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A REPORT ON

REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBILES


BY PRIYANKA S. SHIRSAT TE Mechanical Sandwich Exam Seat No. : T8021227

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. DR. SUHASINI DESAI

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PUNE 411038 2011 - 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am deeply indebted to Prof. Dr. Suhasini Desai, my internal guide, who extended all possible help throughout the course of the report and, for her kind guideline and helpful suggestions. Also, I would like to thank the teaching and non-teaching staff for their support and help. This report cannot be considered complete without the mention of our H.O.D. of Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT, Prof. P. B. Joshi. They have been very supportive and helpful, throughout.

Priyanka S. Shirsat TE Mechanical S\W Exam Seat No. : T8021227

CONTENTS

S. No. DESCRIPTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Abstract What is Regenerative Braking System (RBS) History and Development How RBS works in Electric Vehicles Advantages and Limitations Factors that Influence the Brake Energy Regeneration Strategy 1 - Regenerative Braking Control Strategy Strategy 2 - Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy Strategy 3 - Regenerative Braking Strategy Comparison of Simulation Results and Analysis Conclusion References

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1. ABSTRACT

Regenerative Braking System (RBS) is an age old concept, continuously undergoing improvement. It helps vehicles in extending their driving range and hence, it is a very useful system in the modern day electric vehicles. An added advantage, in an environmentally conscious world today, is that it is environmentally safe.

However, it also has some shortcomings, due to which it needs to be used in conjunction with the traditional frictional braking system.

This advocates that the total braking force needs to be cautiously distributed among the two systems so that maximum advantage can be obtained of the RBS installed in the vehicle.

Thus, the control strategy of the RBS plays an important role in brake energy regeneration and also in maintaining the vehicles stability.

2. WHAT IS REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

Regenerative Braking System (RBS), also known as the Energy Regeneration Braking System, is the braking system in which when the brakes are applied the kinetic energy of the vehicle gets transmitted into some other form of energy, which can be used immediately or stored until required. The energy that is regenerated by the RBS can be stored: 1. Electrically in batteries or capacitors Most Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) today, use this technique to improve their driving range and to get better performance. 2. Mechanically via pneumatics, hydraulics or as kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel. This is widely used in railways and F1 racing cars.

In the traditional braking systems the brake pads rub against the wheels and this rubbing generates excessive heat. The heat energy produced dissipates into the air, wasting up to 30% of the power generated by the cars engine. Over a period of time, friction that counteracts the forward motion and the wasted heat energy reduces the overall fuel efficiency of the car.

3. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

RBS is an age old concept. Early example of this system is the front-wheel drive conversion of a horse-drawn cab by Louis Antoine Krieger (18681951). The Krieger electric landaulet had a drive motor in each front wheel with a second set of parallel windings (bifilar coil) for regenerative braking. In England, the Raworth system of "regenerative control" was introduced by tramway operators in the early 1900s, since it offered them economic and operational benefits. It was used in the tramway systems at Devonport (1903), Rawtenstall, Birmingham, Crystal Palace-Croydon (1906) and many others. Slowing down the speed of the cars or keeping it in hand on descending gradients, the motors worked as generators and braked the vehicles. The tram cars also had wheel brakes and track slipper brakes which could stop the tram should the electric braking systems fail. However, following a serious accident at Rawtenstall, an embargo was placed on this form of traction in 1911. Twenty years later, the regenerative braking system was reintroduced. Now, RBS is extensively used on railways for many decades. The Baku-TbilisiBatumi railway (Transcaucasian railway or Georgian railway) started utilizing regenerative braking in the early 1930s. This was especially effective on the steep and dangerous Surami Pass. In Scandinavia the Kiruna to Narvik railway carries iron ore from the mines in Kiruna in the north of Sweden down to the port of Narvik in Norway to this day. The rail cars are full of thousands of tons of iron ore on the way down to Narvik, and these trains generate large amounts of electricity by their regenerative braking. From Riksgrnsen on the national border to the Port of Narvik, the trains use only a fifth of the power they regenerate. The regenerated energy is sufficient to power the empty trains back up to the national border. Any excess energy from the railway is pumped into the power grid to supply homes and businesses in the region, and the railway is a net generator of electricity.

An Energy Regeneration Brake was developed in 1967 for the AMC Amitron. This was a completely battery powered urban concept car whose batteries were recharged by regenerative braking, thus increasing the driving range of the automobile. Today, many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this technique to extend the range of the battery pack. Examples include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, the Vectrix electric maxi-scooter, the Tesla Roadster, and the Chevrolet Volt.

