specific items each for Rs. 5 crores and above in value Specified - Specific items each for Rs. 50 Lacs and above in value Clubbed - For Items less than Rs. 50 Lacs each in value Flexible - Unforeseen and emergent


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Procedure for purchase of CAPEX items Indirect Taxes A. Central Excise Related Compliances a. Monthly reconciliation of Excise Duty Reconciliation of various Excise related GL Accounts, SAP Reports and record of AR1 submitted for clearance of goods is done on a monthly b. Reconciliation with Cenvat Records On a monthly basis a report is generated for ascertaining the status of invoices. The report is reviewed and ensured that Cenvat Credit is taken on time. Balance entered in Register is reconciled with respective Cenvat Credit GL Accounts on a monthly basis. Moreover, a reconciliation of Cenvat-in-Transit and Cenvat Clearing Account is done at the month-end.



a) Monthly reconciliation of Service Tax credits availed and maintenance of Service Tax Register i. Person Liable to pay Service Tax Generally the service provider. However in the case of GTA the person who is paying the freight is liable to pay service tax. Moreover, if the Import service provider has no place of business in India, then the service receiver is liable to pay Service Tax and he can avail credit of service tax paid. For Input Service Tax Credit received from ITD Head Office / ILTD (Input Service Distributors - ISDs), service tax credit is being availed based on the challan copies received from ISDs. ii. Monthly Reconciliation On a monthly basis service tax credit register dump is taken from SAP using t-code YRF 301 Service Tax Credit Register. The same is reconciled with Service tax credit related GL accounts. Post reconciliation, the entries of service tax credit utilized for payment of excise duty & any other credit reversal entries are manually updated in the Service Tax credit register maintained in excel sheet. The closing balance in Service tax credit register is tallied with the GL accounts & the same is considered for monthly ER 1 returns. b) Service Tax Return (Half Yearly ST-3 Return Due Date: 25th of the month following the end of the preceding half year) Name of Taxable Service Details of Provisional Assessment made, if any For all services (including GTA) Taxable Value, Service Tax Payable, Service Tax paid in advance, Details of Challan and Challan Date, Cenvat Credit taken and utilized Self Assessment Memorandum


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS c) Service Tax Payment The Service Tax liability for the month on the taxable services availed in the factory shall be paid by 5th day of the following month (6 of the following month if the duty is paid electronically through internet banking). Service tax payment is done at the Unit in capacity of recipient of Service as there is no output service provided. Service tax is paid electronically through internet banking & procedures followed for E-payment of Service Tax are similar to that of E-payment of Excise Duty.

C. Vat Related Compliances Availment of VAT credit & maintenance of VAT register is described as follows a) Identify the items which may be considered as input and capital Consider the Intra-State purchase for the period concerned and identify the items, which may be considered as input or as capital as per the State VAT Act & Rules. The segregation of input and capital is required as, in some States treatment is different for input items and capital items. In Karnataka, VAT Credit on Input can be taken immediately on receipt of goods; however VAT Credit for Capital Goods can only be availed after the Capital Goods has been put to use. b) Compute the input tax credit available Input Tax Credit to be computed in the manner as prescribed in the State VAT Act. c) Disallowance of input credit Input credit is normally disallowed under the following circumstances: i. Stock Transfer Intra-State and Inter-State ii. Sales Return Within a period as specified in the State VAT Act & Rules


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS D. Entry Tax Related Compliances a) Sort the Materials based on Entry Tax Rate and Material Number for the various category of purchases b) For Entry Tax on CAPEX Items, get the amount from CAPEX In-Charge c) Entry Tax is payable on LSHS and CES received in the current month but GR not done. Provision will be created for the same, which will be reversed in the subsequent month. d) For Bangalore Factory Purchase Orders starting with 40, 45 and 47 are DI Items. From the Entry Tax Payable Account, sort Purchase Orders starting with 40,45 and 47, for which Material Number is Blank and document type is WE and take the sum of Entry Tax Payable. e) Entry Tax is not payable on materials stock transferred within 6 months of receipt. As mentioned above, for Stock Transfer Out, subtotal of Purchase Order will not be Zero, it will show debit balance. Check Purchase Orders, subtotal of which shows debit balances and ensure that it is stock transfer out and then calculate the Entry Tax posted for the same f) Entry Tax is also not payable on Materials exclusively used on Export Brands. Obtain list of materials exclusively used for export brands from Production Department on monthly basis and calculate maximum value of entry tax on the same g) Reconcile the Entry Tax Payable as per details send by HO with Entry Tax as per Entry Tax Payable Account. Rate of Entry Tax for the materials in ITC is as mentioned below: Cigarettes/Cut Tobacco Making Materials Domestic/Imported Flavors Domestic/Imported Spares Domestic/Imported Capex Items LSHS - 4% - 1% - 1% - 2% - 2% - 5%


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS EXPORT IMPORT A. EXPORT Customers: a) Cigarettes and Smoking Mixture to King Maker Marketing (KMM),US on consignment basis b) Direct Sales - Cigarettes to Middle East (ME) i. ii. On Letter of credit(LC) basis Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar On advance basis Saudi Arabia , Oman

Planning by Marketing (HO) based on orders received For ME, the Commercial Dept. will prepare the Proforma Invoice and send to HO which in turn will be sending it to the Customer for release of LC.

Payment Termsa) Letter Of Credit The LC comes to our Banker from the Customers Banker. The Original Documents will be sent to our banker who in turn will send these to Customers Banker. The intimation will be given to the Customer regarding the receipt of the docs. The original documents will be released by the Bank once the payment is made by the Customer. b) Advance The Original documents are send to the Customer directly and a copy of the same would be send to bank for closure of FIRC (Foreign Inward Remittance Certificate) issued at the time of receipt of Advance.

Major Brands that are exported ME Scissors, Wills US Ace, Gold Crest, Hival, Smokers Friendly, Checkers (LIP / Non-LIP)


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS B. IMPORT Mainly Import consists of the following items (a) CAPEX (b) WMS (c) Tobacco (d) Spares

Material Arrivali. Intimation received by CES from Vendor regarding dispatch of material.- Air Cargo Arrival Notice from Airlines , Air Way Bill, Vendors Invoice ii. iii. CES will forward the pre-alert to CHA(Customs House Agents) Accordingly, CHA will prepare the checklist and forward to Commercial for confirmation iv. Once it is cleared, Commercial ask CHA to file Bill of Entry and Entry in Import Register done v. Simultaneously, Commercial will send Duty Instruction Sheet to Bank to prepare a bank draft of Duty Amount in favor of Commissioner of Customs. vi. vii. On-line Filing of Bill of entry and payment of Duty amount by CHA. Customs Authority to do assessment and verification of material, assessable value and duty amount viii. On satisfaction, will release the goods from Customs (Duplicate Copy of BOE for availing Cenvat, Triplicate Copy of BOE used for payment to Vendor.) ix. Duty Payment made either through bank draft or by utilizing DEPB license (Original or by Transfer Release Advice) Vendor Payment a) Direct Payment Once GR is made, payment made The submission of documents Form A1, FEMA Declaration, Triplicate Copy of BOE, Invoice and Airway Bill to Bank for payment. Exchange rate as intimated by bank based on the forward rate booked. After payment, Debit Advice given by Bank.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS b) DAN Payment (Document Arrival Notice) Vendors banker forwards the documents (Invoice, Packing List,) to bank. Intimation send to the Company vide Document Arrival Notice by bank. Once GR made, submission of documents Form A1, FEMA Declaration, to bank for payment .Exchange rate as intimated by HDFC, Kolkata based on the forward rate booked. After payment , Debit Advice given by Bank. BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS A. Trial Balance The Trial Balance shall consist of the transactions of Bangalore Cigarette Factory, ATC, HDC, Pilot Plant, R & D Centre B. Balance Sheet i. Fixed Assets Schedule V report extracted from YRF80 should match with GL. The sum of the General Ledger accounts in AUC should be zero at the monthend. Review of CWIP in transit balance and ensure that the value represents payment made towards the assets, which have not reached the factory as on review date. Review the balance lying in CWIP account. Any abnormal delay in capitalization should be taken up with concerned Engineer Manager and appropriate action should be taken. Check the posting made from revaluation reserve account.


Inventories On the First of every month the PSV of Inventory takes place which is reconciled with the balance as per Books. The value of Inventory (Leaf, WMS, Spares, Finished Stock) should match with the balance in GL.



