You are on page 1of 16

Chapter 11

Anchor Blocks
11.1 Introduction
The penstock [Fig. 1] is supported above ground surface on concrete blocks called anchors.
Fig. 1 A typical anchor block
These anchors are provided at all horizontal and vertical bends along the alignment of the
penstocks. These are necessary for the following reasons:
a) to prevent the pipe line sliding down the hill.
b) to control the direction of expansion.
c) to resist the unbalanced hydrostatic forces at a change of direction of the pipe line.
d) to prevent the movement of the pipe line on account of vibration or water hammer
pressures within permissible limits.
For penstock freely supported above ground surface or in open tunnel over the suitable
intermediate supports, anchors are provided at all bends and at intermediate points to limit
the maximum penstock length between anchors to about 150m.
If possible, no field joints are included in the length of the pipe within the anchor.
11.2 Components of Anchor Blocks
11.2.1 Thrust Ring
The thrust rings are made of channels rolled to the curvature of the pipe and welded to the
pipe shell in the shop before stress relieving. Thrust rings are designed to withstand the
axial stress in the pipe and transfer it to the anchor. They are located near the ends of the
anchor so that the pipe in the region of the elbow will be relieved of longitudinal stress.
11.2.2 Hold down straps
1
These are made of flat bars of sufficient size to withstand the force tending to raise the pipe
from the concrete. At least two-hold down straps are used on all anchors. Each flat bar is
held in close contact with the pipe shell by a pair of threaded rods passing under the pipe.
At the lower end of the hold-down straps, two short lengths of channel are bolted which are
proportioned to develop the strength of the hold down straps by embedment in the
concrete.
11.2.3 First and second pour
The first pour of the support or pier is the bottom slab which provides a convenient support
for cribbing to support the pipe during erection.
The second pour is the support of concrete into which penstock is embedded.
11.3 Types of anchors
(a) Open or saddle type
In this type of anchor the penstock is anchored to the concrete by rings as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Typical open type anchor
(b) Closed or anchor type
In this type of anchor the pipe is embedded in concrete. Figure 3(A) shows an ordinary
closed type of anchor block and Fig. 3(B) with sleeve type coupling.
2
(A) Ordinary block
(B) Block with sleeve type coupling
Fig. 3 Typical closed type anchor blocks
Supports between anchorages may be of the ring girder type. This carries the load into the
piers of plain or reinforced concrete over a rigid connection or over a rocker or roller
assembly. The methods of support most commonly adopted are the saddle and ring girder
with column supports. Fig. 4 gives a variety of supports.
(a) Concrete pier
(b) Welded Rocker
3
(c) Side blocks
Fig. 4 Types of supports
The height of supports is obtained by the following criteria:
(i) The underside of pipe line should be about 0.6 m above ground to permit painting.
(ii) The penstock should be straight in between two anchor blocks. The bends should be
located with reference to the topography of the ground so as to avoid unnecessary
excavation for the pipe line.
11.4 Methods of Design
There are two methods of anchor design viz
(1) Swiss method and
(2) French method.
In the Swiss method each bend in the pipe line is embedded in a concrete anchor with an
expansion joint in between anchors.
The French method considers part of the pipe line including one or more bends as an arch
and anchors acting as the abutments of the arch. The penstocks in this latter case are a
continuously welded pipe without expansion joints.
The usual practice in U.S.A is to follow the Swiss method.
The basic difference between the two design methods is the concept of the function of the
pipe. While in the Swiss (and American) method, the pipe is considered as container for the
purpose of withstanding the pressure of the water with as little structural duty as possible
(beam action and compression strut); in the French method the functions of container and
structural member are combined. The pipe thus becomes a highly stressed structural
4
member and is designed to resist much greater bending moment and compressive stresses
mostly as an arch with fixed ends.
The Swiss method has the advantage of simplicity of design because of the presence of
expansion joint.
The French method has the following limitations:
(i) It is applicable only to a continuously welded pipe located on sufficiently undulating
terrain.
(ii) It is difficult to use this method in a penstock having horizontal bends.
(iii) There is difficult of assembly.
11.5 Sliding Friction
The supports provide a sliding support and since the amount of friction at these supports
determines the load on anchor blocks, the friction should be minimum. Phosphor bronze
plates are used at sliding surfaces. Sometimes rollers are used. Stiffener rings should be
placed at the centre of support for effective transfer of load. Where the pipe is directly
supported on concrete, the pipe should be covered at the edges by a plastic material such as
asbestos or cork sheeting.
For ring girder and column type support, the columns are attached eccentrically.
Value of coefficient of friction, f, of pipe on piers may be taken as:
Steel on concrete (cradle supports) 0.60
Steel on concrete with asphalt roofing paper in between 0.50
Steel on steel, rusty plates 0.50
Steel on steel, greased plates 0.25
Steel on steel with layers of graphite service sheets in between 0.25
Rocker supports, deteriorated 0.15
Roller supports, deteriorated 0.10
The coefficient of friction between the packing and the liner may be taken as 0.26.
11.6 Design Practices
The forces acting on the anchor [Fig. 6] are computed as per I.S. - 5330-1984(2) and the
suitable combination of forces is done. Table 1 gives these forces.
5
Fig. 6 Action of load/forces on anchor block
Table 1 Forces acting on anchor block
Sr.
No.
Load/Force
Formula Number by
which this is
indicated in
Figure 6
1 Hydrodynamic force acting along axis of pipe on
each side bend
AH F
w s
1
2 Dynamic force acting against outside of bend
g
QV
F
w d