4. HOW RBS WORKS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

In an Electric Vehicle (EV) or a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) a braking system is used in which the electric motor itself helps to decelerate the car. In this system, when the driver applies the brake friction is caused and the electric motor is placed into a reverse mode. In the reverse mode the motor generates torque that counteracts the forward momentum and finally stops the car. Even in this system, while decelerating or braking some amount of energy is released into the surrounding. RBS also uses an almost similar phenomenon except that the outcome and result is completely different from that of the traditional braking system. In the RBS a special type of motor is used which also functions as the generator. The wheels turn in just one direction for both driving and braking operations. But during driving the battery drives the charge whereas, during breaking it is driven by the wheels. Its not that the motor is put in reverse, but simply that its polarity is switched, making it run as a generator.

When a car is cruising down the road, it generates kinetic energy that supports the forward motion of the car and brakes are applied using the RBS the electric motor is used to decelerate the car. This sets the motor to run in the reverse direction that eventually reverses the flow of power to stop the car. With the RBS when the electric motor stops the car the amount of kinetic energy liberated during braking is recaptured and stored by the battery to be used when required. There are mainly two types of regenerative braking system:

1. The electrical 2. The hydraulic. In the Electrical or Hybrid Regenerative Braking type of braking system, braking is mainly accomplished by switching motors to serve the functions of a generator and convert motion into electricity. The energy that is recaptured is stored into the battery to provide almost 30% enhanced efficiency. The actual efficiency depends on many factors including the state of battery charge and number of wheels equipped to use the braking system. If in case powerful braking is required, traditional friction-based brakes are also essential. Main components of the Electrical RBS are: 1. Driving wheels 2. Controller 3. Transmission motor 4. AC/DC converter 5. DC/DC converter 6. Energy storage system

When the driver applies the brakes the brake controller calculates the total braking force. The Regenerative Braking Force (RBF) that the motor should apply is calculated according to the control strategy of the brake force distribution, discussed later. The motor controller calculates the needed braking current of the armature and controls the motor to provide accurate regenerative braking torque by tracking braking electric current. The braking electric current generated in armature is rectified

by the AC/DC converter and the DC/DC converter and then stored in the energy storage device. The Hydraulic Regenerative Braking type of braking system is patented by Ford Motor Company and the Eaton Corporation. It is most commonly used in the vehicles today. Main components of a Hydraulic RBS are: 1. Driving wheels 2. Wheel speed sensors 3. Pressure sensors 4. Motor controller 5. Braking actuators 6. Accumulator

When the driver presses the brake pedal, the pressure sensor collects the braking force information, which is dealt with in the controller. The controller calculates the braking force of the brakes and the motor that is required according to the control strategy of the brake force distribution. It also sends out the instructions to the braking actuator and the motor controller of every wheel. The motor controller regulates the regenerative braking effect provided by the motor (that acts as the generator while braking). Note that, in both the systems the controller plays an important role. It sends commands referring to the working of the system, thus, its programing i.e. the control strategy it operates upon is equally important.

5. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

The energy efficiency of a conventional car is about 20 per cent, with the remaining 80 per cent of its energy being converted to other forms including heat through friction. RBS is capable of capturing almost as much as half of the energy wasted due to friction and utilise it. This helps in reducing fuel consumption by about10 to 25 per cent. Hydraulic RBS provide even more impressive gains, potentially reducing fuel use by 25 to 45 per cent. RBS also helps to improve the driving range of the vehicle i.e. the vehicle can travel farther on a gallon of gas. Some vehicles also achieve more than 50 miles per gallon due to RBS. And that's something that most drivers can really appreciate. When RBS is used in a vehicle, the brake pads tend to last much longer as their usage is reduced. Consequently, the brake pads oil also needs rare changing. Thus, reducing the overall maintenance cost of the vehicle. Another advantage of the RBS is that since it is based on very old technology its overall installation and maintenance cost is not very high. However, traditional friction-based braking system needs to be used in conjunction with the RBS. This is because: 1. The regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds. In order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt, friction brake system is required. It provides for the required physical locking of the rotor. 2. The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the regenerative brake. 3. As the RBS only has power on the driving wheels, as they are only the ones linked with the motor, if the vehicle is a two- wheel drive type, friction based braking is necessary on the other wheels. 4. The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited to the capacity of the supply system to absorb this energy and on the state of charge

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of the battery or capacitors. No regenerative braking effect can occur if another electrical component on the same supply system is not currently drawing power and if the battery or capacitors are already charged. For this reason, it is normal to also incorporate dynamic braking system to absorb the excess energy. Therefore, there is a need to control the regenerative braking and match the friction and regenerative braking to produce the desired total braking output. This is obtained by implementing the control strategy of the brake force distribution.

