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Practical 3 FLOW VISUALISATION IN A SMOKE TUNNEL 1. Aim.

To determine air flow patterns on various aero models/ aero foils using smoke tunnel. 2. Introduction. Flow patterns around even simple bodies in a real uid are frequently very complicated. Visual representations of such ows can be very helpful in providing deeper appreciation and understanding of these cases. Many visualization techniques are available for the aerodynamic velocity spectrum. Tufts, neutrally buoyant particles, helium bubbles, surface powders/oils and smoke plumes are widely used for subsonic tests and Schlieren, birefringence and interferometric techniques cover the supersonic regime. A smoke tunnel is thus used to study air flow patterns over various aero models, buildings etc. 3. Apparatus. (a) Smoke Tunnel. The tunnel which is made of sheet steel is mounted vertically on a light tubular steel trolley. The air flow is induced by means of a fan driven by a variable speed electric motor at the top of the tunnel. Air enters the base of the tunnel by way of a muslin strainer and is led through a contraction cone to the working section. The working section of particular dimension is chosen and flow in it is vertically upwards, thus avoiding trouble from sinking of the smoke filaments at low air speeds. Models are attached to the rear wall of the working section while the front wall is of perspex and is readily removable. Smoke is introduced by a comb located below the working section which emits streams of smoke. The comb may be traversed from side to side to assist in the detailed exploration of the field of flow. The working section is brightly illuminated from both sides and the flow patterns would be clearly visible at a distance. The tunnel controls, on the trolley, comprise a switch for the working section lights, a switch for the fan and a speed controller by means of which the speed of the fan and hence of the air flow In the working section may be varied. (b) Smoke Generator. The smoke generator comprises a steel cabinet carrying handles. It is supported on a tray beneath the tunnel but may readily be removed and used separately. The smoke may be produced by the vaporisation of ordinary kerosene (paraffin) such as is used in domestic heaters. The kerosene is heated by an electrical resistance element wound on the stem of

the glass vaporiser. The control switch on the front of the smoke generator operates the fan and the electric heater.

4.

Procedure. (a) Switch on the tunnel and the smoke generator. After about three minutes smoke should begin to be produced and the rate of flow to the tunnel may be adjusted by means of the pinch clamp on the flexible pipe. (b) Best results are likely to be obtained by running the tunnel with fairly low air velocity and by reducing the supply of smoke to give fairly fine individual smoke filaments. (c) After a period of operation there will be an accumulation of condensed kerosene in the receiver and this should be disconnected and drained. (d) Insert the models, one after another and study the flow patterns. A set of experimental observations is obtained by setting models at

5. Results. different angles.