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Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

1. Executive Summary 2. Evidence and Policy
2.1 Health & Physical Activity 2.2 Healthy Environments 2.3 Creating Healthy Environments

3. Tools
3.1 Community Street Audit
3.1.1 Case study: Church Street, Inverness

3.9 Design for Play

3.9.1 Case study: Darnley Park, Stirling

3.2 Greenspace or Open Space Audits

3.2.1 Case study: Midlothian and East Lothian Councils

3.10 Tackling Anti-social Behaviour

3.10.1 Case study: Arden and Darnley Action Plan, Glasgow

3.3 20mph Limits

3.3.1 Case study: Achieving 20mph the logical way, Portsmouth City Council;

3.11 Health Impact Assessment

3.4 Designing Streets for People

3.4.1 Case study: Ardler Village, Dundee

3.11.1 Case study: Glasgow East End Local Development Strategy; 3.11.2 Case study: HIA Supplementary Planning Guidance, West Lothian Council

3.12 Integrating Health into Planning

3.5 Local Design Guides

3.5.1 Case study: East Lothian Council 3.5.2 Case study: Fife Council

3.12.1 Case study: Glasgow Healthy Sustainable Neighbourhoods Model

3.13 Cleanliness Index Monitoring System

3.13.1 Case study: Glasgow City Council

3.6 Placecheck

3.6.1 Case study: Errol, Perth & Kinross

3.7 Placemaking 3.8 Public Realm Design Guidance

3.8.1 Case study: Bathgate Town Centre, West Lothian Council 3.8.2 Case study: The Edinburgh Standards for Streets

3.14 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance and Evaluation of Active Travel Projects 3.15 Health Improvement tools for the Single Outcome Agreement Process 3.16 Master-planning
3.16.1 Three Case Studies

1. Executive Summary: Creating Healthy Environments

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create

safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk. We work with professionals and politicians to make sure every community can enjoy vibrant streets and public spaces. As a nation, Scotland is inactive, unfit and increasingly obese. The health of two-thirds of the Scottish adult population is now at risk from physical inactivity, making it the most common risk factor for coronary heart disease and contributing to increasing rates of diabetes, some cancers and poor mental health. Reversing these trends will require changes in policy as well as culture. This toolkit provides local authorities with information and practical ideas to do this. Recent Scottish Government policy and guidance (particularly Scottish Planning Policy, Designing Streets and the Preventing Overweigh & Obesity Route Map) provides a clear and solid basis for local authorities to take forward the important task of creating healthy environments.

A Healthy Environment is a Walkable Environment

Walking is the nearest activity to perfect exercise, most people can do it and it costs nothing. Yet between 1985 and 2005, the average distance travelled by foot has fallen by 30%. Peoples physical environments can have a very positive impact on their health and well-being. But poor quality surroundings can have the opposite effect. The quality of the street environment will determine how well people use them to move around the places where they live, work and play. A Healthy Environment is a walkable environment. The need to travel by car can be significantly reduced through the creation of mixed-use neighbourhoods with interconnected street patterns, where daily needs such as health centres, public transport, shopping facilities and schools are within walking distance of most residents. Streets are therefore an existing asset that can be used by local authorities to deliver health, community and environmental benefits and in so doing contribute to many of the Scottish Governments national outcomes, especially that: We live longer, healthier lives We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society We live in well designed sustainable places where we are able to access the amenities and services we need

Facilities & amenities within walking distance

The Creating Healthy Environments Toolkit presents a suite of practical tools that help local authorities to improve the walkability of our villages, towns and cities, and to tackle health inequalities and barriers in the built environment to active lifestyles. The toolkit provides: a summary of the evidence on the link between physical activity, health and the built environment the policy position on physical activity, health and the built environment approaches to integrating healthy environments into planning, transport and other local authority strategies and programmes relevant guides, standards, audits, and assessments. Wherever possible, case studies have been provided to demonstrate the practical use of the tools. It is designed to be used by policy and decision makers and professionals within local authorities including planners, transport planners, roads engineers, access, sustainable development and health improvement officers and town centre managers. All sections of the toolkit, as listed in the contents page overleaf, are available from: The matrix overleaf identifies those strategies, policies and plans within which healthy environments should be considered and corresponding tools that can be used to inform service delivery.

Pedestrians at the top of the user hierarchy

Tools Audits & Monitoring Strategies, Plans and Guidance of Relevance for Healthy Environments Scottish Transport Health Impact Appraisal Logic Assessment Guidance Models Healthy Sustainable Neighbour- Community hoods Model Street Audits Greenspace or Open Space Place Audits Check Single Outcome Agreement/ Community Plan * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Development Plan Masterplans Local Design for Sreet Guidance Town Centre Plan Local Transport Strategy Core Paths Plan Public Realm Strategy Physical Activity Strategy Open Space Strategy Outdoor Access Strategy

Policy, Guides & Standards

Cleanliness Index Moni- Designing toring System Streets

Public Realm Design Guide

Placemaking Standards Guide for Streets

* * * *

Tools for Informing Action to Deliver Healthy Environments

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment
2 Evidence and Policy
2.1 Health and Physical Activity

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

2.1 Health and Physical Activity

There is strong evidence that physical activity can play a very positive role in promoting good health and mental well-being and can help to protect against many of the chronic diseases that contribute to Scotlands very poor health record coronary heart disease, obesity, type II diabetes, some cancers, depression, anxiety and hypertension. Adults should accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on five days of the week. Children should accumulate at least one hour of moderate-intensity activity daily. People who are considered physically active meet these recommended minimum levels of activity. However, 61% of Scottish adults and 36% of children do not meet these minimum recommended levels. Physical activity, or more precisely, physical inactivity, is one of Scotlands major public health issues. Physical activity is a broad term that incorporates a wide range of activities, including active living (walking or cycling for everyday journeys, housework or gardening); exercise (cycling, jogging, walking, aerobics); sport; play; and dance.

The Benefits of Physical Activity

The health benefits of reducing the level of inactivity in the population in Scotland are immense. Two thirds of adults and one third of children are overweight in Scotland, with over a million adults and over 150,000 children clinically obese. Scotland as a whole has the highest levels of obesity in Europe and one of the highest levels of obesity in OECD countries, behind only the USA and Mexico.1 Physical activity for children and adults helps to prevent weight gain. Obesity may be prevented and treated by making lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity.2 People who lead an active lifestyle over several years have a reduced risk of suffering symptoms of clinical depression.3 Older people are particularly at risk from poor mental health due to social isolation. Walking provides an opportunity for social contact for people at risk of social isolation.4 Physically active people have a 2030% reduced risk of premature death and can cut the risk of developing a major chronic disease such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes and some types of cancer by up to a half. Individuals who are active are 1.9 times less likely to have a heart attack than their inactive contemporaries.5 Promoting physical activity has significant benefits beyond health improvement. It can help to deliver a wide range of other priority outcomes for the nation and there is a strong economic argument in favour of promoting physical activity. Increasing physical activity can help to reduce preventable disease and disability. such as strokes, coronary heart disease, obesity and back pain, a major source of working days lost. It can also contribute to reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, which impact on levels of sickness and .............................................................................................................

Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland. A Route Map Towards Healthy Weight, The Scottish Government 2010 2 SIGN 115, 2010 Management of Obesity: a national clinical guideline 3 The Mental Health Foundation, 2005, Up and Running? London 4 Walking the Way to Health Initiative, 2006, National Evaluation of Health Walk Schemes, WHI 5 Blair et al, 1992, How much physical activity is good for health? Annual Review of Public Health, 13, 99-126

absence from work. Environments which are conducive to physical activity can increase the attractiveness of a place and help to attract tourists and visitors who are interested in active leisure.

Walking as part of everyday life: easy, inclusive, cheap Encouraging people to walk or cycle for everyday journeys such as travelling to work, school or trips to shops and other facilities, instead of taking their car reduces congestion on our roads and would make an important contribution to climate change targets. Reducing traffic levels also has added health benefits in that it contributes towards reducing accidents and deaths on roads, lowers noise pollution which has significant mental health benefits and reduces air pollution which exacerbates many diseases such as asthma. Improving health and well-being in target groups and communities reduces health and social inequalities, thereby contributing to the Scottsh Governments Strategic Objectives. The chart below illustrates the disparity in levels of physical activity across social class. This demonstrates the importance of encouraging and facilitating greater levels of physical activity, and thereby contributing to improved health, in areas of deprivation.
No Participation In Any Activity By Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 40 35 30 25

% 20
15 10 5 0 1st Most Deprived 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Least deprived

Source: Scottish Household Survey 2009

Policies for Physical Activity

One of the Scottish Governments five Strategic Objectives, shared by all Scotlands local authorities, is to create a Healthier Scotland: Help people to sustain and improve their health, especially in disadvantaged communities. The contribution that local authorities can make towards health improvement through promoting physical activity, removing the barriers to people being active and creating environments in which people will be encouraged to be physically active is now accepted but not always applied fully. The crucial link between health and physical activity has been recognised in various national policies and strategies which are being translated into action by local authorities and the National Health Service (NHS).

Lets Make Scotland More Active: The National Strategy for Physical Activity
Lets Make Scotland More Active6 set out the National Strategy for Physical Activity to achieve the clear goal: To increase and maintain the proportion of physically active people in Scotland. In order to achieve its goal and to increase levels of physical activity, the national strategy set two national targets, one of which is: To have 50% of all adults and 80% of all children meeting the recommended levels of physical activity in 2022.

Recommended Levels of Physical Activity

ADULTS should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate activity on most days of the week. CHILDREN should accumulate at least one hour of physical activity daily.

The strategy set out four Strategic Objectives to reverse the trend towards reducing levels of activity and to achieve gradual improvements in the overall levels of physical activity across the entire population, including Objective 1: To develop and maintain long-lasting, high quality physical environments to support inactive people to become active. (see Section 2.2 Healthy Environments) Local government was identified as a key partner in delivering the National Strategy for Physical Activity because of the wide range of contributions that could be made by local authority services. For example, transport and planning policies and strategies can improve the built environment to encourage walking and cycling through measures such as reducing speed or volume of traffic, creating paths and links, improving lighting and creating mixed use neighbourhoods. .............................................................................................................

Lets Make Scotland More Active: A Strategy for Physical Activity, 2003, Scottish Executive,

The National Strategy was reviewed in 2008 to gather views on what has been successful, what have been the key challenges and what are the future priorities. The Five-year review of Lets Make Scotland More Active7 concluded: The National Strategy remains an essential strategy to influence Scotlands inactive population Interventions that enhance the built environment can impact on large sections of the population. There is good recent evidence8 linking environments to physical activity, therefore the creation and provision of environments that encourage and support physical activity offers the greatest potential to get the nation active Given their responsibility for the key services that directly impact on physical activty (e.g. planing/ environment, transport, education, sports/recreation/ leisure) and as the lead authority in community planning, local authorities should be recognised as the most important local delivery agency for physical activity The commitment to physical activity across a range of government policies has been positive in the first five years of the Strategy. The Government needs to ensure physical activity continues to be a vital component of its public health work and also continues to be integrated into all relevant and related policy, e.g. education, environment, sports, transport.

What Makes A Living Street?

1. Direct walking links to places people want to go. 2. Clean and well maintained. 3. Local shops and services within walking distance. 4. Well-lit and safe, day and night. 5. Attractive and interesting in design. 6. Space to play and relax. 7. Well designed, clutter free pavements. 8. Places for people, not just traffic. 9. Local people involved in decision making. 10. Maps and signs to make it easy to walk.