2
3 Force due lo dead weight of pipe from anchor
uphill to expansion joint, tending to slide
downhill over pier
u u
sin P D 3
4 Force due to dead weight of pipe from anchor
downhill to expansion joint tending to slide
downhill over pier
d d
sin P D 4
5 Sliding friction of pipe on piers due to expansion
or contraction uphill from anchor
u pu
cos f
2
p
W P S

,
_

+
5
6 Sliding friction of pipe on piers on piers due to
expansion or contraction downhill from anchor
d pd
cos f
2
p
W P S

,
_


+
6
7 Sliding friction of uphill expansion joint
f
1000
) t 2 d (
S
eu

,
_

7
8 Sliding friction of downhill expansion joint
f
1000
) t 2 d (
S
ed

,
_

8
6
9 Hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in
uphill expansion joint
aH 10 ) t d ( t WH F
w
6
hu
+
9
10 Hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in
downhill expansion joint
H a F
w hd
10
11 Longitudinal force due to reducer above anchor
H ) A A ( L
w u

11
12 Longitudinal force due to reducer below anchor
H ) A A ( L
w d
12
In the above table,
f = Coefficient of friction of pipe on piers
f' = friction of expansion joint per m of circumferences
e w
H 5 . 1
w

= Unit weight of water in (kg/m


3
)
A = Cross sectional area of pipe at anchor in m
2
A' = Cross-sectional area of pipe above upper reducer in m
2
A" = Cross-sectional area of pipe below lower reducer in m
2
H = maximum head at any point including water hammer in m
t = thickness of pipe shell in mm
Q = flow in m
3
/sec
V = velocity in m/sec
g = acceleration due to gravity in m/sec
2
P = dead weight of pipe from anchor uphill to expansion joint in kg
P' = dead weight of pipe downhill from anchor to expansion joint in kg
W = weight of water in pipe P in kg
W' = weight of water in pipe P' in kg
a = cross sectional area of pipe shell at uphill expansion joint in m
2
a' = Cross sectional area of pipe shell at downhill expansion joint in m
2
d = inside diameter of pipe in m
e = packing length in m
k = Weight of anchor in kg
7
p = weight of pipe and contained water from anchor to adjacent uphill pier in kg
p' = weight of pipe and contained water from anchor to adjacent downhill pier in kg
u

= slope angle above anchor


d

= slope angle below anchor

= Coefficient of friction between packing and liner.


