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ATM SIMUALTION SYSTEM

SRS PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

BALAJI J AUGUSTIN RAJ B HARIRAMAN B

ATM SIMULATION SYSTEM


Abstract:Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) technology has promised to support multiple traffic types over a single network. The problem thus far has been to support different trafc types whilemaintaining the proper quality of service (QoS) parameters for all types of trafc. This paper describes a simulation system that allows the analysis of realistic integrated trafc patterns in ATM networks. The system is extensible to support new trafc patterns and can emulate most current ATM switch architectures. Different traffic patterns, buffering schemes, and trafc polic-ing strategies are implemented in the simulator. Trafc streamscomposed of a constant bit rate stream, a variable bit rate streamand a available bit rate stream are used as inputs to the simulatorto evaluate ATM network performance in terms of QoSparameters. The leaky-bucket algorithm is also used in the simulator for trafc policing and shaping. Simulation results of avariety of conditions are presented in this paper. Of particularinterest is the simulation of both Partial Packet Discard and Early Packet Discard algorithms for efcient transmission of In-temet Protocol datagrams over ATM. Simulation results showthat Early Packet Discard can reduce network link utilization by up to 10% under heavy loads by eliminating traffic that is destined to be discarded by the receiving host Keywords: ATM network, cell-level simulation, JavaRMI, distributed simulation, aggregated cells

dynamic behavior of a network, be it an individual switch or the entire configuration, under synthesized or empirical traffic information collected from an existing network. Unfortunately, to obtain meaningful data, a cell-level simulation must simulate at least tens, even hundreds of trillions of cells to determine such statistic data as cell loss rate. Very few multiprocessors facility can meet the demand of the required computing power. Inasmuch a distributed computing network seems to be a suitable platform for cell level simula-tion for ATM networks due to its seemingly unlimited computing resources that matches the demand of huge computational power. Especially with todays Internet and web-related technology, the unutilized CPU cycle sat distributed sites have become more accessible. Nevertheless, the performance of a distributed simulation program is often hampered by the communication overhead between computers, which depends on the frequency and the amount of data ex-changed. Conventional cell-level simulation model seach cell with an event, and operates on a cell-by-cell transmission principle. Inevitably, the performance of using such techniques would suffer great degradation from the high, if somehow expected, latency in distributed systems. Conventional wisdom shows that to transmit a fixed amount of data, the communication overhead of infrequent transmission with larger data objects is usually less than that of a more frequent communication but smaller objects. A preliminary set of experiments using Java Remote Method Invocation(RMI) mechanism indicates that the latency incurred by sending a 2000-byte object is less than 10% of that of sending 100 objects of 20 bytes each. Furthermore, the time it takes to send a 1000-byte object and a 200byte one is about 3 to 1.

INTRODUCTION
Since its emergence, asynchronous mode transfer (ATM) technology has attracted much research interest. Aiming to provide a wide range of applications with guaranteed quality of services, ATM was heralded by many as the communication protocol to cover and bridge all the gaps left by other existing protocols. However, despite its simplistic static design, the dynamics of ATM networks makes it a difficult task to analyze and predict the performance of a potential configuration. A cell-level simulation of an ATM network pro-vides an attractive alternative to shed light on the

LITERATURE SURVEY

Simulation with queuing model for various applications other than the ATM problem have been worked upon which is being shown below: Pieter Tjerk de Boer (1983) in his article discussed that the estimation of overflow probabilities in queuing networks has received considerable attention in the importance sampling simulation literature. Most of the literature has concentrated on heuristically derived changes of measure, which perform well in many, but not all, models. Adaptive methods (i.e.,methods which try to iteratively approach the optimal change of measure) have only been applied to queuing problems in which a different adaptive method is used than in the present work, and where only a few simple models are considered. S. S. Lavenberg(1989) in his article discussed that simulation was found to be a viable tool for numerically studying a complex queuing model which is not analytically tractable.Moderate simulation durations (durations of 500 and 1000 tours were used where the average computer time to simulate a tour was 0.03 second using a large computer) were sufficient to obtain fairly accurate confidence interval estimates. The model was first simulated under saturated conditions with independent replications used to estimate a confidence interval for A, the maximum input rate for which regenerative simulation is applicable. Savings or insertion procedures, which build a solution in such a way that at each step of the procedure, a current configuration that is possibly infeasible. The alternative configuration is one that yields the largest saving in terms of some criterion function, such as total cost, or that inserts least expensively a demand entity in the current configuration into the existing route or routes. Examples of these procedures can be found in Clarke and Wright (1964) or in Solomon (1987). Improvement or exchange procedures, such as the well-known branch exchange heuristic which always maintain feasibility and strive towards optimality. Other improvement procedures were described by

