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INDEX

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 PREAMBLE REFERENCES TERMINOLOGY INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR DUCT DESIGN HOLTEC STANDARD FOR DUCT DESIGN Shape of duct Duct angle Velocity of duct Diameter of duct Compensation for bend and reducers Material of duct Calculation for pressure drop Flanges VENT WORK Velocity Duct Inclination Vent points Typical observation for design Volumetric flow rate De-dusting air quality Description Page No. 4 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 9 10 10 10 11 18 18 18 18 18 19 20

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Sr. No. 6.7 7 8 9 10 11 12 12.1 12.2 13 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 16 16.1 16.2 Pickup points

Description

Page No. 24 26 27 30 31 35 36 36 41 42 46 47 48 48 50 52 52 52 53 54 54 55

THICKNESS OF DUCTS DESIGN OF BENDS DESIGN OF ELBOWS DESIGN OF REDUCERS FLANGE CONNECTION STIFFENER DESIGN ( POSITION & SPACING) Circular ducts Rectangular ducts DUCT EXPANSION DUCT SUPPORTS AND HANGERS Loads on supports Types of supports Movable supports Fixed supports DAMPERS Rectangular dampers Shut off damper Location of dampers DOS & DONTS OF GOOD DUCT DESIGN Curves in ducts Transition pieces

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Sr. No. 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 17 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Branches Fan inlet Fan outlets Exhaust stacks Access doors

Description

Page No. 56 57 58 59 60 61 61 61 62 62 63

PROVISION FOR INSTRUMENTATION FLOW MEASUREMENT Piezometric ring Orifice plate Venturimeter Flow measurement calculation

Appendix 1: Page 65 Annexure 2: Page 71

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DUCT & VENT ENGINEERING


1. PREAMBLE

This document covers the design of ducting. Duct is a broad classification of ductwork used in industry for many diverse applications. For the purpose of this document a duct is defined as metal shell conveying air or gases at high/ ambient temperature. This air or gas may be corrosive and may contain particulate with varying degree of abrasiveness. The document covers the following areas: Selection and sizing of Duct. Selection of stiffeners Selection of Duct Supports Other important considerations 2. REFRENCES

The basis for design has been taken from Holderbank Engineering, Canada (HEC) standards, Holtec's Standards and from previous projects which have been running successfully. 3. TERMINOLOGY

The important technical terms are defined below: Term Volume flow rate Gauge pressure Pressure Drop Draft Critical velocity Description Volume of fluid flowing per unit time Pressure applied by the fluid flowing through a duct Loss in total pressure between two points on account of friction, turbulence, bends, etc Negative pressure measured in mm of water gauge. It can be natural, induced or forced Gas velocity at and below which the dust starts to settle down in the dust. The actual value of this velocity is dependent on Duct inclination Nature of Dust( Particle Size) Unit m3/sec mm WG mm WG mm WG m/sec

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The important duct parts are defined below: Part Stiffener Fixed Support Guide Support Compensator Damper Description This is used for providing stiffness/rigidity to the ducts and to prevent collapsing/deflection of the duct. Structure rigidly fixed to the duct to take various loads of the duct. It is the support which allows the axial movement of the duct and at the same time transmits the load of the duct to the other structures. Compensators are the metallic or non-metallic members used in a duct to take the thermal expansion and to isolate the vibrations. A mechanical device used to control the flow of gases. It is of two type (1) Louver Type (2) Butterfly Type A duct in which there is a change in direction from upward to downward direction, a U elbow is formed. To prevent accumulation of duct at this bend, a special type of elbow is provided, called Self Cleaning Elbow. Opening in a duct provided for entry of maintenance personnel. Small opening with socket/ Plug arrangement in a duct provided to clean out the accumulated duct. It is a part of duct to change type of cross-section (e.g. circular to rectangular & vice versa) Vanes installed in a duct (Especially in rectangular duct) to streamline the flow of gases.

Self Cleaning Elbow

Manhole Cleanout Port Transition Piece Guide Vanes

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4.

INPUT DATA REQUIRED FOR DUCT DESIGN

The basic data required for design of duct is:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Actual volume flow rate 'Q' (Am3/sec) Total pressure in duct 'P' (mm WG) Max. temperature of gases 'T' (0C) Area of application Dust Content Type of Gas

5. 5.1

HOLTEC STANDARD FOR DUCT DESIGN Shape of Duct

Round duct is preferred for industrial ventilation, air pollution control and dust collecting systems due to following reasons:

Circular duct is naturally stiff, therefore requires less stiffening members for the same cross section

During erection, more flexibility is available in rotating the ducts for alignment.