The above forces for expanding and conditions are added as shown in Fig. 6 according to
I.S specifications.
11.6.1 Load condition
Four conditions of loading as below are considered in design:
a) Penstock full
(i) Expanding condition
(ii) Contracting condition
b) Penstock empty
(i) Expending condition
(ii) Contracting condition
For each of the above four conditions, earth pressure and the seismic effects are considered
where applicable.
11.6.2 Design Criterion
The design of the anchor is done for the followings:
a) Overturning: Overturning is checked at both heel and toe, and the minimum factor of
safety in each case is kept 1.5.
b) Sliding: The sliding friction factor computed by dividing the total horizontal force by
the total vertical force should be less than the following values:
Surface Sliding factor
Concrete on rock 0.50
Concrete on gravel 0.40
Concrete on sand 0.33
Concrete on claying soil 0.25
8
c) Base Pressure: The maximum pressure at the base should not be greater than the
permissible bearing capacity of the soil and the minimum pressure should not be negative
i.e. there should be no lifting of the anchor block. Permissible value of the bearing capacity
of the soil is assumed to be increased by %
3
1
33 in cases where earthquake load is
considered.
11.7 Anchor block foundation
1. Anchors should preferably be founded on a rock base. Wherever rock is available
at great depths, the stability of overburden material as excavated for anchor
block foundation shall be checked against sliding as an earthen slope with
anchor block on it and in its natural condition.
2. Stable slope cuts shall be provided around the anchor block location so as to
safeguard against the possibility of a slide of the slope cut damaging the
anchor block foundation.
3. Precautions shall be taken to prevent such erosion by neighboring streams as
would adversely affect the foundation of the anchor block.
4. In high altitude areas where permafrost conditions exist, there are chances of
alternate freezing and thawing in the soil. Adequate measures shall be
adopted to account for the volume change in the foundation to ensure
stability.
The foundation of anchor blocks shall be designed so that the maximum pressure on
the foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressure of the soil,
determined as specified in IS: 1904-1978 which shall be confirmed by tests. The
permissible bearing capacity may be increased in accordance with IS: 1893-1975 for
seismic conditions.
When the profile is sloping, the safe bearing capacity shall be reduced to take into
account the decrease due to non-normality of resultant to the surface in accordance
with IS: 6403-19711. The angle set up by resultant with ground shall not be less than
30
o
for stability of soil below anchor.
In case the anchor blocks rests on solid rock, without any weak planes capable of
sliding, the sliding factor shall be designed for 0.75.
Where however, weak seams or joints along which sliding may be apprehended in
the rock below, the stability should be checked by the following shear friction
formula:
Shear friction factor =