The General Ledger balances of Dep-Govt & Public Bodies and Security Deposit is reviewed for recovery/adjustment. iv. Sundry Debtors Balance lying in Sundry Debtors and due date of realization is reviewed along with status. v. Cash & Bank balances As at the end of the month, the Cash and Cheques in Hand GL account shows the balance only pertaining to the receipt as the last day of the month. The balance of Main Bank Account should be in conformity with the Balance as per bank Statement Schedules for Bank Reconciliation statement need to be prepared every month and review the status of cheque deposited and not encashed and cheque issued but not presented for payment. Ensure necessary adjustment entries for Time Barred cheques in accordance with policy. vi. Advances Review of Advances- vendor wise schedules for advance made to Vendors, Government and employees are prepared as at the end of the month and reviewed. Balance lying in PLA and Cenvat Register as per GL should match with the Excise Records. Balance lying in Cenvat in Transit account and Service Tax Credit Receivable Account should be reviewed. Any old balance outstanding for long period should be examined and appropriate action should be taken. Balance lying in Cenvat on Hold Account should be reviewed to ensure that balance represents 50% of the amount of cenvat credit (Basic+ Education Cess + Secondary Cess) for asset capital goods received during the year.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS vii. Sundry Creditors Accounts payable includes balances related to subsidiary and associated company, payable on account of SSI vendors, payable to employees, payable on account of overseas transactions and payable on account of Government & Public bodies and others. GL wise schedules need to be prepared with age analysis within 6 months and beyond 6 months. Review of Clearing Account Balance GR/IR Clearing, Cenvat Clearing, Freight Clearing Account.

C. Profit and Loss Account


Sales and Other Income Balance appearing in Misc. Income Claim Realized and Misc. Income Sundries needs to be verified. The Product-wise details of Export Sales to tally with the GL Balance


Consumption Raw Materials Consumption figure may be derived from opening stock + purchase-closing stock = Consumption The derived consumption value will match with the consumption value shown in the GL accounts


Manufacturing, Selling etc Expenses To Ensure that all the expenses accrued till month end have been booked.

Analytical review is done for any variation with reference to earlier periods. iv. Depreciation Depreciation rates are reviewed based on note circulated by Head Office.



This is done for all Balance Sheet accounts and Revenue accounts vis a vis the corresponding previous quarter. Schedules are prepared based on formats provided by HO for each line item in the B/S and P/L identifying the reasons for variances. PROCUREMENT AND PAYMENT PROCESS

A. RAISING OF PURCHASE ORDER Purchase Order (PO) of Raw Material (RM Tobacco and WMS) are raised at Head Office. ii. Purchase Order (PO) of Stores & Spare Parts is raised at Unit Level.


The comprehensive procedure of the raising of purchasing order or procurement is mentioned in the following page,




Coded (PD- Demand Based/ VB- Based on Reorder Level) Reservation Created by User Department. MRP Run made by CES after every 10 days which convert Reservation into PR. Comparative Quotation invited by CES PO are created/ raised by CES Clerk and approved by CES Manager. If Amt. < Rs. 10,000 By CES Manager If Amt. > Rs. 10,000 By I/C Procure. and CM

Not Coded (Direct Indent)

Raising of Purchase Requisition

User Department directly raises Purchase Requisition.


Comparative Quotation invited by User Department. PO are created/ raised by Commercial (Need to mention GL Code and Cost Centre). No need to release. However, PO signed by I/C Procurement , CM and BM in all cases.

Raising of PO

Release of PO

Receipt of Goods

GRN done by CES/ Other Factory

GRN done by Concerned User Dept. (However, in this case it would be directly charged off to PL without routing through Stock Account).

Quotations required for Amount less than 5,000 is one and for amount greater than 5,000 is three Justification note in case of single quote to be signed by Indenter, Respective HOD, Branch Engineer

B. METHOD OF BILL PROCESSING i. On receipt of bills from vendors, the respective departments (Engineering, Finance, Human Resource, Logistics, Production, MIS etc. ) will enter in the Bill Register in SAP selecting the respective category (Bill with PO or Bill without PO) via SAP


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS ii. Bills will be forwarded to Commercial Department with the copy of the Bill Register Report in order to ensure that all bills sent to Commercial are entered in the Bill Register in SAP. iii. On receipt of the bills from respective departments in commercial, it is received in Finance in the Bill Register vide SAP (Bill Register System) iv. I/C Bill Passing will, thereafter, distribute the bills to the members of the Bill Passing team in Commercial for processing. v. Voucher processing (SAP T Code YF30) is done using SAP T-Code MIRO (Bills against Purchase/Service Orders) and F-43 (Direct Bill without PO). vi. After processing the vouchers the SAP Document number, generated by SAP, is written on the face of the Invoice and print out of the document number will be taken by using the SAP T Code YSFF12. vii. The voucher printouts are attached with the Invoices and other supporting documents, for e.g., Challan copies, etc and the stamps are affixed on the voucher SERVICE TAX for all Service Tax related transaction vouchers and VAT CREDIT for all the transaction vouchers where Vat credit is availed. This segregation aids in separating the original bills at a later point in time. viii. These vouchers are forwarded to the designated manager for

passing/approving the voucher. ix. Processed vouchers will get approved by the designated manager and forwarded for further release in SAP system. All supporting are defaced by affixing voucher passed stamp. x. The approved vouchers are sorted out vendor wise and forwarded for release to concerned manager. xi. The vouchers are released by using SAP T Code YRF13. (Payment Block Release). The concerned manager also will cross check the same aspects of the Invoice and voucher while releasing. xii. The released voucher is sent to the Cashier who will segregate the voucher on the basis of mode of payment and execute the payment process.




ITC is one of India's biggest and best-known private sector companies. In fact it is one of the World's most high profile consumer operations. Its businesses and brands are focused almost entirely on the Indian markets, and despite being most well-known for its tobacco brands such as Gold Flake, the business is now diversifying into new FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) brands in a number of market sectors including cigarettes, hotels, paper, agriculture, packaged foods and confectionary, branded apparel, personal care, greetings cards, Information Technology, safety matches, incense sticks and stationery. Examples of its successful new FMCG products include: Aashirvaad - India's most popular atta brand with over 50% market share. It is also present in spices and instant mixes. Mint-o - Mint-0 Fresh is the largest cough lozenge brand in India. Bingo! - a new introduction of finger snacks. Kitchens of India - pre-prepared foods designed by ITC's master chefs. Sunfeast - is ITC's biscuit brand (and the sub-brand is also used on some pasta products.

ITC leveraged it traditional businesses to develop new brands for new segments. For example, ITC used its experience of transporting and distributing tobacco products to remote and distant parts of India to the advantage of its FMCG products. ITC master chefs from its hotel chain are often asked to develop new food concepts for its FMCG business. ITC is a diversified company trading in a number of business sectors including cigarettes, hotels, paper, agriculture, packaged foods and confectionary, branded apparel, personal care, greetings cards, Information Technology, safety matches, incense sticks and stationery.



The company's original business was traded in tobacco. ITC stands for Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. It is interesting that a business that is now so involved in branding continues to use its original name, despite the negative connection of tobacco with poor health and premature death. To fund its cash guzzling FMCG start-up, the company is still dependent upon its tobacco revenues. Cigarettes account for 47 per cent of the company's turnover, and that in itself is responsible for 80% of its profits. So there is an argument that ITC's move into FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) is being subsidized by its tobacco operations. Its Gold Flake tobacco brand is the largest FMCG brand in India - and this single brand alone holds 70% of the tobacco market.

Core brands such as Aashirvaad, Mint-o, Bingo! And Sun Feast (and others) can be developed using strategies of market development, product development and marketing penetration. ITC is moving into new and emerging sectors including Information Technology, supporting business solutions. e-Choupal is a community of practice that links rural Indian farmers using the Internet. This is an original and well thought of initiative that could be used in other sectors in many other parts of the world. It is also an ambitious project that has a goal of reaching 10 million farmers in 100,000 villages. ITC leverages e-Choupal in a novel way. The company researched the tastes of consumers in the North, West and East of India of atta (a popular type of wheat flour), then used the network to source and create the raw materials from farmers and then blend them for consumers under purposeful brand names such as Aashirvaad Select in the Northern market, Aashirvaad MP Chakki in the Western market and Aashirvaad in the Eastern market. This concept is tremendously difficult for competitors to emulate.

ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Chairman Yogi Deveshwar's strategic vision is to turn his Indian conglomerate into the country's premier FMCG business. Per capita consumption of personal care products in India is the lowest in the world offering an opportunity for ITC's soaps, shampoos and fragrances under their Wills brand.

The obvious threat is from competition, both domestic and international. The laws of economics dictate that if competitors see that there is a solid profit to be made in an emerging consumer society that ultimately new products and services will be made available. Western companies will see India as an exciting opportunity for themselves to find new market segments for their own offerings. ITC's opportunities are likely to be opportunities for other companies as well. Therefore the dynamic of competition will alter in the medium-term. Then ITC will need to decide whether being a diversified conglomerate is the most competitive strategic formation for a secure future.





Research simply means a search for facts, answer to questions and solution to problems. Research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. It is a systematic and objective analysis and according of controlled observations that may lead to development generalization principle resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. A research design is arrangements of condition for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy procedure. There various research design methods but descriptive and analytical research design is more suitable for the study. This research is by and large a desk research and involved the following methods. a) Scanning though standard textbooks to understand the theory behind financial performance appraisal. b) Collection of companys specific literature i.e., companies profile and annual reports over this study period. c) Identification of financial ratios likely to reflect financial performance adequately. d) Calculation of these ratios over the study period and tabulation. e) Finally, forwarding certain recommendations and conclusions to the company.