Despite advantages of the round configuration there are applications for industrial ventilation and air pollution control systems where the rectangular duct must be considered. Exception: Consideration should be given to the physical installation i.e., a short duct between two rectangular flanges need not to be changed in cross section.

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5.2

Duct Angle

It is also imperative that the duct is installed at the correct angle to prevent accumulation of dust in the ducts carrying duct laden gases. Typical values of Angle of Inclinations for Ducts and Vents are given below in Table 1. TABLE 1: DUCT / VENT ANGLE in deg. Application Upside Raw Meal Coal Clinker Gypsum/Cement Slag Flyash 50 60 50 50 50 50 DUCT Downside 50 50 45 45 45 50 Upside 50 50 50 50 50 50 VENT Downside 45 50 45 45 45 50

5.3

Velocity of Gas

The duct velocity (v) to be considered is given in Table 2. Exception: If due to some constraints, the ducts are horizontal or sloped less than 450 ,then the velocity should be taken in the range of 28m/s in order to prevent dust settling in the duct and causing possible blockage of the system. Avoid long horizontal ducts for dust laden gases. The gas velocity for various inclinations and applications is tabulated as Table 2.

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TABLE 2 : GAS VELOCIY IN DUCTS (IN M/SEC) Dust Application Inclination Less than 450 Raw Mill Raw Mill to Cyclone Cyclone to Mill Fan Bag House/ESP to Exhaust Fan Exhaust Fan to chimney Smoke gas Fan to Raw Mill Raw Mill Bypass Raw Mill Recirculation 28 22 22 22 22 22 22 25 450-900 22 20 20 20 20 20 20 22

Preheater Downcomer To Raw Mill To Coal Mill 22 22 22 20 20 20

Coal Mill Coal Mill to Bag house/ESP Bag house /ESP to exhaust fan Exhaust fan to chimney Smoke gas fan to coal mill Coal mill recirculation 25 25 25 25 25 22 22 22 22 22

Cement Mill Cement Mill to Bag House/ESP Bag House/ESP to Exhaust Fan Cement Mill Separator to Fan Separator Recirculation 25 25 22 22 22 22 20 20

VENT Raw Meal 18 15

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Dust Application

Inclination Less than 450 450-900 15 15 12 12 10

Coal Cement/Gypsum Clinker Slag Fly ash

18 18 15 15 12

STACK Stack 10-16

Exception: Short ducts are usually sized according to Flanges of connecting equipment (from cyclone etc.) even if the velocity of the gas is somewhat on higher or lower side. 5.4 Diameter of Duct

For designing the duct diameter, selection of correct gas velocity is very important. For dust laden gases, Gas velocity should be selected in such a manner that it should always be more than the critical gas velocity. The cross-sectional area of the duct is calculated by the following formula: Cross-Section Area (in m2) = Q (Volumetric Flow Rate in Am3 /sec) V (Gas velocity in m/s) It is important to take the volume floe rate at actual operating conditions considering temperature and altitude. If it is given at NTP, then adjustment has to be made for temperature and pressure at plant following equation P (Pressure in mm WG) =10342 e-0.0001255*h (Plant altitude in meters) altitude. Pressure at altitude h is found out by the

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5.5

Compensation for bends and reducers

After routing of the gas duct has been established , it is important to check back through the system to ensure that the pressure drop has not been considerably increased due to the addition of bends, reducers etc. 5.6 Material of duct

For General Applications (For use in cement plants): Weld able quality structural steel IS: 2062 For High temperature and/ or Corrosive Applications: SS 304, 310,316 5.7 Calculation for Pressure Drop

The Pressure drop in duct can be calculated as per graph. For change in cross section the pressure drop can be calculated by adding the equivalent length in the graph after calculating the value of . Procedure for Calculation of Pressure Drop 1. Calculate total length of the duct = Lt 2. Identify various bends, reducers, venturi i.e. any change in the cross-section of the duct including any bend etc. 3. Find the friction factor for each of these bends. 4. Read form the graph 1 from y-axis. The Gas Flow in cum/hour is on the x-axis. Read the value from the graph for rolled sheet. 5. Calculate Leq = / *D for each of these bends etc. = Friction factor given in table 3 = See Graph Below D= Duct diameter in mm 6. Add sum of Leq to Lt.

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7. Read value of Pressure loss per meter from graph 2. 8. Multiply per pressure loss with Lt to get the total pressure loss.

5.8

Flanges

In the process and vent ducts no intermediate flanges are to be provided between equipment to equipment unless it is required for maintenance purposes.