+

T
a V
(1)
Here,

is the co-efficient of internal friction between foundations, concrete and


foundation under saturated condition,
V is the total vertical forces,

is the shearing
9
strength in N/mm
2
under saturated condition, a is the area under compression in m
2
and T is the total horizontal forces.
The weight of the anchor blocks may get reduced if the anchor block and rock
above of such a seam is anchored into the rock below the seam.
The design of the anchor blocks shall be such that the resultant of all the forces
falls within the kern of the base (kern of a cross-section is the convex region within
which any point load applied will produce stresses of the same sign as that of the load
throughout the entire cross-section). For anchor blocks with stepped bottom the designs
shall be made so that the resultant falls within the kern of the projection of the
anchor base on a plane perpendicular to the resultant (see Fig. 7). Under seismic
conditions, however, tension up to 0.2 N/mm
2
may be permitted. The bearing pressure
should be checked neglecting area under tension.
Fig. 7 Stability of anchor blocks with stepped foundation
The anchor block reinforcement shall be designed for the forces indicated in 1.4. However,
even if no reinforcements are indicated by such calculations, nominal reinforcement shall
be provided. A suggested pattern of reinforcement is shown in Fig. 3
11.8 Expansion joints
For penstocks above ground, the temperature of the steel is influenced principally by the
temperature of the water when filled, and by the temperature of the air when empty.
If the pipe is exposed, its temperature will be affected by heat from the sun.
In underground installations, the pipe temperature is affected by the temperature of the
contained water and surrounding soil.
The functions of expansion joints are:
a) to permit longitudinal expansion of the pipe which results from temperature change.
b) to serve as construction joints to adjust discrepancies in pipe lengths.
c) to act as make up joint as it is easily collapsible
d) to permit construction from a number of locations at the same time, rather than
from one location only.
Fig. 8 shows thermal expansion force in pipes.
10
Fig. 8 Expansion force in Penstock
Among the several types of expansion joints in use, the sleeve type is the most popular for
large steel pipes. Longitudinal movement is permitted by two closely fitting sleeves, one
sliding in the other, with a stuffing box and packing to prevent leakage. A bolted packing
gland is used to compress the packing which consists of long-fibre braided flax
impregnated with a suitable lubricant.
A typical expansion joint of this type is shown in fig. 9.
The exterior surface of the inner sleeve is clad with chromium to prevent corrosion and
insure free sliding in the joint.
Fig. 9 Typical sleeve type expansion joint
This type of joint may also be designed with two stuffing boxes, as shown in Fig. 10, to
permit longitudinal temperature movement and transverse deflection in the line.
Fig. 10 Flexible sleeve-type expansion joint with two stuffing boxes used to permit
longitudinal temperature movement and transverse deflection
Such a flexible joint is desirable where a penstock passes through a construction joint
separating the concrete masses of a dam and a powerhouse. As the dam is built on a
11
foundation considered to be elastic, its downstream toe will deflect vertically with respect
to the powerhouse when subjected to reservoir pressure.
This type of expansion joint can be used only on pipes which are accessible for tightening
and replacing the packing. Also, the lubricated flax packing may lose its plasticity and
water-sealing effect after a period of service. This is particularly true where the pipeline is
frequently empty and exposed to the direct rays of the sun.
The sleeve-type expansion joint must be well-fitted with reasonably close tolerances to
insure watertightness under high heads. If it is deemed necessary to machine portions of the
expansion joint in order to obtain watertightness, post-weld heat treatment will assist in
maintaining dimensional tolerances.
11.9 Dresser Couplings
Couplings are used in the installation of steel pipes of moderate diameter, say upto 1.8 m to
2.5 m, for joining pipe lengths in the field. They are flexible for movement of pipes and
allow for about 10 mm movement and 3 degrees to 4 degrees deflection at each joint. Since
the components are simple, they permit speedy installation under different site conditions.
Wherever couplings are provided expansion joints are eliminated. They are especially
suitable where it is desirable to eliminate field welding. A typical dresser coupling is
shown in Fig. 11.
The joint consists of one cylindrical steel middle ring, two follower rings on either side,
two resilient gaskets of special compound and a set of high strength steel track head bolts.
The middle ring has a conical flare at each end to receive the wedge portion of the gasket
and the follower rings confine to the outer shape of the gaskets. The bolts are tightened so
as to draw the follower rings together, thereby compressing the gaskets between the middle
ring and pipe surface, to effect a flexible and leak proof seal.
Fig. 11 Typical dresser coupling
Example 1 Design of Rectangular Anchor Block
Pipeline Data: Dia. of the pipe = 16"
12
Dia. of the anchor flange = 57.2 cm
Force from the pipeline, F
p
= 3,73,400 kg
CL Pipeline below ground level = 1.16 m
Set the anchor flange at mid-length of the anchor block.
Soil Data
s

= 1800 kg/m
3
q
A
= 2.0 kg/cm
2
= 20000 kg/m
2

= 35
Coefficient of friction =

= 0.67 * tan

= 0.67 * tan 35 = 0.47


Concrete Data
'
c
f = 250 kg/cm
2

Allowable punching shear stress,
p

=
c
' f 53 . 0
= 250 53 . 0
= 8.38 kg/cm
2
Reinforcement Data
f
y
= 4000 kg/cm
2
(Grade A-3)
Check for Punching
min
l
= Min. required length of the anchor block to resist punching
F
p
=
p
min
2
l
D
1
1
]
1

