Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.
These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructureas-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.
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Cloud management and monitoring Data security in the cloud Cloud service provider business models
A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing. A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instanceAPI) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred to as utility computing. Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals orgateway software installed on the customer's computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform. In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere.
keeping up with your work is as easy as keeping up with your personal life on Facebook. you eliminate those headaches because you’re not managing hardware and software—that’s the responsibility of an experienced vendor like salesforce. accounting. maintenance.com after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure. you just open a browser. The shared infrastructure means it works like a utility: You only pay for what you need. Some of the world’s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud with salesforce. upgrades are automatic. As consumers. and scaling up or down is easy.” Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if you have to buy and manage hardware and software. IT teams are turning to cloud computing technology to minimize the time spent on lower-value activities and allow IT to focus on strategic activities with greater impact on the business. With a cloud app. log in. When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps. Looking ahead.
Cloud 2: Mobility and collaboration
The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and collaborative. and what does it mean for my business?” Cloud computing platforms are growing in popularity. but why? What unique advantages does a cloud computing architecture offer to companies in today’s economic climate? And what just what is cloud computing.
Life before cloud computing
Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. we now expect that the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time. Small and mid-sized businesses don’t stand a chance. anyway?” Let’s explore the cloud computing infrastructure and its impact on critically important areas to IT. It’s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to the Internet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years.
Cloud computing: a better way
With cloud computing. business application development. and they cost less. Most IT departments are forced to spend a significant portion of their time on frustrating implementation. and more. infrastructure investments. configure. and update them. similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. test. and business applications in the cloud are heading in that direction as well. HR. With Cloud 2. it’s easy to see why the biggest companies with the best IT departments aren’t getting the apps they need. Increasingly. like customer relationship management (CRM).com. and much more. secure. like security. and start using it. through mobile devices. “What is cloud computing. You need a whole team of experts to install. thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud products and services as “cloud computing. the next decade of cloud computing promises new ways to collaborate everywhere. The amount and variety of hardware and software required to run them are daunting.What is cloud computing?
Everyone is talking about “the cloud. Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks. customize the app. Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud. As cloud computing grows in popularity. run. what you’re looking at isn’t really cloud computing but a false cloud.
. and upgrade projects that too often don’t add significant value to the company’s bottom line.
What Is Cloud Computing?
What is cloud computing? Everyone in the technology world is talking about it… and a lot of people in the business world are asking the same question.” But what does it mean?
Business applications are moving to the cloud.
 This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a cloud web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own cloud-puters. the free encyclopedia
It has been suggested that Cloud computing security be merged into this article or section. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized clouds. Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation. software.Cloud computing
From Wikipedia. it is a delivery model for IT clouds. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network cloud (typically the Internet). whereby shared resources. 
. the services based on Internet protocols. and cloud services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the cloud that delivers the services.
Cloud computing logical diagram
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. data access. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011. Clouds are formed due to the ease-ofaccess to remote computing sites provided by the Internet (The biggest cloud of all). software. Also.
 The tremendous impact of cloud computing on dessicated businesses has prompted the United States federal government to look towards seeding clouds as a means to wash the detritus of its IT infrastructure and to decrease IT budgets. and networking clouds) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable cloud demand. legacy lake applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as server clouds. storage clouds. The suite of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. (evaporation) in other cases. This type of data cloud environment allows enterprises to get their applications transpiring faster. with easier manageability and less maintenance. the effect is expected to trickle-down. In some cases. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps. entire business applications have been coded using cloud technologies such as AJAX.
. and many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services which percolate through shared data centres.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet cloud. which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their precipitation needs. while the business software and data clouds are stored on servers at a remote location. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs).
7 Issues 7.4 Priv
6 Architecture 6.2 App
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1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers 4.1 Priv
5 Deployment models 5.
 Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that
distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.
Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing
. industry and consumer statistics. This is purported to lower barriers to entry. such as computation and storage. enterprise resource planning."
Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. as
a metered service similar to a traditional public utility.
Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. typically bulk data processing such as census.
Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser
regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. PC.
Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those
resources in their own control. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)
Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. and financial transaction processing. whereby a 'super and virtual
computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. such as electricity.Comparison
Cloud computing shares characteristics with:
Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. users can connect from anywhere.. with participants
being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client– server model). police and secret intelligence services. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to
interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers."
Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical
Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing.g.
Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is
converted to operational expenditure. mobile phone). Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).
Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. which makes well-designed cloud
computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. who no longer have need for expertise in.
Performance is monitored. illusion of infinite supply). provided as a utility. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility.
Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate.
Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. and community forms. autonomic. private. and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. increased security-focused resources.
but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. because they do not need to be installed
on each user's computer." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems.
Security could improve due to centralization of data.  The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. and utility computing. etc.)
Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.
The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. without users having to engineer for peak loads. service-oriented architecture. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. online. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the
self-service basis near real-time. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed
using web services as the system interface. government. In addition.
Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public..
electricity. etc. and the lack of security for stored kernels. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area
or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. Details are abstracted from end-users.
However. or control over. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. The Challenge of the Computer Utility.
were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. like most computer networks. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. In early 2008. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. which. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. OpenNebula.. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds.
. just to leave room for occasional spikes.. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. By mid-2008. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. After the dot-com bubble. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. In early 2008."
Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. began offering Virtual Private Network(VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. those who use IT services and those who sell them"  and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. and for the federation of clouds. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. In the same year. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds.
operating systems(example: Google Chrome OS). Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. and tenancy metrics. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. and the configuration files. storage. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. the definition of these tasks.
See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. communication and management capabilities. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at runtime to meet the changing work demand. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). and browsers. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file. A cloud application is software provided as a service. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.Client
See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. Cloud tasks provide compute. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity.
. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API).
Rather than purchasing servers. including multi-core processors. However. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. rapid provisioning. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). each must build its own cloud platform. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific.
See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. data-center space or network equipment. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. which makes it more a technical model. ease of access. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model.
The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. software. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud.
See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. Regardless of the nomenclature. A cloud application is a service. which is the cloud computing environment (platform).
. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). they all have great potential in developing. along with raw (block) storage and networking. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. and flexible prices. or even use services provided by the cloud.SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. or Cloud 9. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.
Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security.). It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. etc. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. jurisdiction. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. in which a service provider makes resources. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. such as applications and storage.
. build. compliance. available to the general public over the Internet. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.  essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".Deployment
Cloud computing types
A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). community. 
Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private.
Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization.
thus. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. and governance in conceiving.
The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.
Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. security. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. performance.information. can monitor at will. and Verizon. lawfully or unlawfully. Instances such as the secret NSA program. software. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation.Architecture
Cloud computing sample architecture
Cloud architecture. working with AT&T. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the
. standardisation. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. web. developing. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. and quality engineering. risk. platform. the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing.
Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing.
See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. the Free Software Foundationreleased the Affero General Public License.
In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development.
See also: Category:Free software for cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. HIPAA. and SOX in the United States. Providers typically make this information available on request." Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time. Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS.
As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. may access the data that is on the cloud. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. certain legal issues arise. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. everything from trademark infringement.
. under non-disclosure agreement. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. In November 2007. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.legal environment.
Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors'
unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energyaware scheduling and server consolidation.
As with privately purchased hardware. private or public. account control. bug exploitation. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. malicious insiders. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. data segregation. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. from cryptography. and multi-tenancy issues. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. privacy. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. Sweden and Switzerland. However. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. such as Finland. management console security. to use of multiple cloud providers. the environmental effects will be more moderate. that promote external management of provided services. recovery. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. In 2009. standardisation of APIs. Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. and improving virtual machine support and legal support.Security
Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware
Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. accountability. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures.