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CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

United Business Institutes


Belgium, Europe

PROJECT REPORT
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the

INTERNATIONAL MBA IN POWER

By
SOUMYADEEP BHUNIA
(UBI/MBA/I/AP11/3389)

Under the guidance of


Mr. VIVEK ZAVERI
(Manager Energy Audit)

JARO EDUCATION MUMBAI January 2012

PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

DECLARATION

I, Soumyadeep Bhunia hereby declare that this project report titled Challenges & Opportunities for Renewable Energy in Indian Perspective submitted in partial or nergy fulfilment of the requirement for the International MBA in Power is my original work and it has not formed the basis for the award of any other degree. ot

(Signature of the Student) Soumyadeep Bhunia

Place: Ahmedabad Date: 30th January 2012

(I)

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

It gives me a great sense of achievement and pleasures to present this report on my MBA Final project undertaken in the IInd semester as a part of o my curriculum. I nd owe special debt and gratitude to Mr. Vivek Zaveri (Manager Energy Audit at V Manager Conserve Energy Solution India for his consistent support and invaluable India) guidance throughout this endeavour. Whenever I was puzzled and confused about the concepts, his innovative ideas gave me a way to proceed. His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance had been a great source of inspiration for me. It is only his cognizant guidance and motivation that my efforts saw light of the day. I also acknowledge all the energy experts from where I gathered the data for this project. pportunity I also take this opportunity to acknowledge my friends and colleague for their contribution & myself for my individual efforts in the completion of this report. Finally, I have no words to express my deep sense of gratitude to my institute Jaro Education on behalf of United Business Institute for giving me this opportunity to prepare this project report and in particular Mr. V. Zaveri for his guidance and repare report, support.

Regards, SOUMYADEEP BHUNIA

(II)

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

CERTIFICATE FROM PROJECT GUIDE

This is to certify that the work contained in this report on Challenges & Opportunities for Renewable Energy in Indian Perspective by Soumyadeep Bhunia student of International MBA in Power Jaro Education on behalf of United Business Power, Institute, Belgium was done under my guidance and supervision for his Final Project during the IInd semester. To the best of my knowledge & belief the work has been based on the investigation made, data collected & analyzed by him & this work has not been submitted anywhere else for any other university or institution.

The work has been completed to my satisfaction.

30.01.2012 Date: _____________ ________ Ahmedabad

____________________ Mr. Vivek Zaveri

Place: _____________

Manager V Conservation Energy onservation Solutions India Pvt. Ltd. Noida

(III)

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

PREFACE
Renewable energy in India is a sector that is still undeveloped. India was the first country in the world to set up a ministry of non conventional energy resources, in non-conventional early 1980s. However its success has been very spotty. In recent years India has been lagging behind other nations in the use of renewable energy (RE). The share of nations RE in the energy sector is 10.63 % (as on 31/03/11) of total generation capacity of India. Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. 80% of global population lives in developing areas. Of the 6.0 billion populations, in lation the OECD countries the total number is approximately 1.2 billion North America (0.4), Europe (0.6), Asia Pacific (0.2). In the non OECD countries, the population is non-OECD the balance 80% and i.e. 4.8 billion consisting of Asia Pacific (3.2), Russia Russia-Caspian (0.3), Middle-East (0.2), Africa (0.8) and Latin America (0.4). By the year 2030, the East global population is projected to be 8.0 billion rising at the rate of 0.9% per year and in the year 2030, the OECD countries would consist of North America (0.5), Europe 0, (0.6) and Asia Pacific (0.2), the total being 1.3 from the present level of 1.2 billion. The balance 7.7 billion would be in non OECD countries. Therefore, during the non-OECD period 2005-2030, the population rise in the non OECD countries would be higher non-OECD than the population growth in the OECD countries. And, as a result, by the year 2030, the global population in the OECD countries would be a little more than 16% and the balance about 84% would in t non-OECD countries. the As regards energy consumption, 16% of the global population in the OECD countries, would consume, by the year 2030, more than 40% of energy and the balance about 84% of the global population in the non OECD areas would consume non-OECD a little less than 60% of the total energy consumed in the world. No doubt, during the le period 2005 to 2030, the rate of growth of energy consumption in the non non-OECD countries would be higher than in OECD countries and would vary between 1.3% in the Russian-Caspian area to 3.2% in the Asia Pacific areas, as opposed to the rate an of growth of energy consumption during this period in the OECD countries being in the range of 0.6% in North America to 0.9% in the Asia Pacific region.

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

Still as mentioned earlier, by the year 2030, 16% of global population would by consume as much as 40% of the energy and the balance 84% of the global population would consume less than 60% of energy. Providing access to adequate energy to their people is really a challenge for developing countries. developing India is one of the countries where the present level of energy consumption, by world standards, is very low. The estimate of annual energy consumption in India is about 330 Million Tones Oil Equivalent (MTOE) for the year 2004. Accordingly, t the per capita consumption of energy is about 305 Kilogram Oil Equivalent (KGOE). As compared to this, the energy consumption in some of the other countries is of the order of over 4050 for Japan, over 4275 for South Korea, about 1200 for China, about 7850 for USA, about 4670 for OECD countries and the world average is about 1690. Total Installed Capacity of power generation in India (as on 30 30-06-2011) is 176,990.40 MW. Among them a . about 65.34% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants, 21.53% by hydroelectric power plants, 2.70% by nuclear power plants and 10.42% by Renewable Energy Sources. More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves. The country has also invested heavily in recent years in renewable energy utilization, heavily especially wind energy. In 2010, India's installed wind generated electric capacity was 14,550 MW. Additionally, India has committed massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW. reactors In July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy products and systems. Indeed, it is the only country in the world to have an exclusive ministry for renewable energy development, the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Non-Conventional Since its formation, the Ministry has launched one of the worlds largest and most of ambitious programs on renewable energy. Based on various promotional efforts put in place by MNES, significant progress is being made in power generation from renewable energy sources. In October, MNES was renamed the Ministr of New and Ministry Renewable Energy.

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

Specifically, 3,700 MW are currently powered by renewable energy sources. This is projected to be 10,000 MW from renewable energy by 2012. The key drivers for renewable energy are the following: 1. The demand-supply gap, especially as population increases supply 2. A large untapped potential 3. Concern for the environment 4. The need to strengthen Indias energy security 5. Pressure on high-emission industry sectors from their shareholders emission 6. A viable solution for rural electrification

Also, with a commitment to rural electrification, the Ministry of Power has accelerated the Rural Electrification Program with a target of 100,000 villages by 2012. In recent years, India has emerged as one of the leading destinations for investors from developed countries. This attraction is partially due to the lower cost of ed manpower and good quality production. The expansion of investments has brought benefits of employment, development, and growth in the quality of life, but only to the major cities. This sector only represents a small portion of the total population. The remaining population still lives in very poor conditions. India is now the eleventh largest economy in the world, fourth in terms of purchasing power. It is poised to make tremendous economic strides over the next ten years, economic with significant development already in the planning stages. This report gives an overview of the renewable energies market in India. We look at the current status of renewable markets in India, the energy needs of the country, forecasts of consumption and production, and we assess whether India can power its growth and its society with renewable resources. The Ministry of Power has set an agenda of providing Power to All by 2012. It seeks to achieve this objective through a comprehensive and holistic approach to power through sector development envisaging a six level intervention strategy at the National, State, SEB, Distribution, Feeder and Consumer levels.

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Secure, reliable and affordable energy supplies are fundamental to global economic stability and growth. The challenges ahead of us include the adequacy of energy supplies, the threat of disruptive climate change and the huge investment requirements to meet the growing global energy needs, particularly in the developing particularly countries. Future energy demand and supply are subject to numerous uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict. Such as energy prices, particularly oil prices, global economic growth rate, demographic changes, technological advances, government technological policies and consumer behaviour. In such a complex market, energy projections are primarily based on historical information. The primary objective of any energy energyscenario analysis must be to analyze the main driving forces that wou shape our would energy future and the options ahead of us, rather than making accurate quantitative projections. According to Paul Saffo (2007) Whether a specific forecast actually Whether turns out to be accurate is only part of the picture -- even a broken clock i right twice is a day. Above all, the forecaster's task is to map uncertainty, for in a world where our actions in the present influence the future, uncertainty are opportunity. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non Conventional Sources of Non-Conventional energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop ergy. the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main RSE are as follows: Solar Power Wind Power Hydro Power Geo Thermal Tidal/Ocean energy Ocean Bio fuel/Alternative fuels

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable sed, energy to contribute 10% of the countrys gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal pulation dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (Co2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. d The power generation in the country is planned through funds provided by the Central Sector, State Sector and Private Sector. The power shortages noticed is of the order of 11%. In the opinion of the experts such short fall can be red reduced through proper management and thus almost 40% energy can be saved. It has been noticed that one watt saved at the point of consumption is more than 1.5 watts generated. In terms of Investment it costs around Rs.40 million to generate one MW of new generation plant, but if the same Rs.40 million is spent on conservation of eration energy methods, it can provide up to 3 MW of avoidable generation capacity. There are about 80,000 villages yet to be electrified for which provision has been made to electrify 62,000 villages from grid supply in the Tenth Plan. It is planned that participation of decentralized power producers shall be ensured, particularly for electrification of remote villages in which village level organizations shall play a ectrification crucial role for the rural electrification programme.

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
DECLARATION ................................ ................................................................................................................................ ......................................... I ACKNOWLEDGMENT............................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................II ............................................................................................................................. CERTIFICATE FROM PROJECT GUIDE....................................................................................................III GUIDE.................................................................................................. PREFACE............................................................................................................................. ...............................................................................................................................................IV ............................................................................................................................. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................VII SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................ ............................................................................................................................... 13 ............................... 1.1 Primary and Secondary Energy ................................................................................................ 13 ................................... 1.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy ................................................................ ...................................... 14 1.2.1 Commercial Energy ................................ ................................................................................................ .............................................. 14 1.2.2 Non-Commercial Energy ................................................................................................ Commercial ...................................... 14 1.3 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy................................................................ Renewable ..................................................... 14 1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY ................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................ 15 1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT PROJECT................................................................................................ 16 .................................... 1.6 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM ................................................................................................ 16 ................................ 1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 17 .................................... 2.0 INDIAN ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE STATUS ................................................................ ....................................... 17 2.1 Commercial Energy Consumption .............................................................................................. 19 .............................. 2.2 The Power Market in India and the Role of Renewable Energy ................................ ................................................. 20 2.3 Power Consumption................................ ................................................................................................ .................................................... 22 2.4 Power Generation Capacity ................................................................................................ ........................................ 24 3.0 THE STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA................................................................ .............................................. 28 3.1 Renewable Energy Share of Electricity ................................................................ ....................................................... 29 3.2 Renewable Energy Application in Industrial Use and Transportation ................................ ........................................ 31 3.3 Grid Connection and Status Overview ................................................................ ........................................................ 33 3.4 Tradable Renewable Energy Credits ................................................................ ........................................................... 33 4.0 VARIOUS SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES IN INDIA ................................ ......................................... 34 4.1 Solar ................................................................ ................................................................................................ ............................................ 35 4.1.1 Solar energy potential ................................................................................................ .......................................... 36 4.1.2 Solar thermal power generation technologies ................................................................ 37 .................................... 4.1.3 Solar thermal power generation program of India .............................................................. 39 .............................. 4.1.4 Opportunities for solar thermal power generation in India ................................ ................................................ 39 4.1.5 PV & CSP Ratio ................................ ................................................................................................ ..................................................... 40

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

4.1.6 Domestic Content (PV) ................................................................................................ ......................................... 40 4.1.7 Domestic Content (CSP) ................................................................................................ ....................................... 41 4.1.8 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission ................................................................ ............................................ 42 4.1.8 Solar Farming Potential in India ................................................................ ........................................................... 43 4.1.9 Challenges ................................ ................................................................................................ ............................................................ 48 4.2 Wind ................................................................ ................................................................................................ ............................................ 48 4.2.1 Wind Energy for power generation ................................................................ ..................................................... 48 4.2.2 Indias Unique Proposition for Wind Energy: Energy:................................................................ ....................................... 50 4.2.3 Wind Power Capacity Installed in India ................................................................ ............................................... 52 4.2.4 Wind Energy Business Opportunities in India ................................................................ ...................................... 54 4.2.5 Power Plant Development stapes and opportunity in India ................................ ................................................ 55 4.2.6 Central and State Government Policies for Supporting Wind Power Projects .................... 57 Policies 4.3 Small Hydro ................................ ................................................................................................................................ 60 ................................. 4.3.1 Introduction ................................ ................................................................................................ ......................................................... 60 4.3.2 Small Hydro Power Programme ................................................................ ........................................................... 61 4.3.3 Small hydro installed capacity and progress................................................................ ........................................ 62 4.3.4 Standards for Small Hydro ................................................................................................ 64 ................................... 4.3.5 States with Policy for Private SHP Proje ................................................................ Projects .......................................... 64 4.3.6 Watermills ................................ ................................................................................................ ............................................................ 65 4.3.7 Manufacturing Status Status................................................................................................ ........................................... 66 4.3.8 Technical and consultation Services ................................................................ .................................................... 66 4.3.9 Real Time Digital Simulator for SHP ................................................................ ..................................................... 66 4.3.10 Constraints in SHP ................................ ................................................................................................ .............................................. 66 4.4 Geothermal Energy ................................ ................................................................................................ ..................................................... 66 4.4.1 Status and Trends ................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................ 67 4.4.2 Characteristics and Applications of Geothermal Energy ................................ ..................................................... 68 4.4.3 Geothermal Energy Scenario: India and world ................................................................ 69 .................................... 4.4.4 Technology ................................ ................................................................................................ ........................................................... 70 4.4.5 Potential India ................................ ................................................................................................ ...................................................... 72 4.4.6 Historical Capacity & Consumption Data ................................................................ ............................................. 73 4.4.7 Cost, Price and Challenges ................................................................................................ 74 ................................... 4.4.8 Drilling ................................ ................................................................................................................................ 75 .................................. 4.4.9 Transmission ................................ ................................................................................................ ........................................................ 75 4.4.10 Barriers ................................ ............................................................................................................................... 76 ............................... 4.4.11 Geo Thermal companies in India ................................................................ ....................................................... 76

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

4.4.12 RD&D Priorities ................................ ................................................................................................ .................................................. 76 4.5 Tidal Energy ................................ ................................................................................................................................ 77 ................................. 4.5.1 Technology ................................ ................................................................................................ ........................................................... 78 4.5.2 Potential of tidal energy in India ................................................................ .......................................................... 78 4.5.3 Proposed tidal power projects in India ................................................................ ................................................ 79 4.5.4 Kachchh Tidal Power Project ............................................................................................... 79 ............................... 4.5.5 Durgaduani Creek ................................ ................................................................................................ ................................................ 79 4.5.6 Tidal Barriers ................................ ................................................................................................ ........................................................ 80 4.6 Wave Power ................................ ................................................................................................................................ 81 ................................ 4.6.1 Technology ................................ ................................................................................................ ........................................................... 81 4.6.2 Potential of Wave energy in India................................................................ ........................................................ 81 2.6.3 Barriers ................................ ................................................................................................................................ 82 ................................. 4.7 Biofuel ................................ ................................................................................................................................ ......................................... 82 4.7.1 Economics of biodiesel production from Jatropha .............................................................. 83 .............................. 4.7.2 Project operation and crediting period period................................................................ ................................................ 84 4.7.3 Project cost and financing ................................................................................................ 84 .................................... 4.7.4 Project status ................................ ................................................................................................ ....................................................... 84 4.7.5 Biodiesel industry growth ................................................................................................ 84 .................................... 5.0 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................................86 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... 6.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................................................89 ..............................................................................................................................

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the ever increasing energy needs requiring huge investments ever-increasing to meet them. Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: Primary and Secondary energy Commercial and Non commercial energy Renewable and Non-Renewable energy Renewable

1.1 Primary and Secondary Energy


Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy sources available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earths interior, and potential energy due to stored earths gravity. The major primary and secondary energy sources are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Major Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity.

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1.2 Commercial Energy and Non Commercial Energy


1.2.1 Commercial Energy The energy sources that are available in the market for a definite price are known as commercial energy. By far the most important forms of commercial energy are electricity, coal and refined petroleum products. Commercial energy forms the basis of industrial, agricultural, transport and commercial development in the modern ial, world. In the industrialized countries, commercialized fuels are predominant source not only for economic production, but also for many household tasks of general population. Examples: Electricity, lignite, coal, oil, natural gas etc. 1.2.2 Non-Commercial Energy Commercial The energy sources that are not available in the commercial market for a price are classified as non-commercial energy. Non commercial energy sources include fuels commercial Non-commercial such as firewood, cattle dung and agricultural wastes, which are traditionally wood, gathered, and not bought at a price used especially in rural households. These are also called traditional fuels. Non commercial energy is often ignored in energy Non-commercial accounting. Example: Firewood, agro waste in rural areas; solar energy for water heating, wood, for electricity generation, for drying grain, fish and fruits; animal power for transport, threshing, lifting water for irrigation, crushing sugarcane; wind energy for lifting water and electricity generation.

1.3 Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy


Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible. Examples of renewable resources include wind power, solar power, geothermal energy, tidal power and hydroelectric power (See Figure 2). The most power important feature of renewable energy is that it can be harnessed without the release of harmful pollutants. Non-renewable energy is the conventional fossil fuels such as renewable coal, oil and gas, which are likely to deplete with time.

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Figure 2: Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy

1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY

To provide an overview of renewable energy sources available in India and the o potentiality of the various resources The government of India is formulating policies ity resources. to promote the application of renewable energy technologies. Va Various opportunity and constrain to develop new Renewable Energy projects in different location as per available resource will assist the process of developing renewable energy sector for India. In terms of scope: The study covers solar energy, wind energy, small hydro, wave energy and geothermal energy The study compares estimates of the cost of electricity produced from renewable energy and the present cost of fossil fuel based electricity ewable generated in India The study presents an assessment of available renewable energy he technologies and steps of business developments in India considering the available renewable energy resou resources, strategic location with ongoing projects overview The study considers mechanisms used to provide financial incentives for promoting renewable energy projects, and identifies mechanisms which could be applied in India. The technological development of renewable energy technologies is an ongoing process and technologies which are not economically viable today may very soon become relevant for India due to the present rapid technological development of renewable energy technologies.

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1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

To provide an overview of renewable energy resources and recent development status Detailed geographical location identification for different sources of renewable energy To make an overall cost estimation overview for power generation in selective renewable energy source Preparation of business development steps for selective resources Making a brief of renewable energy future in I India.
1.6 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM

India is perceived as a developing country, but it is developing at a pace that is not matched by many others. We have experienced significant economic growth. Yet the fact remains that our growth is constrained by energy supply and availability. Although we have seen an impressive increase in installed capacity additio from addition, barely about 1,350 MW at the time of independence (1947) to about 160,000 MW today, over 90,000 MW of new generation capacity is required in the next seven years. A corresponding investment is required in transmission and distribution. The increasing appetite for energy that has developed in the recent past has been ng further complicated by rapidly diminishing conventional sources, like oil and coal. To further add to the problems of increased demand and constrained supply, there are serious questions about pursuing a fossil fuel led growth strategy, especially in the fuel-led context of environmental concerns. The challenge facing a developing nation such as ours is to meet our increasing energy needs while minimizing the damage to the environment. This is why, while striving to bridge our energy deficit, India want to increase the , wants share of clean, sustainable, new and renewable energy sources. Whether or not renewable energy completely replaces fossil fuel, we are determined to develop renewable energy to its fullest potential.

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1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.7.1 DATA COLLECTION:

The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and the research design/plan chalked out. The data are collected in order to get the result of the problem.
1.7.2 SECONDARY DATA:

These are the data which have been collected by desktop study which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this the researchers have to decide which sort of data he would be going to use. So the secondary data is also collected in order to get the information. The data collected was from the articles by distinguished publications, manuals, journals, magazines, and books.
1.7.3 SAMPLE DESIGN:

The sample is taken from the various government and non government web websites as real time data was not possible to get due to immobility and the time factor. The method used to select sample is Convenient Sampling Method. In this study I have taken the data from various sites of to analyze Challenges & Opportunities for Renewable energy in Indian Perspective. For this I have analyzed ewable Perspective. the charts, and diagrams.

2.0 INDIAN ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE STATUS


In 2008, India accounted for 17.7% of the world population but was the fifth fifth-largest consumer of energy, accounting for 3.8% of global consumption. Indias total 3.8% commercial energy supply is dominated by coal and largely imported oil with largely-imported renewable energy resources contributing less than 1% (this does not include hydro > 25 MW). Coal also dominates the power generation mix, tho though renewable resources now account for approximately 10% of installed capacity. The current power-generating capacity is insufficient to meet current demand, and in 2009 generating 20092010, India experienced a generation deficit of approximately 10% (84 TWh) and a corresponding peak load deficit of 12.7% (over 15 GW). Indias frequent electricity esponding shortages are estimated to have cost the Indian economy 6% of gross domestic product (GDP) in financial year 2007 2008. To power the economic growth currently 20072008. being targeted, it is estimated that India will need to more than double its installed t generating capacity to over 300 GW by 2017. In recent years, control over generating facilities has shifted from being dominantly controlled by the states to the federal government and private entities, including those who have set up captive private

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power plants to power their industrial facilities. The private sector is dominant in renewable energy generation. Indias energy future will not just be shaped by the central grid and large-scale gen scale generating facilities fuelling industrial growth but also by the goal of increasing the well being of Indias poor populations by providing well-being electricity access to the approximately 400 million citizens without. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources is critical to resources ensure that India is able to meet social, economic, and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. Energy planning in India is taking place in the context of climate c change negotiations. India participates in the international climate negotiation process, has pledged to reduce its economys greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity, and has pledged that its per capita emissions will not exceed those of developed nations. India has implemented a National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), which suggested that 15% of energy could come from renewable sources by 2020. The NAPCC has eight National Missions, one of which is focused specifically on renewable energy: The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). India is an active participant ru of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with the second largest number of projects registered among all countries participating, the majority of which are renewable energy projects. The electricity intensity of the Indian economy the percentage growth of electricity he economythe consumption that correlates with 1% of economic growth fell from approximately growthfell 3.14% in the 1950s to 0.97% in the 1990s.11 In 2007, it was at 0.73%. The main reason for this reduction is that Indias growth until now was based more on the s service sector (with an electricity intensity of only 0.11%) than on growth in industrial production (with an electricity intensity of 1.91%).12 Today, for each 1% of economic growth, India needs around 0.75% of additional energy.13 The Planning Commission of India, which coordinates Indian long-term policy, analyzes different scenarios; one scenario assessed that this term value could fall to 0.67% between 2021 20212022 and 20312032.14 India is fac 2032.14 facing a formidable challenge to build up its energy infrastructure fast enough to keep pace with economic and social changes. Energy requirements have risen sharply in recent years, and this trend is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. It is driven by Indias strong economic and population growth as well as by changing lifestyle patterns. Growth and modernization essentially follow the energy intensive Western energy-intensive

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model of the 19th and 20th centuries, in which economic growth correlates with a comparable growth in the energy use. e For GDP annual growth of 8%, the Planning Commission estimates that the commercial energy supply would have to increase at the very least by three to four times by 20312032 and the electricity generation capacity by five to six times over 2032 20032004 levels.15 In 2031 2032, India will require approximately 1,500 2004 2031 1,5002,300 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) to cover its total commercial energy needs.16 The Indian government by itself does not have sufficient financial resou resources to solve the problem of energy shortages. It must rely on cooperation with the private sector to meet future energy requirements. This opens up interesting market opportunities for international companies.

2.1 Commercial Energy Consumption


Indias share of the global commercial energy19 consumption in 2008 was 3.8% re (433 of 11,295 MTOE), increased from 2.9% over the past 10 years, thus making it the fifth largest consumer of commercial energy. By comparison, China holds 19.6% of the population and consu consumes 17.7% of commercial energy.

Figure 3: Worldwide consumption of primary sources of energy by country (2008)

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Indias total consumption of commercial energy increased from 295 MTOE in the year 2000 to 433 MTOE in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 4.9% Coal is by far the most important energy source for India; it provides more than half of the commercial energy supply. Oil, mostly imported, is the second most important source of energy, followed by gas and hydropowe (see Figure 1-4). So far, nuclear hydropower 4). (atomic) power covers only a small portion of the commercial energy requirement (approximately 1.5%). With less than 1%, renewable energy plays a minor role (this does not include hydro > 25 MW), and therefore, it is not even visible in Figure 1 1-3, though its share is projected to increase significantly. The traditional use of biomass (e.g., for cooking) has not been included here as a source of energy. However, the 2001 Census points out that approximately 139 million of the total 194 million households22 in India (72%) are using traditional forms of energy such as firewood, crop residue, wood chips, and cow dung cakes for cooking.23 The majority of these households are in rural areas. Firewood, used by approximately 101 million households, is the main cooking fuel in India.

Figure 4: Percentage share of commercial energy sources in India

2.2 The Power Market in India and the Role of Renewable Energy
While India has been making progress in different infrastructural areas such as the construction of roads and expansion of the telecommunication system, the power

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infrastructure has not kept pace with the growing requirements. Indias power market is confronted with major challenges regarding the quantity as well as the quality of onted the electricity supply. The base load capacity will probably need to exceed 400 GW base-load by 2017. In order to match this requirement, India must more than double its total installed capacity, which as of March 2010 was 159 GW.25 Moreover, Indias power acity, sector must ensure a stable supply of fuels from indigenous and imported energy sources, provide power to millions of new customers, and provide cheap power for development purposes, all while reducing emissions. On the quality side, the while electricity grid shows high voltage fluctuations and power outages in almost all parts of the country on many days for several hours.26 According to the Global Competitiveness Report, in 2009 20092010 (weighted average), India ranked 110 ed among 139 countries in the category Quality of Electricity Supply.27 The power deficit reported for 20082009 was almost 84 TWh, which is almost 10% of the total 2009 requirement; the peak demand deficit was more than 12.7% at over 15 GW.28 The over electricity undersupply in India is estimated to cost the economy as much as INR 34 (USD 0.68) to INR 112 (USD 2.24) for each missing kilowatt hour. Thus, the total kilowatt-hour. cost of the power deficit of 85 billion kWh in financial year 2007 2008 amo 20072008 amounted to at least INR 2,890 billion (USD 58 billion), or almost 6% of the GDP.29 Another report states that there is an approximately 7% decrease in the turnovers of Indian companies due to power cuts.30 As a consequence, many factories, businesses, and private customers have set up their own power generation capacities in the form ivate of captive power plants or diesel generators in order to ensure their power supply. This provides an attractive opportunity for renewable energy solutions; they compete not with power produced relatively cheaply by large coal plants but with much more expensive diesel back-up up generators. Until 1991, the Indian government

monopolized the power market. There were only a few private actors, and the CEA had sole responsibility for giv giving techno-economic clearance to new plants. economic However, the public sector has been unable to cater to the growing demand for power, and in the future, investment requirements in the public sector will far exceed the resources. Current energy policies therefore place an emphasis on the therefore integration of the private sector along the entire value chain: from the generation of power to transmission and distribution.

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The Electricity Act 2003 displaced former energy laws and expanded them comprehensively.31 The aim of the act was the modernization and liberalization of 31 the energy sector through the implementation of a market model with different buyers and sellers. The main points included making it easier to construct decentralized power plants, especially in rural areas and for captive use by especially communities, and giving power producers free access to the distribution grid to enable wheeling. Producers could also choose to sell power directly to consumers rather than through the financially weak State Electricity Boards (SEBs). Through the Electricity Electricity Act, the different legal frameworks are to be unified at a state level to promote foreign direct investment in the country. Given the long term energy deficit long-term and the growth trajectory of the Indian economy, the Indian investment community has responded positively. However, international investors are still hesitant. The largest barrier to more foreign private investment in the energy market is the energy price itself. In many customer sections and regions, they are too low to generate are stable and attractive returns. Despite being an impractical drain on resources, the government has so far failed to adjust prices. The key reason is that cheap or free electricity is an important political token in a country where the majority of the the population still lives on a very low income.

2.3 Power Consumption


Indias average power consumption per person was 733 kWh in 2009, and the average annual rate of increase since 2003 was 4.4%, 33 as shown in Figure

Figure 5 :Per capita annual electricity consumption in India

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In 2008, a total of 596,943 GWh were consumed in India. The largest consumer was industry with 274,531 GWh (46%), followed by households with 124,562 GWh (21%), and agriculture with 107,835 GWh (18%). In the commercial sector (e.g., ture offices and shops), 48,047 GWh (8%) were consumed, 11,615 GWh (2%) in rail traffic, and 30,353 GWh (5%) in various other sectors.

Figure 6 : India electricity consumption sector-wise (utilities & non-utilities, 2008 utilities, 20082009)

Between 1980 and 2009, energy consumption increased by almost seven times from 85,334 GWh to 596,943 GWh, which corresponds to an average annual growth rate of approximately 7.1%. The strongest increase was the consumption by private households, which increased by almost 14 times since 1980 at an average annual growth rate of 10%. The reason for this increase was the inclusion of several million new households, corresponding to the increase in electrical household appliances electrical such as refrigerators and air conditioners. The agricultural share increased seven sevenfold at an annual growth rate of 7.6% between 1980 and 2008. The reason for a strong growth in the agricultural sector is, first, the inclusion of more rural areas, and inclusion second, the provision of power to farmers at reduced, or even frees rates in many frees, areas. The consequence of this latter practice was the widespread purchase of cheap and inefficient water pumps that continue to run almost uninterrupted. The slowest growth in power consumption was seen in the industrial sector at 5.9% per

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year, which still corresponds to a five fold increase.37 The main drivers for the five-fold strong growth in the demand for power are the overall economic growth, the power powerintensive manufacturing industry that is growing disproportionately fast, the rapidly rising consumption in households due to the affordability of new electrical appliances, the planned provision of power to 96,000 currently un electrified villages, un-electrified and the provision of power for latent demand, which is currently unfulfilled because of frequent power cuts.

2.4 Power Generation Capacity


The total power generation capacity in India in March 2010 was 159 GW. Of this, 64.3% was fossil-fuel-fired power plants (coal, gas, and diesel), 23.1% hydropower, fired 2.9% nuclear power, and 9.7% renewable energ energy.

(Renewable energy includes small hydropower plants (< 25 MW), biomass gasification, biomass Renewable energy, urban and industrial waste energy, solar energy, and wind energy energy)
Figure 7 : Installed capacities for power generation in India according to energy source (March 2010)

The composition of the power sector has changed significantly in the last 30 years. The power generation capacity controlled directly by the central government has increased from 12% to 32%. At the same time, the fraction of generation capacity the controlled by the individual states fell from 83% to 50%. Generation capacity controlled by the private sector more than tripled from 5% to 18%. The private sector dominates in power generation from renewable energy sourc sources.

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(Includes small hydropower plants (< 25 MW), biomass gasification, biomass energy, urban and Includes industrial waste energy, solar energy, and wind energy energy)
Figure 8 : Percentage of public and private sector power generation capacity

The National Electricity Policy (NEP) assumes that the per capita electricity consumption will increase to 1,000 kWh by 2012. To cover this demand, the government is planning to add 78,700 MW of capacity during the Eleventh Five 78,700 Five-Year Plan43 (Eleventh Plan) ending March 2012. As of April 2010, 22,552 MW of new installation toward that goal had been achieved. There are further projects under construction with a total capacity of 39,822 MW. A per the mid-term plan review, As term capacity additions of 62,374 MW are likely to be achieved with a high degree of certainty and another 12,000 MW with best efforts.44 Figure 1 shows Indias 1-9 capacity growth from the end of the Eighth Plan in 1997 to project projections through the end of the Eleventh Plan.

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Figure 9 : Development of installed electrical capacities of utilities and non utilities in India non-utilities

Figure shows the technology breakdown of the 78,700 MW targeted in the Eleventh Plan. The largest share of 59,693 MW is to be provided by thermal power plants. Additionally, 15,627 MW is to be provided by hydro and 3,380 MW by nuclear power. The central government undertakings, such as those of the National Thermal Power Corporation or the National Hydro Power Corporation, will contribute the most. r

Figure 10 : Forecast growth in capacity by the end of the Eleventh Plan according to sector (2012)

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In March 2009, the gross electricity generation48 by utilities in India was 746.6 TWh. utilities In addition, 95.9 TWh was generated by non utilities and another 5.9 TWh were net non-utilities imports. The total generation available was thus 848.4 TWh, which corresponds to a rise of 3.3% as compared to the previous year.49 As these figures show, the trend in figures growth rates is inadequate in view of the rapid increase in demand for power.

Figure 11 : Power Generation Growth

Electricity Generation Efficiency Conventional thermal power generation in India faces three main challenges: 1. The low average conversion efficiency of the plants (30%). 2. The low quality of the coal itself, which has high ash content and a low calorific value (3,5004,000 kcal/kg).51 4,000 3. The fixed electricity off-take price, which does not reward efficiency gains. take

It is estimated that at least 25% 25%30% of the capacity in power plants in India is old n and inefficient and operates at high heat rates and low utilization levels.52 To overcome these challenges, the Indian government has implemented a

comprehensive program that includes a large scale renovation and modernizatio large-scale modernization

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(R&M) program for existing power plants, the promotion of supercritical technology for Ultra Mega Power Projects at pithead locations, the promotion of use of imported higher quality coal (from South Africa, Australia, and Indonesia) for coastal location locations, the set-up of coal washing facilities for domestic coal, and the promotion of an IGCC up technology for gas plants. Also, new power plant projects are being awarded via a competitive bidding process based on the lowest price offer for electricity sold to t the grid. Since 1985, nearly 400 units (over 40 GW) have been serviced through the R&M program. According to The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), R&M could improve electricity generation by 30%, reduce emissions by 47%, and increase energy conversion efficiency by 23%.53 The R&M program currently faces two challenges to successful completion. First, the rising electricity demand makes it difficult to take plants off the grid for maintenance work. Second, sometimes the costs to repair or upgrade old power generation equipment exceed 50% of the costs power of an entirely new plant. In such cases, repair is not economically viable. However, given the rising demand, such plants cannot be taken off the grid either. Although many newer, privately operated plants are more efficient than state are state-owned plants, there is still a technology deficit across the power generation sector, mainly with respect to the latest supercritical technology. The performance of Indias existing supercritical power plants has so far failed to meet expectations.54 This presents a to great opportunity for international technical cooperation.

3.0 THE STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN INDIA


India has over 17 GW of installed renewable power generating capacity. Installed wind capacity is the largest share at over 12 GW, followed by small hydro at 2.8 GW. The remainder is dominated by bio energy, with solar contributing only 15 MW. The Eleventh Plan calls for grid connected renewable energy to exceed 25 GW by 2012. grid-connected JNNSM targets total capacity of 20 GW grid-connected solar power by 2022. connected Renewable energy technologies are being deployed at industrial facilities to provide supplemental power from the grid, and over 70% of wind installations are used for this purpose. Biofuels have not yet reached a significant scale in India. Indias Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) supports the further deployment of renewable technologies through policy actions, capacity building, and oversight of their wind and solar research institutes. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Renewable Agency (IREDA) provides financial assistance for renewable projects with funding

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from the Indian government and international organizations; they are also responsible for implementing many of the Indian governments renewable ener energy incentive policies. There are several additional Indian government bodies with initiatives that extends into renewable energy, and there have been several major policy actions in the last decade that have increased the viability of increased deployment of renewable technologies in India, ranging from electricity sector reform to rural electrification initiatives. Several incentive schemes are available for the various renewable technologies, and these range from investment investment-oriented depreciation benefits to generation oriented preferential tariffs. Many states are now generation-oriented establishing Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPOs), which has stimulated development of a tradable Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) program.

3.1 Renewable Energy Share of Electricity


As of June 2010, India was one of the world leaders in installed renewable energy capacity, with a total capacity of 17,594 MW (utility and non non-utility),58 which represents approximately 10% of Indias total installed electric generating capacity.59 Of that total, 17,174 MW were grid connected projects, and the hat grid-connected remaining 2.4% of installed renewable capacity consisted of off grid systems.60 The off-grid wind industry has achieved the greatest success in India with an installed capacity of 12,009 MW at the end of June 2010. India has also installed 2,767 MW of small June hydro plants (with sizes of less than 25 MW each), 1,412 MW of grid grid-connected cogeneration from bagasse, and 901 MW of biomass based power from agro biomass-based residues. Waste-to-energy projects have an installed capacity of 72 MW. India has energy capacity off-grid renewable power capacities of 238 MW from biomass cogeneration, 125 MW grid from biogas, 53 MW from waste energy, 3 MW from solar PV plants, and 1 MW waste-to-energy, from hybrid systems. With the recently announced JNNSM described in Chapter 4, India hopes to develop Chapter more of its solar resource potential. As of June 2010, solar PV plants in India had reached a cumulative generation capacity of approximately 15.2 MW. This is approximately 0.07% of JNNSMs 2022 target of 22 GW.62 As reported by CSP Today, JNNSMs goal would make India the producer of almost three , three-quarters of the world's total solar energy output.63 By the end of the Tenth Plan (2007), India achieved a cumulative installed capacity of 10.161 GW of renewable energy (see Table 2-1). Additions totaling 15 GW are targeted during the Eleventh Plan to bring 1). the total installed grid-connected renewable generating capacity to over 25 GW. connected

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Wind energy is expected to contribute approximately two thirds of the added two-thirds capacity in this plan period. If India is able to achieve its renewable energy goals by 2022 (by the end of the Thirteenth Plan), it will reach a total of 74 GW of installed capacity for wind, solar energy, biomass, and small hydropower, with wind and solar expected to account for more than 80% of the installed renewable power.
Table 1: Table Development of Grid-connected Renewable Power in India (in MW) connected

Achieved Five-year Plan By the End of the 9th Plan (cumulative installed capacity) 10th Plan (additions during plan period)

In Process Anticipated in the 11th Plan (additions during plan period)

Anticipated By the End of the 11th Plan (cumulative installed capacity)

Targets By the End of the 13th Plan (cumulative installed capacity)

Years

Through 2002

2002 2007 5,415 520

2007 - 2012

Through 2012

Through 2022

Wind Small Hydro Biomass Solar Total

1,667 1,438

10,500 1400

17,582 3,358

40,000 6,500

368 2 3,475

750 1 6,686

2,100 1,000 15,000

3,218 1,003 25,161

7,500 20,000 74,000

Although the government provides assistance for renewable energy implementation in the form of generation-based incentives (GBIs), subsidies, subsidized credits, and based reduced import duties, the Indian market does not offer investors a framework that is as investor-friendly as in some developed countries. The main reason is that friendly renewable energy sources are not systematically prioritized over non non-renewable sources at a given national budget and a given power demand scenario. While the market certainly offers great opportunities for investors, it also requires adaptation and entrepreneurship to develop solutions that specifically fit the Indian scenario. Off-grid applications for rural electrification and captive power for industries offer a grid promising opportunity for renewable energy technologies in India. Both of these ty applications can benefit from renewable energy's advantages over conventional energy sources: local control of the energy resource and power system and

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suitability to smaller-scale applications. Renewable energy's competition is typically scale either a costly connection to the national grid or diesel generator based power with generator-based its high maintenance and fuel costs. On average, the cost of producing power for a coal plant is about INR 2 (USD 0.03) per kWh, while electricity from a diesel kWh, generator plant is approximately INR 10 (USD 0.20) per kWh To compete effectively kWh. with these established technologies, renewable energy technologies require business models adapted to the characteristics of renewable powe plants that power include plans for efficient marketing, distribution, operation and maintenance, and access to financing. For on grid application of renewable energy, growth depends on on-grid grid infrastructure improvements and the continued reduction of renewable energy costs. Currently, wind, small hydro, and biomass are the most cost cost-competitive renewable options. Solar technologies, including concentrated solar power (CSP) and PV, are the least competitive but offer the greatest opportunity for growth because of the high potential. It therefore receives the most financial support in terms of government incentives. Energy Type Electricity Generation Costsin INRIkWh (USDIkWh) Coal Nuclear Large Hydro Gas Diesel Wind (on-shore) Small Hydro Biomass Solar (CSP) Solar (PV) 12 (0.020.04) 1 23 (0.040.06) 2 3-4 3 (0.060.08) 46 (0.080.12) 4 10+ (0.20+) 34.5 (0060.09) 3 34 0060,08 3 45 (0.060.10) 4 1015 (0.200.30) 10 1220 (0.240.40) 12 IIcKinsey - Powering India McKinsey - Powering India IbicKinsey - Powering India McKinsey - Powering India McKinsey - Powering India Industry experts Industry experts Industry experts Industry experts Industry experts Source

Table 2 : Table Power Generation Costs in India by Energy Source 2008

3.2 Renewable Energy Application in Industrial Use and Transportation


A large percentage of renewable energy in India is covered under captive generation for industrial use. This is especially true in the wind market where 70% of electricity from wind projects is produced for direct consumption by large industrial facilities to s mitigate the effect of frequent shortages of electricity from the national grid.

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Telecommunications companies are also looking toward renewable energy as they search for new solutions to power Indias 250,000 telecom towers. Systems such as o solar PV-based hybrid systems provide a less polluting alternative to diesel power, based serve as a hedge against increasing diesel fuel prices, and help minimize the logistical challenges of transporting and storing diesel fuel at remote tower locations. For the last 2 years, solar cooling has been a buzzword in the industry. While its attraction in a country as sunny and hot as India is obvious, the technology is still under development and is not yet economically viable. There are, however, some yet demonstration sites such as the Muni Seva Ashram in Gujarat, which uses parabolic Scheffler-type dishes to supply a 100 ton air-conditioning system. type 100For the last 2 years, solar cooling has been a buzzword in the industry. While its in attraction in a country as sunny and hot as India is obvious, the technology is still under development and is not yet economically viable. There are, however, some demonstration sites such as the Muni Seva Ashram in Gujarat, whic uses parabolic which Scheffler-type dishes to supply a 100 ton air-conditioning system.68 On the type 100conditioning transportation front, there have been initiatives to switch to alternative transportation fuels such as compressed natural gas and electricity. The Reva, develope by the developed Maini Group, is Indiasand one of the worlds first commercially available electric and worldsfirst car. TATA and General Electric are also in the process of developing electric vehicles. In addition, highly visible pilot projects are deployed to increase public interest in renewable energy technologies. The October 2010 Commonwealth Games in New Delhi are showcasing renewable energy for transportation and other uses including the utilization of at least 1,000 solar rickshaws, which use PV PVpowered motors for transporting athletes at the games.69 Also, a 1 MW PV plant will sporting provide electricity for one of the stadiums at the games.70 Liquid bio fuels, namely ethanol and biodiesel, are considered substitutes for petroleumpetroleum derived

transportation fuels. In India, ethanol is produced by the fermentation of molasses, a ethanol by-product of the sugar industry, but more advanced conversion technologies are product under development, which will allow it to be made from more abundant lignocelluloses biomass resources such as forest and agricultural residues. Biodiesel agricultural production is currently very small, using non edible oilseeds, waste oil, animal fat, non-edible and used cooking oil as feedstock. However, given the fact that India consumes more diesel than gasoline in the transportation sector, it is expected that the

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production of biodiesel and other biomass derived diesel substitutes will grow over biomass-derived the next decade.

3.3 Grid Connection and Status Overview


In March 2009, the Indian power network had a total length of 7.49 million circuit kilometres (ckm).91 In comparison to the power generation sector, investments into the transmission and distribution networks have been lower in recent years. Nevertheless, the transmission network has improved considerably. The distribution network, however, remains in a poor state. In the ongoing Eleventh Plan, the high er, highvoltage network is to be extended by around 95,000 ckm to a capacity of more than 178,000 mega volt amperes (MVA). In the low voltage area, an additional 3,253,773 low-voltage ckm and a capacity of 214,000 MVA are to be added. Another extremely important 4,000 task is the Power for All by 2012 mission,92 declared by the Government of India India the ambitious goal of providing power to all Indian villages by 2012, to a large extent through grid access.

3.4 Tradable Renewable Energy Credits ble


Naturally, the availability of renewable energy sources differs across India. In some states, such as Delhi, the potential for harnessing renewable energy compared to the demand for energy is very small. In other states, such as Tamil Nadu for wind, Rajasthan for solar, or Himachal Pradesh for hydro, it is very high. This offers opportunities for inter-state trading in the form of RECs. Such trade allows for more state economically efficient development of renewable energy throughout the country as distribution licensees in states with limited resources can purchase RECs associated with renewable generation in other states where it is less expensive to develop renewable energy projects. In this way, each states RPO can be met in the most economically efficient manner. In January 2010, CERC announced the terms and conditions for a tradable REC program as follows: There will be a central agency, to be designated by CERC, for registering RE generators participating in the scheme. The renewable energy generators will have two options either sell the renewable energy at a preferential tariff fixed by the concerned Electricity Regulatory Commission, or sell the electricity generation and environmental attributes associated with RE generation separately. eration On choosing the second option, the environmental attributes can be exchanged in the form of REC. Price of the electricity component would be equivalent to the

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weighted average power purchase cost to the distribution company, including shortterm power purchase but excluding renewable power purchase cost. The central agency will issue the REC to renewable energy generators. The value of one REC will be equivalent to 1 MWh of electricity delivered to the grid from renewable energy sources. nergy The REC will be exchanged only in the power exchanges approved by CERC within the band of a floor price and a forbearance (ceiling) price to be determined by CERC from time to time.95 CERC issued an amendment to the terms in September 2010 clarifying participation of captive generation plants and restricting participation 10 of any generator terminating an existing PPA to sell power under the REC scheme. The two paths under which renewable power will be sold under the REC program are illustrated in Figure.

Figure 12 : Route for sale of renewable energy generation

4.0 VARIOUS SOURCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES IN INDIA


There is an urgent need for transition from petroleum based energy systems to one petroleum-based based on renewable resources to decrease reliance on depleting reserves of fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. In addition, renewable energy has the potential to create many employment opportunities at all levels, especially in rural areas. An ate emphasis on presenting the real picture of massive renewable energy potential, it

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would be possible to attract foreign investments to herald a Green Energy Revolution in India. India is facing an acute energy scarcity which is hampering its industrial growth and economic progress. Setting up of new power plants is inevitably dependent on import of highly volatile fossil fuels. Thus, it is essential to tackle the energy crisis through judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. Apart from augmenting . the energy supply, renewable resources will help India in mitigating climate change. India is heavily dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs. Most of the power generation is carried out by coal and mineral oil based power plants which contribute oil-based heavily to greenhouse gases emission. The average per capita consumption of energy in India is around 500 W, which is energy much lower than that of developed countries like USA, Europe, Australia, Japan etc. However, this figure is expected to rise sharply due to high economic growth and rapid industrialization. The consumption of electricity is growing on the worldwide electricity basis. Energy is a necessity and sustainable renewable energy is a vital link in industrialization and development of India. A transition from conventional energy systems to those based on renewable resources is necessary to meet the everincreasing demand for energy and to address environmental concerns.

4.1 Solar
India has huge untapped solar offgrid opportunities, given its ability to provide energy to vast untapped remote rural areas, the scope of providing backup power t cell to towers and its inherent potential to replace precious fossil fuels, said a solar equipment company. The off-grid opportunities are significant, given the cost involved in offgrid grid applications when compared to huge financial investments to be made to set up grids. Moreover, specific government incentives to promote off grid applications, rapid expansion of wireless telecom and telecom companies' desire to reduce operating cost for base stations (due to diesel cost and losses in diesel pilferage) are a also expected to prompt growth in off off-grid opportunities. The potential of replacing huge usage of kerosene used for lighting rural homes makes off-grid applications desirable. Off grid PV application examples include grid Off-grid remote village electrification, power irrigation pump sets, telecom towers, backup

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power generation, captive power generation and city, street, billboard and highway ion, lighting. India already has the world's best solar resources and can position itself to be global leader in Solar PV. To meet energy demands, the government has approved the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, aimed at generating 20,000 MW by 2022. rlal India's Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), a major initiative of the government of India, has set itself a goal of creating an enabling policy framework for deploying 20GW of solar power by 2022. India's objectives and intentions are 0GW commendable. Yet, as we have seen globally, once governments announce their intentions to develop a solar incentive program a variety of interest groups, each with their own agenda, get involved to put their stamp on the policy. The final output involved of the recently released policy guidelines reflects both the overarching objectives of developing clean solar power, addressing power shortages and stakeholder concessions. This is our preliminary perspective on the recently released guidelines for new grid gridconnected solar power projects in India. In the future, we will take further in in-depth looks at specific policy aspects and Indias opportunities and challenges as the market develops.
4.1.1 Solar energy potential

India is located in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, thereby receiving abundant radiant energy from the sun. The India Meteorological Department maintains a nationwide network of radiation stations, which measure solar radiation, an also the and daily duration of sunshine. In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced 250 to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kWh/m , which is comparable with radiation received in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The equivalent energy potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per year. Figure 1 shows map of India with solar radiation levels in different parts of the country. It can be observed that although the highest annual global radia radiation is received in Rajasthan, northern Gujarat and parts of Ladakh region, the parts of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh also receive fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum. ere
2

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Figure 13: Solar radiation on India

4.1.2 Solar thermal power generation technologies

Solar Thermal Power systems, also known as Concentrating Solar Power sys systems, use concentrated solar radiation as a high temperature energy source to produce electricity using thermal route. Since the average operating temperature of stationary non-concentrating collectors is low (max up to 120 C) as compared to the desirable concentrating input temperatures of heat engines (above 300 C), the concentrating collectors are used for such applications. These technologies are appropriate for applications where direct solar radiation is high. The mechanism of conversion of solar to electricity is fundamentally similar to the traditional thermal power plants except use of solar energy as source of heat. In the basic process of conversion of solar into heat energy, an incident solar irradiance is collected and concentrated by concentrating solar collectors or mirrors, collectors and generated heat is used to heat the thermic fluids such as heat transfer oils, air or water/steam, depending on the plant design, acts as heat carrier and/or as storage media. The hot thermic fluid is used to generated steam or hot gases, which are then gases, used to operate a heat engine. In these systems, the efficiency of the collector reduces marginally as its operating temperature increases, whereas the efficiency of the heat engine increases with the increase in its operating temperat temperature.
0 0

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4.1.2.1 Concentrating solar collectors

Solar collectors are used to produce heat from solar radiation. High temperature solar energy collectors are basically of three types; a. Parabolic trough system: at the receiver can reach 400 C and produce steam for generating electricity. b. Power tower system: The reflected rays of the sun are always aimed at the receiver, where temperatures well above 1000 C can be reached. c. Parabolic dish systems: Parabolic dish systems can reach 1000 C at the ic receiver, and achieve the highest efficiencies for converting solar energy to electricity.
4.1.2.2 Solar chimney

This is a fairly simple concept. Solar chimney has a tall chimney at the center of the field, which is covered with glass. The solar heat generates hot air in the gap s between the ground and the gall cover which is then passed through the central tower to its upper end due to density difference between relatively cooler air outside the upper end of the tower and hotter air inside tower. While travelling up this air er drives wind turbines located inside the tower. These systems need relatively less components and were supposed to be cheaper. However, low operating efficiency, and need for a tall tower of height of the order of 1000m made this technology a height challenging one. A pilot solar chimney project was installed in Spain to test the concept. This 50kW capacity plant was successfully operated between 1982 to 1989. Figure 14 shows the picture of this plant. Recently, Enviro Mission Limited, an Recently, Australian company, has started work on setting up first of its five projects based on solar chimney concept in Australia. The Luz Company which developed parabolic trough collector based solar thermal power technology went out of business in 1990s which was a major setback for the nt development of solar thermal power technology.

Figure 14 14:50 Kw Solar chimney pilot project, Manzanares, Spain

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4.1.3 Solar thermal power generation program of India

In India the first Solar Thermal Power Plant of 50kW capacity has been installed by MNES following the parabolic trough collector technology (line focussing) at Gwalpahari, Gurgaon, which was commissioned in 1989 and operated till 1990, after which the plant was shut down due to lack of spares. The plant is being revived with e development of components such as mirrors, tracking system etc. A Solar Thermal Power Plant of 140MW at Mathania in Rajasthan, has been proposed and sanctioned by the Government in Rajasthan. The project configuration of 140MW Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant involves a 35MW solar power generating system and a 105MW conventional power component and the GEF has approved a grant of US$ 40 million for the project. The Gove Government of Germany has agreed to provide a soft loan of DM 116.8 million and a commercial loan of DM 133.2 million for the project. In addition a commercial power plant based on Solar Chimney technology was also studied in North-Western part of Rajasthan. The project was to be implemented in Western five stages. In the 1 stage the power output shall be 1.75MW, which shall be enhanced to 35MW, 70MW, 126.3MW and 200MW in subsequent stages. The height of the solar chimney, which would initially be 300m, shall be increased gradually to 1000m. Cost increased of electricity through this plant is expected to be Rs. 2.25 / kWh. However, due to security and other reasons the project was dropped. BHEL limited, an Indian company in power equipments manufacturing, had built a solar dish based power plant in 1990s as a part of research and development sh program of then the Ministry of Non conventional Energy Sources. The project was Non-conventional partly funded by the US Government. Six dishes were used in this plant. Few states like Andhra Pardesh, Gujarat had prepared feasibility studies for solar thermal power plants in 1990s. However, not much work was carried out later on.
4.1.4 Opportunities for solar thermal power generation in India
st

Solar thermal power generation can play a significant important role in meeting the important demand supply gap for electricity. Three types of applications are possible 1. Rural electrification using solar dish collector technology 2. Typically these dishes care of 10 to 25 kW capacity each and use striling engine for power generation. These can be developed for village level er

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distributed generation by hybridizing them with biomass gasifier for hot air generation. 3. Integration of solar thermal power plants with existing industries such as paper, dairy or sugar industry, which has cogeneration units. stry, Many industries have steam turbine sets for cogeneration. These can be coupled with solar thermal power plants. Typically these units are of 5 to 250 MW capacities and can be coupled with solar thermal power plants. Thi This approach will reduce the capital investment on steam turbines and associated power-house infrastructure thus reducing the cost of generation of solar house electricity 4. Integration of solar thermal power generation unit with existing coal thermal power plants. The study shows that savings of up to 24% is possible during ts. periods of high isolation for feed water heating to 241 C (4).
4.1.5 PV & CSP Ratio
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The JNNSM calls for a total aggregated capacity of 1 gigawatt of grid connected solar projects to be developed under the bundling scheme in Phase through 2013. Phase-I Solar PV technology projects and Solar Thermal technology projects are to be deployed at a ratio of 50:50, in MW terms. This provision is scheduled to be reviewed again in one year time to determine the need for modification. determine The JNNSM is trying to encourage the development of both PV and CSP technologies by giving each equal weight. However, by allotting specific quotas for each technology, the JNNSM is dictating the ratio of technology that ca be built can rather than allowing the market to select the most efficient and cost effective technology for India. If CSP is deemed an unviable option for most developers and there is a rush towards PV technology, it could create a situation where PV applications are rejected due to oversubscription while CSP quotas are not filled. A cations scenario like this can slow down solar development progress country country-wide and cause unwanted delay as the markets wait for this provision to be revisited. On a global scale, PV installations exceed CSP installations by a ratio of over 20 times.
4.1.6 Domestic Content (PV)

Solar PV Projects using crystalline silicon technology selected in the first batch during FY2010-11 will be mandated to use modules manufactured in India. For Solar 11 PV Projects selected in the second batch during FY2011 12, they will be required to FY2011-12, use cells and modules manufactured in India.

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The domestic content policy is intended to create incentives to develop domestic manufacturing, investments and jo jobs. Thin film and CPV can still be procured from any vendor in the world and equipment shortage should not be a problem as the allocation is so small compared to manufacturing capacities. However, since the PV allocation is so small (150 MW in 2010-11, and remaining in 2011 2012), it is not enough to realize gains from nd 2011-2012), economies of scale. Domestic content rules create unwanted attention from the WTO and trading partners. This puts Indian manufacturers in a delicate situation as they still have to export to European countries as the Indian manufacturing capacity per year might be more than the 500MW allocated for PV over 3 years, not to mention that capacity could be cut even further if half the project developers choose to use thin film. Ontario has enacted a similar policy and has been threatened by the enacted EU and Japan of possible legal challenge in the WTO due to the protectionist policy. Thus, the domestic content policy has the potential to hurt the Indian solar export industry as an unintended consequen consequence. The policy also creates uncertainty in the mind of investors as they are told to buy from manufacturers mandated by the JNNSM instead of allowing developers to select panels based on the best prices and efficiencies available anywhere in the world. This could be another cause for foreign investors to take a wait and see is approach as the market in the first 3 years may not be attractive enough to warrant large investments. This also causes a high level of uncertainty and confusion due to the patchwork of domestic policy (2010-11 - crystalline silicon modules domestic only, thin film and CPV can be imported, CSP 30% of components other than land has to be domestic); 2011-12 - crystalline silicon modules and cells domestic only). It appears that this provision is an attempt to please all parties and has made the is policy unnecessarily complicated to be implemented.
4.1.7 Domestic Content (CSP)

It is mandatory for project developers to ensure 30% of local content in all their plants/installations for solar thermal technology. Land is excluded. This gives developers the advantage of procuring the main components of CSP from anywhere in the world, while also creating a boost to domestic BOS vendors. That said, there is an uncertainty factor relating to BOS vendor products and quality as CSP has been non-existent in India. existent

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Our complete analysis on the entire set of guidelines, which include Phasing Allocation of Capacity, Number of Applications (PV and CSP), Technical Criteria for PV and CSP, Connectivity to the Grid, Selection of Projects based on Tariff (Bidding), the Role of States and the Role of Carbon Financing, can be found here.
4.1.8 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

JNNSM promises to catapult India into becoming the Largest Mark for Solar Market Energy in the World. In fact, Indias Solar Energy sector has the potential to be the biggest Energy Opportunity of the 21st century. Solar Energy in India is poised to take off in a exponential manner because of a unique confluence of favoura favourable Supply and Demand factors .India currently has less than 500 MW of Solar Energy capacity which accounts for less than 0.1% of Indias total electricity capacity. This picture is going to radically change over the next decade because of the following factors. 1. India has very high insulation (solar radiation in layman language) which makes solar energy much cheaper to produce solar power in India compared to countries like Germany, Denmark etc. Germany despite receiving only 50% of Indias solar radiation has more than 9 GW of solar energy capacity already installed and is going to probably hit 14 GW by 2010 2010. 2. India has a huge electricity demand supply gap Large parts of India regularly face blackouts for lack of electricity supply leading to huge monetary losses .It has been estimated that India suffers from more than 15 15-20% supply shortage in times of peak power. Major cities like Gurgaon regularly face 8 8-10 hours of power cuts in summer months. 3. Lack of power grid availability Solar Energy is ideally su suited for providing power to those areas which dont have power lines connecting it. Large parts of India dont have electricity grid connectivity and it is cheaper to power them through solar energy rather than extending power lines 4. Increasing expensive and unreliable electricity supply - The rates of and electricity prices are going up rapidly each year due to a combination of factors like higher costs of fossil fuels, increasing capital expenditure by utilities and privatization of power. Not only is the power expensive, the quality and reliability of the supplied electricity is very poor. A study has found that poor farmers who receive free electricity in India are willing to pay for quality electricity supply rather than do with the unreliable free power

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5. Solar Energy approaching Grid Parity The costs of Solar Energy has been decreasing rapidly over the last 2 years. Despite solar energy prices being higher than other forms of electricity, it is expected that solar energy will equal that of grid prices in the next 5 years in most parts of the globe. Solar rid Energy is the only form of Energy whose cost trend has been declining over the long term while all other major forms of energy have seen their costs increasing. 6. Strong Support from the Govern Government Solar Energy needs a push from the Government in terms of regulation and incentives as it is a costliest form of power currently. The Indian government through the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission has provided strong support to the growth of this industry. The government has set a target of 20 GW by 2022 with 1000 MW of solar power to be set up through private investment by 2013. CERC guidelines aims at providing 20% + returns to private investors through a higher guaranteed rate to electricity generate from solar power ( FIT) electricity 7. Solar Energy is a Non Polluting Green Form of Energy The biggest Non-Polluting advantage for solar energy is that it is a non Carbon Dioxide emitting form of non-Carbon power .While other fossil fuel forms of Energy place have large unaccounte unaccounted costs in terms of pollution, health hazards, global warming and environmental destruction (BP Oil Spill), Solar along with other forms of Renewable Energy have none of these harmful effects. 8. Solar Energy is virtually Unlimited While Coal, Gas, Oil are eventually going to be depleted over the next 20 100 years, Solar Energy is a virtually 20-100 unlimited source of energy. The amount of Solar Energy striking the earth is much more than humans will ever need.
4.1.8 Solar Farming Potential in India

The newest crop in India could be electricity from the sun. Solar Farming can help change Indias energy economy to clean and efficient renewable energy during the day when it is needed the most, create millions of jobs, and could help India achieve energy independence and better national security. gy Imagine a crop that can be harvested daily on the most barren desert and arid land, with no fertilizer or tillage, and that produces no harmful emissions. Imagine an energy source so bountiful that it can provide many times more energy than we provide could ever expect to need or use. An hours worth of sunlight bathing the planet

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holds far more energy than humans worldwide consume in a year. You dont have to imagine it its real and its here. Solar energy is an abundant enormous resource ndant that is readily available to all countries throughout the world, and all the space above the earth. It is clean, no waste comes from it, and its free. This free source of electricity can be used to supply the energy needs of homes, farms and businesses. Through the use of Photovoltaic (PV), Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), sunlight is converted into electricity that can provide power to businesses, homes, and drive motors. I firmly believe that, to meet all its energy needs, India should diversify its energy mix by accelerating the use of all forms of Renewable Energy technologies (including PV, thermal solar, wind power, biomass, biogas, and hydro), and more proactively promote energy efficiency. However, in this article, I will only focus on the Solar ciency. Farming Potential in India. My previous article explores How Concentrated Solar How Power (CSP) Technology Can Meet Indias Future Power Needs Needs
4.1.8.1 How to Implement Solar Farming

Some governments are providing huge grants or subsidies to fund community solar farm projects as part of their energy programs. Solar farming can help advance Indias use of renewable energy and help assure achievement of economic development goals. To successfully implement Solar Farming requires feed tariffs. successfully feed-in This allows farmers to invest with the security of 20 to 25 year Government Grants. The energy from these farms is purchased directly by utilities, who often sign 10 to 20 year energy purchase contracts with solar farm owners thereby securing low contracts low-cost energy for the end user. Solar farms will also play a vital role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. Solar farming is truly environmentally friendly. By installing solar farm equipment, youll also considerably boost the value of your property its a great selling point should you decide to sell your farm.
4.1.8.2 The Future of Solar Farming in Modern India

India is blessed with a vast Solar Energy potential. About 5,000 trillion kWh of solar 5,000 energy is incident over India every year. Each day most parts of the country receive 4-7 kWh per square meter of land area5. Indias deserts and farm land are the 7 sunniest in the world, and thus suitable for large scale power produc large-scale production. The Indian Government should embrace favourable tax structures and consider providing financial resources to fund projects to put up community solar farms as part of their

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energy development programs. India can become the Saudi Arabia of clean Solar Energy. Solar electricity could also shift about 90 percent of daily trip mileage from gasoline to electricity by encouraging increased use of plug in hybrid cars. For drivers in India plug-in this means that the cost per mile could be reduced by one one-fourth (in todays prices). A decline in solar panel prices over the last two years also has contributed to exponential increases in solar deployment worldwide and lower project costs. A new technology that also holds promise is Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV). F First brought to commercial operation in 2008, CPV uses a concentrating optical system that focuses a large area of sunlight onto the individual photovoltaic cells. This feature makes CPV panels two to three times more efficient (approximately 40%) at converting sunlight to electricity as compared to silicon based PV (15% to 20%) and rting silicon-based thin films (9% to 13%).

Figure 15: Efficiency Comparison of Solar Technologies

Major cost reductions will be realized through mass manufacturing. The steep increase in system efficiency, combined with decreases in manufacturing costs cou could levelise the cost of energy for CPV at around $0.10/kWh by 2015. Various incentives e by Central and State governments, including tax credits and feed feed-in tariffs, can further reduce the cost. Cost reductions are so dramatic that Bloomberg recently reported solar energy could soon rival coal. The cost has become so competitive during peak times in Japan and California that the U.S. Department of Energys goal of $1 per watt for large projects by 2017 may happen a lot sooner. att

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In my opinion, all new energy production in India could be from renewable sources by 2030 and all existing generation could be converted to renewable energy by 2050, if deployment is backed by the right enabling public policies.
4.1.8.3 Farming Solar Energy in Space

Harvesting solar power from space through orbiting solar farms sounds extremely interesting. The concept of solar panels beaming down energy from space has long been thought as too costly and difficult. Japanese researchers at the Institute for ostly Laser Technology in Osaka have produced up to 180 watts of laser power from sunlight. Scientists in Hokkaido have completed tests of a power transmission system designed to send energy in micro microwave form to Earth. Japan has already started working towards its goal by developing a technology for a 1-gigawatt solar farm, which would include four square kilometres of solar panels gigawatt stationed 36,000 kilometres above the earths surface. The energy that will be produced by the solar farm would be enough to supply power to nearly 400,000 average Japanese homes. Californias next source of renewable power could be an orbiting set of solar panels, high above the equator that would beam electricity back to earth via a receiving station in Fresno County. Sometime before 2016, Solaren Corp. plans to launch the worlds first orbiting solar farm to provide a steady flow of electricity day and night. Receivers on the ground would take the energy transmitted thr through a beam of electromagnetic waves and feed it into Californias power grid. Pacific Gas and Electric Co. have agreed to buy power from a start up company to solve the growing demand for clean energy.
4.1.8.4 Future of Solar Farming

Solar energy represents a bright spot on Indias economic front. If India makes a massive switch from coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power plants to solar and other renewable sources, it is possible that 100% of Indias electricity could be from renewable energy by 2050. Solar energy would require the creation of a vast region ble of photovoltaic cells in the Southwest and other parts of the country that could operate at night as well as during the day. Excess daytime energy can be stored in various forms such as molten or liquid salt (a mixture of sodium nitrate and uch potassium nitrate), compressed air, pumped hydro, hydrogen, battery storage, etc., which would be used as an energy source during nighttimes hours.

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Solar Energy will be competitive with coal as improved and efficient solar cells, coal concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) enter the market. I predict that solar farming advancements and growth would empower Indias rural economies and companies will move their operations from urban areas operations to rural areas due to cheaper land and labour within the solar belt. Solar Farming is a renewable source of energy and the greenest form of commercial energy. Solar Energy has become the leading alternative to the costly and eco disasters associated with fossil fuels. I urge the Government of India to accelerate the countrys solar energy expansion plans and policies by implementing government subsidies for residential solar power through renewable energy rebates and feed-in tariffs. Solar Farming is a great concept for an efficient use of barren fs. land and to develop large utility scale solar energy farms to meet Indias economic development goals. For example, Google is investing $168 Million in the biggest Solar Farm ever. When completed in 2013, the Mojave Desert mpleted Desert-based Ivan Pah Solar Electric Generating ah System will send approximately 2,600 megawatts of power to the grid, doubling the amount of solar thermal power produced in the U.S and generating enough electricity to power 140,000 California homes when operating at full capacity. 00 I personally think there are no technological or economic barriers to supplying almost 100% of Indias energy demand through the use of clean renewable energy from solar, wind, hydro and biogas by 2050. India needs a radical transformation of energy system to the efficient use of renewable energies, especially solar power. Solar Energy is a game-changing program for India. India must accelerate and changing encourage the domestic development of renewable energy now. It is a question of now. whether we have the societal and political will to achieve this goal to eliminate our wasteful spending and dependence on foreign sources of energy. The Indian Government should provide favourable government policies to ease the perm permitting process and to provide start up capital to promote the growth of solar energy. State start-up and central governments should provide initiatives and other support in order to increase solar power plant capacity. India could potentially increase grid grid-connected solar power generation capacity to over 200,000 MW by 2030, if adequate resources and incentives are provided. Solar energy is a Win Win situation for India and the Win-Win environment, and has the potential to power Indias economy, create millions of new jobs and change the face of India as a Green Nation.

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4.1.9 Challenges

Solar thermal power plants need detailed feasibility study and technology identification along with proper solar radiation resource assessment. The current status of international technology and its availability and financial and commercial technology feasibility in the context of India is not clear. The delays in finalizing technology for Mathania plant have created a negative impression about the technology. Solar thermal power generation technology is coming back as commercially viable technology technology in many parts of the world. India needs to take fresh initiative to assess the latest technology and its feasibility in the Indian context. These projects can avail benefits like CDM and considering the solar radiation levels in India these plants can be commercially viable in near future. The MNRE and SEC (Solar Energy Center) should take initiative to study these technologies and develop feasibility reports for suitable applications. Leading research institutes such as TERI can take up these studies.

4.2 Wind
Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. The earths surface is made of different types of land and water. These surfaces absorb the suns heat at and different rates, giving rise to the differences in temperature and subsequently to winds. During the day, the air above the land heats up more quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the land expands and rises, and the heavier, cooler air expands rushes in to take its place, creating winds. At night, the winds are reversed because the air cools more rapidly over land than over water. In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the earth are created because the land near the earth's created equator is heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South Poles. Humans use this wind flow for many purposes: sailing boats, pumping water, grinding mills and also generating electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the moving wind into electricity.
4.2.1 Wind Energy for power generation

Wind Energy, like solar is a free energy resource. But is much intermittent than solar. Wind speeds may vary within minutes and affect the power generation and in cases of high speeds- may result in overloading of generator. Energy from the wind can be tapped using turbines.

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Setting up of these turbines needs little research before being established. Be it a small wind turbine on a house, a commercial wind farm or any offshore installation, all of them, at first, need the Wind Resource to be determined in the area of proposed site. The Wind Resource data is an estimation of average and peak wind speeds at a location based on various meteorological. The next step is to determine meteorological. access to the transmission lines or nearest control centre where the power generated from the turbines can be conditioned, refined, stored or transmitted. It is also necessary to survey the impact of putting up wind turbines on the community turbines and wildlife in the locality. If sufficient wind resources are found, the developer will secure land leases from property owners, obtain the necessary permits and financing; purchase and install wind turbines. The completed facility is often sold to an independent operator called an independent power producer (IPP) who generates electricity to sell to the local utility, although some utilities own and operate wind farms directly. Wind mills can be set up ranging scales of: On-shore grid connected Wind Turbine systems Off-shore Wind turbine systems shore Small Wind and Hybrid Energy Decentralized systems
4.2.1.1 Advantages

Can be used for both distributed generation or grid interactive power generation using on-shore or off shore technolo shore technologies. Ranges of power producing turbines are available. Micro turbines are capable Micro-turbines of producing 300W to 1MW and large wind turbines have typical size of 35kW 35kW3MW. Wind turbine is suitable to install in remote rural area, water pumping and grinding mills Average capacity factor can be close or higher than 30% erage
4.2.1.2 Disadvantages

The total cost can be cheaper than solar system but more expensive than hydro. Electricity production depends on wind speed, location, season and air ontemperature. Hence various monitoring systems are needed and may cost expensive. High percentage of the hardware cost (for large WT) is mostly spent on the tower designed to support the turbine

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4.2.2 Indias Unique Proposition for Wind Energy: s 4.2.2.1 Geographic Location and Wind Potential:

The potential is far from exhausted. It is estimated that with the current level of technology, the on-shore potential for utilization of wind energy for electricity shore generation is of the order of 65,000 MW. India also is blessed with 751 7517km of coastline and its territorial waters extend up to 12 nautical miles into the sea. The unexploited resource availability has the potential to sustain the growth of wind energy sector in India in the years to come. Potential areas can be identified on Indian map using Wind Power Density map. C-WET, one of pioneering Wind Research organization in the country is leading in all such resource studies and has launched its Wind Resource map. In a step towards identifying and properly exploiting these wind resources, MNRE has resources, estimated state-wise wind power potential in the country. wise

Figure 16: Wind power Density Map

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4.2.2.2 World Market Share:

According to REN21- Global Status Report 2011 (GSR-2011), Indian company 2011), Suzlon was among top ten manufacturers of Wind Turbine manufacturers in the world with world market share of 6.7%. Also major world companies are pouring into the fast evolving Wind Energy market in India: Vestas, GE Wind, Enercon and Gamesa have already opened up their establishments across their various cities in India.
4.2.2.3 Installed Capacity:

According to MNREs achieving report, The cumulative installed capacity of Grid Interactive Wind Energy in India by the end of September 2011 was 14989MW (of which 833MW was i installed during 2011-2012 against a target of 2012 2400MW). Aero generators and hybrid systems contributed 1.20MW during 2011-12 to yield cumulative off grid wind capacity of 15.55MW. 12 off-grid

4.2.2.4 India in the windy world:

In 2008, India shared 6.58% of total wind energy installed capacity around the world, according to World Wind Energy Report 2008. According to GSR Report-2008. GSR-2011, the world witnessed highest renewable energy installations through wind energy. Total installed capacity of wind energy reached 198GW by the end of 2010. India ranked third in the world in annual capacity additions and fifth in terms of total wind energy installed capacity. India has been able to fast pace its growth in wind energy installations and bring down costs of power production. The GSR 20 2011 reported on-shore wind power (1.5 shore (1.5-3.5MW; Rotor diameter 60-100m) at 5 9 cents/kWh and off shore wind power (1.5 100m) 5-9 (1.5-5MW; Rotor diameter 75-120m) at 10 20 cents/kWh. But Indias onshore wind power 120m) 10-20 cost reached 6-9cents/kWh in 2008 itself (Indian Renewable En 9cents/kWh Energy Status Report-2010).
4.2.2.5 Clean Wind to overcome power shortage:

Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution have been extremely high over the years and this reached a worst proportion of about 24.7% during 2010-11. India is in a pressing need to tide over a peak power 11. in shortfall of 13% by reducing losses due to theft. Theft of electricity, common in most parts of urban India, amounts to 1.5% of Indias GDP. Due to shortage of electricity, power cuts are common throughout India and this has adversely

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affected the countrys economic growth. Hence a cheaper, non non-polluting and environment friendly solution to power rural India is needed.
4.2.2.6 Wind energy as job generator:

Wind energy utilization creates many more jobs than centralized, non nonrenewable energy sources. The wind sector worldwide has become a major job generator: Within only three years, the wind sector worldwide almost doubled the number of jobs from 235,000 in 2005 to 440,000 in the year 2008. These highly skilled employees are contributing to the generation of 260 T Wh led of electricity.
4.2.3 Wind Power Capacity Installed in India

The Wind power programme in India was initiated towards the end of the Sixth Plan, in 1983-84. A market-oriented strategy was adopted from inception, which has led to oriented the successful commercial development of the technology. The broad based National programme includes wind resource assessment activities; research and development support; implementation of demonstration projects to create awareness and opening up of new sites; involvement of utilities and industry; development of infrastructure capability and capacity for manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of wind electric generators; and policy support. The programme aims at catalyzing commercialisation of wind power generation in the country. The Wind Resources Assessment Programme is being implemented through the State Nodal Agencies, Field Research Unit of Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM (IITM-FRU) and Center for Wind Energy Technology (C or (C-WET). Wind in India are influenced by the strong south west summer monsoon, which south-west starts in May-June, when cool, humid air moves towards the land and the weaker June, north-east winter monsoon, which starts in October, when cool, dry sir moves east towards the ocean. During the period march to August, the winds are uniformly strong over the whole Indian Peninsula, except the eastern peninsular coast. Wind speeds during the period November to march are relatively weak, though higher winds are available during a part of the period on the Tamil Nadu coastline. re A notable feature of the Indian programme has been the interest among private investors/developers in setting up of commercial wind power projects. The gross potential is 48,561 MW (sour (source C-wet) and a total of about 14,158.00 MW of commercial projects have been established until March 31, 2011.

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The break-up of projects implemented in prominent wind potential states (as on up March 31, 2011) is as given below State-wise Wind Power Inst wise Installed Capacity In India
State Gross Potential (MW) Total Capacity (MW) till 31.03.2011

Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Others Total (All India)

8968 10,645 11,531 1171 1019 4584 255 4858 5530 48,561

200.2 2175.6 1730.1 32.8 275.5 2310.7 1524.7 5904.4 4 14,158

Table 3: Total installed Capacity (MW) till 31.03.2011

Wind power potential has been assessed assuming 1% of land availability for wind farms requiring @12 ha/MW in sites having wind power density in excess of 200 W/sq.m. at 50 m hub-height height.
Sl. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Name of the State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Total

Up to 2005 0.721 1.332 1.409 0.047 0.3 2.65 0.494 11.97 18.925

2005-06 2005 0.079 0.286 0.935 0 0.03 0.79 0.427 3.444 5.991

200607 0.111 0.455 1.397 0 0.07 1.714 0.532 5.268 9.547

200708 0.101 0.851 1.84 0 0.069 1.804 0.682 6.066 11.413

200809 0.333 2.104 1.723 0 0.003 2.207 0.758 6.206 13.334

20092009 10 0.106 2.988 2.895 0.065 0.082 2.778 1.127 8.146 18.187

Up to Jan.11 0.067 2.309 2.362 0.059 0.039 2.368 1.049 8.017 16.27

Cumulative 1.518 10.325 12.561 0.171 0.593 14.311 5.069 49.117 93.665

Table 4: State : State-Wise Cumulative Wind Generation Data in (BU)

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4.2.4 Wind Energy Business Opportunities i India in

The wind energy value chain consists of a number of specific and distinct steps from the supply of raw materials to the transmission of electricity. These steps, along transmission with the prominent supporting products and services for each, are given below. The illustration here also provides a birds eye view of the opportunities available along birds-eye the entire wind energy value chain.

A trend in the wind energy industry that entrepreneurs should be aware of is the move by incumbents towards vertical integration along this value chain. And there is a reason for the vertical integration efforts. With supply chain bottlenecks a constant threat, many of the large wind firms have responded by buying out suppliers of eat, critical components such as blades, generators, and gearboxes. By bringing suppliers in house, they could ensure they would get the products they needed on time, and at an acceptable price. le

Figure 17: Diagram of Wind Business Options

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However this applies only to large organizations. A detailed analysis of this value chain brings out opportunities in each stage for small and medium players too.
4.2.5 Power Plant Development stapes and opportunity in India

Wind farm developers are responsible for developing the wind project from concept to commissioning, and they undertake all the planning, design and project development work in this regard. As part of their role, wind power project developers also take up the role of establishing access to capital for investment, construction of roads and related infrastructure that can accommodate the transport of heavy industrial equipment and components. Depending on the nature of contract, the wind project developer sometimes has a managing interest in the project when it is complete, but in most cases the real ownership lies with the wind farm owner.

Figure 18 Various components of Wind mill with material link 18:

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4.2.5.1 Raw Materials Production

A wide range of materials are used for wind turbine construction. While steel is perhaps the most important material in this context, a diverse list of raw materials are required to produce the vast number of components that comprise a wind farm. The illustration shown on the right, provides a detailed review of the materials and components used in the production of wind turbines. There is a move in India to indigenize wind turbine component production; this could lead to significant opportunities for suppliers of raw materials that go into the production of these components. Indian producers of the above raw materials should hence explore how they can become suppliers to this sector.
4.2.5.2 Original Equipment Manufacturing

In the wind energy sector, turbine manufacturers represent the predominant OEM segment. OEMs usually manufacture some of the critical components such as the nacelle in-house, and blades and towers are produced either by the OEM or house, fabricated to the OEMs specifications by a supplier. While opportunities do exist for new OEMs in India with the projected continuous growth in the wind industry, it should be noted that this is an area that faces intense competition from large gl global companies, and entering the OEM domain will require significant capital and marketing investments. To encourage indigenous manufacturing of wind turbines and to facilitate transfer of new technology, MNRE is expected to introduce local content require requirements for wind turbines.
4.2.5.3 Component Manufacturing

Component manufacturers manufacture a wide range of mechanical and electrical components, including generators, hydraulics, sensors, hardware, drives, power distribution, composites, cabling, big steel, castings, forgings, bearings, gearboxes. steel, The primary components in a wind energy generating system are: Rotors, Blades, Nacelle Controls, Generator, Tower Components and Power Electronics components. A modern wind turbine consists of about 8000 unique components.
4.2.5.4 Trading Opportunities

Should a market for micro-wind turbines emerge in future, opportunities could arise -wind for traders and small system integrators, similar to what is happening in the solar PV industry in India where rooftop solar systems are set to take off soon. Opportunities systems

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to trade in the power produced are however likely to expand significantly. Currently, it is possible for wind power producers to sell electricity to the grid, use it for captive consumption or sell it to third parties. With the emergence of independent power parties. exchanges and with the likely liberalization and streamlining of power distribution across states, the opportunities to trade in power are likely to increase and become more lucrative. With the advent of the RPO/REC mechanism in India, there has been RPO/REC significant demand for non-solar (wind, small hydro, biomass etc.) over the past few -solar months. The high demand for non solar RECs is mostly met through wind energy based non-solar REC. In light of this, REC accreditation, advisory and trading services present a accreditation, significant opportunity waiting to be capitalized.
4.2.6 Central and State Government Policies for Supporting Wind Power Projects 4.2.6.1 Central Government Policies nt

The General guidelines for developing Wind Power Projects and o other policies and programmes are discussed below.
4.2.6.2 CERC Tariff Orders for Procurement of Power from Wind Energy Generators from

Central Electricity Regulatory Commission in its order dated 16/09/2009 introduced 16/09/2009 its regulations and tariff orders for procuring wind power into the grid; for control period from 16/09/2009 to 31/03/2012. The tariff structure consisting of fixed cost components: Return on Equity, Interest on loan Capital, Depreciati Depreciation, Interest on Working Capital and Operation & Maintenance Expenses. Detailed tariff structure and regulations are like that: Description Capital cost Commercial CERC Regulation Rs5.15 Crore/MW, linked to indexation formula operational 25 years

life (including evacuation systems) Return on Equity 19% for first 10 years and 24% from 11th year pre pretax Debt Equity Ratio Interest on loan Depreciation 70:30 Average SBI long term PLR plus 150 basis points 7% per annum

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Description

CERC Regulation

Interest on Working Capital Average SBI short term PLR plus 100 basis points Operational Maintenance cost Escalation 5.72% per annum and Rs. 6.50 lakh/MW

Capacity Utilization Factor for wind power density 200-250: 20%for wind power 250: density 250-300: 23%for wind power density 300 300400: 27%for wind power density above 400: 30% Sharing of CDM Benefits First year: 100% to the project developer Second year: 10% beneficiaries, to be increased at 10% per annum up to 50%.Thereafter to be shared on equal basis Taxes and Duties Tariff determined should be exclusive of taxes and duties levied by government provided allowed as pass through on actual basis
Table 5: Detailed tariff structure

4.2.6.3 Accelerated Depreciation

The main incentive for wind power projects in the past was accelerated depreciation. This tax benefit allows projects to deduct up to 80% of value of wind power equipment during first year of project operation. Investors are given tax benefits up to 10 years. Wind Power producers receiving accelerated depreciation benefits must register with and provide generation data to IREDA and are not eligible to receive more recent Generation Based incentives.
4.2.6.4 Indirect Tax Benefits

This includes concessions on excise duty and reduction in customs duty for wind power equipment. Wind powered electricity generators and water pumping wind mills, aero-generators and battery chargers are except from excise duties. Indirect generators tax benefits for manufacturers of specific energy parts vary from 5 5-25% depending upon the component.