Potvin and Rousseau (1995), including Or-opt exchange method in which one, two, three consecutive nodes in a route will be removed and inserted at another location within the same or another route k-interchange heuristic in which k links in the current routes are exchanged for k new links and 2 opt procedure which exchanges only two edges taken from two different routes. Mathematical programming approaches, which include algorithms that are directly based on a mathematical programming formulation of the underlying queuing problem. An example of this procedure was given by Fisher and Jaikumar (1981). Christ ofi des et al (1981) discussed Lagrangean relaxation procedures for the queuing of customer in front of ATM. Interactive optimization, which is a general purpose approach in which a high degree of human interaction is incorporated into the problem solving process. Some adaptations of this approach to queuing are presented by Krolak et al (1970). Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing (some circles use the term for computer simulations modelling selected laws of physics, but this article doesn't). These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system. A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. In our project we are performing computer simulation and creating a computerized model.ATM-Simulator (ATM-SIM) is a computer-based trainer used for teaching individuals with intellectual disabilities how to use an automated teller machine (ATM) to access their personal bank accounts. In the pilot evaluation, a prototype system was developed and used to train nine adults with intellectual disabilities how to use a local

ATM. Participants were pre-tested on their ability to use an ATM and then were trained using the ATM-SIM prototype. After a brief training period, participants were again tested on their capacity to operate the actual ATM. Computer simulation of ATM can be used effectively to teach a specific independent living skill to adults with mental retardation. ATM-SIM is designed as a multimedia training tool that provides individuals with intellectual disabilities step-by-step

concern

in

case

of

ATM

machines. So this point must also be considered in ATM Simulator. So secured handling of PIN

(Personal Identification Number) and secured manipulation of other information across the network must also take place. Functionality: The ATM

Simulator must include all the possible basic and advanced

instructions for learning how to use an ATM. Each step in the process, from entering the ATM card, keying in an access code, selecting the desired

features that can be provided by a modern ATM machine. Usability: Unlike the modern ATM machines the simulator

transaction and completing the transaction was simulated on the computer and presented to the user with step-by-step visual and audio cues. Users interacted with the ATM-SIM system using a

should be useful to a wide range of users and the users must use it without any assistance. The

simulator must be user friendly and must support multiple

touch screen similar to actual operation of an ATM. Each button and displayed message from a local ATM in the PLUS system of ATMs was incorporated into the ATM-SIM system. Users were guided through each step of a desired transaction via computer generated audio instructions and by visually highlighting the buttons that needed to be pressed. As per literature survey we have learned what an ATM is, what a simulation is and why we simulate any real world system. So before we move further we must consider the following aspects regarding ATM Simulator. The aspects are as followsSecurity: The security is the main

languages. Efficiency: The simulator must be fast and easy in operation. Service Extension: The simulator must be helpful to extend the functionalities of the real world ATM machines. It means that the banks can experiment the

enhancements on the simulator before they implement it in the real world system.
Despite the success and widespread use of Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs), a significant

proportion of bank customers can not or will not use them, or experience

difficulties

in

their interactions.

EXISTING SYSTEM:
A real world automated teller machine (ATM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a bank with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. On most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip that contains a unique card number, Bank account number and some security information, such as an expiration date or CVC (CVV). Security is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). Most of the people are illiterate and even cant perform a simple transaction like cash withdrawal due to language bondations. The same problem exists with the blind people. Providing mechanism (if cash deposit feature is enabled in ATM machine), from which user can deposit money into his account. For customers simplicity various language options are supported (like English,Hindi etc). Various features provided by a real world ATM system are as follows:-

PROPOSED SYSTEM:
The proposed system Speech controlled ATM Simulator provides all the basic as well as advanced features of a standard real world ATM system. Along with it to add more simplicity and to make the machine more user friendly two new concepts are added:Speech Synthesis-The ATM system will now help the user by guiding him throughout the transaction by giving speech in his or her mother language. Speech Recognition- The ATM system will now be able to recognize spoken commands. The customer can now give voice commands in his mother language with the help of a microphone and the ATM machine recognizes those spoken commands and takes the appropriate action. decision of proceeding, postponing or the cancellation of the project. Depending on the results of the initial investigation the survey is expanded to a more detailed feasibility study. Feasibility study is a test of a system proposal according to its workability, impact on the organization, ability to meet user needs, and effective use of resources.