Healthy Eating, Active Living

Another key national policy behind the drive to increase physical activity is Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008 2011).9 This outlines how the Scottish Government plans to tackle the growing obesity problem by encouraging greater physical activity through targeted interventions. .............................................................................................................
Fiveyear review of Lets Make Scotland More Active, 2009, Scottish Government, 8 Foresight, 2007, Tackling Obesities: Future Choices 9 Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008 2011, 2008, Scottish Government,

Healthy Weight Communities

The Scottish Governments Healthy Eating, Active Living action plan set out the intention to establish a handful of Healthy Weight Communities across Scotland. These pathfinder programmes will aim to prevent obesity and associated illnesses, with an emphasis on addressing health inequalities. The objective of the Healthy Weight Communities will be to demonstrate the ways in which gathering together diverse projects, under the shared purpose of tackling obesity, may have a greater impact on health outcomes than dispersed activity. Local communities, families and young people in particular, will be engaged in programmes that embrace healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight initiatives from a wide range of delivery partners. These programmes will take their lead from the valuable lessons from the EPODE programme in France and the evidence presented by the Foresight report Tackling Obesities. The French model illustrates how important popular promotion and championing by local leaders is to the success of community programmes such as these. Meanwhile the Foresight report is clear that isolated action is futile in our battle against the obesity epidemic. Only close partnership working that supports people to make healthy choices right across their daily routine will make a difference. In May 2009 the Scottish Government and COSLA notified the following successful communities of their inclusion in the programme: Viewpark, North Lanarkshire; Dundee; Dumfries; Priesthill & Househillwood, Glasgow; Armadale & Blackridge, West Lothian; Catrine, East Ayrshire; Barrhead, East Renfrewshire; Stevenston, North Ayrshire.

The Cost of Obesity to Scottish Society

Obesity is a growing and complex problem. It has been estimated that the total cost to Scottish society of obesity in 2007/2008 was over 457 million and this may be an underestimate. It is predicted that by 2030, adult obesity in Scotland could reach over 40% even with current health improvement efforts, an increase of more than 50% over 2008. The costs to NHS Scotland could double and the total cost to Scottish society could range from 0.9 billion to 3 billion. Beyond health costs, obesity can contribute to costs of infrastructure planning. Scottish Government have identified that an increasing number of people with severe obesity may bring about much greater costs, to housing, transport, social support as well as healthcare. The Foresight Report by the UK Government Office for Science, Tackling Obesities (2007) stated that if current trends are to continue across the UK at the present rate then by 2050 it is estimated the cost to the UKs health service will be almost 50 billion at todays prices.8

The Healthy Eating, Active Living Action Plan includes the Scottish Governments commitment to Living Streets work to campaign for environments conducive to physical activity and to take forward a number of key programmes including practical support for implementation of recent NICE guidance on physical activity and the environment, national walkability audits and development of community empowerment tools. The Scottish Government have identified a national indicator to reduce the rate of increase in the proportion of our children with their Body Mass index outwith a healthy range by 2018 and will identify a further outcome to cover the whole population. Walking and active travel have a role to play in delivering this outcome.

Equally Well
Tackling health inequalities is a key priority for the Scottish Government. Equally Well10 the report of the ministerial task force on health inequalities states increased healthy life expectancy is an important part of achieving the Governments overall purpose of creating a more successful country. It must also be achieved in a way that reduces disparities between richer and poorer and narrows the gap between Scotland's best and worst performing regions. Research11 has revealed reasons given by relatively inactive people for their inactivity: lack of time, including family responsibilities, work commitments or generally being too busy health-related issues such as a disability, fear of injury, being too old/frail lack of motivation, including not being bothered, not enjoying it, lack of a partner and fear of embarrassment availability/accessibility of facilities, including financial constraints, lack of information about or transport to facilities. The research also highlighted that those living in the most deprived areas were not as convinced of the benefits of exercise. The Equally Well report makes the point that: Peoples physical environment can have a really positive impact on their health and wellbeing. But poor quality surroundings can have the opposite effect. It states that: There is evidence of links between environmental factors and health inequalities. For example, people living in more deprived communities are at greater risk of many of the chronic health conditions associated with obesity; those who report the highest levels of local environmental bads are also more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression and poor general health. In Scotland, a clear linear pattern of increasing obesity with increasing deprivation is emerging for adult women in Scotland. .............................................................................................................
Equally Well: report of the Ministerial Task Force on Inequalities, 2008, Scottish Government 11 Sport, Exercise and Physical Activity, Barriers and Attitudes, 2006, Scottish Executive Social Research

The Ministerial Task Force on health inequalities made nine recommendations, based on the link between health and physical activity, which are aimed at creating: better opportunities, especially for children and young people, to improve their health through enjoying the benefits of safe green and open spaces. Transport recommendations will make public services more accessible, as well as benefiting health through increasing walking and cycling. One of the eight Equally Well test sites being supported by the Scottish Government to generate examples of what works in reducing health inequalities is Glasgow Citys East End where the City Council and its partners are pioneering an integrated healthy urban planning approach to local development. (see 3.12 Integrating Health into Planning)

Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland

In Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland, A Route Map Towards Healthy Weight, Scottish Government identified a number of actions that it along with partners can take to prevent obesity and people becoming overweight. One commitment is that: We will create environments that make walking and cycling part of everyday life for everyone Critically this recognises that individuals will not change their travel habits without modifications to our physical and cultural environments so: We need to make walking and cycling accessible, safe and appealing enough to be the default means of travel for short and local journeys. The Route map makes it clear that both national and local government must support this shift towards active travel as a mainstream choice by considering how all our policies impact upon built environments so that they represent opportunities rather than barriers to active travel.

For example in practice, this means Scottish Government are committed to addressing obesity prevention
through active travel.1

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment
2 Evidence and Policy
2.2 Healthy Environments

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

2.2 Healthy Environments

One of the four objectives of the National Strategy for Physical Activity1 is: To develop and maintain longlasting, high quality physical environments to support inactive people to become active. The strategy regards environmental policies as being essential to helping people to be active as part of their everyday lives. Creating a physical environment that allows and encourages people to be physically active through walking, cycling, playing or taking part in some other outdoor activity is a common thread running through the various policies and strategies that aim to improve Scotlands health and increase physical activity. Attractive and well-connected street networks encourage more people to walk and cycle to local destinations, improving their health while reducing motor traffic, energy use and pollution.2

The Evidence of the Impact of Physical Environment on Health

There is a growing body of evidence that the physical and built environment place and space have an impact on health and well-being. Crucially, not only can the built environment create physical barriers to people taking up physical activity but it can have an influence on peoples behaviour. One recent review3 of the evidence on the impact of the physical environment on health and well-being levels of physical activity and obesity concluded that:

there is an association between the built environment, health and well-being and levels of physical activity; perceptions of neighbourhood are strongly associated with health and well-being; walkable neighbourhoods are associated with higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of obesity; accessible neighbourhood resources are strongly associated with levels of physical activity; urban greenspace plays an important role in facilitating exercise and promoting health and well-being; evidence regarding particular characteristics of the built environment that might be associated with well-being and physical activity is less robust; self-efficacy and social support also explain variance in levels of physical activity.

Characteristics of a Walkable Neighbourhood

High population density Different types of land use High connectivity - easy walking & cycling routes between destinations Good pedestrian and cycling facilities - well maintained pavements, cycle routes, traffic calming measures Good accessibility variety of easily reached (within 5 minutes walk or around 400m) destinations or facilities Daily needs within walking distance of most residents

Lets Make Scotland More Active: A Strategy for Physical Activity, 2003, Scottish Executive, 2 John Swinney, Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, Designing streets, 2010 3 Health and the Physical Characteristics of Urban Neighbourhoods: Critical Literature Review, 2007, Glasgow Centre for Population Health,

The Foresight Report4 into obesity places particular emphasis on the role our physical environment plays in affecting the choices we make in our everyday life, choices that result in almost inevitable incremental weight gain across the course of our lives. As most adults in Scotland currently do not achieve even 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day and only around one in ten go to work by foot or on bike5 , the design of the urban environment offers significant opportunities to pursue goals of environmental sustainability and healthy lifestyle. Promotion of active travel is one way of increasing activity. But this must be considered within the context of a broader environment that offers walkable distances to frequent destinations (shops, schools, and workplaces), diversity of land uses and high connectivity. The importance of the physical and built environment to health and well-being is most effectively developed in two documents from NICE and CABE/Living Streets which provide guidance and examples of how healthy environments can encourage and promote health and well-being. Promoting and Creating Built or Natural Environments that Encourage and Support Physical Activity6 provides evidence-based recommendations on how to create physical environments that encourage physical activity. Although the remit of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) does not extend to Scotland, NHS Health Scotland has produced a commentary on the NICE guidance, relating it to policy and practice in Scotland.7 The NICE guidance highlights that a range of social, cultural and environmental factors can influence physical activity levels, and that the overall impact may be interdependent rather than simply cumulative. Within that broader context, the NICE guidance focuses on the physical environment, built and natural. The design and layout of towns and cities can encourage or discourage access on foot or by bicycle; building design can encourage or discourage the use of stairs; and access to parks, the countryside and other green space, as well as specific features of green space, can help people to be more active. Many components of the physical environment can be modified by public sector agencies through changes to policy and practice to make it easier for more people to be physically active. These modifications can be achieved by public sector agencies working in partnership with other organisations, including those in the voluntary and community sectors. The Guidance provides recommendations, under five headings, on how to improve the physical environment to encourage physical activity. The headings are: Strategies Policies and Plans Transport Public Open Space Buildings and Schools

4 Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland: A Route Map Towards Healthy Weight, Scottish Government, 201009-03 6 Promoting and Creating Built or Natural Environments that Encourage and Support Physical Activity (NICEPHG008), 2008, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 7 NHS Health Scotland Commentary on NICE Public Health Guidance on Promoting and Creating Built or Natural Environments that Encourage and Support Physical Activity, 2008

Foresight, 2007, Tackling Obesities: Future Choices,

NICE Guidance Recommendations:

Recommendation 2 Who should take action?
Those responsible for all strategies, policies and plans involving changes to the physical environment, including local transport authorities, transport planners and local authorities.

What action should they take?

Ensure pedestrians, cyclists and users of other modes of transport that involve physical activity are given the highest priority when developing or maintaining streets and roads. (This includes people whose mobility is impaired.) Use one or more of the following methods:

Strategies, Policies and Plans

Recommendation 1 Who should take action?
Those responsible for all strategies, policies and plans involving changes to the physical environment. This includes the development, modification and maintenance of towns, urban extensions, major regeneration projects and the transport infrastructure. It also includes the siting or closure of local services in both urban and rural areas.

re-allocate road space to support physically active modes of transport (as an example, this could be achieved by widening pavements and introducing cycle lanes) restrict motor vehicle access (for example, by closing or narrowing roads to reduce capacity) introduce road-user charging schemes introduce traffic-calming schemes to restrict vehicle speeds (using signage and changes to highway design) create safe routes to schools (for example, by using traffic-calming measures near schools and by creating or improving walking and cycle routes to schools).

What action should they take?

Involve all local communities and experts at all stages of the development to ensure the potential for physical activity is maximised. Ensure planning applications for new developments always prioritise the need for people (including those whose mobility is impaired) to be physically active as a routine part of their daily life. Ensure local facilities and services are easily accessible on foot, by bicycle and by other modes of transport involving physical activity. Ensure children can participate in physically active play. Assess in advance what impact (both intended and unintended) the proposals are likely to have on physical activity levels. (For example, will local services be accessible on foot, by bicycle or by people whose mobility is impaired?) Make the results publicly available and accessible. Existing impact assessment tools could be used.

Recommendation 3 Who should take action?

Planning and transport agencies, including regional and local authorities.

What action should they take?

Plan and provide a comprehensive network of routes for walking, cycling and using other modes of transport involving physical activity. These routes should offer everyone (including people whose mobility is impaired) convenient, safe and attractive access to workplaces, homes, schools and other public facilities. (The latter includes shops, play and green areas and social destinations.) They should be built and maintained to a high standard.

