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The wind force acting on an ocean structure is the sum of the wind force acting on its individual parts. For any part such a structural member, storage tank, deck house, derrick, helicopter deck, etc., the wind force arises from the viscous drag of the air on the body and from the difference in pressure on the windward and leeward sides. The total force on the object can be predicted using the following equation:

where CD AP V

1 C D APV 2 2


= density of air (1.225 kg/m3 for dry air). = dimensionless force coefficient dependant on the shape of the body and on the Reynolds number. = characteristic area of the body. = wind velocity.

Figure 1 shows the variation of the force coefficient (also known as drag coefficient) with the Reynolds number for the case of wind normal to the surface of a long, thick rectangular beam of length L and to the axis of a long circular cylinder of length L and diameter D.

Figure 1 Typical design winds and structural dimensions generally yield Reynolds numbers of the order of 106 or greater. Hence, for engineering purposes, the force coefficient may usually be assumed constant and equal to about 2.1 for a long, thin, rectangular beam and about 0.6 for a long cylinder. For coefficients for thin rectangular beams and circular cylinders of finite length are generally smaller than those given in Fig.1 for long members because of wind flow around the ends.


Table 1 gives typical CD values used in Engineering calculations. Data given in Table 1 are recommended by American Petroleum Institute.

Object Beams Cylinders Sides of Buildings Projected Area of Platform Table 1:

Force Coefficient 1.5 0.5 1.5 1.0 (from A.P.I.)

Published wind speeds given in the design guidelines (see for example Figures 2 and 3) refer to values 10 metres above the sea surface To determine the wind speeds at other elevations, a one-seventh power law has generally been found to be adequate for elevations to about 200 metres. Thus, if V denotes the wind speed at an elevation, and VO denotes the wind speed at the 10 metres elevation, then

y 7 V = VO 10




WIND FORCES A. INCECIK Wind force calculations as recommended by American Bureau of Shipping (A.B.S.) can be summarised as follows: The total wind force on the object can be predicted using the following equation:

1 F = C h C S APV 2 2
where , AP and V are as defined in Equation (1) Ch = Height coefficient from Table 2 CS = Shape coefficient from Table 3 Table 2: Height Coefficients Height (Metres) 0 15.3 15.3 30.5 30.5 46.0 46.0 61.0 61.0 76.0 76.0 91.5 91.5 106.5 106.5 122.0 122.0 137.0 137.0 152.5 152.5 167.5 167.5 183.0 183.0 198.0 198.0 213.5 213.5 228.5 228.5 244.0 244.0 256.0 256.0 Ch 1.0 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.37 1.43 1.48 1.52 1.56 1.60 1.63 1.67 1.70 1.72 1.75 1.77 1.79 1.80


Table 3: Shape Coefficients Object Cylinders Hull (surface type) Deck House Isolated Structural Shapes (cranes, angles, channels, beams, etc.) Under deck areas (smooth surfaces) Under deck areas (exposed beams and girders) Rig derrick (each face) CS 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.25

WIND FORCES A. INCECIK If several members of an offshore structure are located in a plane normal to the wind direction, as in the case of a plane truss or a series of columns, the solidification effect must be taken into account. The wind force given in Equation (1) then becomes:


1 C D , AP ,V 2 2


and V are as defined in Equation (1)

C D , = Effective force coefficient (see Table 4) AP , = Projected area enclosed by the boundaries of the frame = Solidity ratio defined as the projected exposed area of the frame normal to the direction of the force divided by the area enclosed by the boundary of the frame normal to the direction of the force.

Table 4: Effective Force Coefficients Solidity Ratio Effective Force Coefficient Flat-side Circular sections members Re<4.2x105 Re<4.2x105 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.5 2.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.4 2.0

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.75 1.0

If two or more parallel frames or members are located behind each other in the wind direction, the shielding effect must be taken into account. The wind force on a shielded member can be calculated as:


1 C DAPV 2 2



1 C D , AP ,V 2 2


= Shielding factor (see Table 5)


If more than two members are located in line with the wind direction, the wind force on the third and subsequent members should be taken equal to the wind load on the second member. The force coefficients for various cross-sections (other than circular) of members with infinite length are given in Table 6. The force coefficients for individual members of finite length can also be obtained as:

The reduction factor K as a function of L/D may be obtained from Table 7, where L is the length of the member and d is the cross-sectional dimension. For members where one end is covered by another member in a way that free flow around that end of the member is prevented, the ratio L/D should be doubled for the purpose of determining K. When both ends are covered, force coefficient should be taken to that for an infinite long member. For spherical and parabolic structures like radar domes and antennas, the force coefficient CD may be taken from Table 8. For three-dimensional bodies such as deck houses and similar form of structural elements force coefficients can be obtained from Table 9.

REFERENCES 1. Hoerner, S.F., Fluid-dynamic Drag, Practical Information Aerodynamic Drag and Hydrodynamic Resistance, 1965. 2. Sachs, E. and Scanlan, R.H., Wind Effects on Structures: An Introduction to Wind Engineering, Pergamon Press, 1972. 3. Sachs, E. and Scanlan, R.H., Wind Effects on Structures: An Introduction to Wind Engineering, A. Wiley Interscience Publication, John-Wiley & Sons, 1978 4. Engineering Sciences Data Unit, Publications No.s 76001, 77032, 71016, 75011