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4.2.6.5 Central-Level Generation Level Generation-Based Incentives

Offered by the central government since June 2008 and administered by IREDA, the GBI for wind is available for independent power producers with a minimum installed capacity of 5 MW for projects commissioned on or before 31/03/2012. As of December 2009, the GBI is set at INR 0.50/kWh (USD 0.01/kWh) of grid connected gridelectricity for a minimum of 4 years and a maximum of 10 years, up to a maximum of maximum INR 6.2 million (USD 140,000) per MW. The scheme will deploy a total of INR 3.8 billion (USD 81 million) until 2012 and aims to incentivize capacity additions of 4,000 MW. Wind power producers receiving a GBI must register with and provide generation data to IREDA. The GBI is offered in addition to SERCs state preferential renewable energy tariffs. However, IPPs using GBIs cannot also take advantage of accelerated depreciation benefits. The GBI program will be reviewed at the end of the Eleventh Plan and revised as deemed appropriate. As of December 2011, 58 projects had been registered under this scheme with over 288.8 MW commissioned. MW (Tamil Nadu-30, Rajasthan 30, Rajasthan-21, Gujarat-3; Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka-1 each).
4.2.6.6 Renewable Purchase Obligations

Several states have implemented RPOs with a requirement that renewable energy supplies between 1% and 15% of total electricity. The impact of the RPOs on wind development may depend on the penalties and enforcement of the targets as well as enforcement an effective REC market to promote development of areas of the country with the most abundant wind resources. More details are available under state initiatives and policies towards Wind Power development.
4.2.6.7 Renewable Energy Certificates: Framework on Forbearance and Floor Prices ergy and

This is framed to be applicable from 1st April 2012 for a control period of 5 years. control period up to FY In Rs/MWh 2012 Non Solar REC Solar REC Forbearance Price Floor Price 1,500 12,000 1,400 9,880 3,900 17,000 Control period 1st Apr 2012 onwards Non Solar REC 3,480 Solar REC 13,690

More details on the APPC and RE tariffs is available in the Order on Forbearance & Floor Price dated 23-8-2011. 2011.

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4.2.6.8 Small Wind Energy and Hybrid Systems Programme nd

This programme is implemented through State Nodal Agencies for meeting water pumping and small power requirements in rural/semi urban/urban windy areas for rural/semi-urban/urban the categories of users: Individuals, farmers, NGOs, Central / State Government agencies, local bodies and Government Panchayats, Autonomous Institutions, Research Organizations, Cooperative

Societies, Corporate Bodies, Small Business Establishments, Banks, etc. Category Gear type Cost Central Financial Assistance Maximum 50% of Ex-works cost in general works places Maximum 90% of Ex Ex-works for unelectrified islands

Water Rs. 80,000

Pumping Windmill Auroville Windmills Wind Solar Hybrid Rs. Systems 2,50,000/kW type Rs.1,50,000

Rs.

1,50,000/kW

for

Government,

Public,

Charitable, R&D, Academic and other non profit making organizations Rs. 1,00,000/kW for other beneficiaries not covered above

A cumulative capacity of 608kW of wind solar hybrid systems and 1180 water pumping windmills have been installed by 31st July 2010.

4.3 Small Hydro


4.3.1 Introduction

Hydropower is a renewable, non polluting and environmentally benign source of non-polluting energy. It is perhaps the oldest renewable energy technique known to the mankind for mechanical energy conversion as well as electricity generation. Hydropower represents use of water resources towards inflation free energy due to r absence of fuel cost with mature technology characterized by highest prime moving efficiency and spectacular operational flexibility. Out of the total power generation installed capacity of 167077 MW (January 2011) in the country, hydro power 077 contributes about 25% i.e. 37,367 MW. Hydro Power Project Classification Hydro power projects are generally categorized in two segments i.e. small and large hydro. In India, hydro projects up to 25 MW station capacities have been categorized as Small Hydro Power (SHP) projects. While Ministry of Power, Government of India

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is responsible for large hydro projects, the mandate for the subject small hydro esponsible power (up to 25 MW) is given to Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. Small hydro power projects are further classified as
Class Station Capacity in kW

Micro Hydro Mini Hydro Small Hydro


4.3.2 Small Hydro Power Programme

Up to 100 101 to 2000 2001 to 25000

Table 6: Small Hydro power projects classification

Small Hydro Power (SHP) Programme is one of the thrust areas of power generation from renewable in the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. It has been recognized that small hydropower projects can play a critical role in improving the overall energy scenario of the country and in particular for remote and inaccessible areas. The Ministry is encouraging development of small hydro projects both in the public as well as private sector. Equal attention is being paid to grid grid-interactive and decentralized projects.
4.3.2.1 Aim

The Ministrys aim is that the SHP installed capacity should be about 6000 MW by the end of 12th Plan. The focus of the SHP programme is to lower the cost of equipment, increase its reliability and set up projects in areas which give the maximum advantage in terms of capacity utilisation.
4.3.2.2 Potential

An estimated potential of about 15,000 MW of small hydro power projects exists in India. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has created a database of potential sites of small hydro and 5718 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 15384 MW for projects up to 25 MW capacity have been identified. Identification of new potential sites and strengthening of database for already identified sites is an ongoing process. In this direction, the Ministry has been giving financial support to state governments/ agencies for identification of new potential SHP sites & preparation of state perspective plan.

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4.3.3 Small hydro installed capacity and progress

The total installed capacity of small hydro power projects (up to 25 MW) as on 31.01.2011 is 2953 MW from 801 projects and 271 projects with aggregate capacity rojects of 914 MW are under construction. State wise numbers and aggregate capacity of SHP projects (up to 25 mw) potential, tate installed & under implementation (As on 31.1.2011)
Potential Sl. No. State Nos. Total Capacity (MW) Projects Installed Projects under Implementation Nos. Capacity (MW)

Nos.

Capacity (MW)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh J&K Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal A&N Islands Total

497 550 119 95 184 6 292 33 536 246 103 138 245 299 255 114 101 75 99 222 237 66 91 197 13 251 444 203 7 5718

560.18 1,328.68 238.69 213.25 993.11 6.5 196.97 110.05 2,267.81 1,417.80 208.95 747.59 704.1 803.64 732.63 109.13 229.8 166.93 188.98 295.47 393.23 57.17 265.55 659.51 46.86 460.75 1,577.44 396.11 7.27 15384.2

62 101 4 18 6 1 4 7 112 34 6 111 20 11 39 8 4 18 10 10 43 10 16 16 3 7 95 24 1 801

189.83 78.835 27.11 58.3 19.05 0.05 12.6 70.1 375.385 129.33 4.05 725.05 136.87 86.16 263.825 5.45 31.03 36.47 28.67 79.625 153.2 23.85 47.11 94.05 16.01 23.3 134.12 98.9 5.25 2953.58

18 28 4 11 1 2 40 5 8 18 7 4 15 3 3 1 4 5 15 2 6 55 16 271

61.75 38.71 15 36.31 1.2 3.4 132.2 5.91 34.85 107.5 23.8 19.9 51.7 2.75 1.7 0.5 4.2 3.93 21.4 5.2 33 230.65 79.25 914.81

Table 7: State wise numbers and aggregate capacity of SHP projects

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While in early 90s, most of the SHP projects were set up in the public sector, from last 10 years or so, most of the capacity addition is now coming through private sector projects. Beginning of the 21st century saw near commercialization in the small hydro sector. Private sector entrepreneurs found attractive business

opportunities in small hydro and state governments also felt that the private felt participation may be necessary in tapping the full potential of rivers and canals for power generation. The private sector has been attracted by these projects due to their small adoptable capacity matching with their captive requirement or even as requirements affordable investment opportunities. In line with Government of India policy, 18 states have announced their policy for inviting private sector to set up SHP projects. The Government of India announced the Electricity Act in 2003, Electricity Policy in 2005 and Tariff Policy in 2006 to create a conducive atmosphere for investments in the power sector. Small hydropower projects are now governed by these policies and the tariff is decided by the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) a as per the Tariff Policy. During the 10th Plan, Following have been year wise capacity addition from SHP year-wise projects.
Target (in MW) Capacity addition during the year (in MW) Cumulative SHP installed capacity (in MW)

Year

2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

80 80 100 130 160

80.39 84.04 102.31 120.8 149.16

1519.28 1603.32 1705.63 1826.43 1975.59

Table 8: 10th Plan year-wise capacity addition from SHP :

A target of adding 1400 MW during the 11th Plan (2007 2012) Fixed (2007-2012)
Target (in MW) Capacity addition during the year (in MW) 205.25 248.93 305.25 218.37 (31.01.2011) Cumulative SHP installed capacity (in MW) 2180.84 2429.77 2735.02

Year

2007-08 08 2008-09 09 2009-10 10 2010-11 11

200 250 300 300

Table 9: During last 3 Years foll following has been the achievements

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4.3.4 Standards for Small Hydro

In order to ensure project quality/performance, the MNRE has been insisting to adhere to IEC/International standards for equipment and civil works. The subsidy available from the Ministry is linked to use of equipment manufactured to IEC or other prescribed international standards. The equipment in the project is required to confirm to the following IEC standards.
Equipment Turbines and generator (rotating electrical machines) Standard IEC 60034 1: 1983 IEC 61366-1: 1998 IEC 61116-1992 IS: 4722-2001 IS 12800-1991 IEC 60041: 1991

Field Acceptance Test for Hydraulic performance of turbine Governing system for hydraulic turbines Transformers

IEC 60308

IS 3156 1992 IS 2705 1992 IS 2026 - 1983 IS 7326 1902

Inlet valves for hydro power stations & systems

Table 10: IEC standards

Recently the Ministry has given an assignment to AHEC, IIT Roorkee to revisit the existing standards and come out with standards/manuals/guidelines for improving reliability and quality of small hydro power projects in the country.
4.3.5 States with Policy for Private SHP Projects

23 States namely, Andhra Pradehsh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have announced policies for setting up announced commercial SHP projects through private sector participation. The facilities available in the States include wheeling of power produced, banking, buy-back of power, facility for third party sale, etc. back

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Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

State

Total Number 43 1 2 63 2 2 95 3 1 13 2 18 1 10 5 261

Total capacity (MW) 104.43 0.1 5.6 271.25 7.4 17.5 694.9 36 2.2 74 32 26.2 0.35 48.3 6.45 1326.68

Andhra Pradesh Assam Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Haryana Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal West Bengal Total

Table 11 : As on 31.12.2010

4.3.6 Watermills

Water wheels, commonly

known as `gharats', have traditionally been used in the

Himalayan regions for rice hulling, milling of grain and other mechanical applications. These water mills are normally of very old design and work at very low efficiencies. It has been estimated that there are more than 1.5 lakh potential water mill sites in the country. New and improved designs of water mills have been developed for mechanical as well as electricity generation of 3 kW. 3-5 The Ministry is providing subsidy for development and up gradation of water mills. Local organizations such as the Water Mill Associations, cooperative societies, s registered NGOs, local bodies, and State Nodal Agencies are being encouraged to take up these activities. A number of NGOs are now propagating water mills for electricity generation to meet small scale electrical requirements of villages. small Uttaranchal has taken a lead in setting up electricity generation watermills and over 450 such watermills were installed in remote and isolated areas of the state. Nagaland has recently commenced setting up watermills/micro hydel sets for rural watermills/micro electrification. Watermills are also being installed in Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Karnataka and Manipur.

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4.3.7 Manufacturing Status

India has a wide base of manufacturers of equipment for small hydr power hydro projects. State-of-the-art equipment is available indigenously. 20 manufacturers art fabricate almost the entire range and type of SHP equipment. Manufacturers capacity is estimated at about 300 MW per year. In addition, there are about 5 manufactures that are producing micro hydel and watermill equipment. ures 4.3.8 Technical and consultation Services Consultancy services in the field of small hydro projects are available from a number of Government / private consultancy organizations. The Ministry is strengthening technical institutions to provide such services. AHEC, IIT Roorkee is providing full range of technical services in the field of small hydro including survey and investigation, DPR preparation, project design etc. On site testing facility has been created at AHEC to test SHP stations for their performance.
4.3.9 Real Time Digital Simulator for SHP

A Real Time simulator has been set up at AHEC which would provide hands on experience to operators of SHP stations. It is the first SHP simulator in the country. The simulator is capable of replicate all conditions of a hydro power station. AHEC is offering regular training programmes for operators and engineers of SHP stations.
4.3.10 Constraints in SHP

The main reasons for lack of success with small hydro power developer are; Failure due to improper design. Failure due to non standard practices adopted in production. Over estimate of the efficiency and constancy of stream flow. Improper Penstock design to allow the plant operates at full capacity. operates No established O&M practice. Plants operating in remote areas of the country.

4.4 Geothermal Energy


Geothermal energy is a major contributor to electricity production in at least 24 countries. There is also an increasing widespread use of direct application of use geothermal heat, for example, for space heat and domestic water heating. Geothermal energy recovered as heat takes two general forms: steam or hot water is piped into facilities where it provides ambient heating for comfort. Alt Alternatively, heat pump technology is used to recover earth heat by pumping a confined heat heat-transfer fluid through a heat exchanger embedded in a warm body of soil. Geothermal heat is

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used to generate electrical power primarily through direct steam productio or by production flashing produced hot brine to release steam, which drives a turbine/generator set to make electrical power. An evolving technology expected to see major application in the future is binary electrical generation, in which a produced geothermal fl fluid heats a drive fluid (e.g., volatile organic fluid or ammonia) in a closed closed-loop power generation unit.
4.4.1 Status and Trends

Heat energy continuously flows to the Earths surface from its interior, where central temperatures of about 6 000 exist. The predominant source of the Earths heat is C the gradual decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes (40K, 232Th, 235U and 238U). lived The outward transfer of heat occurs by means of conductive heat flow and convective flows of molten mantle beneath the Earths crust. This results in a mean Earths heat flux at the Earths surface of 80kW/km2 approximately. This heat flux, however, is not distributed uniformly over the Earths surface; rather, it is concentrated along active tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity transports high temperature molten material to the near surface. Although volcanoes erupts small portions of this molten rock that feeds them, the s vast majority of it remains at depths of 5 to 20 km, where it is in the form of liquid or solidifying magma bodies that release heat to surrounding rock. Under the right ing conditions, water can penetrate into these hot rock zones, resulting in the formation of high temperature geothermal systems containing hot water, water and steam, or steam, at depths of 500 m to >3,000 m. Worldwide geothermal energy recovery currently contributes around 13,000 megawatts (MW) of electrical power (a little over 8 percent of total electricity capacity). There is significant potential for expanded geothermal electricity generation, up to 73 GW with current technology, and up to 138 GW with enhanced neration, geothermal systems (EGS) technology (Gawell 2004). There also are opportunities for expanded use of geothermal direct heat utilization, with capacity nearly doubling from 2000 to 2005, and with at least 13 new countries using geothermal heat for the first time. About half of the existing geothermal heat capacity exists as geothermal heat pumps for building heating and cooling, with 2 million pumps used in over 30 countries. Table no 10 displays past and projected future trends in the cost of geothermal power.

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Table 12 : Geothermal Power Cost Curve

4.4.2 Characteristics and Applications of Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is an enormous, underused heat and power resource that is clean (emits little or no greenhouse gases), reliable (average system availability of 95%), and home grown (making us less dependent on foreign oil). Geothermal resources range from shallow ground to hot water and rock several miles below the Earth's surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap deep steam and very hot water that can be brought to the surface for use in a variety of applications. The general characteristics of geothermal energy that make it of significant importance for both electricity production and direct use include:

Extensive global distribution; it is accessible to both developed and developing countries. ntries.

Environmentally friendly nature; it has low emission of sulphur, CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Indigenous nature; it is independent of external supply and demand effects and fluctuations in exchange rates.

Independence of weather and season. Contribution to the development of diversified power sources.

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Figure 19: Geo Thermal plant basic mechanism

Geothermal energy can be used very effectively in both on and off-grid ondevelopments, and is especially useful in rural electrification schemes. Its use spans rural a large range from power generation to direct heat uses, the latter possible using both low temperature resources and cascade methods. Cascade methods utilise the hot water remaining from higher temperature applications (e.g., electricity applications generation) in successively lower temperature processes, which may include binary systems to generate further power and direct heat uses (bathing and swimming; space heating, including district heating; greenhouse and open grou ground heating; industrial process heat; aquaculture pond and raceway heating; agricultural drying; etc.)
4.4.3 Geothermal Energy Scenario: India and world

Geothermal power plants operated in at least 24 countries in 2010, and geothermal energy was used directly for heat in at least 78 countries. These countries currently ly have geothermal power plants with a total capacity of 10.7 GW, but 88% of it is generated in just seven countries: the United States, the Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico, Italy, New Zealand, and Iceland. The most significant capacity increases and since 2004 were seen in Iceland and Turkey. Both countries doubled their capacity.

