Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.

These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructureas-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.

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Cloud management and monitoring Data security in the cloud Cloud service provider business models

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing. A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instanceAPI) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred to as utility computing. Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals orgateway software installed on the customer's computer., (an outgrowth of and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform. In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere.

” But what does it mean? Business applications are moving to the cloud. Small and mid-sized businesses don’t stand a chance. but why? What unique advantages does a cloud computing architecture offer to companies in today’s economic climate? And what just what is cloud computing. IT teams are turning to cloud computing technology to minimize the time spent on lower-value activities and allow IT to focus on strategic activities with greater impact on the business. similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks. it’s easy to see why the biggest companies with the best IT departments aren’t getting the apps they need. upgrades are automatic. Cloud 2: Mobility and collaboration The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and collaborative. configure. and upgrade projects that too often don’t add significant value to the company’s bottom line. customize the app. test. business application development. and scaling up or down is easy. and update them. As cloud computing grows in popularity. and what does it mean for my business?” Cloud computing platforms are growing in popularity.” Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if you have to buy and manage hardware and after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure. Cloud computing: a better way With cloud computing. Life before cloud computing Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps. With Cloud 2. Cloud Computing | Related Searches | Popular Searches What Is Cloud Computing? What is cloud computing? Everyone in the technology world is talking about it… and a lot of people in the business world are asking the same question.What is cloud computing? Everyone is talking about “the cloud. The amount and variety of hardware and software required to run them are daunting. and start using it. run. . what you’re looking at isn’t really cloud computing but a false cloud. Most IT departments are forced to spend a significant portion of their time on frustrating implementation. infrastructure investments. and much more. and business applications in the cloud are heading in that direction as well. and more. anyway?” Let’s explore the cloud computing infrastructure and its impact on critically important areas to IT. You need a whole team of experts to install. like security. you eliminate those headaches because you’re not managing hardware and software—that’s the responsibility of an experienced vendor like salesforce. keeping up with your work is as easy as keeping up with your personal life on Facebook. log in. The shared infrastructure means it works like a utility: You only pay for what you the next decade of cloud computing promises new ways to collaborate everywhere. through mobile devices. HR. you just open a browser. Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud. “What is cloud computing. maintenance. secure. and they cost less. As consumers. Looking ahead. thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud products and services as “cloud computing. we now expect that the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time. It’s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to the Internet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years. like customer relationship management (CRM). Some of the world’s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud with salesforce. Increasingly. accounting. With a cloud app.

Also. data access. whereby shared resources. Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product.[1][2] Clouds are formed due to the ease-ofaccess to remote computing sites provided by the Internet (The biggest cloud of all). (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011.Cloud computing From Wikipedia. the services based on Internet protocols. and cloud services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the cloud that delivers the services. software. [4] .[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a cloud web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own cloud-puters. software. it is a delivery model for IT clouds. Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network cloud (typically the Internet). the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that Cloud computing security be merged into this article or section. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized clouds.

and many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on dessicated businesses has prompted the United States federal government to look towards seeding clouds as a means to wash the detritus of its IT infrastructure and to decrease IT budgets.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services which percolate through shared data centres. (evaporation) in other cases. legacy lake applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as server clouds. while the business software and data clouds are stored on servers at a remote location. The suite of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. the effect is expected to trickle-down. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[10] . entire business applications have been coded using cloud technologies such as AJAX. With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption. and networking clouds) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable cloud demand.[5] This type of data cloud environment allows enterprises to get their applications transpiring faster. storage clouds. which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their precipitation needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs).Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet cloud. In some cases. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location. with easier manageability and less maintenance.

4 Priv • o 6 Architecture 6.3 Plat o astructure 4.3 Hyb o ate cloud 5.1 The Intercloud o 6.2 App o form 4.5 Ser • o 5 Deployment models 5.2 Clo ud engineering • o 7 Issues 7.Contents [hide] • • • • o nt 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers 4.1 Pub lic cloud o 5.4 Infr o ver 4.2 Co mmunity cloud o rid cloud 5.1 Priv acy o mpliance 7.1 Clie o lication 4.3 Leg .2 Co o 7.