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6. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE BRAKE ENERGY REGENERATION

RBS is used in conjunction with the Traditional Braking System. Hence, it is necessary that the total braking force that is required to be applied on the vehicles is cautiously distributed between the two systems to obtain maximum recovery of the energy that would otherwise be wasted. The energy (or power) that is regenerated by the RBS is dependent on various factors. We know that, 1. 2. 3. Power = (Force) x (Velocity) Power = (Torque) x (Angular Velocity ) Power = (Voltage) x (Current)

Thus, the output Power of the motor (generator) depends on the 1. Force applied by the motor for braking 2. Torque applied by the motor for braking 3. Current that passes through the generator (motor) windings to give the braking effect and regenerate electricity 4. Velocity with which the car is moving. The above factors have far reaching effect on the Brake Energy Regeneration and are used as guidelines in the design of RBS control strategy. The factors and their effects are explained below: 1. Braking Force Distribution Limit It is one of the most important factors. The design principle of every braking system emphasises on the distribution of the total braking force between the front and the rear axle, in order to obtain short braking distance as well as to help maintain vehicle directional stability.

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When the front wheels and the rear wheels lock simultaneously, the adhesion condition (i.e. adhesion between the road and the wheels) is fully used and the braking stability (i.e. vehicle directional braking stability to avoid sliding/ slipping) also increases. This is a situation of ideal braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels. In a conventional car, it is very difficult to obtain such ideal distribution of the braking force. Constant efforts are being taken to try to achieve this, and the electronic hydraulic RBS comes closest to making this possible. The diagram shows a braking force distribution curve for a typical vehicle.

The distribution of braking forces should be limited in a reasonable range, illustrated by blue area in the figure. If braking forces on the front and rear axles follow the ideal distribution curve, the front and rear axles will be locked simultaneously. If the ratio of braking forces on the front and rear axles is above the ideal distribution curve, the rear wheels will be locked before the front wheels, which tends to cause vehicle instability. If the front wheels get locked too early it leads to low road adhesion utilization. The minimum rear braking force limit is shown by the pink curve. The blue curve illustrates front wheels are locked and the rear are not. This distribution of the force determines the regenerative braking force applied by the driving wheels, which influences the energy regenerated.

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2. Available Motor Braking Torque The motor maximum torque available is determined by the equation:
m max = TN

m b m b

m max = PN / m

Where, m max is the maximum braking torque motor can safely achieve TN is the motor rated torque b is the motor base angular speed m is the motor angular speed PN is the motor rated power. However, it is difficult for a motor to continuously generate electricity and deliver to the on-board energy storage because motor rotational speed is dependent on the vehicle speed and low motor rotational speed generates very low electric motive force (voltage). Thus, a weight factor K is used. Also, to protect the battery from overcharging which may affect the battery life its state of charge needs to be considered. Another weight factor KSOC is introduced to monitor this. Therefore, the available regenerative braking torque given by the motor is obtained as Tmavail = Tmmax x Kv x KSOC. 3. Charging Current In the equation, P = FV = UI, if we assume the output voltage U as constant, in different conditions with different temperature, at uniform V, the value of I will have the same tendency to decrease or increase as of the value F. Thus, current is affected by the regenerative braking force and the amount of current that flows influences the brake energy regeneration. A very high current flowing through the battery can damage the battery by overcharging or overheating it. The maximum permissible charging current is a function of: 1. Q (battery's quantity) i.e. the number of batteries 2. T (battery's temperature)

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The heat produced in the batteries due to the flow of current, is given by H = I2Rt, where H is the heat, R is the resistance offered to flow of current, I is the current flowing and t is the time for which the current flows. Thus, the temperature of the batteries also limits the amount of current that should flow. As the resistance offered will be different in different batteries, the extent to which the temperature poses restrictions can only be determined when the batteries specifications are known. 3. SOC (state of charge) The state of charge of the batteries will affect the amount of current that can flow in the batteries. Studies show that when batteries SOC is lower than 10% the inner resistance of the batteries is high and hence they are unsuitable to be charged. Above 10% the proportion of regenerative braking force should be correspondingly increased. However, when SOC is above 90%, the charging current should be decreased again to prevent deposits of ions.

4. Vehicle Speed The vehicle speed also affects the brake energy regeneration value. As illustrated in the equation, P = FV, Where P is the output power of the motor F is the output force of the motor V is the speed. The vehicle speed is directly proportional to the motor speed and thus, the vehicle speed affects power output of the motor and the brake energy regeneration. Thus we know that when the speed is low the power output of the motor will be low. This means that the regenerative braking force applied to the vehicle will also be low. Similarly, as the speed increases or decreases the motor output varies accordingly indicating that the regenerative braking force that is applied is increased and decreased simultaneously. At maximum or high speed conditions the regenerative braking force has maximum or high values. This report deals with three control strategies suggested for a RBS, viz.:

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1. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy 2. Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy 3. Regenerative Braking Strategy.