(a) Definition used for various financial ratios in the project is assumed to be universal. (b) It is assumed that financial performance is the ultimate index of performance of company. (c) It is also assumed that ratios selected for this study reflects financial performance well and adequately.




Changes in the financial performance of the company could be due to several reasons, changes in profit, changes in operating efficiency, changes in quality of debtors and many more other reasons. The financial position of the company cannot be stationary, but it is dynamic owing to the shift in its financial position with regard to various financial parameters. Analysis of the financial performance tries to find out the reasons for shift in position and tires to establish a trend of the direction in which the business is moving in. Therefore using general terminology, the statement of the problem could be generalized as a detection of reasons for variation in the financial position of the company.


The ultimate performance indicator of any company could financial indicators because obviously all costs and efficiencies will get reflected in the financial mirror, once again reasons for variations in the financial position could be several. By analyzing systematically the identified financial ratios, which reflect financial performance well and adequately, the company could understand its own position over time. Such a broad understanding will be of great relevance to the managers of the company investors (present potential) as well as to any other party/parties interested in the company. In other words financial performance evaluation will serve as an eye opener to any company and the company in question is no exception has this study.


a) Analysis of the financial performance of the company. b) To detect certain financial ratios which are likely to reflect the variability in profit? c) To conduct firm comparison over the study period from 2004-05 to 2009-10.




Financial performance evaluation as well as proved area and innumerable studies have proved the utility and usefulness of this analytical technique by analyzing financial performance employing certain selected financial ratios the company in question managers, present and potential investors, outside parties as such as creditors and sectors of the government employees and many more could get an idea of the performance of the company over the study period (any other two period). While doing so the project has dealt upon obtaining an understanding of general competition in this line of activity also. Therefore scope of the study extends over parties both insider and outsides of the firms.


Data was collected through discussion and interview with concerned Executives in the ITC


Primary as well as secondary data has been collected for the purpose of the study. The primary data is collected in the information from the concerned to officials. The secondary data collected from the records


a) Ratio analysis is a widely used technique to evaluate the financial position and performance of a business but these is certain problem in using ratios. The analyst should be aware of these problems. b) The major constraint for the study was the timing of the study the vastness of the financial statement was another factor of limitation. The study is based on


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS the data given by the officials and reports of the company the confidentiality of some facts and figures are also limitation. c) Financial statement analysis is based on balance sheet, profit and loss account prepared as per accounting practice. This practice is some cases may lead window-dressing to cover up bad financial position. d) Financial Statements analysis is suffers from inherent weakness of accounting practice such as their historical nature matching principle etc. e) This study is based on only 6 years.




Financial statements, as used incorporate business houses, refer to a set of reports and schedules, which an accountant prepares at the end of the period of time for a business enterprise. The financial statements are the means with the help of which the accounting system perform its main function affairs of the business. These statements comprise balance sheet and profit and loss account. In India, every company has to present its financial statements in the form and contents as prescribed under section 211 of the Companies Act 1956.


Balance sheet is a statement showing the nature and amount of a companys assets on one side and liabilities and capital on the other. It shows the financial conditions of a company at the end of a given period usually at the end of one-year period. Balance sheet shows how the money has been made available to the business of the company and how the money is employed in the business.


Earning profit is the principal objective of all business enterprise and profit and loss account is the document, which indicates the extent of success achieved by the business in meeting this objectives. Profits are of primary importance to the Board of Directors in evaluating the management of a company, to shareholders in making investment decisions and to bank and other creditors in judging the loan repayment capacities and ability of the company.

5.3.1 Nature of Financial Statements:

Financial statements are prepared for the purpose of presenting periodical review or report on the progress by the management and deal with(a) Status of the Investments in the Business. (b) Results achieved during the period under review.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS The Data exhibited in these financial statements are the result of the combined effect of 1. Recorded facts 2. Accounting conventions. 3. Postulates or assumptions made to implement conventional procedures 4. Personal judgments used in the applications of conventions and postulates and 5. Accounting Standards and guidance notes.

5.3.2 Objectives of Financial Statements:

The accounting principles Board of America mentions the objectives of financial statements as follows: 1) To provide reliable financial information about economic resources and obligations of a business enterprise. 2) To provide reliable information about the net resources (resources less obligations) of an enterprise that results from its activities. 3) To provide financial information that assists in estimating the earning potentials of a business. 4) To provide other needed information about changes in economic resources and obligations. 5) To disclose to the extent possible, other information related to the financial statements that is relevant to the needs of the users of these statements.

5.3.3 Importance of Financial Statements:

The most important objective of financial statements is to present information for the use of different categories of persons as mentioned below:

Management: Financial statements and accounts are of a very great help in understanding the progress, position and prospects of the business. Financial statements, by helping the management to be acquainted with the causes of the business results, enable them to formulate appropriate policies and course of action for the future. A comparative analysis of financial statements should enable


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS management to see the trends in the progress and position of modifications in policies to avert unfavorable situation. and make suitable

Public: Business is a social entity. Various group of the society, though not directly connected with business, position and prospects of a business enterprise. These groups are financial analysts, trade associations, labor unions, financial press, students and teachers, etc. It is only through the published financial statements that the people can analyze, judge, and comment upon the business enterprise.

Shareholders and Lenders: The financial statements serve as a useful guide for the shareholders the suppliers and the lenders of a company. It is through critical examination of the financial statements that these groups can come to know about the efficiency and effectiveness of the management and position, progress and prospects of the company. For this purpose, it is necessary that the financial statements should contain accurate, complete and systematic facts and figures. So that these people can get full and accurate ideas regarding the present position and the future of the company.

Labor and Trade Union: In India workers are entitled to Bonus, under the payments of Bonus act, depending upon the size of the profit as disclosed by audited and a profit and loss account. Thus Profit and loss account becomes greatly important to the workers. In wage negotiations also, the size of profits and the profitability achieved are greatly relevant.

5.3.4 Limitations of Financial Statements:

1) Financial statements are prepared primarily for shareholders; other interested parties have to generally make many adjustments before they use them profitably. 2) It is not always possible to discover false figures in financial statements; unscrupulous managements generally resort to Window dressing in the preparation of such statements.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 3) Quite often financial statements do not disclose current worth of the business. Only historical facts are presented and the true current worthies not reflected. 4) Financial statements take into consideration only the financial factors. They fail to bring out the significance of non-financial factors.

5.3.5 Analysis of Financial Statements:

Analysis of financial statements refers to the treatment of information contained in the financial statement in a way so as to afford a full diagnose of the profitability and financial position of the firm concerned. The process of analyzing financial statements, involves the rearranging, comparing and measuring the significance of financial and operating data. Such a step helps to reveal the relative significance and effect of items of the data in relation to the time period and/or between two organizations. According the Myers, Financial statement analysis is a largely a study of relationship among the various financial factors in business ad disclosed by a single set of statements and a study of the trend of these factors as shown in a series of statements.

5.3.6 Types of Financial Statement Analysis:

1. Horizontal Analysis: When financial statements for a number of years are reviewed and analyzed, the analysis is called Horizontal Analysis. As it is based on date from year to year rather than on one date or period of time as a whole, this is also known as Dynamic Analysis. This is very useful for Longterm trend analysis and planning. 2. Vertical Analysis: It is frequently used for referring to ratios developed for one date or for one accounting period. Vertical analysis is also called Static Analysis. This is not very conductive to proper analysis of the firms financial position and its interpretation as it does not enable to study data in perspective. This can only be provided by study conducted over a number of years so that comparisons can be affected. Therefore, vertical analysis is not very useful.



5.3.7 Methods of Analyzing Financial Statements:

Analytical methods and devices used in analyzing financial statements are as follows: 1) Comparative Statements. 2) Common-size statements 3) Trend ratio 4) Fund flow Statements 5) Ratio Analysis

1. Comparative Statements: The comparative Balance Sheet analysis in the study of the trend of the same items group of the items and computed items in two or more balance sheet of the same business enterprise on different dates. The changes in the period balance sheet items at the end of a period can be observed, which reflects the conduct of a business.

2. Common-size Statement: Common-size statements facilities both type of analysis horizontal as well as vertical analysis. It not only compares across years but each individual item of group of assets and liabilities is related to the total of the group in respect of each year. It means individual current asset is shown as a percentage of total current assets. Main advantage of common-size statements is that a comparison of performance and financial condition in respect of different units of the same industry can also be done.

3. Trend Analysis: The easiest way to evaluate the performance of a bank is to compare its percent ratio with the past ratio when financial ratios over a period of time are compared it is known as time series or trend analysis. It gives an indication of change and reflects whether financial performance has improved or has deteriorated or has remained constant over time.

4. Fund flow Statements: The Fund flow statements is a method by which we study changes in the financial position of a business enterprises between


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS beginning and ending financial statements dates. It is a statement showing sources and application of funds for a period of time. It is a complimentary statement to the income statement. Fund flow statements considers both capital and revenue items.