Public Open Spaces

Recommendation 4
Who should take action? Designers and managers of public open spaces, paths and rights of way (including coastal, forest and riverside paths and canal towpaths). Planning and transport agencies including regional and local authorities. What action should they take? Ensure public open spaces and public paths can be reached on foot, by bicycle and using other modes of transport involving physical activity. They should also be accessible by public transport. Ensure public open spaces and public paths are maintained to a high standard. They should be safe, attractive and welcoming to everyone.

Recommendation 5
Who should take action? Architects, designers, developers, employers and planners. What action should they take? Those involved with campus sites, including hospitals and universities, should ensure different parts of the site are linked by appropriate walking and cycling routes. Ensure new workplaces are linked to walking and cycling networks. Where possible, these links should improve the existing walking and cycling infrastructure by creating new, through routes (and not just links to the new facility).

Recommendation 7
Who should take action? Childrens services, School Sport Partnerships, school governing bodies and head teachers. What action should they take? Ensure school playgrounds are designed to encourage varied physically active play. Primary schools should create areas (for instance, by using different colours) to promote individual and group physical activities such as hopscotch and other games.

Recommendation 6
Who should take action? Architects, designers and facility managers who are responsible for public buildings (including workplaces and schools). What action should they take? During building design or refurbishment, ensure staircases are designed and positioned to encourage people to use them. Ensure staircases are clearly signposted and are attractive to use. For example, they should be well-lit and well-decorated.

Building Health6 examines how the design of towns, cities and buildings might encourage physical activity. The report contends that action to remove barriers to, and increase, physical activity can be taken on a number of levels. Strategic and urban planning can ensure that health and well-being and the promotion of active modes of travel are objectives of all plans, programmes and policies. Streets and the public realm should be designed to increase barrier free pedestrian movement and reduce traffic speed and volume. Walking and cycling should be actively promoted through marketing and fiscal measures. The report also argues that car use should be actively discouraged by, for example, the removal of free workplace parking, reduced car and mileage allowances and the removal of the provision of company vehicles. It recommends actions relating to maximising the potential of urban green space, including parks, other green areas and outdoor playing space, to encourage physical activity. It also looks at the potential of building design to deliver health and well-being objectives. Scottish Governments Obesity Strategy commits to create environments that make walking and cycling part of everyday life for everyone by, amongst other things, addressing obesity prevention through active travel.

A Walkable Neighbourhood means you can:

improve your health each time you walk to the shops. walk home from the pub without calling taxi. spend less on a car and fuel. support your local economy when you shop. see your neighbours.

Good Places, Better Health: a new approach to environment and health in Scotland7
Good Places, Better Health is the Scottish Governments strategic framework for environment and health. The aims of Good Places, Better Health are: to ensure greater connections between environment and health policy and actions; to ensure that the complexities of the relationship are understood and transparently mapped out; to improve the collation and interpretation of evidence; to ensure that this improved knowledge is translated into policy and actions which can be applied nationally and locally to develop health-nurturing environments.

Building Health: creating and enhancing places for healthy, active lives, 2007, National Heart Forum, Living Streets and the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment 9 Good Places, Better Health: A New Approach to Environment and Health in Scotland, Implementation Plan, 2008, Scottish Government,

The strategic framework recognises that risks to public health are now less about toxic or infectious threats, but rather the potential for our built environment to foster hopelessness and stress, and discourage active healthy lives and healthy behaviours. .............................................................................................................

The implementation of Good Places, Better Health will take an incremental approach, with the initial phase (2009 2011) focusing on the four child health issues of obesity, unintentional injury, asthma and mental health and well-being. Analysis of key environmental influences in these areas will improve policy and decision making to produce better health outcomes for children. This will be done at a national and local level. Key players include health boards, local authorities, community planning partnerships, third sector organisations, community organisations and communities themselves. Good Places, Better Health will support development of Single Outcome Agreements and will be a means of achieving effective working by a number of organisations to deliver on shared outcomes as identified nationally and in SOAs.

Pedestrian priority -people places

People friendly street

Planning for Healthy Environments

Providing the environment to support physical activity is a common theme of national transport and planning policy and guidance. Transport Sustainable travel, tackling congestion and offering real alternatives to the car are key objectives and outcomes of Scotlands National Transport Strategy10. A key development arising from the Strategy is the creation of a number of sustainable travel demonstration communities across Scotland, through the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places11 initiative. Seven projects funded through this initiative aim to increase active travel and use of public transport, and tackle transport emissions. The projects will be required to demonstrate a positive effect on health improvement and reducing health inequalities. Other transport initiatives such as Safer Routes to School12 and Walk to School13 have also placed a strong emphasis on the health benefits of encouraging children to walk or cycle to school. Planning The first National Planning Framework for Scotland14 supported walking and cycling in the context of promoting sustainable transport. In the National Planning Framework 215, published in July 2009, one of the key aims of this spatial strategy to 2030 is to help build safer, stronger and healthier communities, by promoting improved opportunities and a better quality of life. For transport, this presents a dual, but mutually supporting, challenge of reducing carbon emissions and encouraging a shift to more sustainable forms of transport, such as walking and cycling. The relationship between transport and land use is acknowledged as being crucial to this agenda, with importance placed on compact settlements, mixed land use, effective active travel networks and efficient public transport.

Rights of Way and Core Paths

Planning authorities have a general duty under Section 46 of the Countryside (Scotland) Act to protect, keep free from obstruction or encroachment any public right of way. They also have a duty under Section 17 of the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003 to develop and maintain Core Path Networks .............................................................................................................
Scotlands National Transport Strategy, 2006, Scottish Executive, 11 Smarter Choices: Smarter Places, 2008, Scottish Government, 12 Safer Routes to School, Sustrans, 13 Walk to School, Living Streets, 14 National Planning Framework, 2004, Scottish Executive, 15 National Planning Framework 2, 2009, Scottish Government,

Scottish Planning Policy Scottish Government recently produced a consolidated Scottish Planning Policy16. This new, shorter SPP replaces seventeen existing policy documents and is intended to make planning policy and guidance easier to interpret. This new consolidated Scottish Planning Policy is explicit that the planning system has an important role to play in supporting healthier living by improving the quality of the built environment, by increasing access to amenties, services and active travel opportunities, and by addressing environmental problems facing communities. In setting out policy for decisions relating to the layout and design of new development, it states that these should: encourage the use of and enable access to active travel networks and public transport. The policy directs planning authorities to be strategic and long term about managing open space. Assessing both current and future needs, they should protect all spaces that could help meet these needs. It advises that an audit of such space should be done, and a strategy developed to safeguard these spaces, address any deficiencies and use with developers. Open spaces should be accessible, safe, welcoming, appealing, distinctive and well connected. Within settlements there should be spaces that can be used by everyone regardless of age, gender or disability. Scotlands national planning policy also confirms that it is essential that town centres can provide a high quality, inclusive and safe environment. Well designed public spaces and buildings can improve the health vitality and economic potential of a town centre. Throughout the policy, for example in relation to all retail, leisure and related developments the emphasis is that these should be accessible on foot, bicycle and by public transport. The prioritisation of walking and active travel, above all other travel modes and the aim for safe and pleasant places for pedestrians is restated. Development should be supported in locations that are accessible by walking, cycling and public transport, making best use of or adding to existing networks and creating new networks. Planning permission should not be granted for significant travel generating uses in locations which would encourage reliance on the private car and where: Direct links to walking and cycling networks are not available or cannot be made available. Access to public transport networks would involve walking more than 400 m. Planning authorities are encouraged to control parking or apply maximum parking standards to new developments to encourage more sustainable travel choices and modal shift. Designing Streets Designing Streets16 is the new planning policy that, together with its companion document Designing Places17 aims to apply the principles of good design for new and existing streets subject to redesign. It replaces of PAN 76 (New Residential Streets). The intended outcome is streets that are better designed for the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users, as well as contributing to the quality of the built environment and quality of place. ................................................................................................. ............ 17 Scottish Planning Policy 2010, Scottish Government 18 Designing Streets: A Policy Statement for Scotland, Scottish Government, 2010 18 Designing Places: a policy statement for Scotland, 2001, Scottish Executive,

Designing Streets emphasises the place-making function of streets, and in so doing puts the needs and well-being of people at the centre of the design process. It gives clear guidance on how to achieve well-designed streets and spaces that serve the community in a range of ways, including supporting people to be physically active. The policy is clear walking is the most sustainable form of transport and streets should be designed to encourage walking, not just allow for it. It states all streets must offer a pleasant walking experience. The policy goes through the implications of prioritising pedestrian movement (including wheelchairs, mobility scooters, pram users etc.) over that of vehicle movement Designing Streets sets out six key qualities of a successful place. Streets should be: Distinctive Street design should respond to local context to deliver places that are distinctive Safe and pleasant Streets should be designed to be safe and attractive places Easy to get to and move around Streets should be easy to move around for all users and connect well to existing movement networks Welcoming Street layout and detail should encourage positive interaction for all members of the community Adaptable Street networks should be designed to accommodate future adaptation Resource efficient street design should consider orientation, the integration of sustainable drainage and use attractive, durable materials that can be easily maintained

I welcome Designing Streets as a new policy document which puts place and people before the movement of motor vehicles. Foreword Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, John Swinney


To assist the progression of these qualities through street design, and following close consultation with key stakeholders, a number of key policy principles have been developed including: applying a user hierarchy to the design process with pedestrians at the top, followed by cyclists, public transport users and then motor vehicles; promoting the importance of the community function of streets as spaces for social interaction; promoting an inclusive environment that recognises the needs of people of all ages and abilities; promoting networks of streets that provide a high degree of permeability and connectivity to main destinations and a choice of routes to help support wider transport and environmental objectives; designing to keep vehicle speeds at or below 20 mph on residential streets unless there are overriding reasons for accepting higher speeds whilst using the minimum of road design features necessary to make the streets work properly. As a national policy document, Designing Streets advises that it provides policy that should be followed in designing and approving all streets. It requires that local authorities review local guidance on streets to ensure it is consistent with the principles of Designing Streets.

Putting People First

Streets should be designed with people in mind. There should be a rebalancing of our streets so that their social and community functions are considered as well as the needs of traffic. By changing the culture of planning and engineering our streets will be better for people on foot. Streets and neighbourhoods will be better when local people are involved in decision making. Walking should become the natural choice for short journeys.

Streets should encourage physical activity

Healthy Environments: Helping to Achieve National and Local Outcomes

The creation of Healthy Environments that will encourage people to be more physically active will contribute to improved health and well-being, the formation of cohesive, inclusive communities, robust local economies and a reduction in carbon emissions. In other words Healthy Environments can have a major impact on improving quality of life, which is at the heart of the Scottish Governments strategic objectives of a Healthier, Greener, Wealthier and Fairer, Safer and Stronger Scotland. Healthy Environments will help to achieve three National Outcomes in particular: We live longer, healthier lives We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society We live in well designed sustainable places where we are able to access the amenities and services we need. The provision of healthy, walkable environments will therefore be a practical, and often inexpensive, means of working towards National Performance Framework targets through Single Outcome Agreements. The following table illustrates how City of Edinburgh Council is using physical activity indicators to deliver local and national outcomes.

Places for people

Edinburghs Single Outcome Agreements 2009-2012

Relevant National Outcomes:
National Outcome 5 - Our children have the best start in life and are ready to succeed National Outcome 6 - We live longer, healthier lives National Outcome 8 - We have improved the life chances for children, young people and families at risk local peoples needs National Outcome 10 - We live in well-designed, sustainable places where we are able to access the amenities and services we need National Outcome 11 - We have strong, resilient and supportive communities where people take responsibility for their own actions and how they affect others National Outcome 12 - We value and enjoy our built and natural environment and protect it and enhance it for future generations National Outcome 14 - We reduce the local and global impact of our consumption and production Relevant Local Outcomes Edinburghs children are healthy Mental health and well being is improved People with disabilities have improved health and wellbeing Older people have improved health and well being People in Edinburgh are increasingly active, contributing to the aim of Edinburgh being the most physically active European city by 2020 Carbon emissions are reduced within partner organisations own activities particularly in the areas of waste and energy Edinburgh residents and businesses find sustainable travel options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained Relevant Local Outcomes Data Used Baseline 2007/8 Local Targets & Timescales Annual child health surveillence programme in schools 9.8% compared 8.5% in 2010 with 8.5% in all participating NHS boards 06/07 2010 Foot 60% Cycle 4% 2009-10 Increase across levels of Silver and Gold/ 2010-11 Increase across levels of Silver and Gold 2011-12 Increase across levels of Silver and Gold. Long term: Increase the number of SMEs registered (The HWL Awards at Silver and Gold include a direct commitment to physical activity )

Local Indicator

Proportion and number Edinburghs of obese children in children are Primary 1 healthy

Increase the proportion Edinburghs of journeys to school children are made on foot and by healthy cycle Increased number of city organisations (including Edinburgh Partnership partners) achieving Healthy Working Lives awards. People in Edinburgh are increasingly active, contributing to the aim of Edinburgh being the most physically active European city by 2020

Annual, 2004 Scottish Foot 56% Household Cycle 1% Survey Annual , NHS Lothian, Healthy Working Lives 86 companies registered. 17 Bronze, 5 Silver, 6 Gold, 1 Mental Health & Well- being commendation

Edinburghs Single Outcome Agreements 2009-2012 cont.

Local Indicator Relevant Local Outcomes Data Used Baseline 2007/8 2004: 2,972 million vehicle kilometres. Local Targets & Timescales 2010: No more than 3,100m vehicle km. Vehicle kilometres Edinburgh residents Scottish Transport on all roads in and businesses find Statistics & City of Edinburgh sustainable travel Edinburgh Council. options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained Number of households that can access employment centres within 30mins/ 1Hour using walking and public transport. Edinburgh residents CEC/ SEStran and businesses find sustainable travel options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained

March 2008. 50.88% 2009-10 Stable or increase 2010-11 Stable or increase 2011-12 Stable or increase Longer term to be set in 2009.

Increased number of Edinburgh Partnership partners with Active Travel Plans in place.

Edinburgh residents Annual, EP partners 2 (NHSL & SESTRAN) 4 plans in place by 2011 and businesses find sustainable travel options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained Edinburgh residents Annual Scottish and businesses find Household Survey sustainable travel options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained Walk 25% Car/van -39% Bus - 28% Bike - 4% Other - 4% 2007/8 2010: Walk 26% Car/van - 38% Bus - 28% Bike - 4% Other -4% 2011: Walk 27% Car/van - 37% Bus -28% Bike - 4% Other -4% 2012: Walk 28% Car/van - 33% Bus - 30% Bike - 5% Other -4% 2012: Walk 29% Car/van -30% Bus - 31% Bike - 6% Other - 4%

Increase proportions of journeys to work made by public and active transport

Edinburghs single outcome agreements 2009-2012 cont.

Local Indicator Increased no of walking trips (by making walking a more attractive, safe, and convenient means of travel for short trips Relevant Local Outcomes Edinburgh residents and businesses find sustainable travel options increasingly attractive resulting in growth in traffic levels being contained Data Used Annual, CEC Local Transport Strategy 2007-12 Baseline 2007/8 22-25% all journeys; 60% child journeys; 28- 33% shopping journeys. Local Targets & Timescales 2009-10 + 1%; 2010-11 + 1%; 2011-12 + 2%; Longer term 30% all journeys; 65% child journeys; 35% shopping journeys

Edinburgh University

Healthy Environments: Helping to Address Inequalities

As Scottish Government has stated, the consequences of obesity will reflect, perpetuate and potentially increase social inequalities in health in Scotland. There is already a clear linear pattern of increasing obesity with increasing deprivation in adult women in Scotland. As the Scottish Obesity Strategy identifies it is predicted that a correlation between deprivation and obesity may soon become apparent for adult men and children as well. Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth is a quality of health measure, which combines life expectancy and self-assessed health from survey data. HLE has also increased over the long term but at a slower rate than for life expectancy. The gap between life expectancy and HLE is also greater for women than for men, suggesting that women spend more years in poor health. In the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland in 2007/08, HLE at birth was 57.5 years for males and 61.9 years for females, 10 years less than the Scottish average. The Scottish Government has established a National Indicator to increase healthy life expectancy at birth in the most deprived areas.19 The social equality imperative for action to improve levels of active travel is clear. Walking should be the most accessible form of exercise for everyone. It costs nothing, needs no special skills or equipment and can be part of daily life. Streets that are safe and enjoyable places for active travel should be accessible and welcoming to all pedestrians, including the young and old, those using mobility devices, wheelchairs or prams. For both quality of life as well as reducing health and social care costs, we should aim to keep all the population including older people active for as long as possible. The age-profile of the Scottish population is changing. The population aged 65 and over is estimated to increase by 21 per cent between 2006 and 2016, and will be 62 per cent bigger by 2031. For those aged 85 and over, the population will rise by 38 per cent by 2016 and 144 per cent by 2031. This is particularly significant, as the need for care is far greater among the over 85 population.20 Around 4.5 billion was spent in total on health and social care for people aged over 65 in 2006-2007 and if we continue to provide services in the same ways this figure will need to increase by 1.1 billion by 2016, and by 3.5 billion, or 74 per cent, by 2031. 21 Investment in active travel can help address inequalities in health, life expectancy and improving accessibility to services. With even low cost investments there can be high value returns, whether in terms of improving health and wellbeing, increasing life expectancy, reducing costs to society of ill health and care or costs to the economy by reducing absenteeism at work. ............................................................................................................. Independent budget review 21 Reshaping Care for Older People,2010, Scottish Government Consultation 22 Value for money: an economic assessment of investment in walking and cycling. 2010 Adrian Davis
19 20

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment
2 Evidence and Policy
2.3 Creating Healthy Environments

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

2.3 Creating Healthy Environments The Value of Streets

Source: Scottish Government, 20091

Place Before Movement

The importance of streets and public spaces for delivering health, social, environmental and community benefits is clearly set out in the above diagram. This emphasis on the advantages arising from the place function of streets, rather than movement of traffic, puts people at the centre of planning and decision making on the street environment. It demands a collaborative and cross-departmental approach to solutions that will improve quality of life for the people of Scotland.

A Vision for Streets2

Safe, attractive and enjoyable streets Where people are prioritised over traffic, Where people are involved in decision making, Where walking is the natural choice for short journeys. .............................................................................................................
Designing Streets Consultation Draft, 2009, Scottish Government, 2 Safe, Attractive and Enjoyable Streets: a strategy for Living Streets across the UK 2008 2013, 2008, Living Streets,

Value for Money

Over the past ten years there has been a growing body of evidence to support the economic argument for investments to facilitate walking and cycling for transport. In the recent literature review, Value for Money: an economic assessment of investment in walking and cycling3, Dr Adrian Davis presents the evidence base from peer reviewed and grey literature. It states that the UK Government is recognising the costs of physical inactivity and is now steering transport policy, particularly in urban areas, to promote cost effective interventions including the promotion of walking and cycling. The costs to UK Government include: Illness as an outcome of physical inactivity has been conservatively calculated to be 1.08 billion per annum in direct costs to NHS alone (2007 prices). Indirect costs have been estimated as 8.2 billion per annum (2002 prices).

Through evidence from literature from UK and beyond, Dr Davis compiles evidence from studies that have calculated health benefits plus benefits such as saving in travel time, congestion and accidents. The conclusions are: Almost all of the studies identified report economic benefits of walking and cycling interventions which are highly significant. The median for all data identified is [a benefit to cost ratio] 13:1 and for UK data alone the median figure is higher, at 19:1 Within transport, investment in walking and cycling are likely to provide low cost, high value for money with typical cost ratios far higher than the 2:1 threshold for high value for money by the Department for Transport.

Included in the Davis study was the evaluation of the sustainable travel towns project by UK Government, which demonstrated a significant shift from car to more sustainable modes including walking and cycling and the potential for active travel policies to deliver significant health benefits and very high value for money.

Examples of effective low cost measures

As Dr Daviss study points out, high levels of investment are not necessarily needed for walking and cycling projects to be effective. Low cost measures that encourage more people to walk and cycle more often as part of everyday life are demonstrated by the examples overleaf.


Davis, A. 2010 Value for money: an economic assessment of investment in walking and cycling

Benarty Community Forum

The people of the Benarty area of Fife identified a number of problems that discouraged pedestrian use of the local area. High traffic speeds along the main route in the area; Pavement and dropped kerb parking was common and persistent; Traffic congestion outside the two local primary schools during drop-off and pick-up times Working with a local Councillor, officials, activists and partners, the community raised awareness and pushed for action on these priorities and achieved the following: After speed surveys and monitoring, new speed cameras, signs and road markings were put in place to slow down traffic. The Community Forum contributed to two local Primary School Travel Plans, and implementation of a Park and Walk Scheme at a Primary School. Articles went into the local press to raise awareness of the issues and achievements. Walking maps were created for the area, which are easy to use and have routes that suit different levels of ability and need. The Benarty Community Forum who led this developed experience, empowerment skills, contacts and a reputation that in the future will provide more opportunities for change. For more information on the Benarty Community Forum project go to: take-action/our-projects/community-engagement-project/safer_streets_benarty/

Dundee Travel Active

As part of the Smarter Choices: Smarter Places project4 to increase levels of sustainable transport Dundee City Council are focusing on small scale infrastructure improvements and Personal Travel Planning (PTP). PTP has been offered to 13,500 households in the city centre and nearby residential areas, schools, universities, employers and community groups. Thirty-five per-cent of those participating have reported an increase in walking, with 65 % reporting they are feeling the benefits of being more active, the average increase in walking being around 23 minutes per day.


Smarter Choices Smarter Places: sustainable transport demonstration project, Scottish Governemnt

Tools to Create Healthy Environments

For local authorities, the creation of healthy environments is therefore the responsibility of a number of services and departments, including planning, regeneration, town centre management, roads and transportation, sustainable development and health improvement. Accordingly, improving the walkability of the built environment will help services and departments to achieve health, environmental, economic and community objectives. As a key step it will be necessary to ensure that the creation of healthy environments is a feature of all relevant strategies, plans and guidance. Of course, consideration of healthy environments in strategies, plans and guidance is only the beginning of the process of on-the-ground delivery. Local authorities will require good quality information about the needs of local people to assist prioritisation and decision making on changes that will improve the quality of life of the people of that area.

The matrix overleaf identifies those strategies, policies and plans within which healthy environments should be considered, and corresponding tools that can be used to inform service delivery.