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6.0 6.1

Vent work Velocity

Good ductwork design is to size the duct cross-sectional area for a velocity of 15-18 m/sec. For clinker, the velocity should be taken at 12-16 m/sec. 6.2 Duct Inclination

To avoid dust accumulation in the duct work, it is recommended an angle of duct inclination of minimal 50 deg. In limestone, slag and cement venting system and minimal 45 deg. In clinker venting system duct with low velocity encourages material to fall out. Duct with high velocity encourage abrasion. 6.3 Vent Points system with an excessive no. of connected vent points cannot be

Venting

controlled/calibrated in a way that venting is effective. That is why it is recommended to limit the number of vent points connected to one filter to at most 8 points. 6.4 Typical Observation for design

Belt Conveyor The distance between material feed chute and deducting hood should be minimum 1.5 times belt width in conveying direction and 0.75 times belt width behind the feed chute. Height of skirt plate to be 600mm from top of belt. Bag filter Duct velocity between Bag filter AND Fan should not exceed 15m/sec. Bag Filter Fan Duct velocity between Bag filter fan to atmosphere should not exceed 10 m/sec. Frequently encountered ductwork problems are poorly designed branch entries, elbows and size variations that hamper airflow and/or cause acceleration wear. Care should be taken to ensure proper selection as per duct engineering manual.

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6.5 Volumetric Flow Rate Based on Volumetric Flow rate and selection velocity, duct diameter can be calculated based on the table given in next page. Minimum duct diameter to be selected is 100NB For duct size from 100 to 300, pipes are to be used and the diameter mentioned in the table is in NB.
DUCT DIA & X-SECTION FOR DIFFERENT VELOCITY AND VOLUMES 21m/s 20m/s 19m/s 18m/s 17m/s 16m/s 15m/s 14m/s 13m/s 12m/s 11m/s

DIA Mm 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 355 380 400 430 450 500 535 560 585 610 630 660 685 710 735 760 800

10m/s

GAS Volume m3/min (preferred range is 15-18m/sec expect for clinker. For clinker & dry fly ash preferred range is 12-16m/sec. 593 928 1336 1924 2375 2979 3711 4994 7483 8574 9500 565 884 1272 1832 2262 2837 3534 4756 7127 8166 9048 537 839 1209 1741 2149 2695 3358 4518 6770 7757 8595 9933 509 795 1145 1649 2036 2554 3181 4280 6414 7349 8143 9410 481 751 1081 1557 1923 2412 3004 4042 6058 6941 7691 8887 9733 452 702 1018 1466 1810 2270 2827 3805 5701 6533 7238 8365 9161 424 663 954 1374 1696 2128 2651 3567 5345 6124 6786 7842 8588 396 619 891 1283 1583 1986 2474 3329 4989 5716 6333 7319 8016 9896 368 574 827 1191 1470 1844 2297 3091 4632 5308 5881 6796 7443 9189 339 530 763 1099 1357 1702 2121 2853 4276 4899 5429 6274 6871 8482 9711 311 486 700 1008 1244 1561 1944 2616 3920 4491 4976 5751 6298 7775 8902 9754 282 442 636 916 1131 1419 1767 2378 3563 4083 4524 5228 5726 7069 8093 8867 9676

10979 10456

12024 11451 10878 10306

14844 14137 13430 12723 12017 11310 10603

16995 16186 15376 14567 13758 12949 12139 11330 10521

18620 17734 16847 15960 15074 14187 13300 12414 11527 10640

20320 19352 18385 17417 16450 15482 14541 13547 12579 11611 10644

22094 21042 19990 18938 17885 16855 15781 14729 13977 12625 11573 10521 23566 22444 21322 20200 19078 17955 16833 15711 14589 13466 12344 11222 25864 24633 23401 22169 20938 19706 18474 17243 16011 14780 13548 12316 27861 26534 25207 23881 22554 21227 19901 18574 17247 15920 14594 13267 29932 28506 27081 25656 24230 22805 21380 19954 18529 17104 15678 14253 32077 30549 29022 27494 25967 24439 22912 21384 19857 18329 16802 15275 34296 32663 31029 29396 27763 26130 24497 22864 21231 19598 17964 16331 38000 36191 34382 32572 30762 28953 27143 25334 23524 21715 19905 18096

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DIA Mm 900

DUCT DIA & X-SECTION FOR DIFFERENT VELOCITY AND VOLUMES 21m/s 20m/s 19m/s 18m/s 17m/s 16m/s 15m/s 14m/s 13m/s 12m/s 11m/s

10m/s

GAS Volume m3/min (preferred range is 15-18m/sec expect for clinker. For clinker & dry fly ash preferred range is 12-16m/sec. 48095 45804 43514 41224 38934 36644 34353 32063 29773 27483 25192 22902

1000 59376 56549 53721 50894 48066 45239 42412 39584 36757 33929 31102 28274 1060 66715 63538 60361 57184 54007 50830 47654 44477 41300 38123 34946 31769 1120 74481 70935 67388 63841 60294 56748 53201 49654 46108 42561 39014 35467 1180 82675 78738 74801 70865 66928 62991 59054 55117 51180 47243 43306 39369 1250 92775 88357 83939 79522 75104 70686 66268 61850 57432 53014 48597 44179

6.6

De-dusting Air Quantity

The true volume that the ventilation system is required to handle must be determined first. Therefore, it has to be determined how much vent air is required at each dust point. Recommended standard volumetric requirements for transfer are given. Before starting preparing drawing, draw a flow diagram depicting vent volume, of each vent process, as per recommendation. Write vent volume at each rise points and total vent volume before entering bag filter.

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DEDUSTING AIR QUANTITIES

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6.6

Pickup Points

The hood design at pickup points should provide ventilation of the duct points while minimizing the amount of product introduced in to the duSt collection system. Improperly designed hoods tend to increase the grain loading to the bag filter. Recommended standard design practices for hood design are:

VERTICAL

VERTICAL

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Sheet thickness of suction hoods: 3 to 4 mm Intake velocity at hoods according to above table: V1 = 1.4 m/sec Air velocity in deducting duct: V2 15-18 m/sec

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7.0 THICKNESS OD DUCT Up to 300 mm diameter pipes are to be used. For venting work medium duty pipes are recommended For fabrication of ducts! Vents above 300 mm diameter, the minimum plate thickness should be 6 mm. However depending upon the negative pressure and the type of material used the thickness of the duct is tabulated as below: Duct Diameter (in mm) Raw Mill 8 8 8 8 Plate Thickness (In mm) Coal Mill (To take care of explosion) 5 6 8 10 12 ( Exception ESP to EP Fan = 10 mm) Pre-heater & GCT 6 6 6 6 6 6 Cement Mill (Tube Mill) 6 6 6 6 Cement Mill (VRM) 6 6 8 10

355 - 560 630 - 800 900 - 1,180 1,250 - 1,700 1,800 - 2,000 2000 & above

Fly ash Handling: For Fly ash handling, duct thickness on one size higher should be used. Say instead of 6 mm to 8mm otherwise liner is to be provided with 6 mm thick plate.

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8.0

DESIGN OF BENDS

Bends should have a minimum mean radius as indicated below: Description Process Ducts Vent Clean Air (Bag Filter Outlet) R= D to 1.5 D 1.5 D to 2 D 1 to 1.5 D

Bend 1: Use bend 1 for change in direction of duct. Bend is fabricated as per following details

46' -90' BEND DESIGNATION: BEND, 'D', ANG.

16' -45' BEND DESIGNATION: BEND, 'D', ANG.

0' -15' BEND DESIGNATION: BEND, 'D', ANG.

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Bend 2: Use for de-dusting pipes to change direction from upward to downwards. This bend is applicable up to diameter of 500 mm only. For diameter above 50 mm use self cleaning Elbow only.

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Bend 3: Use for self cleaning bends. These bends serve to prevent dust accumulation with subsequent dust slides. These can be used for de-dusting pipes as well as for process pipes. For all plane faces which are exposed to pressure (under pressure), specify bracing irons when preparing shop drawings for these bends.

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9.0

DESIGN OF ELBOWS

The differentiation between Bend and Elbow is defined as follows:


Use elbow only for vents Use elbows only up to 500 mm dia. Use elbow, when there is a space constrain

Elbow 1: Use for V0 < 600 a = D * tg * V0/2

Elbow 2: Use for V0 > 600 a = 2 * D * sin V0/2 b= 2 * D * (sin V0/2 tg * V0/4) c= D * tg * V0/4

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10.0 DESIGN OF REDUCERS


Reducer 1 Due to pressure and flow conditions top angle should be between 300 to 600. However, no general rule in this respect can be given and the angle is not shown in the drawing.

Calculation for Weight of Reducer 1

S = {( ( D d ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1/2

Weight = t * S * (D + d) / 2 * 25.1 * 10 -6 excluding the weight of flanges.

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Reducer 2 Due to pressure and flow conditions top angle should be between 300 to 600. However, no general rule in this respect can be given and the angle is not shown in the drawing.

Calculation for Weight of Reducer 2

Weight = [ { ( ( B b ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * ( A + a ) + { ( ( A a ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * ( B + b)] * t * 8 * 10 6 excluding the weight of flanges.

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Reducer 3

Due to pressure and flow conditions top angle should be between 300 to 600. However, no general rule in this respect can be given and the angle is not shown in the drawing.

Calculation for Weight of Reducer 3

Weight = [ { ( ( B d ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * B + { ( ( A d ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * A ) * t * 8 * 10- 6 + { ( ( d / D ) 2 + L 2 ) 1 / 2 * 3.14 * d} * t * 8 * 10- 6 Excluding the weight of flanges.

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Reducer 4

Use for square duct joining circular bag filter fan inlet. Reducer on the pressure and suction side of the fan should have as small a top angle as possible.

Calculation for Weight of Reducer 4

Weight = [ { ( ( D a ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * a + { ( ( D b ) / 2 ) 2 + L 2 } 1 / 2 * b ) * t * 8 * 10 -6 + { ( ( d / D ) 2 + L 2 ) 1/2 * 3.14 * d} * t * 8 * 10-6 Excluding the weight of flanges.

Condition: D 4 (a*b)

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11.0 FLANGE CONNECTION


Standard flange details are given below:
D (Pipe OD) 125 150 180 205 230 255 280 305 330 355 380 405 430 455 480 510 535 560 585 610 635 660 685 710 735 760 No. of Holes 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 20 20 20

Sn. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

A 127 152 182 207 232 257 282 307 333 358 383 408 433 458 483 513 539 564 589 614 639 664 689 714 739 764

B 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

C 171 197 222 248 273 298 324 349 387 413 438 464 489 514 540 565 591 616 641 667 692 718 743 768 794 819

E 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

F 207 232 262 287 312 337 362 387 433 458 483 508 533 558 583 613 639 664 689 714 739 764 789 814 839 864

L 40*40*4 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5 L 50*50*5

J 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14

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12.0 STIFFENER DESIGN (POSITION & SPACING)


12.1 Circular Ducts

Ducts having a large diameter and a thin wall thickness may "Collapse" if subjected to external over pressure (Internal under pressure). On account of under pressure, if any, in the round ducts it will be necessary, to prevent collapse, to brace the pipes with flat irons or suitable equivalent section. The dimensions and mutual distance of which is determined on the basis of the monogram enclosed in the following pages. Based on Swedish "Tryckkarisnormer, 1973", a calculation basis has been developed which is described below: List of symbols: P= under- pressure (bar), (1 bar= 10400 mm WG) T= wall thickness (mm) D= diameter of pipe (mm) L= length of pipe or distance between 2 bracing rings (mm) I= moment of inertia of bracing ring including part of the casing (mm4) d= diameter, measured to center of gravity line for bracing ring (mm) K= constant taking account of the E- module variation with temperature F K (1500 C)= 1.05 K ; ( 3500 C)= 1.16 t= wall thickness of bracing ring (mm) b= width of bracing ring (mm) = t/T =b/t

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Formulae and calculation method To examine whether a given pipe possesses the required resistance to collapse calculate (100 * T ) / D L/D P*k

Now enter in the Annex 1, with 100 T/D on X axis and up to the intersection with the line concerned for p x K (interpolate, if required). Based on this intersection point the maximum permissible value of L/D is higher than that calculated, there is no risk of collapse Failing that, the pipe must be provided with bracing rings. Determine the distance b/w the rings so that L/D becomes smaller than that read off above. Now the necessary moment of inertia of the bracing rib can be determined by means of formulae: I > = 6 * 10 ^ -8 * p * k * L * d ^ 3 Estimate d Now choose plate thickness for the rib and calculate = t / T Now enter in Annex.2 with I/T^4 as abscissa and up to the intersection of the line for the selected value of . can now be read off on the axis of ordinates and the rib width is found as b= *T.

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P T D L I d K

t b

Calculation for Stiffeners for Ducts under- pressure (bar), ( 1 bar= 10^4 mm WG) wall thickness(mm) diameter of pipe(mm) length of pipe or distance between 2 bracing rings(mm) moment of inertia of bracing ring including part of the casing(mm4) diameter, measured to center of gravity line for bracing ring (mm) constant taking account of the E- module variation with temperature F K(1500 C)= 1.05 ; K ( 3500 C)= 1.16 wall thickness of bracing ring(mm) width of bracing ring(mm) t/T b/t L/D 100*T/D P*k Check from Graph 1 L/D should be less than graph value Tested for Acceptability of L 1>=6*10^-8*p*k*L*d^3 I/T^4 Log natural = t/T =b/t b= *T. SELECTED STIFFNER (STIFFENER SPACING( FACTOR OF SAFETY=2.5) Alternatively, a stiffener able to provide equivalent Moment of inertia can be used e.g. ISA 60*10