5.3.8 Objectives of Financial Statements Analysis:

1) The analysis would enable the present and the future earning capacity and the profitability of the concern. 2) The operational efficiency of the concern as a whole as well as department wise can be assessed. Hence, the management can easily locate the areas of efficiency and inefficiency. 3) The solvency of the firm, both short-term and long-term, can be determined with the help of the financial statement analysis which is beneficial to trade creditors and denture holders 4) The comparative studying regard tone firm with another firm or one department with another department is possible by the analysis of financial statements. 5) Analysis of past results in respects of earning and financial position of the enterprise is of great helping forecasting the future results. Hence, it helps in preparing Budget.

5.3.9 Limitations of Financial Statements Analysis:

1) Analysis of financial statements is a tool, which can be used profitably by an expert analyst but may lead to faulty conclusions if used by unskilled analyst. So the result cannot be taken as judgments or conclusions. 2) Financial statements are interim reports and therefore cannot be final because the final gain or loss can be computed only at the termination of the business. Financial statement reflects the progress of the position of the business so analyses of these statements will not conclusive evidence of the performance of the business.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 3) The reliability of analysis depends on the accuracy of the figures used in the financial statements. The analysis will be vitiated by manipulations in the income statements or balance sheet and accounting procedure adopted by the accountant for recording. 4) The results for indications derived from analysis of financial statements may be differently interpreted by different users. 5) There are different tool of analysis available for the analyst. However, which to be used in a particular situation depends on the skill, training and expertise of the analyst and the result will vary accordingly.


Ratio analysis is one of the tool or technique of management accounting. It is most widely used for the analysis of financial statements. Such as the profit and loss account or the Income statements, balance sheet. These financial statements are the financial position. These financial statements are really useful to the executives, owners, creditors, investors etc. Based upon the financial statements, users can form judgment about the operating performance of the firm and financial position of the firm. A creditor can ascertain the liquidity position of the firm that is the ability of the firm to repay its current liabilities. The management of the firm analyzes the financial statement to judge the operating efficiency of the firm. The shareholders (owners) analyze the financial statement of the firm to find out the profitability. The investors analyze the financial statement of the firm to know the ability of the firm to pay interest regularly. The future plans of the firm should be laid down in the view of the firms financial strength and weakness. The financial statement contains the items relating to profit and loss of a firm. But these figures are not enough to be much use, if they are consider individually. They will be very useful only when one item is compared with another item Individual items comparison in financial statements efficiently is possible only by ratio analysis technique. Simply we can say Ratio is the relationship between two accounting figures, expressed mathematically.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS According to Prof. Springfield, Prof. Mass & Prof. C. Merrium, a ratio is defined as The indicated Quotient of two mathematical expressions and as The relationship between two or more things.

5.4.1 Nature and scope of Ratio Analysis:

Ratio analysis is effective tool of financial analysis available to a financial analyst. Ratio analysis is a one of the tool or technique of financial analysis. The other tools of financial analysis are: (1) Comparative financial statement analysis. (2) Common-size statement analysis. (3) Trend analysis or Trend percentage. (4) Fund flow Analysis. (5) Cash flow Analysis. Ratio Analysis is a process of determining and interpreting numerical relationship of different figures in the financial statements. It is statistical yardstick that provides a measure of relationship between two accounting figures; this relationship can be expressed in the terms of percentage or as a quotient. (One of them as a certain number of times the other item). There are several ratios, which an analyst can adopt, but the type of ratios he would precisely use depends upon the purpose for which the analysis is made. Ratio analysis simplifies the understanding of financial statements. It facilitates inter-firm comparison and as well as intra-firm comparison. Ratio analysis is useful not only to the insiders. But also to outsiders like creditors, investors etc.

5.4.2 Objectives of Ratio Analysis:

1) To analyze the financial position of the firm by using the various accounting ratios. 2) To know the liquidity position of the firm that is the firms relative strengths and weakness of the firm. 3) To know the various source utilized by the firm. 4) To know the amount of debt in the firm.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 5) To provide information to the investors in Investment Decision. 6) To compare financial position of the firm in the current year with the previous years financial position. 7) To know the season effects in the firm, that is cost position of the firm between the profit making and loss-making period. 8) To help the management in planning, controlling and decision making. 9) To finds out the solution to the unfavorable financial conditions and financial performance. 10) To take the suitable corrective measures when the firms financial conditions and performance are unfavorable to the firm when compared to other firms in the same industry.

5.4.3 Statement of the Study:

A financial Statement contains income statement showing sales, purchase, revenue, tax, expenses etc.; on the other side, the balance sheets show the liabilities and sets position during the year. A study of financial performance is compared of the following: a) Analysis of the liquidity and profitability of current assets and current liabilities. b) Analysis of the long-term financial position of current assets and current liabilities. c) Analysis of various components of working capital (cash, receivables, inventories, etc.).

5.4.4 Limitations of Ratio Analysis:

1) Usefulness of ratios depends upon the abilities and intentions of the persons who handle them. It will be affected considerably by the bias of such persons. 2) Ratios are worked out on the basis of money values only. They do not take into account the real valves of various items involved. Thus, the technique is not realistic in its approach. 3) Historical values (especially in balance sheet) are considered in working out the various ratios. Effects of charges in the price level of various items are


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS ignored and to that extent the comparisons and evaluations of performance through ratios become unrealistic and unreliable. 4) One particular ratio, in isolation is not sufficient to review the whole business. A group of ratios are to be considered simultaneously to arrive at any meaningful and worthwhile opinion about the affairs of the business. 5) Since management and financial policies and practices different from concern to concern, similar ratios may not reflect similar state of affairs of different concerns. Thus, comparisons of performance on the basis of ratios may be confusing. 6) Since ratios are calculated on the basis of financial statements, which are themselves affected greatly by the firm accounting policies, and changes these in, the ratios may not be able to bring out the real situations.


1. Short-term solvency Ratios: (a) Current Ratio (b) Quick Ratio (c) Absolute Liquid Ratio (d) Inventory to working capital ratio

2. Long-term solvency Ratios: (a) Debt-Equity Ratio (b) Proprietary Ratio (c) Solvency Ratio (d) Fixed Assets to net worth Ratio (e) Current assets to net worth ratio (f) Current Liabilities to net worth ratio (g) Fixed Assets ratio


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 3. Turnover or Activity Ratios: (a)Stork turnover Ratio (b)Debtors turnover Ratio (c)Creditor turnover Ratio (d)Cash turnover Ratio (e)Working capital turnover Ratio (f)Fixed Assets turnover Ratio (g)Current Assets turnover Ratio (h)Total Assets Turnover Ratio (i)Sales to net worth Ratio

4. Profitability Ratios: (a)Gross profit Ratio (b)Net profit Ratio (c)Operating Cost Ratio (d)Operating Profit Ratio (e)Total Assets Ratio (f)Return on Equity Ratio.

5.5.1 Short Term Solvency or Liquidity Ratios:

There are the ratios, which measures the short-term solvency or financial position of the firm. These ratios are calculated to comment upon the short-term paying capacity of a concern or the firms ability to meet its current obligations.

1) Current Ratio: The current ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Current assets include cash and other assets which can be converted into cash within the normal course of the business (that is normal 12 months) such as bills receivable, securities, advances, outstanding accrued income and prepaid expenses. All obligations maturing within a year are included in current liabilities. Thus, current liabilities include bills payable, sundry creditors, provision for income tax, unclaimed


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS dividend, proposed dividend and long-term debt maturing in the current year. Current ratio measures the firms short-term solvency position. It indicates the availability of current assets in rupees for everyone rupee current liability. If the ratio is more than two means that the firm has more current assets, shows high liquidity position of the firm. When current liabilities are more than current assets means the liquidity position of the firm is poor. Standard or ideal current ratio is 2:1. The current assets fixed at two times the current liabilities. The idea behind this fixation is to leave a margin of safety to cover any fall in the value of current assets and also leave sufficient working capital after the payment of current liabilities. Current assets twice of current liabilities or more considered to be satisfactory.

Current Assets Current Ratio = ---------------------Current Liabilities 2) Quick Ratio: The quick or acid test ratio is a more defined measure of the firms liquidity. This ratio establishes a relationship between quick or liquid assets and current liabilities. An asset is liquid, if it can convert into cash immediately or reasonably soon without loss of value. Cash is the most liquid asset. The other assets, which are considered relatively liquid and included in the quick assets, are book debts and marketable securities. Stock or inventory and prepaid expenses are considered to be less liquid. Inventories normally require sometime for realizing into cash. The quick ratio is found out by dividing the total of the quick assets by the total current liabilities. The quick or acid test ratio is sometimes called Liquidity Ratio.

Quick/Liquid Assets Quick/ Acid Test Ratio = ------------------------Current Liabilities

Quick assets include cash and book debts (debtors and bills receivable) only. Inventories are excluded because it takes time to sell finished goods and convert raw


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS materials and work in progress into finished goods. There is also uncertainty as to whether or not the inventories can be sold. Since the prepaid expenses cannot be converted into cash the prepaid expenses are excluded. By conversion a quick ratio of 1:1 considered satisfactory. It is considered that, if quick assets are equal to current liabilities, then the concern can meet its obligations.

3) Absolute Liquid Ratio: It is calculated by dividing absolute liquid assets by liquid liabilities. It is a measure of firms present liquidity position to pay its immediate payments.