more and more language options is useless because they may not be able to read a text written on the screen. Thus the existing system although growing day by day and fulfilling more and more needs of customers fails in the case when simplicity and user friendliness is measured. The real world ATM provides a keypad and a touch screen. There is cash dispensing machine from which cash out can be accomplished. The cash dispensing machine optionally owns a cash In Feasibility is the determination of whether or not a project is worth doing. The process followed in making this determination is called a feasibility study. It determines whether a project should be taken or not. Feasibility study was undertaken within tight constraints of time and culminated in the written and amoral feasibility reports. The constants of the reports were used as a sound basis for the

INPUT DESIGN:
Input design is the process of converting user-oriented input to a computer based format. Input design is a part of overall system design, which requires very careful attention. Often the collection of input data is the most expensive part of the system. The main objectives of the input design are 1. Produce cost effective method of input 2. Achieve highest accuracy possible level of Operational Computerized Interactive Input files can exist in document form before being input to the computer. Input design is rather complex since it involves procedures for capturing data as well as inputting it to the computer.

3. Ensure that the input is acceptable to and understood by the staff. Input Data The goal of designing input data is to make entry easy, logical and free from errors as possible. The entering data entry operators need to know the allocated space for each field; field sequence and which must match with that in the source document. The format in which the data fields are entered should be given in the input form .Here data entry is online; it makes use of processor that accepts commands and data from the operator through a keyboard. The input required is analyzed by the processor. It is then accepted or rejected. Input stages include the following processes Data Recording Data Transcription Data Conversion Data Verification Data Control Data Transmission Data Correction One of the aims of the system analyst must be to select data capture method and devices, which reduce the number of stages so as to reduce both the changes of errors and the cost .Input types, can be characterized as. External Internal

OUTPUT DESIGN Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of these result for latter consultation .Computer output is the most important and direct source of information to the users. Designing computer output should proceed in an organized well through out the manner. The right output must be available for the people who find the system easy o use. The outputs have been defined during the logical design stage. If not, they should defined at the beginning of the output designing terms of types of output connect, format, response etc, Various types of outputs are External outputs Internal outputs Operational outputs Interactive outputs Turn around outputs All screens are informative and interactive in such a way that the user can full fill his requirements through asking queries

DATABASE DESIGN The general theme behind a database is to handle information as an integrated whole. A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum redundancy to serve many users quickly and effectively. After designing input and output, the analyst must concentrate on database design or how data should be organized around user requirements. The general objective is to make information access, easy quick, inexpensive and flexible for other users. During database design the following objectives are concerned:Controlled Redundancy Data independence Accurate and integrating More information at low cost Recovery from failure Privacy and security Performance Ease of learning and use

DECOMPOSED MODULE

Pseudo code: import javax.sound.sampled.*; import java.io.*; import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; import javax.swing.*; class Playing_Sound { private AudioInputStream ain; private DataLine.Info info; private File f; private Clip clip; public Playing_Sound(String name) { try { f=new File(name); ain=AudioSystem.getAudioInputStream(f); info=new DataLine.Info(Clip.class,ain.getFormat()); clip=(Clip) AudioSystem.getLine(info); clip.open(ain); System.out.println(ain.getFormat()); } catch(Exception e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } } public void play() { try { clip.start(); System.out.println(clip.getMicrosecondPosit ion()); } catch(Exception r) {} } public void stop() { clip.stop(); } public void resume() { clip.setMicrosecondPosition(0); } } class Player extends JFrame implements ActionListener { JPanel p; JButton b,s; Player(String name) { super(name); p=new JPanel(); b=new JButton("Play"); s=new JButton("Stop"); b.addActionListener(this); s.addActionListener(this); p.add(b);

p.add(s); add(p); setBounds(0,0,100,200); p.setVisible(true); setVisible(true); } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { Playing_Sound p=new Playing_Sound("C:\\gh.wav"); if(e.getSource()==b) { p.play(); } else if(e.getSource()==s) { p.stop(); } } } class Player_Test { public static void main(String [] args) { Player o=new Player("My First Player"); } } The following code shows a simple use of speech synthesis to speak the string "Hello World". import javax.speech.*; import javax.speech.synthesis.*; import java.util.Locale; public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String args[]) { try { // Create a synthesizer for English Synthesizer synth = Central.createSynthesizer( new SynthesizerModeDesc(Locale.ENGLISH)); // Get it ready to speak synth.allocate(); synth.resume(); // Speak the "Hello world" string synth.speakPlainText("Hello, world!", null); // Wait till speaking is done synth.waitEngineState(Synthesizer.QUEUE _EMPTY); // Clean up synth.deallocate(); } catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } }

Class JFrame -java.lang.Object -java.awt.Component -java.awt.Container -java.awt.Window -java.awt.Frame -javax.swing.JFrame For Example: import javax.swing.*; import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; class Myjframe extends JFrame implements ActionListener,TextListener { JPanel jp1,jp2; JButton jb1,jb2; JLabel lb1,lb2; TextField jt; Myjframe(String str) { super(str); jp1=new JPanel(); jp2=new JPanel(); jb1=new JButton("NEXT"); jb2=new JButton("BACK"); lb1=new JLabel(""); lb2=new JLabel(""); jt=new TextField(20); jb1.addActionListener(this); jb2.addActionListener(this); jp1.add(lb1); jp1.add(jb1); jp1.add(jt); jp2.add(lb2); jp2.add(jb2); jp1.setBackground(Color.red); jp2.setBackground(Color.green); setBounds(0,0,500,500); add(jp1); add(jp2); setVisible(true); setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_O N_CLOSE); } } public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if(e.getSource()==jb1) { jp1.setVisible(false); jp2.setVisible(true); add(jp2); } else { jp2.setVisible(false); jp1.setVisible(true); add(jp1); } }

public void textValueChanged(TextEvent t) { lb1.setText(jt.getText()); lb2.setText(jt.getText()); }


However, creating containers with absolutely positioned containers can cause problems if the window containing the container is resized. For Example: pane.setLayout(null); //pane is a JPanel object JButton b1 = new JButton("one"); JButton b2 = new JButton("two"); JButton b3 = new JButton("three"); pane.add(b1); pane.add(b2); pane.add(b3); Insets insets = pane.getInsets(); Dimension size = b1.getPreferredSize(); b1.setBounds(25 + insets.left, 5 + insets.top, size.width, size.height); size = b2.getPreferredSize(); b2.setBounds(55 + insets.left, 40 + insets.top, size.width, size.height); size = b3.getPreferredSize(); b3.setBounds(1 50 + insets.left, 15 + insets.top, size.width + 50, size.height + 20); ...//In the main method: Insets insets = frame.getInsets (); frame.setSize(3 00 + insets.left + insets.right, 125 + insets.top + insets.bottom);

import java.sql.*; class Database { public static void main(String [] args) { Connection con ; try { Class.forName(sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver ); con = DriverManager.getConnection(college) System.out.println(Name =+r.getString(Name)+ Roll No=+r.getInt(2)) }

SOFTWARE TESTING Is the menu bar displayed in the appropriate contested some system related features included either in menus or tools? Do pull Down menu operation and Toolbars work properly? Are all menu function and pull down sub function properly listed ?; Is it possible to invoke each menu function using a logical assumptions that if all parts of the system are correct, the goal will be successfully achieved .? In adequate testing or nontesting will leads to errors that may appear few months later.This create two problem 1. Time delay between the cause and appearance of the problem. 2. The effect of the system errors on files and records within the system The purpose of the system testing is to consider all the likely variations to which it will be suggested and push the systems to limits. The testing process focuses on the logical intervals of the software ensuring that all statements have been tested and on functional interval is conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the required results. Program level testing, modules level testing integrated and carried out. There are two major type of testing they are 1) White Box Testing. 2) Black Box Testing. White Box Testing White box some times called Glass box testing is a test case design uses the control structure of the procedural design to drive test case. Using white box testing methods, the following tests where made on the system a) All independent paths within a module have been exercised once. In our system, ensuring that case was selected and executed checked all case structures. The bugs that were prevailing in some part of the code where fixed b) All logical decisions were checked for the truth and falsity of the values. Black box Testing Black box testing focuses on the functional requirements of the software. This is black box testing enables the

software engineering to derive a set of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program. Black box testing is not an alternative to white box testing rather it is complementary approach that is likely to uncover a different class of errors that white box methods like.. 1) Interface errors 2) Performance in data structure 3) Performance errors 4) Initializing and termination errors

Unit Testing; Unit Testing is a testing mechanism that tests the modules of our software. It can be carried out after the coding or before the coding. A component level design act as guide for testing of modules. The unit testing tests the control paths to uncover errors within the boundaries of modules. The unit testing mainly focuses on the internal processing level and data structure of a component. Testing of each module can be carried out in the following parts: Module Interface Local data structure Independent paths Boundary Values Error handling Techniques

The unit testing begins with the testing of modules interface. In this the flow of information from or to module interface is checked. After this the data stored in local

data structures are checked for integrity. After that all independent paths are checked whether they are checked at least once. After this the boundary values are checked against the control flow, data structures at the boundaries of input domain. At last the tests are conducted for the error handling statements for identifying any errors (if present) and error handling routines.
INTEGRATION TESTING:

FUNCTION TESTING:

Black Box testing or Functional testing is a mechanism to check the functionality of our program. By applying black box testing tester will be able to get a test case that checks the functionality of ones program. Black Box testing can be used to find the following errors: To find Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Database structures and data access to external database errors Behavior and performance errors Initialization errors

Integration testing is a systematic technique that describes software architecture and at the same time checks the errors encountered in the interfaces. The main objective of integration testing is to use the unit tested modules and design architecture as depicted by design. The normal tendency is to follow nonincremental integration testing. In which all the components are combined and structure is obtained and afterwards testing is performed. But the best way is to follow incremental testing in which the program is constructed and tested increments and errors can be easily isolated and corrected. There are two types of incremental testing: Top down Incremental Integrating Testing Bottom Up Incremental Integrating Testing

Black Box testing is done to check that software functions are operational i.e. input is properly accepted & output is correctly produced & the integrity of the external information is maintained. It is usually applied at the later phase of testing. It can be performed by following four methods:

Graph based methods Equivalence Partitioning Boundary based analysis Orthogonal array testing

Top-Down Integration Testing: Top-down incremental testing is a mechanism for constructing software architecture and testing at the same time. In this approach the process of integration begins from the top where the main control is taken first. Then as we move towards bottom each module is integrated and simultaneously tested. The main control module act as a driver and the module subordinate requires are replaced by stubs. Depth first integration and Breadth first integration are two approaches for integration of modules. Bottom-up Integration Testing: In bottom-up integration the integration of module begins from the lowest level. Since the module at the lowest level are already integrated and tested, so stubs are eliminated.

System Testing:
System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. Through this it is checked whether all system elements have been properly integrated and perform allocated functions. It includes the following testing

TESTING CONSIDERED:

In our project we have performed the following testing:

White Box testing Black Box Testing Unit Testing

Integration Testing

RESULT a.Comparative analysis: The student management system is an automated version of manual Student Management System. It can handle all details about a student. The details include college details, subject details, student personnel details, academic details, exam details etc... In case of manual system they need a lot of time, manpower etc. Here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained. Maintaining backup is very easy. It can do within a few minutes. Our system has two type of accessing modes, administrator and user. Student management system is managed by an administrator. It is the job of the administrator to insert update and monitor the whole process. When a student logs in to the system, he would only add or view the details of him or other students. He can't perform any changes . b.Graph

Our project is only a humble venture to satisfy the needs in an Institution. Several user friendly coding have also adopted. This package shall prove to be a powerful package in satisfying all the requirements of the organization. The objective of software planning is to provide a frame work that enables the manger to make reasonable estimates made within a limited time frame at the beginning of the software project and should be updated regularly as the project progresses.

REFERENCES Kanda, S.; Senba, K.; Nanakaya, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kawai, T.; Hitachi Eng. & Services Co. Ltd., Ibaraki This paper appears in: Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000. IEEE Issue Date: 2000 On page(s): 464 - 469 vol.1 Meeting Date: 23 Jan 2000 - 27 Jan 2000 Print ISBN: 0-7803-5935-6 INSPEC Accession Number: 6651380 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/PESW.2000.850008
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Date of Current Version: 06 August 2002 Whang, K.-Y.; Brady, S.; IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY This paper appears in: Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on Issue Date: Apr 1989 Volume: 7 Issue:3 On page(s): 408 - 417 ISSN: 0733-8716 INSPEC Accession Number: 3392592 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/49.16873 Date of Current Version: 06 August 2002 3. Ackenhusen, J.G.; AT&T Bell Labs., Whippany,NJ This paper appears in: Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on Issue Date: Sep 1989 Volume: 32 Issue:3 On page(s): 194 - 199 ISSN: 0361-1434 INSPEC Accession Number: 3489193 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/47.31629 Date of Current Version: 06 August 2002 Sponsored by: IEEE Professional Communication Society http://1000projects.org/school-student2.

CONCLUSION

management-system-a-oracle-database4. project.html CSE IEEE School Student Management System a Oracle Database Project
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http://cswww.cs.yale.edu/homes/dna/papers/aba di-cloud-ieee09.pdf Data Management in the Cloud: Limitations and Opportunities Daniel J. Abadi Yale University New Haven, CT, USA Foundations and TrendsR in Databases Vol. 1, No. 2 (2007) 141259 c 2007 J. M. Hellerstein, M. Stonebraker and J. Hamilton DOI: 10.1561/1900000002 Architecture of a Database System Joseph M. Hellerstein, Michael Stonebraker and James Hamilton University of California, Berkeley, USA, hellerstein@cs.berkeley.edu Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

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