665 6 2800 6000

1.16

12 80

2.14 0.21 00.077 3 OK 662376 512 6.24 2 13.333 73.5 80*12 2400s

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12.2

Rectangular Ducts

For Cement Plants rectangular ducts are not used often .The main areas are in Raw Mill and Cooler. For this purpose the stiffeners have been standardized as follows: For general applications, the guidelines are as follows: All planes faces exceeding 1m must be braced by means of flat irons or suitable equivalent members so as to prevent collapses and vibrations. Rectangular ducts do not possess the same strength in cross section or in length as circular ducting. Great care must be taken to ensure that the duct is adequately stiffened to suit any given application. Refer Annexure 2 for typical calculation for the stiffener size If the duct is refractory lined then the additional weight has to be considered when determining plate thickness as stiffeners.

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13.0

DUCT EXPANSION

Due to high temperatures of the gases, expansion of the duct will occur, Expansion joints are used to absorb the expansion of the ducts. The amount of expansion can be determined by the following formula:

L = L0 X t X 0.000012

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Lo = original length of duct (mm) t = temperature difference (in Celsius) L = additional length of duct when hot (mm) Typical calculations for expansion joints are given in Annexure1. Basis of Selection: 1. For l upto 150-200 mm, use one no. Non-metallic expansion joint or 2 nos. metallic expansion joint. 2. Maximum no. of expansion joint in one location = 2. 3. If l more than 200 mm provide additional intermediate Fixed and Guide supports. 4. Locate expansion joints to get maximum axial movement and minimum lateral movement. Expansion joints are also used to avoid transmission of vibration and should be installed at the inlet and outlet of large fans to avoid vibrations of fan housing being transmitted to the duct. Features of Metallic Expansion Joints: 1. Longer life than non metallic joints 2. Rugged construction 3. Suitable for high temperature applications. 4. Require larger flange to flange distance for installation. 5. For high lateral movements generally two nos. expansion joints are installed adjacent to each other. 6. Can accommodate vibration to certain extent. 7. Dust gets inside the metallic convolutes and offers resistance to the system. In such cases thermal movements cannot be accommodated. This can result in increase of reactionary/spring force exerted by the expansion joint. 8. Costlier as compared to non metallic joints.

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Features of Non-Metallic Expansion Joints: 1. Fabric in nature. So highly flexible. 2. Requires less flange to flange distance. 3. Can accommodate higher lateral thermal movements in all planes like axial, lateral, transverse, and radial. Also it can accommodate torsional movements, misalignments at site, lateral shifts etc. 4. Suitable for vibrations in fan inlets/outlets and being fabric & flexible in nature, does not transfer vibrations to adjacent equipments. Hence, no loss of efficiency or life. 5. Being flexible in nature it practically offers no reactionary / spring force.

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H V X T1 T2

CALCULATION OF EXPANSION JOINTS FOR DUCTS Duct Length (mm) 8400 Duct Length (mm) 4000 Included Angle between ducts degree 135 Angle of inclination degree 45 Initial temperature 10 Max. Temperature duct required to withstand 350 Coff. Of Linear Expansion mm/deg. C 0.000012 AXIAL EXPANSION Expansion in horizontal direction for H Expansion in horizontal direction for V Total ADD FORMISALIGNMENT TOTAL CALCUALTED AXIAL EXPANSION THUS, AXIAL EXPANSION = Type of joint Enter 1 for Metallic. 2 for Non-Metallic No. of Expansion Joints LATERAL EXPANSION Expansion in vertical direction due to H Expansion in vertical direction due to V Total ADD FORMISALIGNMENT TOTAL CALCUALTED LATERAL EXPANSION THUS, LATERAL EXPANSION = Type of joint Enter 1 for Metallic. 2 for Non-Metallic No. of Expansion Joints