Tools for Informing Action to Deliver Healthy Environments

Tools Audits & Monitoring Strategies, Plans and Guidance of Relevance for Healthy Environments Scottish Transport Health Impact Appraisal Logic Assessment Guidance Models Healthy Sustainable Neighbour- Community hoods Model Street Audits Single Outcome Agreement/ Community Plan * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Development Plan Masterplans Local Design for Sreet Guidance Town Centre Plan Local Transport Strategy Core Paths Plan Public Realm Strategy Physical Activity Strategy Open Space Strategy Outdoor Access Strategy Greenspace or Open Space Place Audits Check

Policy, Guides & Standards

Cleanliness Index Moni- Designing toring System Streets

Public Realm Design Guide

Placemaking Standards Guide for Streets

* * * *

With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment
3 Tools
3.1 Community Street Audits

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.1 Community Street Audits

Community Street Audits1 are a method for evaluating the quality of public spaces streets, housing estates, parks and squares from the point of view of the people who use them rather than those who manage them. For many people, when they think about how public space might be improved, the starting point is to demand smooth pavements and clean streets. These are very important if people are to get around safely and easily on foot. However, public space needs to be designed and maintained to allow for more than just walking. When streets are places to meet friends and neighbours, to shop, to talk, to play and to watch the world go by, they start to contribute much more to local communities. Vibrant streets create safer neighbourhoods, less fear of crime and a healthier environment. They ensure that everyone can get around and can help to include everyone in public life.

Audit process ensuring inclusivity Community Street Audits have been developed to help people achieve real local improvements. The street audit method is simple. Small groups of local people (e.g. residents, traders, councillors, officers, police) walk the area to be audited and look for good and bad points along the way. Local people know their area better than anyone, they know the problems and some of the solutions. As issues are identified, they are noted on large-scale maps and briefly described on report sheets by the facilitator. Improvements are considered within the constraints of existing resources, low cost solutions, sources of funding for short, medium and long term physical improvement and non-physical measures for promoting walking. These notes are then used to produce a report for the council.
.................................................................................................... 1 Community Stret Audits, Living Streets,

Overall Audit Process:

Decide on the audit routes Send out publicity Prepare maps Organise a venue Do a risk assessment Give a safety briefing Conduct audits Review findings Prepare a report, including recommendations

Audit Includes Review Of:

Footway Surfaces and Obstructions Facilities and Signage Maintenance and Enforcement Personal Security Crossing Points and Desire Lines Road Layout and Space Allocation Traffic Aesthetics

A software application is available to assist the auditing process if required. More information on the Pedestrian Environment Review System (PERS) is available at:

3.1.1 Case Study: Inverness Community Street Audit Delivering Results

Following a Community Street Audit carried out on Church Street in Inverness historic core, nearly 6m has been invested in the Inverness city centre streetscape and traffic management programme.

Inverness City Centre had been blighted for years by problems of congestion, vehicles travelling at inappropriate speed, noise and air pollution and a poor social environment. Local businesses, the council and other organisations were determined to improve the situation. As part of the series of Community Street Audit demonstrations carried out by Living Streets Scotland and funded by the Paths for All Partnership, a CSA was carried out in Inverness city centre on 1st September 2005.

The CSA was attended by local businesses, local residents, the local council, police and other key local organisations. It identified key priorities for improvement, including: Footway renewal, including dropped kerbs and tactile paving at crossing points New signage More enforcement of illegally parked vehicles Better crossing facilities Public art 20mph speed limit

The re-development work, completed in June 2009, has delivered many of the priorities the CSA identified, creating a more pedestrian friendly environment and improved traffic movement, with new and widened pavements, new civic areas, new street surfaces, new lighting, street furniture and themed public artwork. Pupils from a local Primary School were involved in designing some of the street artwork. The new streetscape incorporates Caithness flag stones, granite paving blocks, cubes and kerbs. Along Church Street, new crossing points have been constructed, the footway renewed and a 20mph limit is being introduced across many streets of the city centre. New street cafes are now appearing and there are also signs of investment being made to buildings in the Old Town. Several services have also been renewed during the construction period including a major water mains upgrade.

A number of difficulties had been overcome during the project including snags when digging up streets, the condition of existing buildings in the Old Town and challenges in diverting traffic to allow for construction work. However, the benefits of the project are now being realised.

In welcoming completion of the scheme Provost Jimmy Gray, Chairman of The Highland Councils Inverness City Committee, acknowledged its difficulties, but said people were appreciative of the improvements, The delivery has never been straightforward and a major effort has been put in by all concerned to see the project through whilst taking steps to minimise the disruption to this busy city centre. Now is the time for everyone to realise the benefits of this investment which will take Inverness forward with an attractive and revitalised city centre. (Inverness Courier, Final Stone Marks Completion of 6m Streetscape; 30/06/09) Work was carried out by contractors ROK with funding by Highland Council, Inverness Common Good Fund, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Arts Council. Map of Audit Area

The images below illustrate some of the issues identified during the CSA and associated improvements.

Issues Identified:

Queuing traffic

Need for better pedestrian crossings


Reduced through-traffic

Unrestricted pedestrian movement

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

Creating Healthy Environments

Practical Tools for Increasing Walking in the Built Environment
3 Tools
3.2 Greenspace or Open Space Audits

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.2 Greenspace or Open Space Audits

Scottish Planning Policy (SPP11) Open Space and Physical Activity1 requires local authorities to undertake an audit of open space in their area and to produce an open space strategy*, which should comprise three main elements: an audit of existing open space provision; an assessment of current and future requirements; a strategy statement with a clear set of priorities and actions.

* The consolidated Scottish Planning Policy has now been published. Policy regarding open space and physical activity may therefore be subject to change. There are two key elements of an open space audit, a quantitative audit of the amount and type of open space and an assessment of the quality and community value of open space. Greenspace mapping and characterisation provides the information required for the quantitative element of an open space audit. Greenspace scotland has been working with local authorities to map and characterise greenspace across urban Scotland. Mapping the greenspace resource is a fundamental part of an open space audit and underpins the development of an open space or greenspace strategy. The Greenspace scotland project used a methodology developed by Scottish Natural Heritage and the Glasgow & Clyde Valley Structure Plan team, which has also been used in a number of other local authority areas. The methodology was revised and refined following its initial application in Glasgow and Clyde Valley. A suite of five guidance documents have been prepared by greenspace scotland to assist local authorities and other partners to map and characterise greenspace and then to maintain and use the data: Greenspace mapping and characterisation - use and application. Use and application - data integration. Use and application - lessons learned. Data management and maintenance. Image interpretation examples and rules.

Greenspace scotland has also produced guidance on assessing greenspace quality, Greenspace Quality: a guide to assessment, planning and strategic development.2 The Guide has been developed to address greenspace, but many of the concepts and approaches are applicable to openspace. The Greenspace Quality Guide sets out the three key elements that inform this process: .............................................................................................................
Scottish Planning Policy 11: Open Space and Physical Activity, 2007, Scottish Government , Now superceded by Scottish Planning Policy 2 Greenspace Quality: a guide to assessment, planning and strategic development, 2008, greenspace scotland and Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership,

developing the Strategic Framework - establishes with all stakeholders a partnership understanding of how greenspace will be addressed, promoted and developed; conducting a Greenspace Audit - establishes the quality, quantity and accessibility of greenspace and the specific needs and opportunities required to develop greenspace within communities; developing a Monitoring & Evaluation Framework - establishes the mechanisms required to monitor continuous improvement and assess the status of greenspace across a local authority area.

Auditing Greenspace
The Greenspace Audit is key to developing the Greenspace Strategy and defining relevant local standards. It ensures the systematic collection of data, analysis and review to provide a robust understanding of greenspace assets - accessibility, quantity and quality. The Audit should cover all types of greenspace, including greenspace that is privately-owned, and should address informal greenspace as well as formal facilities such as parks. The Greenspace Audit needs to be completed in advance of the Greenspace Strategy, although an initial strategic planning exercise is required to establish a clear framework for auditing. The Greenspace Quality Guide describes the seven key stages in the Greenspace Audit as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Establishing a Greenspace Working Group. Engaging with stakeholders and communities to demonstrate the open and inclusive nature of the audit. Scoping the Audit. Undertaking spatial mapping and categorisation. Assessing greenspace quality by site selection. Data analysis. Engaging with stakeholders and communities to share the information obtained by the Audit.

The suggested approach as outlined in Greenspace Quality is based on research and consultation with local authorities and stakeholders and whilst not intended to be prescriptive is considered to offer a best practice approach that can be sensibly tailored to meet the varied need of differing authorities.

Greenspace or open space audits concentrate on parks and open spaces but a key aspect of any audit should be a quality assessment . The Guide sets out quality criteria for greenspace. Again, the criteria are not prescriptive, but should be used as a guide for the development of appropriate standards for individual local authority areas.

Greenspace should promote activity, health and well being and therefore should: provide places for a range of outdoor activities provide diverse play, sport and recreational opportunities provide places for social interaction contain appropriate, high quality facilities to meet user needs (e.g. picnic areas, toilets, parking) contain appropriate facilities for location and size have carefully sited facilities for a range of ages be adaptable to changing needs and uses Attractive and appealing places should: be attractive, with a positive image provide an attractive setting for urban areas contain quality materials, equipment and furniture contain attractive plants and landscape elements have welcoming boundaries and entrance areas provide facilities in clean, safe and usable condition have low levels of litter and adequate bins be well maintained Biodiverse supporting ecological networks should:

Greenspace should have community benefits and therefore should: be safe and welcoming have good levels of natural surveillance show no evidence of anti-social behaviour have appropriate lighting levels have a sense of local identity and place (e.g. public art, natural and heritage features) provide good routes to wider community facilities contain distinctive and memorable places cater for a range of functions and activities provide opportunities for involvement in management and decision making Accessible and connected greenspaces should: be well located close to a community meet Disability Discrimination Act requirements and disabled user needs provide quality paths that are fit for purpose connect with other transport modes allow movement in and between places have accessible entrances in the right places offer connecting path networks and signage

contribute positively to biodiversity, water and air quality have areas large enough to sustain wildlife populations offer a diversity of habitats be part of the wider landscape structure and setting connect with wider green networks provide a balance between habitat protection and public access

Accessible open space: a place to meet

Using a scorecard system open and greenspaces of different types (public park; amenity; play; green corridor; semi-natural; private; functional) can be assessed against these criteria. A numerical value can then be assigned to a particular site. Greenspace Scotland and regional agencies, such as the Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership who have collaborated to develop this guide, are available to assist local authorities to adopt best practice and promote a better understanding of how greenspace can contribute to quality of life and quality of place across Scotland.

Attractive space in an urban setting

For more information about the guide, or support in using it, contact: Deryck Irving Partnership and Enabling Manager, greenspace scotland E: T: 01786 465934

3.2.1 Case Study: Midlothian and East Lothian Open Spaces Audit
Midlothian and East Lothian Councils, with support from Scottish Natural Heritage, commissioned Ironside Farrar to undertake a joint Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based audit of publicly accessible greenspaces in the Midlothian and East Lothian Council areas. The Audits will inform the production of an Open Space Strategy for the respective Councils that will focus primarily on the regeneration, connectivity and enhancement of urban parks, open spaces and civic spaces together with Regional Parks, Country Parks and other greenspace sites. The Open Space Strategies will secure best value, ensure spaces are fit for purpose, address the needs of communities and stakeholders and provide a prioritised framework for investment, maintenance and management.

The Open Space Audits provided a flexible toolkit to inform future decision making on the planning, design and management of Midlothian and East Lothians open spaces and to optimise and enhance the benefits of the open space assets for local communities. The Open Space Audits provided baseline information for the Open Space Strategies which, once developed and formally adopted by the respective Councils, will inform and support development planning, asset management and improvement, development control and community planning functions. The audits also gathered other relevant information on the open spaces sites, including an assessment of accessibility and quantity of open spaces provision.

Penicuik Park: linking to community facilities

In undertaking the audit Midlothian and East Lothian Councils followed the methodology recommended in Greenspace Quality: A Guide to Assessment, Planning and Strategic Development (2008). The following table sets out the audit process and puts the audit in context with other related activities.

