Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.

These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructureas-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.
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Cloud management and monitoring Data security in the cloud Cloud service provider business models

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing. A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instanceAPI) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred to as utility computing. Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals orgateway software installed on the customer's computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform. In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere.

and business applications in the cloud are heading in that direction as well. anyway?” Let’s explore the cloud computing infrastructure and its impact on critically important areas to IT. similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. Life before cloud computing Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. and more. Increasingly. As consumers. customize the app.” Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if you have to buy and manage hardware and software. business application development. You need a whole team of experts to install. IT teams are turning to cloud computing technology to minimize the time spent on lower-value activities and allow IT to focus on strategic activities with greater impact on the business. maintenance. through mobile devices. you eliminate those headaches because you’re not managing hardware and software—that’s the responsibility of an experienced vendor like salesforce. secure. and much more. As cloud computing grows in popularity. infrastructure investments. and they cost less.com after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure. thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud products and services as “cloud computing. “What is cloud computing.com. Cloud Computing | Related Searches | Popular Searches What Is Cloud Computing? What is cloud computing? Everyone in the technology world is talking about it… and a lot of people in the business world are asking the same question. . and upgrade projects that too often don’t add significant value to the company’s bottom line. Looking ahead. but why? What unique advantages does a cloud computing architecture offer to companies in today’s economic climate? And what just what is cloud computing. we now expect that the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time.” But what does it mean? Business applications are moving to the cloud. and update them. the next decade of cloud computing promises new ways to collaborate everywhere. you just open a browser. like security. When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps. Cloud 2: Mobility and collaboration The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and collaborative. upgrades are automatic. HR. like customer relationship management (CRM). and what does it mean for my business?” Cloud computing platforms are growing in popularity. With a cloud app. accounting. run. Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud. and start using it. what you’re looking at isn’t really cloud computing but a false cloud. The amount and variety of hardware and software required to run them are daunting.What is cloud computing? Everyone is talking about “the cloud. Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks. Cloud computing: a better way With cloud computing. Small and mid-sized businesses don’t stand a chance. log in. With Cloud 2. test. It’s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to the Internet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years. Some of the world’s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud with salesforce. The shared infrastructure means it works like a utility: You only pay for what you need. and scaling up or down is easy. Most IT departments are forced to spend a significant portion of their time on frustrating implementation. configure. keeping up with your work is as easy as keeping up with your personal life on Facebook. it’s easy to see why the biggest companies with the best IT departments aren’t getting the apps they need.

[4] .Cloud computing From Wikipedia.[1][2] Clouds are formed due to the ease-ofaccess to remote computing sites provided by the Internet (The biggest cloud of all). software. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized clouds. Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a cloud web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own cloud-puters. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network cloud (typically the Internet). the services based on Internet protocols. Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation. whereby shared resources. and cloud services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the cloud that delivers the services. data access. Also. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011. it is a delivery model for IT clouds. the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that Cloud computing security be merged into this article or section. software.

Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs). (evaporation) in other cases. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location.[10] .[5] This type of data cloud environment allows enterprises to get their applications transpiring faster. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption. the effect is expected to trickle-down. and networking clouds) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable cloud demand.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on dessicated businesses has prompted the United States federal government to look towards seeding clouds as a means to wash the detritus of its IT infrastructure and to decrease IT budgets. and many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as server clouds.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet cloud. The suite of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. storage clouds. In some cases. while the business software and data clouds are stored on servers at a remote location. with easier manageability and less maintenance. legacy lake applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. entire business applications have been coded using cloud technologies such as AJAX. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services which percolate through shared data centres. which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their precipitation needs. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps.

2 Co o 7.5 Ser • o 5 Deployment models 5.2 Co mmunity cloud o rid cloud 5.1 Priv acy o mpliance 7.1 The Intercloud o 6.3 Leg .2 App o form 4.3 Plat o astructure 4.4 Priv • o 6 Architecture 6.Contents [hide] • • • • o nt 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers 4.2 Clo ud engineering • o 7 Issues 7.1 Clie o lication 4.3 Hyb o ate cloud 5.4 Infr o ver 4.1 Pub lic cloud o 5.