[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry.[13]  Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[16]  Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e."  Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. industry and consumer statistics.[11] Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).[edit]Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with:   Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. enterprise resource planning."[14]  Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. police and secret intelligence services.g. [12]  Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. [edit]Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:  Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. and financial transaction processing. typically bulk data processing such as census. PC. users can connect from anywhere. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)   Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. such as electricity. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client– server model).  Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. mobile phone). Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.[16]  for: Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing .. such as computation and storage.

the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. etc. government.. [26] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. who no longer have need for expertise in. service-oriented architecture.[19]  Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. illusion of infinite supply). Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[20][21]  Performance is monitored." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision.[16]  Security could improve due to centralization of data. and the lack of security for stored kernels. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. electricity. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. and community forms. The Challenge of the Computer Utility.)   [18] Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. increased security-focused resources. In addition. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. [edit]History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. Details are abstracted from end-users.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems.  Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. or control over. etc. without users having to engineer for peak loads. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. private. provided as a utility. online. and utility computing. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. self-service basis near real-time.  Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. autonomic. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the . because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. [23] However.

just to leave room for occasional spikes. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily.[28] After the dot-com bubble. which. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user.[18][29] In early 2008. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit.."[33] [edit]Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. . began offering Virtual Private Network(VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.[31] By mid-2008. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. and for the federation of clouds. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. OpenNebula.[30] In the same year. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. those who use IT services and those who sell them" [32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. In early 2008.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. like most computer networks. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time..

eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. operating systems(example: Google Chrome OS). There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file. storage.[edit]Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). and the configuration files. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. and browsers. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. A cloud application is software provided as a service. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks). It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines.[37] What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Cloud tasks provide compute. communication and management capabilities. and tenancy metrics. the definition of these tasks.[38] . This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at runtime to meet the changing work demand.[34][35][36] [edit]Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in.

or Cloud 9. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). software. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). [edit]Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. and flexible prices.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment. along with raw (block) storage and networking. A cloud application is a service. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service.[43][44][45][46] . This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. Regardless of the nomenclature. However. ease of access. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. data-center space or network equipment. rapid provisioning. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. each must build its own cloud platform. and when development teams create applications for the cloud. or even use services provided by the cloud. including multi-core processors.[42] [edit]Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service.[37] [edit]Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications.SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. they all have great potential in developing. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. which makes it more a technical model. Rather than purchasing servers.

). offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. [47] [edit]Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. in which a service provider makes resources. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. available to the general public over the Internet. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. [48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". community. build. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. compliance. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. [16] [edit]Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.[edit]Deployment models Cloud computing types [edit]Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model.[49][50] . jurisdiction.[47] [edit]Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization.[47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). such as applications and storage. etc.

developing. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. standardisation. performance. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.information. software. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.[55][56][57] [edit]Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. and governance in conceiving. platform. lawfully or unlawfully. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. Instances such as the secret NSA program.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the .[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. thus. [edit]The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. can monitor at will. security. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. working with AT&T. [edit]Issues [edit]Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. risk. and Verizon. web. and quality engineering.[edit]Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture.

and SOX in the United States. may access the data that is on the cloud. everything from trademark infringement. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.[68] In November 2007. HIPAA. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some environment. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. [edit]Open source See also: Category:Free software for cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. the Free Software Foundationreleased the Affero General Public License. certain legal issues arise. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time.[71] .[67] [edit]Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing.[69] [edit]Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. [60] [edit]Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. under non-disclosure agreement.

such as Finland.[74] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. recovery.[81] [edit]Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. [73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. bug exploitation.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. to use of multiple cloud providers. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. management console security. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. and improving virtual machine support and legal support.[edit]Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity.[72][75][76] [edit]Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". and multi-tenancy issues.[82] In 2009. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware . account control. malicious insiders. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. private or public. the environmental effects will be more moderate. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services.[80] However. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. privacy. that promote external management of provided services.) Thus countries with favorable conditions.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. standardisation of APIs. accountability.[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energyaware scheduling and server consolidation. from cryptography. data segregation.[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).

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