Absolute Liquid Assets Absolute Liquid Ratio = ------------------------Liquid Liabilities

Absolute liquid assets include cash in hands and cash at bank only. Ideal absolute liquid Ratio is 0.5:1.

4) Inventory to Working Capital Ratio: It is the ratio of inventory to working capital. Inventory to working capital ratio is usually expressed as a percentage. It is expressed as

Inventory Inventory to Working Capital Ratio = --------------------- x 100 Working capital This ratio indicates the proportion of working capital tied up in inventories or stocks. It also indicates whether there is overstocking or under stocking. As per the standard inventory to working capital ratio the inventories should not absorb more than 75% of working capital. As such a low inventory to working capital ratio (that is a ratio of less than 75%) indicates under stocking, and so high liquid position, while a high inventory to working capital ratio (i.e., a ratio over 75%) indicates overstocking capital and so, a low liquid position



5.5.2 Long-Term Solvency Ratios / Leverage Ratios:

Long-term solvency ratio conveys a firms ability to meet the interest/costs and repayment schedule of its long-term obligations. These ratios are helpful to management in proper administration of capital. It also helps the creditors to know the capacity of a business concern to pay debt in future.

a) Debt-Equity Ratio: The term debt signifies total indebtedness of the company as shown by its short and long-term obligations. Equity refers to the aggregate ownership interest measured by the total share capital plus any reserves, which may rightly and legitimately be appropriate to the shareholders. The ratio can be calculated in two ways: (1) Total Debt/Net worth (2) Net worth/Total Debt

Both these methods are in practice but the interpretation of each requires a great deal of caution. The fundamental objective of it is to measure the relative interest of owners and creditors in the enterprise. It also measures the extent of trading on equity. From the creditors point of view it signifies the extent to which their interests are covered by net worth of the enterprise. The creditors, however, prefer a lower debt to equity ratio as it gives them greater cushion against possible loss in the event of the liquidation of the enterprise. The owners, on the other hand, prefer a high debt to equity ratio as this will give them better returns with a smaller capital contribution. If the debt is less than two times the equity, the logical conclusion is that the financial structure of the concern is sound. On the other hand, if the debt is more than two times the equity, the conclusion is the financial structure of the undertaking is weak. Debt Debt Equity Ratio = --------Equity


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS b) Proprietary Ratio: It is a variant of the debt equity ratio. It is the ratio, which expresses the relationship between the net worth or equity and total assets.

Net worth Proprietary Ratio = ---------------Total Assets


It is an index of the amount of the proprietors funds invested on the total assets of a concern


It is also indicates the proportion between owned capital (i.e., proprietors fund) and loaned capital (i.e., borrowed funds or liabilities).


It indicates the relative risks of the owners and the creditors of an enterprise.

The higher the proprietary ratio the stronger is the financial position of the concern and lower the proprietary ratio, the weaker is the financial position of the enterprise.

c) Solvency Ratio: This ratio measures the long term solvency of the business. It reveals the relationship between total assets and total external liabilities. External liabilities mean all long term and short liabilities. It is the difference of 100 and proprietary ratio. It is calculated as follows:

Total liabilities Solvency Ratio = --------------------------Total Assets

The ratio measures the proportion of total assets provided by creditors (long-term as well as short-term) of the firm. That is what part of assets is being financed from loans. If total assets are more than external liabilities, the firm is treated as solvent. So, the higher the ratio, greater is the amount of creditors that is being used to generate profits for the owners the firm.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS d) Fixed Assets Ratio: This ratio is also called the capital employed to fixed assets. As per sound financial policy acquisition of fixed assets should be financed form long-term funds only. To test whether this policy is properly followed or not, this ratio is calculated. It expresses the relationship between long-term funds or capital employed and fixed assets of the firm. Expressed as a formula, the ratio is

Long-term Funds Fixed Assets Ratio = ---------------------Fixed Assets or

Capital Employed ---------------------Fixed Assets

Long-term funds include equity share capital, preference share capital, all reserves and surplus and long-term loans. Fixed Assets mean net fixed assets. That is fixed assets after deducting depreciation and long-term investments including shares of subsidiary companies.

This ratio indicates whether proper adjustment between long-term sources and longterm uses of capital exists or not Fixed Assets Ratio of more than one reveals that long-term funds have been employed to finance current assets on the contrary a ratio of less than one indicates that a part of fixed assets is financed by short-term funds.

e) Fixed Assets to Net worth Ratio: It is the ratio between fixed assets to net worth.

Net Fixed Assets Fixed Assets to Net worth Ratio = ------------------------Net worth

This ratio indicates the proportion of fixed assets financed by the owner. In other words it indicates as to what extent the owners have invested funds on the fixed assets, which constitute the main structure of the business.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS f) Current Assets to Net worth Ratio: It is the ratio between current assets and net worth.

Current Assets Current Assets to Net worth = ------------------Net worth

This ratio indicates the proportion of current assets financed by the owners. There is no standard for this ratio but one can say that if this ratio is high the financial strength is good and if it is low the financial position of the concern is weak.

g) Current Liabilities to Net worth Ratio: Current Liabilities to net worth ratio is the ratio between Current liabilities to Net worth.

Current Liabilities Current Liabilities to Net worth Ratio = ---------------------Net worth

This ratio indicates the relative contributions of the short-term creditors and the owners in the capital of an enterprise. If the ratio is very high, it would mean that the liability base of the concern will not provide an adequate cover for long-term creditors. That means it would be difficult for the concern to obtain long-term funds.

5.5.3 Activity Ratios / Performance Ratios / Turnover Ratios:

Activity ratios refer to ratios, which measure the level of activities, performance or the operating efficiency of enterprise.

a) Stock Turnover Ratio: It is the ratio, which indicates the no. Of times the stock is turned (i.e., sold) during a year. It is the ratio between stock and the cost of goods sold.



Cost of Goods Sold Stock Turnover Ratio = -----------------------Average Stock

It can also be expressed in terms of so many months, weeks or days. Average stock X Months X Weeks or days in a year -----------------------------------------------------------Cost of goods sold

This ratio indicates the velocity with which goods move out of the business, i.e., it indicates the member of times the average stock of finished goods is turned over or sold during a year. It also indicates whether this is over stocking or lender stocking of finished goods. It helps the management to know whether the stock of finished goods held sales are reasonable or unreasonable as compared with predetermined standard. Again it helps to determine even the liquidity of a concern as it indicates the rate at which the inventory or stock is converted into sales and then into cash. A stock turnover of 8 times a year is considered ideal.

b) Receivable Turnover, Debtors Turnover or Debtors velocity: It is the ratio, which indicates the relationship between debtors, and sales, it indicates the number of times the debt is collected in a year.

Net Annual Credit Sales Debtors Turnover Ratio = -------------------------------Average Debtors

This ratio indicates the rate at which the amounts are collected from the debtors. This also indicates the liquidity of the concern as the rate at which debts are collected influences the liquidity of the concern. Debt collection period: This is the ratio, which indicates the extent to which Debt has been collected in time. In other words this is the ratio, which indicates the average


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS time taken by the firm to collect debts. It is the ratio, which indicates the average collection period or the average period of credit allowed to debtors. If the actual period of credit allowed is more than the normal period of credit or the ideal period of credit like 30days the indication is that the credit period is not efficient.

c) Creditors Turnover Ratio or Creditors Velocity: Creditors Turnover Ratio is the ratio between creditors and purchases. It is the ratio, which indicates the number of times the creditors are paid in a year.

Net Annual Credit Purchases Creditors Turnover Ratio = --------------------------------------Average Creditors

This indicates the rate at which payments are made to creditors or the number of times payments are made to creditors. Debt Payment Period: This is the ratio, which is used to indicate the time within which payments are made to the creditors. No. Of Days in a year Debt Payment period = ----------------------------------Creditors Turnover This ratio indicates the average period of credit received from creditors further a comparison of this ratio with debt collection period ratio will indicate the time lag between the two period of credit and the time lag between tow credit periods will indicate the duration for which working capital is required to be arranged. The Debt payment as calculated is compared with the standard or ideal payment viz., 30 days And conclusions are drawn.

d) Cash Turnover Ratio: It is the ratio between Cash and Turnover or Sales.

Net Annual Sales Cash Turnover Ratio = -----------------------Cash



This ratio indicates the extent to which cash resources are efficiently utilized by the enterprise. It is also helpful in determining the liquidity of a concern.

e) Working Capital Turnover Ratio: It is the Ratio between working capital and turnover.

Net Sales Working Capital Turnover Ratio = ------------------Working Capital

This ratio indicates the efficient or inefficient utilization of the working capital of an enterprise. There is no standard or ideal working capital turnover ratio. But one can say that the higher the working capital turnover ratio the greater is efficiency. It should be noted that a very high working capital turnover ratio means over trading, and a very low working capital turnover ratio means under trading. None-of which is good for a concern.

f) Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio: Fixed Assets turnover ratio is the ratio between fixed assets and turnover. Fixed assets, here, means net fixed assets, i.e., fixed assets less depreciation. This ratio indicates as to what extent the fixed assets of a concern have contributed to sales.