Prepared in the Strategic Framework

Brief for the Audit

Step 1

Greenspace Working Group

Step 2

Stakeholder Consultation

Step 3

Scoping & Undertaking the Audit

Step 4 Setting Greenspace Quality Criteria Local Authority Greenspace Standards defined by the Greenspace Strategy Step 5

Spatial Mapping

Assessing Greenspace Quality

Data Analysis Step 6

Step 7

Engagement with Stakeholders

Step 8


Greenspace: many different uses

Any assessment of the quality or nature of existing open spaces and recreation facilities needs a clear set of benchmarks, related to stated standards and, ideally, some form of scoring system. Midlothian and East Lothian Councils are seeking to establish a set of guideline standards that can support the Open Space Strategy and help the Councils establish and target those areas in need of improvement, whilst establishing a clearer strategy for the allocation and management of open space assets. As there are currently no standards for open space for Scotland the Council developed interim standards that provided a basis for modeling, but which need to be tested and validated through the Strategy and development of the Action Plan. A number of organisations have prepared guidance for various types of open space, and the interim standards have been identified by benchmarking relative to these various open space and greenspace guidance.3 In accordance with PAN 65 Planning and Open Space4, the interim standards relate to the elements of: Quantity an amount of space per house unit or head of population Quality a benchmark against which quality can be measured Accessibility an amount of particular types of open space within a specified distance, i.e. a distance threshold.

Penicuik pedestrian precinct: connectivity & community Lauderdale Park: positive, distinct, close to the community

The Midlothian and East Lothian Open Space Audit reports recommend that measurements and updates should be undertaken at regular intervals to ensure that data remains relevant and useful. SPP11 suggests the audit should be updated every five years. However, more frequent reviews will give an indication of how a site improves or deteriorates over time. The measurements will allow an assessment of performance against milestones, targets or broader indicators of progress set out in the Strategy or Action Plan. .............................................................................................................

Minimum Standards for Open Space, Scottish Executive, 2005 Fields in Trust offer a range of guidance on playing fields Greenspace Quality: a guide to assessment, planning and strategic development, 2008, greenspace scotland and Glasgow & Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership,

PAN 65 Planning and Open Space, Scottish Government, 2008

In addition, the audit identified a number of actions to be taken forward by the Councils: Prepare an Open Space Strategy and detailed Action Plan. Develop internal partnerships to oversee an inter-departmental GIS open space database. Establish partnerships with other external parties/organisations with an interest in open space. Review the range, quality and location of the existing open spaces and establish a target level of high quality open space for each community to ensure that the open space resource is of an adequate range and quality to meet the current and projected future needs of the Midlothian and East Lothian communities. Progress a programme of targeted, achievable and costed improvements on a settlement by settlement basis, implemented over a sustained period. Prepare individual management plans for parks, where appropriate. Prepare a consultation strategy to engage parks and open space users in existing and future management, to ensure that their needs are accurately identified: - visitor and user surveys - Friends of the Park groups - City Wide Parks and Greenspace Forum Assess patterns of use of formal pitches and other sports provision, based on the Pitch Strategy and prepare a priority investment programme. Review management arrangements for parks and open spaces to ensure that they are managed to best meet the needs of users, whilst also developing a more sustainable and environmentally sensitive approach. Review Biodiversity Action Plans to include individual parks or green networks. Develop and promote interpretative and educational programmes/events for children and adults. Review the existing path links between parks and open spaces and the Core Path Network, to ensure that linkages are maximised and well maintained. Identify developer contributions for the enhancement of existing and provision of new open spaces and/or open space networks where appropriate.

The absence of national standards for open space and greenspace meant that while the Councils could quantify and describe the open and green spaces in their areas, there was no means of measuring against an agreed minimum standard. To an extent this was overcome by the development and use of interim standards, but the Councils are keenly aware that these interim standards remain untested. The Midlothian and East Lothian Open Spaces Audit was undertaken as a joint project and a consultant was commissioned to deliver the project. The cost of this commission was 25,000 for each local authority, with Scottish Natural Heritage providing half funding for each authority. Additional costs included staff time in each authority for developing the consultants brief and provision of Geographic Information System resources. The full audit process, from project inception to report delivery, was completed in six months.

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.3 20 mph Limits

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.3 20 mph Limits

Streets are where we live, play, work, and socialise they should be safe, attractive and enjoyable places for everyone. The current default speed limit for built up areas is set at 30 mph. Yet half of drivers admit to regularly driving significantly above the current 30 mph speed limit in built-up areas.1 If you are struck by a passing car in your street at 35 mph there is a 50% chance that you will be killed.2 This is a shocking fatality rate, which has an impact not just on those involved in collisions, but creates a wider fear of traffic speed that in turn adversely affects how we use our streets. The gravity of the road death problem in Scotland can perhaps be better appreciated by a comparison with homicide: in 2007/08 there were 114 homicides. During 2008 there were 272 deaths on Scotlands roads involving 61 adult pedestrians, 9 adult cyclists and 20 child pedestrians/cyclists.3 This comparison gives an irrefutable argument for effective action to reduce road casualty incidences. At a traffic speed of 20 mph, the pedestrian survival rate is immediately increased to 97%.4 Children are the most vulnerable type of pedestrian, and they stand to benefit greatly from lowering the limit to 20 mph. This has been shown to reduce child pedestrian deaths by 70%.5 These figures have been reproduced at a local level. Hull City Council has introduced 20 mph zones on a quarter of its roads. Figures comparing the three years before the speed limit was changed with the three after show there has been a 74% reduction in the number of crashes involving child pedestrians, and a 69% reduction in child cyclist crashes. The overall number of collisions in Hull has been reduced by 56%, and there has been a 90% reduction in serious or fatal injury collisions.6 In order to safeguard our streets for all to enjoy, Living Streets believes that the default speed limit in built-up areas in the UK should be 20 mph. This measure would require amended legislation at a UK level. In the short term, a demonstration of 20 mphs viability and popularity must come from practical examples at a local level. The immediate initiative therefore lies with local authorities setting authority-wide 20 mph speed limits in built-up areas across the country.

RAC Report on Motoring 2007 2 Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents, Road Safety Advice, 3 Key 2008 Road Casualty Statistics, Scottish Government 4 Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents, Road Safety Advice, 5 DCSF, 2007, The Childrens Plan-Building brighter futures. The Department for Children Schools and Families: The Stationery Office, 6 PACTS, 2007, Beyond 2010-a holistic approach to road safety in Great Britain.

There has never been a better opportunity to push ahead with making our streets people-friendly, and to bring to the UK a successful approach already common in Europe.7 The framework is in place across the UK for local authorities to implement 20 mph local limits cheaply and easily, and a review of speed limits on all locally-controlled A and B roads is set to be completed by 2011. Meanwhile, national governments in Westminster and Holyrood have refreshed their road safety strategies in 2009. Resistance to 20 mph often focuses on claims that it is either unenforceable or is too costly. In fact, the successful work in Portsmouth, described in 3.3.1, shows that these are not insummountable obstacles. In addition to the undeniable road safety benefits, other very compelling reasons for a default 20 mph limit in built-up areas includes:

Putting People First

The 30 mph speed limit was introduced in 1934 when there were just 2 million cars in the UK. Today there are over 28 million. From a crossing the road point of view, 30 mph was a far more appropriate speed in the 1930s than it is today. The relative rarity of a car on the street meant that crossing it in good time before one appeared was a simple matter. With todays increased car use, sufficient gaps in 30 mph traffic are much harder to come by. Today, stepping out onto the street is perceived as a risky business: something to be rushed, and to be fearful for our safety. A 20 mph speed limit immediately puts people first by ensuring that traffic is travelling at a speed slow enough to adapt to pedestrian presence and to allow children to play outside their homes.

Improving Sociability
Heavy traffic damages communities and the speed of traffic plays as great a role as its density. Research from Bristol in the UK has shown that residents on busy streets have less than a quarter of the local friends that those living on similar streets with little traffic have.8 At 20 mph, even a heavily-trafficked street instantly becomes easier to cross, less noisy, and more sociable.

20 mph limit signage .............................................................................................................

Atkins, WS, 2001, European Best Practice in the Delivery of Integrated Transport, Summary Report, London: Commission for Integrated Transport,

Joshua Hart, 2008, Driven To Excess,


Encouraging Walking
A 20 mph speed limit in built-up areas allows for the safe mixing of motorised and non-motorised modes of transport, and makes it easier for pedestrians and cyclists to enjoy the same direct and safe routes for their journeys as motorists. By adopting this level playing field approach to speed limits, local authorities can encourage pedestrians to take to their streets and in so doing increase their levels of physical activity. Research into traffic calming undertaken in Glasgow found that walking levels increased in traffic-calmed neighbourhoods.9 Portsmouth has only just started looking at modal shift as a result of 20 mph and the results of this research is expected soon. However there is more evidence available from Europe on how lower speed limits encourage walking and cycling. The 20 mph approach is increasingly adopted in European countries where rates of walking and cycling are much higher and casualty rates for sustainable road users much lower than in the UK.10 The use of 30 kph (19 mph) speed limits for roads in residential, shopping and other "mixed use" areas is nearly universal in Germany. In Hilden, a town of 50,000 people near Dusseldorf, a 30 kph speed limit was introduced over most of the road network to improve safety and quality of life and to avoid the expense of providing a comprehensive network of cycle lanes. 60% of trips to the town centre are now made on foot or by bicycle.11 In Munich, with a "pedestrian friendly city" policy, 80% of the road network has a 30 kph limit. Some residential areas have even lower limits. In Graz, Austria, over 80% of the network has 30 kph limits. Cycle usage increased by 17% while cycling casualties fell. Munich also has very low casualty rates for vulnerable road users. Graz and Munich exemplify best practice because they have stabilised or reduced the use of the car, despite increasing levels of car ownership.12

Positive Impact on Emissions and Traffic Flow

Contrary to some reports based on test-track conditions, research has shown that driving at a steady 30 kph (19 mph) will actually reduce vehicle emissions as braking and accelerating between junctions and other obstacles decreases.13 It is very much an environmentally friendly traffic speed. Additionally, traffic flow is smoothed by reducing the bunching effect at junctions. Some local authorities have already pioneered this approach to traffic management. The London Borough of Camden has linked the traffic lights on Camden High Street to build in a natural green wave of 20 mph: travelling faster than this will simply result in the next set of lights the driver approaches remaining red. . ................................................................................................................................................................................................ .....................
Morrison, D., Thomson, H. & Petticrew, M, 2004, An evaluation of the health effects of a neighbourhood traffic calming scheme, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 10 Atkins, WS, 2001, European Best Practice in the Delivery of Integrated Transport, Summary Report, London: Commission for Integrated Transport, 11 Groll, L, 2005, "Traffic calming as a fundamental element for a successful bicycle promotion" "Streets Ahead" conference, 12 November 2005, Warrington. Cited in Living Streets Policy Briefing: 12 Atkins, WS, 2001, European Best Practice in the Delivery of Integrated Transport, Summary Report, London: Commission for Integrated Transport, 13 Dr. Carmen Hass-Klau, 1990, An Illustrated Guide to Traffic Calming, p3

Limits vs. Zones

Implementing 20 mph does not necessarily entail the use of physical traffic calming which, while effective, is costly and can be unpopular. This is where a crucial distinction between zones (requiring traffic calming) and limits (requiring only signage) needs to be emphasised. A piecemeal zonal approach will be both time consuming and expensive, particularly considering the current economic climate. Additionally, poorly designed traffic calming can cause discomfort to cyclists and bus users. Unfortunately, many of our streets built since the 1930s have been engineered for a 30 mph or greater speed limit. So while there is no doubt that the way a street is designed plays a significant role in the speed at which drivers feel is appropriate, wholesale street redesign projects will cost millions of pounds and may take years to be realised. Changing the default speed limit across whole areas will make the quickest and most cost-effective strides towards 20 mph across our villages, towns and cities; and the Department for Transport plans to strengthen guidance on this is welcomed. If, following the introduction of a lower speed limit, there are ongoing concerns about localised compliance, these can be addressed through targeted enforcement or design features. Cost-effective ways of signifying to drivers to drive more slowly include:14 removing guardrail and street clutter from the pavement, installing planters on the roadway, removing the centre line and other road markings, innovative parking bay layouts.