3,73,400 =
38 . 8
2
l
2 . 57
min
1
1
]
1

min
l
= 496 cm = 5m
Try m 0 . 4 0 . 6 5 . 8 ) y b l (
anchor block.
Allow 150 mm projection of the anchor block above the ground level.
13
Check for Sliding
Frictional Force
Weight of the anchor block = W
c
= 2400 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 = 4,89,600 kg
F
f
=
c
W
= 489600 47 . 0 = 230112 say 230110 kg
Active Pressure
Depth of soil against the anchor block, y
a
= 4.00 - 0.15 = 3.85 m
a
P
=
,
_

sin 1
sin 1
y
a c
=
,
_

35 sin 1
35 sin 1
85 . 3 1800 = 1878 kg/m
2
b
2
y P
F
a a
a

,
_

= 0 . 6
2
85 . 3 1800

,
_


= 21690 kg
Passive Pressure
a
P
=
,
_

sin 1
sin 1
y
a c
=
,
_

35 sin 1
35 sin 1
85 . 3 1800 = 25,573 kg/m
2
b
2
y P
F
a a
a

,
_

= 0 . 6
2
85 . 3 25573

,
_


= 295368 say 295370 kg
Sliding Check
T = 373400 + 21690 = 395090 kg
R= 230110 + 295370 = 525480 kg
> T R , hence O.K.
395049
525480
S . F = 1.33>1.20 K . O
Check for Overturning
Height of center of line of pipe from anchor bottom, y
cl
= 4.00 1.16
= 2.69m
14
3
y
F y F M
a
a cl p o
+
=
3
85 . 3
21690 69 . 2 373400 +
= 1032282 say 1032280 kg-m
3
y
F
2
l
W M
a
p c R
+
=
3
85 . 3
295370
2
5 . 8
489600 +
= 2459858 say 2459860 kg-m
Since,
o R
M M >
K . O
1032280
2459860
S . F = 2.38>1.50 K . O
Check for Bearing Pressure
3
y
F
3
y
F y F M
a
a
a
a cl p
+
= 653223 say 653220 kg-m
489600
653220
W
M
e
c

= 1.33 m
Since,
6
5 . 8
6
l
= 1.42 m > e = 1.33 m
Hence, No Tension K . O
Bearing pressure,
2 2
c
5 . 8
653220
6 5 . 8
489600
l
M
b l
W
P t

= 9041 9600 t
max
P
= 9600 + 9041 = 18641 Kg/m
2
< 20000 Kg/m
2
K . O
min
P
= 9600 - 9041 = 559 Kg/m
2
, No tension K . O
Longitudinal Reinforcement
The force from the anchor flange shall be resisted by a reinforced concrete core
enclosed by ties.
Dia. of the anchor flange = 572 mm (given)
Min. dia. of the core, dmin
c
=
150 2 572 anchor over er cov 2 D
f
+ +
= 872 make 900 mm
Required
'
c
A =
'
c
p
f 25 . 0
f
=
250 25 . 0
373400

= 5974 cm
2
15
Provided A
c
=
4
D
4
min d
2
p
c

=
4
64 . 40
4
90
2


= 5064 cm
2
< 5974 cm
2
:. Provide required reinforcement
f
s
= 0.4

f
y
= 0.4

4000 = 1600 kg/cm


2
( )
s g c c p
f f 25 . 0 A 85 . 0 F +
( ) 1600 250 25 . 0 5064 85 . 0 373400
g
+

g
= 0.0152
A
s
= 0.0152

5064 = 76.98 cm
2
Use 16 No.

25mm (A
s
= 78.56 cm
2
)
Spacing =
16
90
= 17.67 cm
Ties: Use

12mm bars
Spacing = No. of main bars

d = 16

1.2 = 19.20cm. Take 20 cm c/c


Check the clearance of main reinforcement from the anchor flange:
( )
2
5 . 2 2 2 . 57 90
= 13.9cm
Check the clearance of the ties (core) from the top of the anchor block =
( )
2
9 . 0 390 . 1
= 0.86 m
Temperature & Shrinkage Reinforcement
Use 200 * 200 * 8 * 8mm fabric mesh on all faces of the anchor block.
16