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Prepared by: ABANSI, KEN MYER O. 2115896 I. Basic Information A. Teaching Unit: The Vibrio family B.

Lesson Title: Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Mechanisms of Pathogenicity C.Year Level: 2nd Year College, Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Science Students D. Time Allotment: 1 hour II. Behavioral Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to: 1. Explain how the morphology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus affects its pathogenicity. 2. Identify the survival strategies this bacterium possesses. 3. Compare and contrast the swimmer cell and the swarmer cell. III. Subject Matter A. Major Concepts 1. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has alternating identities and structures that play an important role in its pathogenicity. 2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus exhibits mechanisms necessary for survival during adverse environmental conditions. 3. The organism possesses cell types appropriate for life under different circumstances. B. Content Outline 1. Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus a.Morphological Characteristics 1. Gram negative, non-sporeforming bacterium 2. Curved, rod-shaped 3. Possesses multiple cell types b. Biochemical Characteristics 1. Bacterial isolates possessed virulence enzymes (DNAase, lecithinase, catalase) 2. Bacterial isolates characterized by a high enterotoxigenicity 3. 76% of the V. parahaemolyticus strains were Kanagawapositive 4. Average adhesion index is 18.06 cells per erythrocyte 2. Disease Causation, Treatment and Prevention a. This can occur for the following reasons: 1. Contact with water which has been contaminated by infected faeces. 2. Failure to wash the hands properly after contact with someone who is already infected. 3. Not washing the hands properly after going to the toilet. 4. Eating raw or undercooked fish or seafood. b. This is treatable at home although serious cases may require hospital care. 1. Treatment for this includes drinking plenty of fluids such as water in order to replace those lost as a result of this illness. This will reduce the risk of dehydration.

2. Boost this by adding a sachet of electrolyte salts to these fluids. These are available at a local pharmacy and can be added to a glass of water or some other type of drink. They contain vitamins and minerals which are vital for everyday health as well as enabling you to re-hydrate. c. Vibrio Infection can be prevented by: 1. Keeping your food preparation areas clean. 2. Cooking and storing your food at the appropriate temperatures. 3. Keeping raw seafood separate from other foods when shopping for and storing groceries. 4. Wash hands, cutting boards, countertops, cutlery, and utensils after handling raw seafood. C. Instructional Materials PowerPoint Presentation D. References Atsumi, T., McCarter, L., and Imae, Y. 1992. Polar and lateral flagellar motors of Marine Vibrio are driven by different ion membrane forces. Nature. 355: 182-184. http://www.medic8.com/healthguide/food-poisoning/vibrioparahaemolyticus.html http://www.ehagroup.com/resources/pathogens/vibrio-parahaemolyticus/ http://www.foodsafetywatch.com/public/984.cfm http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/vibrio/prevention.html http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn82251157p30204/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1274498 IV. Lesson Proper A. Motivation Form 5 groups consisting of 10 members each. Then,ask the students to choose the diseases caused by the bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus from a list of diseases posted on the board. This will help the students gain knowledge about the cause of GastroEnteritis commonly experienced by the population. B. Lesson/ Presentation Concepts Learning Activities/ Skills and Values Application Teaching Strategies Vibrio parahaemolyticus has Lecture-discussion: Discuss Listening alternating identities and the Morphological and Communicating with structures that play an Biochemical characteristics others important role in its of the bacteria. Identify the Asking of questions pathogenicity. identities and structures it Sharing of ideas possesses and explain how it contributes to the pathogenicity or the ability of the organism to cause disease. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Video Presentation and Listening exhibits mechanisms lecture-discussion: Present Recognizing important necessary for survival during the video which is about the details

adverse environmental conditions.

The organism possesses cell types appropriate for life under different circumstances.

mechanisms of action of Vibrio parahaemolyticus then discuss further its survival during adverse conditions. Cooperative learning and lecture discussion: The cell typesSwimmer and Swarmer will be introduced. The introduction will be followed by a group activity. Making use of the previous groupings, questions are given with corresponding points according to its difficulty. The answers will be written on a piece of bond paper and will be raised when instructed. The team who will get the highest score wins.

Asking of questions Sharing of ideas

Sharing of ideas Teamwork/cooperation Communicating with others

V.Summary Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a less well known form of food poisoning which occurs as a result of eating contaminated seafood, in particular raw oysters. This causes a gastrointestinal type of illness which is as equally as unpleasant as any other form of food poisoning. It has two cell types, namely Swimmer and Swarmer which contribute to its survival in different circumstances. Together with its identities, and structures, these cell types also contribute to its Virulence and Pathogenicity. VI. Evaluation 15-point Performance Test. A microscopic image of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is shown, then ask the students to identify its parts and list the characteristics it possesses that contribute to its pathogenicity. The answers will be written in a crosswise intermediate paper. VII. Assignment Ask the students to create a word or trivia game that covers the range of information relevant to the discussion conducted. This assignment is worth 30 points and may be placed on any material needed by the games concept.