Naked Streets principles: slower traffic speeds .............................................................................................................

Living Streets, 2009, Naked Streets Policy Briefing,

3.3.1 Portsmouth City Council: Achieving 20 mph the logical way

In March 2008 Portsmouth became the first city in Britain to have a 20 mph limit on almost all residential roads in effect a default speed limit throughout the city, with exceptions for important arterial roads only. The initiative began in a neighbourhood forum, before being taken up by councillors, and finally being put into action by council officers. The entire cost was a mere 500,000. Prior to this, they had been planning to spend 2 million on ten targeted 20 mph zones over five years.

To achieve 20 mph, Portsmouth followed Government guidance in Local Transport Note 01/06, Setting Local Speed Limits. (ETLLD Circular 1/2006 provides the guidance in Scotland) The signed-only limits approach, as opposed to costly traffic-calmed zones, became easier in 1999, when the Road Traffic Regulation Act (Amendment) Order 1999 (SI 1999 No. 1608) removed the need for secretary of state approval for 20 mph limits. However it wasnt until 2006 that Government guidance became positive enough for an authority, in this case Portsmouth, to feel it could take such a bold city-wide step. Even so, Living Streets still believes that the guidance is unnecessarily restrictive. Portsmouth City Council felt that they could only roll out the speed limit on roads where the average speed was already 24 mph or less even though this is just a recommendation in the guidance. It helped that the city is characterised by densely populated, narrow terraced streets, where speeds were naturally low already. According to their own publicity, The 20 mph limit was proposed for roads where the average speed was already 24 mph or less. We have installed prominent 20 mph signs where drivers enter the new speed restrictions, as well as repeater signs as reminders. It has been found elsewhere that this method reduces speeds by 3-4 mph. Road humps are not part of the scheme, although if speeds do not drop on particular roads, then residents will be consulted again to see if they want additional measures. In most cases the 20 mph limit will be self-enforcing and further speed enforcement measures will not be needed.15

The police took a targeted, educational approach to enforcing the speed limit. For example in locations where regular violations were taking place, they stopped speeding drivers and gave the option to them of attending a road safety presentation instead of receiving a 60 Fixed Penalty Notice (FPN). According to the police, Those taking part in the presentations were asked to fill out feedback forms to evaluate their experience, and many agreed that the 20mph zones were a good idea in Portsmouth, and that the information they had seen and heard was of use and would make them drive more responsibly in future.16 ............................................................................................................ safety+message.htm
15 16

One Year On
One year on from implementation of the 20mph limit scheme, Portsmouth City Council report the following position: No engineered traffic calming measures have been required in the roads which are included in the 20mph limit scheme. The only roads where traffic calming features have been implemented have been in 20mph zones, which are separate to 20mph limits as they require traffic calming features within a set distance of the zone. Traffic calming measures include speed cushions and build outs. Education & Enforcement events have been carried out periodically over the year by the Police along roads where there are concerns over high speeds. Drivers are given a choice of a fixed penalty fine or to attend a short driver awareness course immediately after the event. These are very effective. A resident satisfaction questionnaire is being developed. This will gather information on opinions on the scheme compared to what it was like before it was implemented. The Council receives regular queries from the general public, which range from asking if their road can be included in the scheme to residents requesting more signage and other measures as they feel vehicles are still travelling too fast along the road. Portsmouth Council is of the view that although aimed at reducing speed and casualties, the initiative had achieved much more than this. The lower speeds had delivered lower noise, and a change in the way people engaged with other road users when driving. The implementation is judged to have increased the quality of life in the city and made it a better place to live. In terms of monitoring, the Department for Transport is carrying out an independent review of the scheme, with the findings likely to be in the form of a transport note. It is anticipated that this will be released later in 2009. This document will include comparative speed and accident data. An interim evaluation by the Department of Transport of the implementation of 20 mph speed limits in Portsmouth17 has found that: o The average speed after the 20 mph speed limits were imposed was 0.9 miles per hour lower than the average speed before the speed limits were imposed. This change is not statistically significant. o At sites where the average Before speed was greater than 24 mph the average speed reduced by 7 mph. This change is statistically significant. o The average speed reduction achieved by installing speed limit signs alone is less than that achieved by the introduction of 20 mph zones partly because 20 mph Speed Limits are implemented where existing speeds are already low. o The total accident reduction was 13% and the number of casualties fell by 15%. As numbers were low these results are not statistically significant when compared against national trends. o Based on the available data for one year after scheme implementation, casualty benefits greater than the national trend have not been demonstrated but nonetheless may be demonstrated when more data is available. o The evaluation of area-wide schemes relies on good quality data and an appropriate evaluation design. ...........................................................................................................
Interim Evaluation of the Implications of 20 mph Speed Limits in Portsmouth, 2009, Atkins for the Department for Transport

To ensure a thorough evaluation of the Portsmouth scheme, Atkins recommended that the follow-on work should include: o o o An analysis of available travel to school data is needed in order to assess the impact of the scheme on non-motorised user journeys to school; A review should be carried out of highway satisfaction surveys to determine the impact of the scheme on public perception and behaviour, and assess the perception of aggressive driving; and An evaluation study that takes account of 3 years of After data to monitor the long-term impacts of the 20 mph scheme in PCC would offer stronger evidence of outcomes.

September 2010 Update

The Interim Evaluation of the Implementation of 20 mph Speed Limits in Portsmouth has been published by Department for Transport and is available at:

The Portsmouth case demonstrates how a default limit can be effective in reducing speed limits particularly where traffic speed have been higher than 24 mph. Lower speeds can also deliver quality of life benefits to local people. It is therefore vital that Government guidance makes it as easy as possible for local authorities to adopt default 20 mph limits right across their areas, even on streets where the average speed may be higher than 24 mph. .............................................................................................................
The Living Streets 20mph Briefing Paper is available in full at:

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.4 Designing Streets for People

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.4 Designing Streets for People

Designing Streets1 is the proposed new planning policy that, together with its companion document Designing Places2 aims to apply the principles of good design for new and, wherever possible, existing streets. It incorporates the principles of PAN 76: New Residential Streets3 as well as more comprehensive information and guidance and therefore will supersede PAN 76. The intended outcome is streets that are better designed for the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users, as well as contributing to the quality of the built environment and quality of place.

Designing Places: a policy statement for Scotland

Creating successful and sustainable places will depend on a shift in attitudes, expectations and practices about the design of cities, towns, villages and the countryside. The most successful places, the ones that flourish socially and economically, tend to have certain qualities in common. First, they have a distinct identity. Second, their spaces are safe and pleasant. Third, they are easy to move around, especially on foot. Fourth, visitors feel a sense of welcome.
Developed by the Scottish Government in consultation with key stakeholder groups, Designing Streets draws heavily from the Department for Transports Manual for Streets 4, but with additional and amended information to make it appropriate for use in Scotland. Designing Streets strengthens the link between planning and transportation policy and street design and places emphasis on effective working across departments to improve quality of life for people and communities. This focus on meaningful outcomes is in keeping with the Scottish Governments approach to performance and is intended to contribute to the strategic objectives of a Scotland that is Healthier; Greener and Safer and Stronger.

Quality street environments encourage walking ........................................................................................................................................

Designing Streets (Consultation Draft), 2009, Scottish Government, 2 Designing Places: a policy statement for Scotland, 2001, Scottish Executive, 3 Planning Advice Note 76: New Residential Streets, 2005, Scottish Government, 4 Manual for Streets, 2007, Department for Transport,

The benefits arising from well designed streets relate to improved health, increased social interaction, increased social inclusion, increased satisfaction with local neighbourhoods and reduced injuries and fatalities. These quality of life benefits are seen as mutually supportive, creating a virtuous circle:

Designing Streets 2009 By redefining the function of streets as places for people, and not primarily for the movement of traffic, quality of life improvements will be achieved. Designing Streets sets out the six key qualities of a successful place, as referenced in Designing Places. These are: Distinctive responding to local context to create places that are distinctive. Safe and pleasant creating safe and attractive places using imaginative layouts to minimise vehicle speeds naturally. Easy to get to and move around enabling ease of movement by all modes of travel, particularly walking and cycling, connecting well with existing streets and allowing for links into future areas of development. Welcoming encouraging positive interaction between neighbours, creating a strong sense of community. Adaptable planning networks that allow for future adaptation. Resource efficient using materials and designs that are durable and cost effective to construct and maintain.

The government wish to see these 6 key qualities of successful places progressed through street design and approval. To assist this process a number of key policy principles have been developed in consultation. The table below illustrates the relationship between these principles and the key qualities of successful places.


Easy to get to & move around



Applying a user hierarchy to the design process with pedestrians first and motor vehicles last Promoting a collaborative approach to the delivery of streets Promoting a more streamlined and consistent approval process across Scotland Promoting the importance of the community function of streets as spaces for social interaction Promoting an inclusive environment that recognises the needs of people of all ages and abilities Promoting diversity and local context in street design Promoting permeable and well connected networks of streets Making streets distinctive, diverse and characterful Use design to influence driver behaviour to deliver safe streets for all Adopting a design led approach to parking Promoting resource efficiency and sustainably including land use, systems and materials Source: Designing Streets 2009

a a a

a a a

aa a a aa a a a a a a

a a

a a a a a

a a

These principles have clear and strong links with the aforementioned Scottish Government strategic objectives. In particular, streets that are designed to encourage physical activity, with walking as the most sustainable form of travel, will contribute to health, transport and environmental objectives.

Resource Efficient

Safe & Pleasant

The Walkable Neighbourhood

Range of facilities within 10 minutes (~ 800m) walking distance of residential areas Mixed land use Interconnected street patterns Linkages between housing, local facilities, public transport networks, walking and cycling routes High population densities

Designing Streets provides comprehensive guidance on design principles in relation to layout and connectivity and in what makes a quality place. Detailed design guidance is also provided in relation to the needs of street users; street geometry; parking; materials, adoption and maintenance; traffic signs and markings; and street furniture and lighting. The detailed case study below on the planning and development of Ardler Village in Dundee illustrates how the principles of Designing Streets have been translated into a successful, sustainable place. The Scottish Government advise that local authorities may wish to review any locally developed guidance and standards on streets to ensure that such guidance is consistent with the principles of Designing Streets. Designing Streets is relevant to anyone with a role in the planning, design, approval or adoption of new streets, and modifications to existing streets. As well as professional organisations and disciplines, local communities, elected members and civic groups may also wish to make use of the document. The consultation on the draft of Designing Streets as a new planning policy closed on 23 March 2009.

Considering people in design: Muirton, Perth Note: Designing Streets is still in development. The above information may change, therefore, in light of any changes within the final, published version.

3.4.1 Case Study: Ardler Village, Dundee

Ardler village is a suburb within the north-west of Dundee and was previously the Ardler housing estate. The original design brief was produced in 1996/1997 and the Ardler regeneration scheme started in 1998 when Dundee City Council and the Ardler residents appointed Sanctuary Housing Association, Wimpey Homes and HTA Architects to deliver the regeneration of Ardler from a ring-fenced estate consisting of tower blocks and four-storey flats into a reintegrated development. HTA consultants were appointed to prepare the masterplan, produced in 1999, which aimed to create: a hierarchy of road types routes linking Ardler back into the city a new focus within central Ardler different neighbourhoods throughout Ardler

The Village is almost now completed with the final phase, to the north of the village, started on site. When complete the Village will consist of 1,145 homes, of which there are 834 Housing Association (including 70 refurbished properties) and 311 homes for private sale. All of the high-rise blocks have been demolished; these were originally named after Scottish golf courses and the names have been retained as neighbourhood area names but with added input from local school children. The Village Centre contains the existing primary schools, Ardler Centre which includes a library, sports hall, cafe, rooms for hire by community groups and banking facilities, the existing church, 3 retail units, 2 offices and workspace, a doctors surgery, a health clinic and sheltered housing. Buses run through the village every 15 minutes and buses run around the site every 8 minutes so residents are well catered for with public transport.