Net Sales Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = --------------Fixed Assets

A fixed assets turnover ratio of 5 times or more indicates better utilization of fixed assets. It may be noted that a very high fixed assets turnover ratio means under trading, which is not good for the business.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS g) Current Assets Turnover Ratio: Current assets turnover ratio is the ratio between current assets and sales (Net sales).

Net Sales Current Assets Turnover Ratio = ----------------Current Assets

This ratio indicates the contribution of current assets to net sales. There is no standard or ideal current assets turnover ratio. Yet, the inference is that a high current assets turnover ratio is an indication of a better utilization of current assets on the other hand; a low current assets turnover ratio suggests that the current assets have not been utilized effectively.

h) Total Assets Turnover Ratio: This is the ratio between total assets and Net sales. Net Sales Total Assets turnover Ratio = -----------------Total Assets This ratio indicates the efficiency or inefficiency in the use of total resources or assets of a concern. The standard ratio is that the sales should be at least two times the value of the assets. A total assets turnover ratio of 2 times or more indicates that the assets of a concern have been utilized effectively.

i) Sales to Net worth ratio: It is also called as owned capital turnover ratio. It is the ratio between net annual sales and net worth that is owners fund.

Net Annual Sales Sales to Net worth Ratio = -----------------------Net worth This ratio is a good index of the utilization of the owners funds. It is also indicates, whether there is over trading or under trading. Again it indicates whether there is over


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS capitalization or under capitalization. If the volume of sales in relation to net worth is reasonable, the indication is the owners funds have been effectively utilized.

5.5.4 Profitability Ratios:

They are the ratios, which measure the profitability of a concern in other words they are ratios, which reveal the total effect of the business transaction on the profit position of an enterprise and indicated how far the enterprise has been successful in its aim.

(1) Gross Profit Ratio or Turnover Ratio: It is the ratio, which expresses the relationship between gross profit and sales.

Gross Profit Gross Profit Ratio = ----------------------- x 100 Net Sales

This ratio indicates the gross results of trading or the overall margin within which a business undertaking most limit its operation expenses to earn sufficient profit. It also indicates whether the average markup on the goods has been maintained or not. The actual gross profit ratio is compared with the gross profit ratio of the previous year and those are concern carrying on similar business, If it is high then it is an indication good results and vice versa.

(2) Net Profit Ratio: Net Profit means final balance of operating and Non-operating incomes after meeting all expenses, that is both operating and non-operating. Sales mean total sales, but net sales, i.e., total sales minus sales returns.

Net Profit Net Profit = -----------Net Sales x 100


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS This ratio indicates the quantum of profit earned by a concern. A high net profit ratio indicates that the profitability of the concern is good. A low net profit ratio indicates that the profitability of the enterprise is poor.

(3) Operating Cost Ratio: Operating Cost refers to all expenses incurred for operating or running a business. It comprises cost of goods sold plus operating expenses, such as office and administration expenses and selling and distribution expenses.

Operating Cost Operating Cost Ratio = ------------------ x 100 Net Sales

The operating ratio indicates the efficiency of the management in the conduct of the business. A low operating ratio is indication of the operating efficiency of the business; on the other hand, a high operating ratio is an indication of the operating inefficiency of the business.

(4) Operating Profit Ratio: Operating profit is the net profit earned forms the business for which the concern is started. In other words, it is the excess of net sales over the operating cost. The operating profit ratio is, generally expressed as a percentage.

Operating Profit Operating Profit Ratio = --------------------Net Sales The operating profit ratio also indicates the operating efficiency or inefficiency of a business. An operating profit ratio of 10% or more is an indication of the operating efficiency of the business, while an operating profit ratio of less than 10% is an indication of the operating inefficiency of the business. x 100


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS (5) Return on Total Resources Ratio: Return on Total Resources is also called as Total Assets Ratio. Return on total resource ratio is the ratio of net profit after taxes, i.e., final net profit. Return here, means net profit after taxes, i.e., final net profit. Total resources or total assets means all realizable assets, including Intangible assets, it they are realizable. This ratio is usually, expressed as a percentage.

Net profit Return on Total Resources Ratio = ----------------Total Assets This ratio measures the productivity of the total assets or total resources of a concern. If the actual ratio is 10% or more, it is an indication of higher productivity. x 100

(6) Return on Equity or Net worth or Shareholders Fund Ratio: It is the ratio, which expresses the relationship between Net profit and shareholders fund.

Net profit Return on Equity = -----------Net worth This Ratio indicates the productivity of shareholders fund. It also gives the shareholders and idea of the return of their funds. It is also useful for inter-firm and inters industry comparisons. x 100

i. ii. iii.




6.1.1 Current Ratio: Current Assets / Current Liabilities

Year Current Assets Current Liabilities Current Ratio

2004-05 3539.29

2005-06 5161.90

2006-07 6289.72

2007-08 7019.27

2008-09 8161.11

2009-10 8127.08













2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Current Ratio 1.1617 1.0098 1.4422 1.6305 1.7346 1.5837

Interpretation: The ideal or standard ratio is 2:1. The above trend shows that the current ratio is fluctuating in nature. There is a moderate decrease in the financial year 2009-10. This shows that the company is not following steady working capital policy. ITC can be said to be insufficiently liquid and there is a shortage of working capital.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.1.2 Quick Ratio: Quick Assets / Quick Liabilities

Year Quick Assets Quick Liabilities Quick Ratio

2004-05 1536.3

2005-06 2525.61

2006-07 2935.69

2007-08 2968.75

2008-09 3561.39

2009-10 3578.01













0.8 0.7057 0.7 0.6 0.5064 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06

0.7610 0.6698







Quick Ratio

Interpretation: The ideal or standard ratio is 1:1. The above trend shows that the Quick Ratio is fluctuating in nature. The companys Quick Ratio for the past six years has been below ideal ratio and in the current year it has deteriorated further. Since the quick ratio is less than the standard, there is concern required regarding liquidity position and it is difficult to pay off its short-term liabilities out of Quick realizable assets.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.1.3 Absolute Liquid Ratio: Absolute Liquid Assets / Liquid Liabilities

Year Absolute Liquid Assets Liquid Liabilities Absolute Liquid Ratio

























0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Absolute Liquid Ratio 0.1286 0.1399 0.2391 0.2333



Interpretation: The ideal or standard ratio is 0.5:1. The ratio has never been ideal in the past five years. It is also showing a fluctuating trend. Current years absolute liquid ratio has further decreased. So concern is considered as not liquid.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.1.4 Inventory to Working Capital Ratio: (Inventory / Working Capital) * 100

Year Inventory Working Capital Ratio

2004-05 2002.99

2005-06 2636.29

2006-07 3354.03

2007-08 4050.52

2008-09 4599.72

2009-10 4549.07









137.90% 156.57% 133.09%


7000.00% 6000.00% 5000.00% 4000.00% 3000.00% 2000.00% 1000.00% 0.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Inventory to Working Capital Ratio 396.26% 5770.00%





Interpretation: As per the standard or ideal inventory to working capital ratio, the inventories should not absorb more than 75% of working capital. As such, a high inventory to working capital ratio indicates over stocking, and so, a low liquid position. The company has never maintained an ideal ratio of 75% and the current years position has become even worse as compared to previous years (i.e., 5770%)



6.2.1 Debt-Equity Ratio: Debt / Equity

Year Debt Equity Debt-Equity Ratio

2004-05 245.36 7895.61

2005-06 119.73 9061.48

2006-07 200.88 10437.08

2007-08 214.43 12057.67

2008-09 177.55 13735.08

2009-10 107.71 14064.38







0.035 0.0311 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Debt-Equity Ratio 0.0132 0.0192 0.0178 0.0129 0.0076

Interpretation: The standard or ideal Debt-Equity ratio is 2:1. The debt is more than two times of the equity, which means the Long-term creditors are relatively more. By observing above trend it may be said that the concerned financial position of the current year is more sound when compare to previous years. The ratio was always below ideal. It is a good sign for the company.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.2 Proprietary Ratio: Net worth/ Total Assets

Year 2004-05 Net worth 7895.61 Total Assets Proprietary Ratio 0.6835 0.7088 0.6973 0.6990 0.7049 0.6113 11550.88 9061.48 12784.04 10437.08 14968.4 12057.67 17249.47 13735.08 19484.83 14064.38 23005.34 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

0.72 0.7 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6 0.58 0.56 2004-05 0.6835

0.7088 0.6973 0.6990








Proprietary Ratio

Interpretation: The ideal Standard is 0.5:1. Lower the ratio higher the risk and viceversa. The above trend shows that the proprietary ratio is more or less uniform in nature except for current year. Though the current years ratio has decreased it is above the ideal level.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.3 Solvency Ratio: Total Assets / Total Liabilities

Year 2004-05 Total Assets Total Liabilities Solvency Ratio 3.5225 3.4572 3.6882 3.7122 3.907 2.8207 3279.18 3697.8 4058.47 4646.73 4882.56 8155.95 11550.88 2005-06 12784.04 2006-07 14968.4 2007-08 17249.47 2008-09 19484.83 2009-10 23005.34