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Iceland has the largest share of geothermal power contributing to electricity supply (25%), followed by the Philippines (18%). The number of countries utilizing geothermal energy to generate electricity has more than doubled since 1975, increasing from 10 in 1975 to 24 in 2004. In 2003, total geothermal energy supply was 20 MToE (metric Tonne Oil Equivalent), accounting for 0.4% of total primary energy supply in IEA member countries. The share of geothermal in total renewable energy supply was 7.1%. Over the last 20 years, capital costs for geothermal power systems decreased by a significant 50%. Such large cost reductions are often the result of solving the easier problems associated t with science and technology improvement in the early years of development. Although geothermal power development slowed in 2010, with global capacity reaching just over 11 GW, a significant acceleration in the rate of deployment is expected as advanced technologies allow for development in new countries. Heat output from geothermal sources increased by an average rate of almost 9% annually over the past decade, due mainly to rapid growth in the use of ground ground-source heat pumps. Use of geothermal energy for combined heat and power is also on the rise. India has reasonably good potential for geothermal; the potential geothermal provinces can produce 10,600 MW of power (but experts are confident only to the extent of 100 MW). But yet geothermal power projects has not been exploited at all, owing to a variety of reasons, the chief being the availability of plentiful coal at cheap costs. However, with increasing environmental problems with coal based projects, with India will need to start depending on clean and eco friendly energy sources in future; eco-friendly one of which could be geothermal.
4.4.4 Technology

Mile-or-more-deep wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and deep very hot water that drive turbines that drive electricity generators. Four types of ater power plants are operating today:
4.4.4.1 Flashed steam plant

The extremely hot water from drill holes when released from the deep reservoirs high pressure steam (termed as flashed steam) is released. This force of steam is used to rotate turbines. The steam gets condensed and is converted into water again, which is returned to the reservoir. Flashed steam plants are widely distributed throughout the world.

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4.4.4.2 Dry steam plant

Usually geysers are the main source of dry steam. Those geothermal reservoirs which mostly produce steam and little water are used in electricity production systems. As steam from the reservoir shoots out, it is used to rotate a turbine, after sending the steam through a rock rock-catcher. The rock-catcher protects the turbine catcher from rocks which come along with the steam.
4.4.4.3 Binary power plant

In this type of power plant, the geothermal water is passed through a heat exchanger where its heat is transferred to a secondary liquid, namely isobutene, iso transferred iso-pentane or ammoniawater mixture present in an adjacent, separate pipe. Due to this double water doubleliquid heat exchanger system, it is called a binary power plant. The secondary liquid which is also called as working fluid, should have lower boiling point than water. It turns into vapour on getting required heat from the hot water. The vapour from the working fluid is used to rotate turbines. The binary system is therefore useful in geothermal reservoirs which are relatively low in temperature gradient. Since the relatively system is a completely closed one, there is minimum chance of heat loss. Hot water is immediately recycled back into the reservoir. The working fluid is also condensed back to the liquid and used over and over again.
4.4.4.4 Hybrid power plant

Some geothermal fields produce boiling water as well as steam, which are also used in power generation. In this system of power generation, the flashed and binary systems are combined to make use of both steam and hot water. Efficiency of hybrid water. power plants is however less than that of the dry steam plants.
4.4.4.5 Enhanced geothermal system

The term enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), also known as engineered geothermal systems (formerly hot dry rock geothermal), refers to a variety of engineering techniques used to artificially create hydrothermal resources

(underground steam and hot water) that can be used to generate electricity. that Traditional geothermal plants exploit naturally occurring hydrothermal reservoirs and are limited by the size and location of such natural reservoirs. EGS reduces these constraints by allowing for the creation of hydrothermal reservoirs in deep, hot but hydrothermal naturally dry geological formations.EGS techniques can also extend the lifespan of naturally occurring hydrothermal resources. Given the costs and limited full full-scale system research to date, EGS remains in its infancy, with only a few research and infancy,

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pilot projects existing around the world and no commercial scale EGS plants to date. commercial-scale The technology is so promising, however, that a number of studies have found that EGS could quickly become widespread.
4.4.5 Potential India

Figure 20: Indian probable regions for Geo Tharmal

It has been estimated from geological, geochemical, shallow geophysical and shallow drilling data it is estimated that India has about 10,000 MWe of geothermal power potential that can be harnessed for various purposes. Rocks covered on the tial surface of India ranging in age from more than 4500 million years to the present day and distributed in different geographical units. The rocks comprise of Archean, Proterozoic, the marine and continental Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Teritary, Quaternary ne etc., More than 300 hot spring locations have been identified by Geological survey of India (Thussu, 2000). The surface temperature of the hot springs ranges from 35 C to as much as 98 C. These hot springs have been grouped together and termed as different geothermal provinces based on their occurrence in specific geotectonic regions, geological and strutural regions such as occurrence in orogenic belt regions,

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structural grabens, deep fault zones, active volcanic regions etc., Different orogenic zones, regions are Himalayan geothermal province, Naga Lushai geothermal province, Naga-Lushai Andaman-Nicobar Islands geothermal province and non orogenic regions are Nicobar non-orogenic Cambay graben, Son-Narmada Narmada-Tapi graben, west coast, Damodar valley, Mahanadi valley, Godavari valley etc. Puga Valley (J&K) Tatapani (Chhattisgarh) Godavari Basin Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh) Bakreshwar (West Bengal) Tuwa (Gujarat) Unai (Maharashtra) Jalgaon (Maharashtra)
4.4.6 Historical Capacity & Consumption Data

There is no installed geothermal generating capacity as of now and only direct uses (e.g. drying) have been detailed.
Total thermal installed capacity in MWt: Direct use in TJ/year Direct use in GWh/year Capacity factor
Table 13: Direct Uses

203 1,606.30 446.2 0.25


Status

Geothermal Field

Estimated (min.) reservoir Temp (Approx)

Puga geothermal field Tattapani Sarguja (Chhattisgarh) Tapoban Chamoli (Uttarakhand) Cambay Garben (Gujrat)

240oC at 2000m

From geochemical and deep geophysical studies (MT)

120oC - 150oC at 500 Magneto telluric survey done by meter and 200 Cat NGRI 2000 m 100oC at 430 meter Magneto telluric survey done by NGRI

160oC at 1900 meter Steam discharge was estimated 3000 (From Oil cu meter/ day with high exploration temperature gradient. borehole)

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Badrinath Chamoli (Uttarakhand)

150oC estimated

Magneto-telluric study was done by telluric NGRI Deep drilling required to ascertain geothermal field Status

Geothermal Field

Reservoir Temp (Approx) 110oC

Surajkund Hazaribagh (Jharkhand) Manikaran Kullu (H P)

Magneto-telluric study was done by telluric NGRI. Heat rate 128.6 mW/m2 Magneto-telluric study was done by telluric NGRI Heat flow rate 130 mW/m2 Magneto-telluric study was done by telluric NGRI
Table 14 : Current Projects

100oC

Kasol Kullu (H P)

110oC

There are no operational geothermal plants in India.


4.4.7 Cost, Price and Challenges

Unlike traditional power plants that run on fuel that must be purchased over the life of the plant, geothermal power plants use a renewable resource that is not susceptible to price fluctuations. New geothermal plants currently are generating electricity from 0.05$ to 0.08$ per kilowatt hour (kwh).Once capital costs .Once the capital costs have been recovered capital price of power can decrease below 0.05$ per kwh. The price of geothermal is within range of other electricity choices available today when the costs of the lifetime of the plant are considered. Most of the costs related to geothermal power plants are related to resource geothermal exploration and plant construction. Like oil and gas exploration, it is expensive and because only one in five wells yield a reservoir suitable for development .Geothermal developers must prove that they have reliable resource before they can secure reliable millions of dollar required to develop geothermal resources.

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Figure 21: Geo thermal power costing

4.4.8 Drilling

Although the cost of generating geothermal has decreased by 25 percent during the last two decades, exploration and drilling remain expensive and risky. Drilling Costs alone account for as much as one one-third to one-half to the total cost of a geothermal half project. Locating the best resources can be difficult; and developers may drill many dry wells before they discover a viable resource. Because rocks in geothermal areas are usually extremely hard and hot, developers must frequently replace drilling equipment. Individual productive geothermal wells generally yield between 2MW and 5MW of electricity; each may cost from $1 million to $5 million to drill. A few highly productive wells are capable of producing 25 MW or more of electricity.
4.4.9 Transmission

Geothermal power plants must be located near specific areas near a reservoir because it is not practical to transport steam or hot water over distances greater than two miles. Since many of the best geothermal resources are located in rural areas , developers may be limited by their ability to supply electricity to the grid. New power ers lines are expensive to construct and difficult to site. Many existing transmission lines are operating near capacity and may not be able to transmit electricity without significant upgrades. Consequently, any significant increase in the number of icant geothermal power plants will be limited by those plants ability to connect, upgrade or

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build new lines to access to the power grid and whether the grid is able to deliver additional power to the market. wer
4.4.10 Barriers

Finding a suitable build location. Energy source such as wind, solar and hydro are more popular and better established; geothermal. Main disadvantages of building a geothermal energy plant mainly lie in the exploration stage, which can be extremely capital intensive and high high-risk; many companies who commission surveys are often disappointed, as quite often, the land they were interested in, cannot support a geotherm energy geothermal plant. Some areas of land may have the sufficient hot rocks to supply hot water to a power station, but many of these areas are located in harsh areas of the world (near the poles), or high up in mountains. Harmful gases can escape from deep within the earth, through the holes within drilled by the constructors. The plant must be able to contain any leaked gases, but disposing of the gas can be very tricky to do safely.
4.4.11 Geo Thermal companies in India

these

factors

could

make

developers

decided

against

Panx Geothermal LNJ Bhilwara Tata Power Thermax NTPC Avin Energy Systems GeoSyndicate Power Private Limited
4.4.12 RD&D Priorities

In the case of geothermal energy, several topics are identified as being key to its advancement in the global market place. These are related to cost reduction, sustainable use, expansion of use into new geographical regions, and new e applications. The priorities are categorized as general or specific to RD&D.

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General priorities: Life-cycle analysis of geothermal power generation and direct use systems. cycle Sustainable production from geothermal resources. Power generation through improved conversion efficiency cycles. Use of shallow geothermal resources for small scale individual users. small-scale Studies of induced seismicity related to geothermal power generation (conventional systems and enhanced geothermal systems. nventional Specific RD&D priorities: Commercial development of EGS. Development of better exploration, resource confirmation and management tools. Development of deep (>3 000 m) geothermal resources. Geothermal co-generation (power and heat). generation

4.5 Tidal Energy


Ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves. The fact that the marine renewable sector is less well developed than other energy industries presents companies with industries both opportunities and challenges. The lack of an established industry structure can make entry into the market uncertain for newcomers. However, this lack of structure also means that companies are potentially more able to create and take to opportunities than is possible in other parts of the energy industry that are developed and more mature. A wide range of companies are involved in the marine renewable sector. The figure below shows the key segments of the sector - services that are needed for the successful completion of a project range from insurance and finance, resource assessments, environmental surveys, design, manufacture, offshore construction, operation and decommissioning. Tides are generated through a combination of forces exerted by the gravitational pull combination of the sun and the moon and the rotation of the earth. The relative motion of the three bodies produces different tidal cycles which affect the range of the tides. In addition, the tidal range is increased substantially by local effects such as shelving, substantially funnelling, reflection and resonance. Energy can be extracted from tides by creating a reservoir or basin behind a barrage and then passing tidal waters through turbines in the barrage to generate electricity. Tidal energy is extremely site specific requires Tidal mean tidal differences greater than 4 meters and also favourable topographical

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conditions, such as estuaries or certain types of bays in order to bring down costs of dams etc. Since India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to harness tidal energy has been recognized by the Government of India.
4.5.1 Technology

Tidal barrage is a way of converting the energy of tides into electric power. A tidal barrage works in a similar way to that of a hydroelectric scheme, except that the dam is much bigger and spans a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the barrage. The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine, or it can be used to push air through a pipe, which then turns a through turbine. Company
Aqua Marine Power Verdant Power Marine Current Turbines SMD Hydrovision Open-Hydro Hammerfest Strom

Class Technology Country Year


Tidal Tidal Tidal Horizontal Axis Turbine Horizontal Axis Turbine Horizontal Axis Turbine Horizontal Axis Turbine Open Center Turbine Horizontal Axis Turbine UK US UK UK Ireland Norway 2007 2000 2000 2003 2006 2007

Stage
Prototype Commercial Commercial Prototype PrePre Commercial Pilot

Tidal Tidal Tidal

Table 15: Commercial Status of Tidal Stream Devices (as on 2009)

4.5.2 Potential of tidal energy in India

The most attractive locations are the Gulf of Cambay and the Gulf of Kachchh on the west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of 6.77 m and 5.23 m respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans in West Bengal also has good locations for small scale tidal power development. The maximum tidal range in Sunderbans is approximately 5 m with an averag tidal average range of 2.97 m. The identified economic tidal power potential in India is of the order of 8000 8000-9000 MW with about 7000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay about 1200 MW in the Gulf of Kachchh and less than 100 MW in Sundarbans.

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4.5.3 Proposed tidal power projects in India

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy said in Feb 2011 that it may provide financial incentives for as much as 50 percent of the cost for projects seeking to demonstrate tidal power.
4.5.4 Kachchh Tidal Power Project

In, 1970, the CEA had identified this tidal project in the Gulf of Kachchh in A Gujarat. The investigations were formally launched in 1982. Sea bed analysis and studies for preparation of feasibility report were of highly specialized and complex nature without precedence in the country. More than twelve specialized organizations of Govt. of India and Govt. of Gujarat were involved in the field of investigations. The techno economic feasibility study has been techno-economic completed in a very scientific and systematic manner and the feasib feasibility report completed in 1988. The proposed tidal power scheme envisages an installation of 900 MW project biggest in the world, located in the Hansthal Creek, 25 Kms. from Kandla Port in District. The main tidal rockfill barrage of 3.25 Km length was pr proposed to be constructed across Hansthal Creek which will accommodate the power house, sluice gates and navigational lock. It envisages installation of 900 MW capacity comprising of 36 geared bulb type turbo-generators units of 25 MW each and 48 sluice gat each of 10 M. generators gates x 12 M. size would generate 1690 Gwh of energy annually. Unfortunately, this project execution has not been taken up so far because of unknown reasons. In Jan 2011, the state of Gujarat announced plans to install Asias first commercial-scale tidal current power plant; the state government approved scale the construction of a 50 MW project in the Gulf of Kutch.
4.5.5 Durgaduani Creek

The country's first tidal power generation project is coming up at Durgaduani Creek of the Sundarbans. The 3.75 mw capacity Durgaduani Creek tidal energy project is a . technology demonstration project and will span over an area of 4.5 km. (Oct 2008 data).

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4.5.6 Tidal Barriers

Intermittent supply - Cost and environmental problems, particularly barrag barrage systems are less attractive than some other forms of renewable energy. Global estimates put the price of generation at 13 15 cents/kWh (no Indian 13-15 estimates available) Cost - The disadvantages of using tidal and wave energy must be considered before jumping to conclusion that this renewable, clean resource is the ing answer to all our problems. The main detriment is the cost of those plants. The altering of the ecosystem at the bay - Damages like reduced flushing, winter icing and erosion can change the vegetation of the area and disrupt the vegetation balance. Similar to other ocean energies, tidal energy has several prerequisites that make it only available in a small number of regions. For a tidal power plant to produce electricity effectively (about 85% efficiency), it requires a basin or a gulf that has a mean tidal amplitude (the differences between spring and neap tide) of 7 meters or above. It is also desirable to have semi-diurnal tides where there are two high and low tides every day. A diurnal barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build, and affects a very wide area - the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream. Many birds rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they can feed. There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages. Only provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out. Present designs do not produce a lot of electricity, and barrages across river estuaries can change the flow of water and, consequently, the habitat for birds and other wildlife Expensive to construct Power is often generated when there is little demand for electricity Limited construction locations Barrages may block outlets to open water. Although locks can be installed, this is often a slow and expensive process process. Barrages affect fish migration and other wildlife many fish like salmon swim wildlifeup to the barrages and are killed by the spinning turbines. Fish ladders may be used to allow passage for the fish, but these are never 100% effective. Barrages may also destroy the habitat of the wildlife living near it destroy

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Barrages may affect the tidal level - the change in tidal level may affect navigation, recreation, cause flooding of the shoreline and affect local marine life Tidal plants are expensive to build They can only be built on ocean coastlines, which mean that for communities which are far away from the sea, it's useless.