34.27 11.54 45.81 10.00 55.81 55.81 1.00 1

11.54 0.00 11.54 10.00 21.54 25.00 1.00 1 1

RESULT

NO. OF EXPANSION JOINTS TO BE PROVIDED ON DUCT

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14.0

DUCT SUPPORTS AND HANGERS

Designing hangers or brackets for supporting a duct requires consideration of two important factors. 1) The additional stress of the support forces when combined with the working stress of the duct must not increase the stress in the duct above the allowable limit. 2) The support should not restrain the stressed duct so it becomes too rigid to flex under normal changes in working pressure, temperature & loads. Many types of stresses are involved in any supporting structure. The more common types are the following: 1) The internal pressure of the gas in the duct, along with the weight of the duct cause tangentially and longitudinal tensile stresses in the duct. 2) Any radial force acting on a section of the duct causes bending stresses in the ring of the duct as well as axial tensile stresses both of which act tangentially to the circumference of the duct. 3) The radial force also causes radial shear stresses in the duct, and longitudinal shear stresses, both adjacent to the hanger. After proper analysis of the forces involved, the various stresses must be combines to determine the maximum normal stress (tensile or compressive) and maximum shear stress. Other loads and forces which also have to be taken into consideration are those caused by the elements i.e. snow load and wind load and the seismic conditions (earthquake factor) determine by the location of the plant also the increase weight of the duct due to dust build-up and the addition of insulation. The civil engineer needs to know all the conditions before designing a support. Its is therefore the responsibility of the Mechanical Designer to first propose a routing for the duct, taking into the consideration for the best possible location for the supports, i.e. utilizing buildings, etc. and avoiding high towers if possible. After the routing has been established and location of the supports determined, it should be discussed with Civil Engineer before continuing.

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14.1

Loads on Supports

Loads to be taken into consideration when calculating the forces on a support are indicated below: Weight of duct (plate, stiffener, flanges, etc.) Weight of dust (assume a 100 mm thick accumulation of duct on the entire inside surface of the duct). Where short ducts , sloping less than 30 degrees Celsius from the horizontal cannot be avoided, a dust load is to be assumed corresponding to the duct being half full of dust over its entire length. Weight of insulation Weight of refractory if applicable Wind and snow loads Factors due to seismic conditions Forces due to gas pressure Frictional forces due to expansion The loads can be described in two forms: Dead Load: This includes: Weight of duct including insulation, refectories etc. Weight of stiffeners: Where calculations are cumbersome, approx. 10% of duct shell weight can be taken as stiffener weight. Eccentric Load distribution: In most drawings, the calculated load from above is less than the load considered. The main reason is the non-linear distribution of the load between the two or more supports Live Load: This includes: Weight of material build up Weight of gas: Mass flow in kg/sec, velocity in m/sec Force due to temperature change: 160000*Duct area*(Change in length/total length) 47 of 70

14.2

Types and location of supports

When selecting the location and type of support, expansion of the duct due to high gas temperature must be taken into consideration. If the ducting is not flexible, use expansion joints to compensate form movement of the duct. Each duct section separated by expansion joints shall have only one fixed support, the other supports must permit movement of the duct. 14.3 Movable Supports

NOT RECOMMENDED The above two types of saddle sliding supports are not recommended because they create high frictional forces, paint is scraped of due to movement, thereby causing corrosion.

RECOMMENDED The above types of hinged support are recommended as the best way in which to support a duct and also permit the duct to move in the direction of the expansion.

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RECOMMENDED The above type of hanger support compensates for vertical expansion.

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14.4 Fixed Support Fixed support can be as simple as a welded saddle type support or as complex as a structure dictate what type of support should be used. A few of the more common ways are indicated below.

BRACKET TYPE A

BRACKET TYPE B

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BRACKET TYPE C: FOR CLEANING ELBOW

BRACKET TYPE D: FOR SELF CLEANING ELBOW

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15.0

Dampers

All gas ducting calls for dampers to be installed in one form or another i.e. shut off or regulating. They will generally be butterfly or louver types with Motorized to manual operation. 15.1 Regulating Damper

Opposed Blade louver opening - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Butterfly valve ------------------------- Parallel louver Damper. It can be seen from above that opposed blade louver dampers are preferred for regulating because of the almost linear flow characteristics. 15.2 Shut off Damper

The type of damper used depends very much on what the term Shut off means for any particulars system .For instance if the damper are required to Shut off a duct run, there by allowing gases to be passed through another system, then standard butterfly damper could be used. If the damper is required to Shut off a duct run and permit maintenance to be carried out while the system is still running then the safety of the damper. The dampers therefore are usually the guillotine or disc valve type and can be very big and heavy and can require a support system just for the damper itself.

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15.3

Location of Damper

The general location of the dampers will be found from the flow sheet provided by the process technology department. Care should be taken in the determining the final locations in the duct system with particular attention being given to providing access for operating and maintenance personnel, and the avoidance of dust build up on the damper when it is in the closed position. The installation of the damper is also important, i.e. that the blades face the right direction when partially opened and do not cause turbulence in the gas flow.