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Solvency Ratio 3.5225 3.4572 3.6882 3.7122 3.907


Interpretation: Though no standard or ideal solvency ratio has been established, the higher the solvency ratio of a concern, the stronger is it financial position The above trend shows that the Solvency Ratio was increasing till 2008-09 but in 2009-10 it decreased which is not a good sign for the company.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.4 Fixed Assets to Net worth Ratio: Fixed Assets / Net wroth

Year Fixed Assets Net worth Ratio

























0.7 0.6 0.5004 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Ratio 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 0.4593 0.4546 0.5116 0.5789 0.5294

Interpretation: Ideal ratio is 67%. Fixed Assets should not constitute more than 67% of the proprietary funds. The above trend of ratios has always remained below ideal ratio of 67% which is good but the trend for the past 4 years is gradually increasing which indicates that the financial strongness of the concern is gradually decreasing and risk to the creditors is increasing.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.5 Current Assets to Net worth Ratio: Current Assets / Net worth

Year Current Assets Net worth Ratio















10437.08 12057.67 13735.08 14064.38







0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Ratio 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 0.4483 0.5696 0.6026 0.5821 0.5942 0.5778

Interpretation: There is no standard or ideal current asset to net worth ratio. Higher the current asset to net worth ratio of a concern, stronger is its financial position. The current years ratio has fallen as compared to the previous year. It shows the strength of the financial position of the concern is getting weaker. The company should follow a increasing trend in the coming years i.e., it should increase its current assets.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.6 Current Liabilities To Net Worth Ratio: Current Liabilities / Net worth

Year Current Liabilities Net worth Ratio

2004-05 3033.82

2005-06 3579.07

2006-07 3857.59

2007-08 4432.30

2008-09 4705.01

2009-10 8048.24

7895.61 0.3842

9061.48 0.3950

10437.08 0.3696

12057.67 0.3676

13735.08 0.3425

14064.38 0.5722

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Ratio 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 0.3842 0.395 0.3696 0.3676 0.3425 0.5722

Interpretation: The ideal ratio is 0.33. But, the above trend shows that the ratio is more than the desirable level, which indicates that the firm is not providing adequate cover for long-term creditors. This means it would be difficult for the firm to obtain long-term funds. For the current year there is a steep rise (0.5722) in the ratio which is not a good sign. Hence, the firm should take necessary measures to obtain long-term funds there by reducing this ratio.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.2.7 Fixed Assets Ratio: Fixed Assets/Capital Employed

Year Fixed Assets Capital Employed Fixed Assets Ratio

2004-05 3950.76

2005-06 4161.73

2006-07 4744.77

2007-08 6168.83

2008-09 7271.91

2009-10 8142.40













0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Fixed Assets Ratio 0.4853 0.5027 0.4533 0.446 0.5227 0.5745

Interpretation: The standard or ideal fixed ratio is 0.67. Though the company has maintained a ratio which is below the ideal level it is showing an increasing trend for the past 3 years which indicates the control of company over its fixed assets is decreasing.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3 TURNOVER OR ACTIVITY RATIOS: 6.3.1 Stork Turnover Ratio: Cost of Goods Sold / Average stock Stock Conversion Period = No. Of days in a year / Stock Turnover Ratio Year COGS Average Stock Stork Turnover Ratio Stock Conversion Period 147.21 147.55 145.01 157.68 158.95 136.80 2.4795 2.4737 2.5171 2.3147 2.2963 2.6682 2004-05 4966.38 2002.99 2005-06 6521.34 2636.29 2006-07 8442.6 3354.03 2007-08 9375.76 4050.52 2008-09 10562.37 4599.72 2009-10 12137.88 4549.07

2.7 2.6 2.5171 2.5 2.4 2.3147 2.3 2.2 2.1 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2.2963 2.4795 2.4737



Stork Turnover Ratio

Interpretation: A stock turnover of 8 times a year is considered ideal. The above trend shows that the ratio is less than 8 times which means the concern has accumulated unsaleable goods which shows the business is not prosperous.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.2 Debtors Turnover Ratio: Net Credit Sales / Average Debtors

Debtors Collection Period = No. of Days in a year / Debtors Turnover Ratio

Year Net Credit Sales Average Debtors Debtors Turnover Ratio Debtors Collection Period































25 19.4373 17.8672 14.4752

23.013 21.1378 18.9265




0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Debtors Turnover Ratio


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS Interpretation: Debtors Turnover ratio of ITC is fluctuating. For the current year it has decreased from 23.0130 to 21.1378, hence collection period has increased from 15.86 days in 2008-09 to 17.27 days in 2009-10 which is not a good sign.

6.3.3 Creditor Turnover Ratio: Net annual Credit Purchase / Average Creditors

Debt Payment Period = No. of days in a year / Creditors Turnover Ratio

Year Net Credit Purchases Average Creditors Creditors' Turnover Ratio Debt Payment Period


































2.5 2
183.16 161.65 169.07 167.85

2.258 1.8196 1.4382

2.15892.1746 1.9928


200 150

1.5 1

100 50 0 0.5 0

Debt Payment Period

Creditors' Turnover Ratio

Interpretation: The graph shows that, there is high fluctuation in the trend. The Debt payment period is about 180-250 days which is very long period. Though the company was showing positive sign from 2006-07 to 2008-09, in the current year it has shown a negative trend. So the company should see that payments are made within or exactly on the due dates, which will enhance the companys credit worthiness.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.4 Cash Turnover Ratio: Net annual Sales / Cash

Year Net Sales Cash Cash

2004-05 7639.45 55.66

2005-06 9790.53 855.92





12369.30 13947.53 15388.11 18153.19 900.16 570.25 1032.39 1126.28

Turnover 137.2520 Ratio






160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Cash Turnover Ratio 11.4386 13.7412 24.4586 14.9053 137.252


Interpretation: The ideal cash turnover ratio is 10:1. It may be seen that there is fluctuation in the ratio. In 2004-05, the ratio is very high which means that the funds were used very effectively. The cash turnover ratio for all the years is well above the ideal standard, which indicates that cash resources of the enterprise are efficiently utilized and hence, the company is in better position.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.5 Working Capital Turnover Ratio: Net annul Sales / Working Capital

Year Net Sales Working Capital Working Capital Turnover Ratio

2004-05 7639.45 505.47

2005-06 9790.53 1583.83





12369.30 13947.53 15388.11 18153.19 2432.13 2586.97 3456.10 78.84












50 15.1136 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Working Capital Turnover Ratio 6.1815 5.0858 5.3914 4.4524

Interpretation: The above trend shows that working capital turnover ratio is highly fluctuating in nature. Company should note that a very high working capital turnover ratio means over trading, and a very low working capital turnover ratio means under trading, none of which is good concern. Likewise for the current the ratio is very high which not a good sign for the company. Hence proper measures should be taken to tackle this problem.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.6 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio: Net annual Sales / Fixed Assets

Year Net Sales Fixed Assets Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio

2004-05 7639.45 3950.76

2005-06 9790.53 4161.73

2006-07 12369.30 4744.77

2007-08 13947.53 6168.83

2008-09 15388.11 7271.91

2009-10 18153.19 8142.40







3 2.6069 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio 1.9337 2.3525 2.261 2.1161 2.2295

Interpretation: This ratio indicates to what extent the fixed assets of the firm have contributed to sales. The standard or ideal fixed turnover is 5 times or more, which indicates better utilization of fixed assets. Above trend shows that the fixed assets are underutilized as the ratio is below 5. ITCs Fixed Assets Turnover ratio is not ideal.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.7 Current Assets Turnover Ratio: Net annual sales / Current Assets

Year Net Sales Current Assets Current Assets Turnover Ratio

2004-05 7639.45 3539.29

2005-06 9790.53 5161.90

2006-07 12369.30 6289.72

2007-08 13947.53 7019.27

2008-09 15388.11 8161.11

2009-10 18153.19 8127.08







2.3 2.2337 2.2 2.1 2 1.9 1.8 1.7 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Current Assets Turnover Ratio 1.8967 1.9666 1.987 1.8855 2.1585

Interpretation: The above trend shows that the current turnover ratio is highly fluctuating in nature. As the higher ratio indicates better utilization of current assets, the increase in the current years ratio is a good sign for the company.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.8 Total Assets Turnover Ratio: Net annual sales / Total Assets

Year Net Sales Total Assets Total Assets Turnover Ratio

2004-05 7639.45 11550.88

2005-06 9790.53 12784.04

2006-07 12369.30 14968.4

2007-08 13947.53 17249.47

2008-09 15388.11 19484.83

2009-10 18153.19 23005.34







0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2004-05 2005-06 0.6614 0.7658









Total Assets Turnover Ratio

Interpretation: The ideal total assets turnover ratio is 2:1. The above trend shows that the total assets turnover ratio is fluctuating and below the ideal standard. It indicates that the assets of the concern are not utilized in a better manner.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.3.9 Sales to Net worth Ratio: Net Annual Sales / Net worth