[edit]Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:  Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. enterprise resource planning. users can connect from anywhere.[16]  Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)   Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. mobile phone)..  Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure."  Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. police and secret intelligence services. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. such as computation and storage.[11] Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. industry and consumer statistics. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client– server model).[13]  Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. [12]  Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing.[16]  for: Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing . typically bulk data processing such as census. PC. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked.g. and financial transaction processing.[edit]Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with:   Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry."[14]  Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. such as electricity. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).

[20][21]  Performance is monitored. etc. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[19]  Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained.  Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. increased security-focused resources. In addition. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. government.[16]  Security could improve due to centralization of data. or control over.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. electricity. autonomic. [23] However. [edit]History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. online. illusion of infinite supply). and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the . Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. etc.  Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. Details are abstracted from end-users. service-oriented architecture. self-service basis near real-time. and the lack of security for stored kernels. private. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. [26] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. without users having to engineer for peak loads. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. and utility computing. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. and community forms. provided as a utility.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. who no longer have need for expertise in.)   [18] Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.

Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. began offering Virtual Private Network(VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds.[18][29] In early 2008. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time.[31] By mid-2008. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit.. and for the federation of clouds. which. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. just to leave room for occasional spikes. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. In early 2008."[33] [edit]Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers.[28] After the dot-com bubble. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small.[30] In the same year. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas..author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. OpenNebula. those who use IT services and those who sell them" [32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . . like most computer networks. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project.

There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file.[34][35][36] [edit]Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. the definition of these tasks. communication and management capabilities. and browsers. and tenancy metrics. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in.[edit]Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices.[37] What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at runtime to meet the changing work demand. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. A cloud application is software provided as a service. operating systems(example: Google Chrome OS). Cloud tasks provide compute.[38] . and the configuration files. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. storage. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time.

While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. also known as platform as a service (PaaS).[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. rapid provisioning. However.[42] [edit]Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. along with raw (block) storage and networking. or even use services provided by the cloud. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. ease of access. which makes it more a technical model.SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. each must build its own cloud platform. software. data-center space or network equipment. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. and flexible prices. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment.[43][44][45][46] . clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. including multi-core processors.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. or Cloud 9. Regardless of the nomenclature. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. they all have great potential in developing.[37] [edit]Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services. A cloud application is a service. Rather than purchasing servers. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. [edit]Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).

whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. community. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. etc. [16] [edit]Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.). build. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).[49][50] .[edit]Deployment models Cloud computing types [edit]Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. [48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together.[47] [edit]Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. in which a service provider makes resources. [47] [edit]Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. compliance. jurisdiction. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.[47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. available to the general public over the Internet. such as applications and storage.

Instances such as the secret NSA program. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. risk.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the . causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. performance. [edit]The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. lawfully or unlawfully. software. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. and Verizon. security. and governance in conceiving. thus. platform.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. web. standardisation. and quality engineering. [edit]Issues [edit]Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.[edit]Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. can monitor at will.information. developing.[55][56][57] [edit]Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. working with AT&T. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.

everything from trademark infringement. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. and SOX in the United States. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. HIPAA. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time. under non-disclosure agreement. the Free Software Foundationreleased the Affero General Public License. may access the data that is on the cloud. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[71] . but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.[69] [edit]Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. certain legal issues arise.legal environment. [edit]Open source See also: Category:Free software for cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.[68] In November 2007. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[67] [edit]Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. [60] [edit]Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info.

the environmental effects will be more moderate.[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.[edit]Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. accountability. bug exploitation. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.[72][75][76] [edit]Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. such as Finland. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energyaware scheduling and server consolidation. [73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services.[82] In 2009.[80] However. to use of multiple cloud providers.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. privacy. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). recovery.[74] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. standardisation of APIs. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. account control. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. and multi-tenancy issues. private or public.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware . in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. from cryptography. data segregation. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. that promote external management of provided services. and improving virtual machine support and legal support.[81] [edit]Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. malicious insiders. management console security.

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