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7. STRATEGY 1 REGENERATIVE BRAKING CONTROL STATEGY


A control strategy based on the ideal braking force distribution is proposed in the research paper entitled The Research of Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Advanced Braking Force Distribution. It suggests that the distribution of frictional force and regenerative braking force of the driving wheel is in accord with the principle: when the overall braking force of driving wheel is less than the regenerative braking force provided at this time, only the regenerative braking force works. When the overall braking force of driving wheel is more than the regenerative braking force provided at this time, the regenerative braking force works on the maximum and other braking force is provided by frictional braking force. This is shown in the flowchart given below.

Thus, the input variable in this strategy is the total braking force and maximum braking torque of the motor, and its outputs are the the regenerative braking force of front wheel, the frictional braking force of front wheel and the frictional braking force of rear wheel. In order to study the effectiveness of the ideal control strategy for regenerative braking system, the simulation model was established in ADVISOR and embedded in Saturn SL1 model. The simulation adopted urban 15-mode test cycle. At last, the braking force distribution and the recovery efficiency of braking energy were gotten.

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8. STRATEGY 2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL STRATEGY

Strategy 1 did not take into consideration the battery's maximum permissible charging current which can lead to damage of the battery. So, a Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy is suggested in the research paper entitled Regenerative Braking for Electric Vehicle based on Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy. It discusses two more factors - batteries' SOC and temperature of battery pack which have great effects on the maximum permissible charging current. According to this strategy a regenerative braking force controller is designed based on fuzzy logic which has three inputs including the driver's brake requirements, vehicle speed and batteries' SOC and one output i.e. the braking force. Besides this, the influence of temperature of the battery pack is also taken into consideration.

A simulation model was embedded in ADVISOR and the strategys effectiveness was tested.

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9. STRATEGY 3 REGENERATIVE BRAKING STRATEGY


Another strategy that takes the advantage of the motor torque is proposed in the research paper entitled Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles. It is based on the fact that the amount of regenerated brake energy depends on multiple factors in EVs and to achieve high regeneration during braking without sacrificing the stability of the vehicle it is reasonable to distribute the braking torque required between the front and rear axles, between regenerative braking and friction braking by an optimization algorithm. The algorithm suggested in the paper is shown in the flowchart given below.

The simulation study was carried out in comparison with a parallel strategy on several driving cycles and the effectiveness of this system was verified.

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10. COMPARISON OF SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Strategy 1

Strategy 2

Strategy 3

SIMULATION PARAMETERS DRIVING CYCLE: Japanese 15- Mode The European Driving Cycle New European Driving Cycle

VEHICLE MASS: 1390 kg 728 kg

CENTRE OF MASS HEIGHT: 0.5 m BATTERY TYPE: Ovonic 45Ah NiMH HEV SIMULATION RESULTS TOTAL BRAKING ENERGY: 1,50, 490 J WASTE ENERGY: 4,48,010 J RECOVERED ENERGY: 81, 051 J 26,30,000 J 77,08,000 J 50,77,000 J 0.5 m

ENERGY RECOVERY EFFICIENCY: 54% 52% 70%

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As the Strategy 1 is devised mainly keeping in mind the Braking Force Distribution the results show that the optimal braking force distribution is gotten with the ideal control strategy. Also, optimal braking stability is realized by this strategy and as regenerative braking energy is recovered, the fuel economy of the vehicle is improved. Through the simulation results of Strategy 2, it can be inferred that the energy efficiency is improved under the conditions of ensuring braking safety and batteries' safety and the driving distance of EV can be extended per charge. The simulation results of Strategy 3 show, that because the proposed strategy is able to use the motor braking torque to the full extent, it results in higher energy regeneration.

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11. CONCLUSION

In a century that may see the end of the vast fossil fuel reserves that have provided us with energy for automotive and other technologies for many years, and in which fears about carbon emissions are coming to a peak, the advantages that the RBS provides is becoming increasingly important. The beginning of the 21st century could very well mark the final period in which internal combustion engines are commonly used in cars. Already automakers are moving toward alternative energy carriers, such as electric batteries, hydrogen fuel and even compressed air. Regenerative braking is a small, yet very important, step toward our eventual independence from fossil fuels. These kinds of brakes allow batteries to be used for longer periods of time without the need to be plugged into an external charger. They also extend the driving range of fully electric vehicles.

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12. REFERENCES

1. Zhang Jing-ming, Ren Dian-bo, Song Bao-yu, Cui Shu-mei and Sun Gang, The Research of Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Advanced Braking Force Distribution, Fifth International Conference on Natural Computation, 2009, pg 458 - 462. 2. Zijian Zhang, Guoqing Xu, Weimin Li and Liang Zheng, Regenerative Braking for Electric Vehicle based on Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy, 2nd International Conference on Mechanical and Electronics Engineering, 2010, pg V1-319 V1-323. 3. Jingang Guo, Junping Wang and Binggang Cao, Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions,2009 , pg 864 868.

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