Year Net Sales Net worth Sales to Net worth Ratio

2004-05 7639.45

2005-06 9790.53

2006-07 12369.30

2007-08 13947.53

2008-09 15388.11

2009-10 18153.19













2.5 2 1.5 1.0805 1 0.5 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Sales to Net worth Ratio 1.1851 1.1567 1.1203 1.9676


Interpretation: If the volume of sales in relation to net worth is reasonable, the indication is that the owners have been effectively utilized, from the above graph it can be noted that even though the ratio is fluctuating, the sales is in relation to the net worth except for the year 2004-05.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4 PROFITABILITY RATIOS: 6.4.1 Gross Profit Ratio: (Gross Profit / Net Annual Sales) * 100 Year Gross Profit Net Sales Gross Profit Ratio 34.99% 33.39% 31.74% 32.78% 31.36% 33.14% 2004-05 2673.07 2005-06 3269.19 2006-07 3926.70 2007-08 4571.77 2008-09 4825.74 2009-10 6015.31







36.00% 35.00% 34.00% 33.00% 32.00% 31.00% 30.00% 29.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Gross Profit Ratio 31.74% 31.36% 34.99%

33.39% 32.78%


Interpretation: The above trend shows that there is fluctuation in gross profit which is steadily decreasing from the year 2004-05 till 2006-07 and started to decrease from 2007-08 and again in the current year it increased. The organization is not following fixed policy as for as gross profit is concerned.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4.2 Net Profit Ratio: (Net profit / Net sales) * 100

Year Net Profit Net Sales Net Profit Ratio

2004-05 2191.40

2005-06 2235.35

2006-07 2699.97

2007-08 3120.10

2008-09 3263.59

2009-10 4061.00



12369.30 13947.53 15388.11 18153.19







35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Net Profit Ratio 28.68% 22.83% 22.37% 22.37%



Interpretation: The above trend shows that there is steep decrease in the ratio from year 2004-05 and has remained in the range of 21%-23% which is not a good sign for the company because higher the net profit ratio higher is the profitability of the firm. Hence the company has to adopt better policies to increase the net profit ratio.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4.3 Operating Cost Ratio: (Operating Cost / Net Sales) * 100

Year Operating Cost Net Sales Operating Cost Ratio

2004-05 5202.19 7639.45

2005-06 6807.42 9790.53

2006-07 8779.09 12369.30

2007-08 9986.66 13947.53

2008-09 11097.30 15388.11

2009-10 12741.26 18153.19







73.00% 72.12% 72.00% 71.00% 70.00% 69.00% 68.09% 68.00% 67.00% 66.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Operating Cost Ratio 69.53% 70.97% 70.19% 71.60%

Interpretation: A low operating ratio is an indication of operating efficiency of the firm. The trend shows that the operating expenses continuously increased from 200405 to 2008-09 which is not a good sign but in the current year it has decreased which is a very good sign. The company must try to maintain its current year trend in the future.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4.4 Operating Profit Ratio: (Operating Profit / Net Sales) * 100

Year Operating Profit Net Sales Operating Profit Ratio

2004-05 2437.26 7639.45

2005-06 2983.11 9790.53

2006-07 3590.21

2007-08 3960.87

2008-09 4290.81

2009-10 5815.31

12369.30 13947.53 15388.11 18153.19







33.00% 32.00% 31.00% 30.00% 29.02% 29.00% 28.00% 27.00% 26.00% 25.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Operating Profit Ratio 28.40% 27.88% 31.90% 30.47% 32.03%

Interpretation: The ideal operating profit ratio is 10%. For the graph it can be seen that the company has always maintained a ratio of above 10% which indicates the operating efficiency of the firm but this has continuously declined from 2004-05 to 2008-09. But in the present year it has recovered which is a very good sign. The company should maintain the same trend in future.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4.5 Total Assets Ratio: (Net Profit / Total Assets) * 100

Year Net Profit Total Assets Total Assets Ratio

2004-05 2191.40

2005-06 2235.35

2006-07 2699.97

2007-08 3120.10

2008-09 3263.59

2009-10 4061.00

11550.88 12784.04 14968.4

17249.47 19484.83 23005.34







19.50% 19.00% 18.50% 18.04% 18.00% 17.50% 17.00% 16.50% 16.00% 15.50% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Total Assets Ratio 17.48% 16.75% 18.98%

18.09% 17.65%

Interpretation: The above table shows that the Total Assets Ratio is fluctuating in nature. The ideal Total Assets Ratio is 10 %. Here, the Total Assets Ratio is more than the standard which is a very good sign for the company. It is an indication of the higher productivity of the total resources of the firm.


ORGANIZATION STUDY AND RATIO ANALYSIS 6.4.6 Return on Equity Ratio: (Net Profit / Net worth) * 100

Year Net Profit Net worth Return on Equity Ratio

2004-05 2005-06 2191.40 2235.35

2006-07 2699.97

2007-08 3120.10

2008-09 3263.59

2009-10 4061.00

7895.61 9061.48 10437.08 12057.67 13735.08 14064.38 27.75% 24.67% 25.87% 25.88% 23.76% 28.87%

35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Return On Equity Ratio 27.75% 24.67% 28.87% 25.87% 25.88% 23.76%

Interpretation: The ideal return on equity ratio is 13 %. The above trend shows that the ratio is fluctuating. Also, the ratio is well above the ideal. This shows company is having the adequate profit to distribute to the shareholders. The companys return on equity is above the standard, which is adequate.




7.1 Findings:
The liquidity position of the firm is not satisfactory which is evident from short term and long term liquidity ratios. The inventory to working capital ratio indicates that the firms inventories are absorbing more than 75% of working capital i.e., 5770% which shows the liquidity position of the firm is not good. Fixed assets to net worth ratio indicate the financial weakness of the firm since the proprietors funds are not effectively invested in fixed assets and thus increase the risk of the creditors Stock turnover ratio and stock conversion period shows the rate at which inventories are being converted into sales is very inefficient which shows bad inventory management. Debtors turnover ratio and average collection period ratio indicates that the quality of debtors is suitable for credit management and it also indicates a very strict credit and collection performance. Creditors turnover ratio and average collection period indicates that the payment made to the creditors is inefficient which reduces the credit worthiness of the company. Working capital turnover ratio of the company is not ideal which shows the Company is facing the shortage of working capital. The firms profitability position is getting stronger which is evident from the profitability ratio. Return on shareholders investment is adequate. The operating cost ratio indicates the operating expenses of the current year have come down as compared to previous years.



From analysis and interpretation of data, following suggestions were made to improve the companys financial position:

The ITC Ltd should reduce its current liabilities and thereby improve its short
term financial strength.

ITC Ltd should increase its working capital which can improve the operational
efficiency of the firm.

The owners funds should be invested into fixed assets which increases the
credit worthiness of the company.

The firm should reduce its stock of finished goods.

The operating expenses of the company should be reduced further.

The organizations investment pattern should be catered in a manner where the returns are high.



From the organisation study and financial ratio analysis conducted on ITC Ltd it can be conclude that: ITC has pursued World class competitiveness in all businesses and across the entire value chain. It is Best-in-class in terms of: Internal Vitality Market Standing Profitability

This has helped ITC to diversify the business. Today more than half of its revenue comes from non tobacco products i.e. cigarettes. Strategy of Organization and Governance processes is geared to manage multiple businesses. ITC has blended core competencies and leverage ITC umbrella strengths to create new avenues of growth. From the ratio analysis conducted it can be noted that the company has been able to provide adequate returns to its shareholders consistently.




The six weeks training I had undergone at ITC Ltd, Indian Tobacco Division, Bangalore has given me a corporate exposure to the functioning of finance department of a company. My specific learning during this stint at ITC Ltd, Bangalore is as follows:

Knowledge of the various departments & divisions of ITC Ltd, Indian Tobacco division, Bangalore. The role of ITC Ltd in the various business sectors in India and its contribution to the Indian economy. Working in a large scale company like ITC Ltd helped me to know the position of organized FMCG sector in India and will certainly help me in my future decision making process.

Interacting with all the levels of management and workers has certainly helped me to understand the entire functioning of the organization. By doing research in the field of finance, I could know the practical applications of various financial concepts. It has also enlightened me about how to analyze the financial aspects of the organization such as, how the ratios are calculated and how they are useful in useful in analyzing the firms liquidity and financial positions

I also learnt that not all the activities of the organization are based on the classroom theories



BOOKS: C.R. Kothari, Research Methodology, published by New Age International (p) Ltd in the year 2002 M.Y. Khan & P.K. Jain, Financial Management, Fifth edition, published by Tata McGraw hill in the year 2008 Stephen Copestake, Excel 2007, First edition, published by Dreamtech press in the year 2008

JOURNALS: ITC LTD, Annual report 2009-10 CTRI (Central Tobacco Research Institute). 1999. Status Report on Research Programme on Alternative Crops to Tobacco. ERC Statistics International Plc. (1998). India. pp. 1-38, in World Cigarette Report, 1998. Panchamukhi, P.R. 2000. Economics of shifting from tobacco: an action-cumbasic research study. In: CMDR, 2000, q.v. WHO (World Health Organization). 1997. Tobacco or health: a global status report. Geneva: WHO.