AVOID THIS ARRANGEMENT

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16.0

DO & DONTS OF GOOD DUCT DESIGN

The design of gas ducting should be so that the gases can be transported through the system without causing turbulence or excessive friction in the system, and also that there will be no excessive dust build up. This means that the principles for industrial ventilation should be used. Theses can be found in many handbooks; however a few of the more important ones are shown below: 16.1 Curves in ducts

Curves in having a minimum inside radius equal less than as defined earlier should be provided with the vanes to distribute the gas flow equally.

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16.2

Transition Pieces

Transition pieces from round to rectangular or small to large diameter should be long enough to avoid turbulence.

Recommended angle is 50 to 70 or 25mm change in dia to every 120mm length.

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16.3

Branches

(However if no other choice add baffle plate)

To be avoided However, if design dictates this

arrangement then install a collecting hopper in bottom, of duct i.e. rotary valve, double flap valve etc.

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16.4

Fan inlet

Fan inlet curves to enter at 60 Deg.

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16.5

Fan outlet

Fan dust laden gases avoid an arrangement where there is the possibility of accumulated dust falling back on rotor of the fan.

The gas flow for case 1 is not so good as for 2 but there is less chance of dust falling on the rotor.

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16.6

Exhaust Stacks

NOT RECOMENDED

RECOMMENDED DESIGN FOR SMALL VENT UPTO 300 DIA.

When part of duct has to be designed for removal, allow for wedge type lift out section i.e. sometimes in order removing a fan rotor, part of the gas ducting connected to the fan has to be removed. Wedge type section can easily be slide out.

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16.7 Access Doors All doors should have bolted access doors so that every section of the duct can be inspected and cleaned. A door must be installed close to each damper for inspection and on all points where dust accumulation is expected. Note: It is to be understood, that when detailing the duct runs, some of the straight lengths should have a cutting allowance (say 150mm) and some of the flanges should be supplied loose for filed welding. This obviously is to permit the erector a little latitude when installing the system.

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17.0

PROVISION FOR INSTRUMENTATION

In general following criteria can be used for provision of instrumentation: All main ducts such as Mill to cyclones Mill to De-dusting equipment Preheater fans to mill

Need to have provision for pressure, temperature and Volume indications. Ducts for De-dusting equipment to fan and stack need to have temperature and volume indications. FLOW MEASUREMENT Piezometric ring: Used for cooler fans inlet

18.0 18.1

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18.2

Orifice Plate: Used for small dia. Ducts and short duct length : 1.0 to 1.5m dia.

18.3

Venturimeter: Used for large duct dia. & long ducting

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18.4

Flow Measurement Calculation

Q = C * A * (2 * g * 144 * Pressure difference) / d]1/2 Q = Flow of Gases C = Flow Coff. Press. Difference in mm WG g = 9.81 m/sec2 A = Cross section area of the ducting d = Density of air / gases

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Ducting : Analysis Statement : Typical Raw Mill Complex Sr.No. Details 1 Project I Drg. No. 2 Process Data Volume - Normal Volume - Actual Temperature Gauge pressure 3 3.1 Design Aspect Duct diameter Mill Outlet - Cyclone 9502-3612-005 230,400 Nm3/hr 408,700Am3/hr. 95 Deg C (-) 665 mm Wg

Prj.

Cyclone - Mill Fan 9502-3612-005 241,920 Nm3lhr. 446,180Nm3/hr. 95 Deg C (-) 865 mm Wg

2,800 mm

2,800 mm (Main duct) 1 ,500 mm at cyclone inlet

3.2

Gas velocity

18.44 m/see

3.3 4 4.1 4.2

Pressure drop Construction considerations Plate thickness Stiffeners Size Spacing

Considered 75 mm Wg 6mm 2-1/2 x 2-1/2 X 3/8 3,000 mm

20m/see (main duct) 12.18 m/sec (Cyclone inlet duct) Considered 75mmWg 6mm

4.3

Duct support

3 X 3 X 1/4 2,200 mm (main duct) 1,400 mm at rectangular portion One fixed at cyclone One fixed at cyclone inlet. inlet. Four fixed from top at One pivoted cyclone One guide One pivoted Mill outlet Fan outlet (pair) Branch to cyclone (2 nos.) Above cyclone inlet (4 Nos.) Access from all sides None

5 5.1

Special considerations Expansion joints

5.2 5.3

Provision for instruments Interconnections

To be decided at site None

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Appendix 1 For general application, the selection of bracing can be done with the following graphs also:

Bracing for Pipelines

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Bracing for Pipelines

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Bracing for Pipelines

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Bracing for Pipelines

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Bracing for Pipelines

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Bracing for Pipelines

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