4.6 Wave Power


Ocean wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Wave power systems convert the motion of the waves into usable mechanical energy which in lump can be used to generate electricity. Waves are caused by wind blowing on the surface of the water. Whereas tidal power relies on the mass movement of the water body, waves act as a carrier for kinetic energy generated by the wind.
4.6.1 Technology

1. Float Or Buoy Systems that use the rise and fall of ocean swells to drive hydraulic pumps. The object can be mounted to a floating raft or to a device fixed on the ocean bed. A series of anchored buoys rise and fall with the wave. The of movement is used to run an electrical generator to produce electricity which is then transmitted ashore by underwater power cables. 2. Oscillating Water Column Devices in which the in-and-out motion of wave at out waves the shore enters a column and force air to turn a turbine. The column fills with water as the wave rises and empties as it descends. In the process, air inside the column is compressed and heats up, creating energy. This energy is harnessed and sent t to shore by electrical cable. 3. Tapered Channel relies on a shore mounted structure to channel and concentrate the waves driving them into an elevated reservoir. Water flow out of this reservoir is used to generate electricity using standard hydropower technologies. technologies.
4.6.2 Potential of Wave energy in India

The potential along the 6000 Km of coast is about 40,000 MW. This energy is however less intensive than what is available in more northern and southern latitudes. In India the research and development activity for exploring wave energy started at the Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras in 1982. Primary estimates indicate that the annual wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter, thus a theoretical potential for a

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coast line of nearly 6000 KW works out to 40000-60000 MW approximately. 60000 However, the realistic and economical potential is likely to be considerably less.
Status Prototype Location Thiruruvananthpuram, Vizhinjam Fisheries Harbor
Table 16: Wave energy projects in India

Installed Capacity 150 Kw Plant

2.6.3 Barriers

Depends on the waves variable energy supply Global estimates put the price of power generation from Waves at 15 15-17 cents/kWh (no Indian cost estimates available) Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong Some designs are noisy Must be able to withstand very rough weather Visual impact if above water or on shore Poses a possible threat to navigation from collisions due to the low profile of the wave energy devices above the water, making them undetectable either above by direct sighting or by radar May interfere with mooring and anchorage lines with commercial and sport sportfishing May degrade scenic ocean front views from wave energy devices located near or on the shore, and from onshore overhead electric transmission lines.

4.7 Biofuel
Biofuel development in India centers mainly around the cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are very rich in oil (40%). The drivers for this are historic, functional, economic, environmental, moral and political. Jatropha oil has been used ic, in India for several decades as biodiesel for the diesel fuel requirements of remote rural and forest communities; jatropha oil can be used directly after extraction (i.e. without refining) in diesel generators and engines. Jatropha has the potential to provide economic benefits at the local level since under suitable management it has the potential to grow in dry marginal non agricultural lands, thereby allowing villagers non-agricultural and farmers to leverage non farm land for income generation. As well, increased erage non-farm Jatropha oil production delivers economic benefits to India on the macroeconomic or national level as it reduces the nation's fossil fuel import bill for diesel production (the main transportation fuel used in the country); minimizing the expenditure of India's on

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foreign-currency reserves for fuel allowing India to increase its growing foreign currency currency reserves (which can be better spent on capital expenditures for industrial inputs and production). And since Jatropha oil is carbon neutral, large . carbon-neutral, large-scale production will improve the country's carbon emissions profile. Finally, since no food producing farmland is required for producing this biofuel (unlike corn or sugar cane ethanol, or palm oil diesel), it is considered the most politically and morally diesel), acceptable choice among India's current biofuel options; it has no known negative impact on the production of the massive amounts grains and other vital agriculture goods India produces to meet the food requirements of its massive population (circa requirements 1.1 Billion people as of 2008). Other biofuels which displace food crops from viable agricultural land such as corn ethanol or palm biodiesel have caused serious price increases for basic food grains and edible oils in other countries. India's total biodiesel requirement is projected to grow to 3.6 Million Metric Tons in 2011-12, with the positive performance of the domestic automobile industry. Analysis 12, from Frost & Sullivan, Strategic Analysis of the Indian Biofuels Industry reveals that Indian Industry, the market is an emerging one and has a long way to go before it catches up with global competitors. The Government is currently implementing an ethanol blending program and ethanol-blending considering initiatives in the form of mandates for biodiesel. Due to these strategies, mandates the rising population, and the growing energy demand from the transport sector, biofuels can be assured of a significant market in India. On 12 September 2008, the Indian Government announced its 'National Biofuel Policy'. It aims to meet 20% of India's diesel demand with fuel derived from plants. That will mean setting aside 140,000 square kilometres of land. Presently fuel yielding plants cover less than 5,000 square kilometres.
4.7.1 Economics of biodiesel produ production from Jatropha

Processing large quantities of oil and the consequent production of glycerol will likely depress the price of glycerol. If new applications are found to create additional demand for glycerol, its price could be stabilized. The above table shows that the table cost of the feed material is the dominating factor in determining the production cost of biodiesel. Even if we neglect the credit for glycerol recovery and sale, the cost of biodiesel from Jatropha oil at Rs. 21/litre ($0.47/litre) is very competitive with the very manufacturing cost of petroleum diesel.

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Table 17: Summary of cost of biodiesel production

4.7.2 Project operation and crediting period .7.2

The project will operate at 70 per cent capacity during the first year and at 100 per cent from year two onwards. The carbon emission reduction crediting periods are organized into three seven-year intervals, for a total of 21 years.
4.7.3 Project cost and financing

The capital cost to be raised through issuance of shares is estimated at Rs. 171 shares million.
4.7.4 Project status

The transesterification plant construction and commissioning is expected to be completed in coming years. Availability of feedstock is the biggest factor affecting the . start of operations. Since it will take five years for the Pongamia Pinnata trees to will grow and produce seeds, the initial oil feedstock has to be procured from Jatropha or animal fats. In the case of feed from animal fats, additional pre pre-treatment is necessary to neutralize the free fatty acids present in fats; otherwise these acids will react with the alkaline catalyst and adversely affect the transesterification process. Approval from the CDM Executive Board for certified emission reductions is expected soon.
4.7.5 Biodiesel industry growth wth

India has just finished the pilot stage and is entering the incubation stage. The EU is well into the growth phase. For instance, the UK is setting up two plants totalling 350,000 t/year capacities in 2005 alone, and a few more are planned in the near future. Of course the hectic growth pace in Europe is fuelled by the European Commission mandate that biofuels comprise 2 per cent of the fuel consumption by 2005 and 5.75 per cent by 2010. Diesel consumption in India is estimated at 66.91 million tons in 2011 2011-2012. Given this figure, the biodiesel required for 20 per cent blending would be 13.38 million

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tons. Obtaining biodiesel in this amount is quite a daunting task and involves about 14 million hectares of land under Jatropha cultivation. To put it in p perspective, the land currently under sugarcane cultivation is 4.36 million hectares. India may have to import biodiesel or vegetable oil feedstock or even oilseeds.

Figure 22: Biodiesel industry growth curve

In conclusion, the biofuels industry is poised to make important contributions to meeting Indias energy needs by supplying clean domestic fuel. The ethanol industry is mature, but with efficiency improvements, the use of alternate crops and the deployment of new technologies like enzymatic fermentation of cellulosic material, it can easily supply the ethanol requirements for 5 per cent or even 10 per cent ethanol blending. As for biodiesel, R&D work on high oil yielding Jatropha seeds is complete oil-yielding and pilot projects for plantations and transesterification plants are under way. The ojects industry is in the incubation stage, but large scale Jatropha cultivation and the large-scale infrastructure for oilseed collection and oil extraction must be established before the industry can be placed on a rapid growth track. In the meantime imports could help, rapid-growth as could income generated from the sale of certified emission reductions from biodiesel projects approved by the CDM executive board.

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5. CONCLUSION
India has a severe electricity shortage. It needs massive additions in capacity to electricity meet the demand of its rapidly growing economy. The countrys overall power deficit11 percent in 2009 has risen steadily, from 8.4 percent in 2006. About 11 2009has 100,000 villages (17 percent) remain unelectrified, and almost 400 million Indians unelectrified, are without electricity coverage. Indias per capita consumption (639 kWh) is one of the lowest in the world. The Integrated Energy Policy Report, 2006, estimates that India will need to increase primary energy supply by three to four times and electricity generation by five to six times to meet the lifeline per capita consumption needs of its citizens and to sustain a 8 percent growth rate. The government plans to provide universal access and to increase per capita consumption to 1,000 kWh by 2012. This translates into a sumption required generation capacity of 800GW compared to 160GW today. The need to bring on new generation capacity and to improve operational efficiency in capacityand transmission and distribution distributionis clear. Renewable energy can be an important part of Indias plan not only to add new rgy capacity but also to increase energy security, address environmental concerns, and lead the massive market for renewable energy. More than three-fourths of Indias threeelectricity production depends on coal and natural gas. At current usage levels, depends Indias coal reserves are projected to run out in 45 years. India already imports 10 percent of its coal for electricity generation, and the figure is projected to increase to 16 percent by 2011. Like coal, gas and oil have witnessed considerable price volatility in recent years. oal, Development of renewable energy sources, which are indigenous and distributed and have low marginal costs of generation, can increase energy security by diversifying supply, reducing import dependence, and mitigating fuel price volatility. ucing Accelerating the use of renewable energy is also indispensable if India is to meet its commitments to reduce its carbon intensity. The power sector contributes nearly half of the countrys carbon emissions. On average, every 1GW of additional renewable on energy capacity reduces CO2 emissions by 3.3 million tons a year. Local ancillary benefits in terms of reduced mortality and morbidity from lower particulate concentrations are estimated at 334 lives saved/million tons of carbon abated. lives Renewable energy development can also be an important tool for spurring regional economic development, particularly for many underdeveloped states, which have the

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greatest potential for developing such resources. It can provide secure electricity supply to foster domestic industrial development, attract new investments, and hence serve as an important employment growth engine, generating additional income. Renewable energy is seen as the next big technology industry, with the potential to transform the trillion dollar energy industry across the world. China seized this initiative to become a world leader in manufacturing renewable energy equipment. Indias early and aggressive incentives for the wind sector h have led to the development of world-class players. Investing in renewable energy would enable class India to develop globally competitive industries and technologies that can provide new opportunities for growth and leadership by corporate India. Almost 400 million Indians about a third of the subcontinents population ion Indiansabout populationdont have access to electricity. This power deficit, which includes about 100,000 un unelectrified villages, places Indias per capita electricity consumption at just 639 kWhamong the worlds lowes rates. among lowest The access gap is complicated by another problem: more than three three-quarters of Indias electricity is produced by burning coal and natural gas. With Indias rapidly rapidlygrowing population currently 1.1 billion along with its strong economic growth in billionalong recent years, its carbon emissions were over 1.6 billion tons in 2007, among the worlds highest. This is unsustainable, not only from a climate change standpoint, but also because Indias coal reserves are projected to run out in four decades. India alr already imports about 10% of its coal for electricity generation, and this is expected to reach 16% this year. Indias national and state governments are taking action to correct this vicious circle of power deficits and mounting carbon emissions. The national government has set a national target of increasing renewable energy generation by 40 gigawatts (GW) by 2022, up from current capacity of 15 GW, itself a threefold increase since 2005. Still,

renewable sources account for just 3.5% of Indias energy generation a present, so at the scale of the challenge is formidable. The cost of meeting it will be high unless the tremendous innovative capacity of India and market reforms can be coordinated to make India a clean energy leader. An excellent new study, Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India, produced by a World Bank team led by my colleague Gevorg Sargsyan, and

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supported by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), estimates that achieving the Indian governments renewable energy goals for the next decade will cost $10 - $64 billion in subsidies. The lower-cost scenario is based cost on developing low-diversity, low cost renewable energy sources, while the higher diversity, low-cost highercost estimate is based on a renewable energy mix that is high-diversity, including diversity, high-cost sources like solar. Spread over 10 years, the low cost option is within cost low-cost reach. And if fossil fuel prices continue to rise free of distorting subsidies the risefree subsidies higher-cost scenarios grow more viable. cost But power generation is just part of the challenge involved in exploiting Indias estimated 150 GW of renewable energy potential; the other challenge is transmission and distribution of the power to far flung areas of the country. A $1 $1billion World Bank loan approved in 2009 is helping to turn this around. It supports implementation of a plan by Indias national power transmission utility, Powergrid Corporation, to strengthen five transmission systems in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. This will enable transfer of power from energy country. surplus regions to towns and villages in under served regions of the country. It will under-served also increase the integration of national grid, resulting in a more reliable system and reduced transmission losses. By 2050, some estimates put Indias power generation requirements at one terawatt, or one trillion watts. This would be a six fold increase in Indias current installed six-fold power capacity. It is a big challenge. But it is a big opportunity too, for Indian companies, for the creation of Indian jobs, for greater Indian prosperity. Because ies, most of Indias power plants have yet to be built, India has options that many countries can only dream of. Instead of being locked into following a high high-carbon energy track, India can lead the way to a lower carbon, renewable energy path. ia lower-carbon, India is already home to Suzlon, the third leading wind energy installer worldwide, with almost 10% of the total global market. Other innovative companies in solar energy, biomass energy production, and energy efficiency are growing in Indias production, vibrant entrepreneurial sector. In addition, Indias waterways offer abundant small hydropower potential that remains untapped because the transmission and distribution capacity is inadequate.

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6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Web Links
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_India 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel_in_India 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_India 4. http://www.indiasolar.com/survey http://www.indiasolar.com/survey-swh.htm 5. http://www.triplepundit.com 6. http://www.prlog.org/11363349 http://www.prlog.org/11363349-solar-power-business-opportunities-in-india-solar-andwind-power-as-viable-solution.html solution.html 7. http://uk.ibtimes.com/articles/20110803/indiagrowing http://uk.ibtimes.com/articles/20110803/indiagrowing-solar-power-potential.htm potential.htm 8. http://www.business-opportunities.biz/2005/02/28/solar opportunities.biz/2005/02/28/solar-power-business business-idea/ 9. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2010/08/indias http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2010/08/indias-solaropportunities-and-challenges challenges 10. http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/huge andard.com/india/news/huge-solar-power-potential potential-in-india-solarequipment-co/101166/on co/101166/on 11. http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/201 http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2010/05/30/solar-energy-in-india-biggestoppurtunity-in-energy-in in-the-21st-century/ 12. http://www.eai.in/ref/ae/win/win.html 13. http://www.inwea.org/aboutwind http://www.inwea.org/aboutwindenergy.htm 14. http://www.eai.in/ref/ae/win/business_opportunities.html 15. http://www.eai.in/ref/ae/win/policies.html 16. http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/future-renewable-energy-india/ india/ 17. http://mnre.gov.in/prog http://mnre.gov.in/prog-smallhydro.htm 18. http://www.eai.in/ref/ae/oce/oce.html 19. http://www.geda.org.in/other_sources/other_re_sources.htm 20. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/T/AE_tidal_barrage.html http://www.geda.org.in/other_sources/other_re_sources.htm http://www.powertoday.co.in/fut4.html http://www.virtualsciencefair.org/2006/wong6j2/tidal.html 21. http://www.accessv.com/~shawgrp/energy.htm 22. nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse.../pdf/.../student_slides08.pdf 23. http://www.niot.res.in/projects/desal/desalination_waveenergy http://www.niot.res.in/projects/desal/desalination_waveenergyin.php www.ese.iitb.ac.in/.../Sceneario%20of%20renewable%20energy%20in%20india(R.B.).pdf http://www.ioes.saga-u.ac.jp/english/about u.ac.jp/english/about-india-otec_e.html 24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel_in_India

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PROJECT REPORT: Challenges & Opportunities For Renewable energy in Indian Perspective Renewable Perspective

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25. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/02/indias-renewablehttp://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/02/indias future-challenges-and-prospects prospects 26. http://blogs.worldbank.org/climatechange/node/760

Articles 1. Energy Scenario India 2. Indian Renewable Energy Status Report Background Report for DIREC 2010 3. Background Report 4. Increasing Global Renewable Energy Market Share, Recent Trends and Perspective (Beijing International Renewable Energy Conference) Beijing 5. Energy Revolution A Sustainable Global Energy Outlook 6. Renewables 2011 Global Stat Report Status 7. Renewable Energy in India: Opportunities and Challenges by E&Y 8. Overview of Renewable Energy Potential of India by Global Energy Network Institute 9. Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 by World Energy Council 10. Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 Issues and options 2050: 11. Overview Of Small Hydro Power Development In Himalayan Region by Manoj Kumar Kesharwani 12. Small Hydro Potential In India by R.Venkateswaram 13. Making solar thermal power generation in India a reality Overview of technologies, opportunities and chal challenges 14. Offshore wind Power In India Opportunities And Challenges Opportunities 15. Indias Renewable Energy Sector - Potential and Investment Opportunities

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