The scheme advocated innovative street solutions from an early stage, including reduced visibility curves, narrowing street widths, a compact continental-style roundabout and minimal signage. Pedestrians are given greater priority at junction crossings through design measures; different approaches have been taken to allow this to happen but this is most successful within the later stages. Cheap, easily maintained materials have been used throughout with the exception of the streetscape within the centre of the neighbourhood centre. Here, higher quality materials and street furniture have been used to help create a central heart to the development with a clear identity. A variety of street scene has been created either through traditional streets with carriageway and footways, streets with tree planting and shared surface streets. Street names reinforce each local area, hence within for example the Gullane area the streets are called Gullane Road, Gullane Place, Gullane Terrace and Gullane Avenue. Streets in Ardler were the first in Dundee to drop visibility curves allowing a reduction in forward visibility from 35m to 20m. At one street further speed reductions have been achieved through reducing the road width to 4.1m.

Most of the private development is to the north-west of the Village and the same principles of road design have been applied there. Overall the scheme has successfully reduced speed through urban design measures and allowed more sustainable use of land through allowing building lines to come closer to corners. There has been extensive use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) throughout the site which have been considered integrally from the outset and the strategy has been monitored as the development has been built. Swales were initially designed for use through all residential streets. Problems arose, however, with maintenance especially concerning grass cutting and litter collection when the first phases were built and occupied. There were also aesthetic considerations of taking access driveways across the swales and how this impacted on the streetscene. This led to swales being dropped in favour of detention ponds at key points instead on later phases. On streets where swales were planned, but the proposal was dropped before construction, the land width has been kept but used for a grass verge and tree planting instead. The Council maintain all areas of SUDS. Swales are now used only either in association with areas of open space or where they will have a minimum length of 20m. SUDS are attenuated through both wet and dry ponds; wet ponds are used as a site feature and are at their most successful when linked to other open space within the site development. Dry ponds feature within residential areas and double up as open space for casual play.

Street Re-design and Impact on Road Casualty Statistics

The move to a de-cluttered street design that encourages pedestrian priority and slower traffic speeds has resulted in a significant reduction in road casualty rates for the Ardler regeneration area.

1992 1996 (pre-redevelopment) Fatal Serious injury Slight injury Total 0 17 31 48

2004 2008 (post-redevelopment) 0 7 23 30

The regeneration scheme was ahead of its time in engaging with local residents and the benefits of this are apparent in the sense of community that exists at Ardler Village. Feedback from the Ardler Village Trust would appear to demonstrate that a strong sense of community exists and that residents like living within the re-ordered environment. The Ardler area has been completely transformed through this masterplan; it is an exemplar in how it has created a new connected development and "stitched" the area back into the city. This has allowed a regular bus service through the site to be established. Bold decisions have been made both in the strategies for street and drainage designs and how these have been adjusted if seen to be not working as well as was intended.

In meeting the initial aims for the masterplan which were set out ten years ago, the scheme has largely been very successful. Any criticisms should be balanced against the scale of what has been achieved, but a Council report identified that a better integration between the layout of the housing plots and the streets would have improved the street scene overall. This is especially true of the privately delivered areas where there is a lack of clarity between what constitutes public and private realm. Legibility of the different neighbourhood areas within the development areas could also have been improved and would aid orientation through the Village overall. This could also have been achieved through ensuring more variation of building lines, boundary treatments and materials. Adjustments to buildings were made between phases to give variation but these are relatively subtle. Good use has been made of gable windows, however, to promote passive surveillance throughout. The area benefits considerably from the careful integration of an existing mature landscape.

Speed tables & road narrowing encourage slower traffic speeds

Shared surface & 2 metre junction radius encourage slower traffic speeds

What the Residents Think

Two key resident surveys undertaken since completion of the regeneration project have provided data on residents opinion of the new layout and facilities.

Ardler Community Research Project

This project aimed to: evaluate the effects of the regeneration project by examining change over time; define the current economic and social status of Ardler, in order to assist the Ardler Village Trust Board to develop targeted projects that will address key needs.

With respect to regeneration outcomes and the physical environment in Ardler, a before and after comparison was not available. However, the survey findings from 2007, following regeneration, are generally positive: o o o 92% of residents surveyed were satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of life in Ardler. 58% of respondents felt that the area had changed for the better over the last 5 years. High levels of satisfaction were reported for lighting (97%), quality and maintenance of open spaces (94%), street cleanliness (91%), condition of roads/pavements (88%), and control/management of traffic (80%). High levels of satisfaction were reported for the local shops (87%), public transport (78%), and the local community centre (64%), all of which also scored highly for ease of access. 91% of survey respondents reported feeling very or fairly secure living in Ardler.

Demonstrating the Links Project

This project set out to understand how the residents of Ardler value and use their new urban greenspace and open space. The results of this survey will inform how the project group work with partners in the future to better manage the area for the advantage of all. This was achieved by: developing a set of baseline data to measure change in use and quality of greenspace and open space over time. measuring what affect the new environment of Ardler Village is having on peoples (residents and visitors) lives. discovering peoples aspirations for greenspace and open space with a view to creating projects that will tackle problems or create something new and valid.

Key findings from the survey include: 73% of respondents agreed with the statement Ardlers greenspace is important to me.

75% of respondents said that greenspace had a positive impact on their health with 75% of the over 64 age group respondents relating greenspace to psychological health, and the remaining 25% feeling that greenspace encouraged them to be more physically active. 75% of respondents felt greenspace encouraged people to be more friendly to each other.

In terms of actions for ongoing improvement to greenspace and open space, suggestions included: Installation of more seats at key locations, as this would encourage older people in particular to walk more. Creation of interesting and varied playspace for young children with appropriate seating for carers.

Residents carrying out the winter open space audit in Ardler

The full reports on the Ardler Community Research Project and the Demonstrating the Links Project can be viewed at:

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.5 Local Design Guides

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.5 Local Design Guides

Local design guidance is commonly developed by local authorities to enhance policies in Local Plans, or to integrate local considerations and characteristics into national guidance. The following are two examples of supplementary planning guidance that prioritise the needs of pedestrians in urban and street design. The existence of other similar guidance is acknowledged.

3.5.1 Case Study: The East Lothian Local Plan 2008, Design Standards for New Housing Areas
The East Lothian Council Design Standards for New Housing Areas were awarded a Scottish Quality in Planning commendation in 2009. The standards revise and draw together into a single document East Lothian Councils key planning and transportation requirements for the design of new housing areas. Within this, Home Zones are an important part of the Councils drive to improve the design quality of such areas, and to better integrate people, places and their movement needs. The Councils Planning and Transportation Divisions, in consultation with other service departments, including Building Standards, Landscape & Countryside and Ground Care, jointly prepared these standards. This approach represents the Councils commitment to raising the design quality of housing areas and to ensure that the principles and outcomes of these design standards are corporately supported, embraced and implemented.

The Standards
The standards first identify the key urban design principles for establishing the layout and form of housing areas and how these will support Home Zone development. They then provide more detailed principles for the design of public space between buildings including the key principles and technical transportation standards for the design of the Home Zone areas. The standards also set out the minimum geometric and technical road requirements that will be adopted by the Council and the importance of using correct materials and securing satisfactory maintenance arrangements is highlighted.

A Home Zone Is:

A particular part of a residential area where public space between buildings is designed to allow people and vehicles to share it on equal terms. Accessed from primary streets and created in tertiary streets. A residential street, square, circus, courtyard, mews, lane or two or more linked culs-de-sac, or a network of these, which is designed to ensure that the quality of life in the residential area takes precedence over ease of vehicle movement. Part of a well connected network of public spaces which will encourage walking and cycling. Designed and equipped to support community activities in the public space and can include communal areas equipped with, for example, items of play, games, seating and barbeque areas etc. An area which may have legally designated status.

East Lothian Council regard Home Zones as places that help to promote social inclusion, encourage sustainable urban living and improve the quality of the urban environment. In particular, Home Zones are designed to: Create a visually attractive environment with a distinctive sense of place and identity; Support community activity and play in public space that cars would otherwise dominate; Reduce social isolation, particularly for the elderly and those with mobility problems; Minimise the influence of roads and vehicles on layout, appearance and use of public space; Spread vehicle and pedestrian traffic through a network of streets rather than focusing on one or two key routes; Minimise culs-de-sacs to provide pedestrian and cyclist friendly layouts; Maintain a low risk of accident and injury on roads by ensuring a maximum vehicle speed of 10 mph by design.

The standards also provide detailed design requirements and standards for new housing areas and for Home Zone development within them.

A Masterplan showing connectivity

The East Lothian Local Plan 2008: Design Standards for New Housing Areas can be viewed in full at:

3.5.2 Case Study: Creating a Better Fife, Fife Urban Design Guide
Creating a Better Fife2 addresses the question of how to improve the quality of new development and public space. Well designed new development and public spaces are considered essential for improving quality of life, boosting confidence and promoting community pride and ownership. Good design is seen as being about making places work for people, about how buildings, streets, parks, and all other areas that make up the public realm, relate to each other. The Guide has been adopted by Fife Council as Supplementary Planning Guidance and is a material consideration in determining planning applications.

The Guidance
With a commitment to the long-term public interest, Creating a Better Fife sets out strategic design principles that will apply to all development across the Council area. The design principles are: Creating places of character and identity. Creating high quality new development. Creating places that are easy to move around in. Creating safe and pleasant public spaces.

Creating places that are easy to move around in

The guidance promotes a set of principles to be used in the creation of places that are easy to get to and move around in. Fife Councils Transportation Development Guidelines provides functional advice for new developments and this is intended to be used alongside the following principles.

Developments should:
be designed to minimise the impact of the car and public transport e.g. home zones, shared surfaces, 20 mph zones and multi-use squares. Early discussion with transport providers will be required; have walkable neighbourhood districts to promote a range of activities. Design on the basis of walking spheres of 400m (approx. 5-min walk) to 800m (approx. 10 min. walk); take into consideration Safer Routes to School; Fife Councils Maximum Parking Standards and Travel Plans; provide as many direct foot and cycle path routes as possible to integrate new developments and maximum choice; provide direct pedestrian routes to new and/or existing bus stops on the existing road network. Aim to minimise the distance it takes to reach public transport; .............................................................................................................

Creating a Better Fife: Fife Urban Design Guide, 2005, Fife Council,

provide improvements to the existing public transport network in the form of bus shelters, bus boarders etc; provide well-lit, safe, foot and cycle path routes, overlooked by occupied residential or mixed use buildings; have a maximum design speed of 20mph (10mph on shared surface roads) if residential. The layout of the roads and location of all street furniture shall ensure that these speeds are not exceeded. Developers should not over-rely on the use of traffic calming measures and; have higher densities when located next to railway and bus stations and other public transport nodes and corridors.

Photo: Fife Council

Kirkcaldy High Street: a popular public space

Leven: safe pedestrian and cycleway

Photo: Fife Council

Creating safe and pleasant public spaces

Public spaces are a vital part of everyday life in our towns and villages. They include the streets where we live, the places where our children play and the spaces where we relax and spend our lunch breaks or free time. How these spaces are designed to relate to the surrounding buildings can make a real difference to quality of life. Well-designed public spaces can create tangible social, economic and environmental value. Fife already has a legacy of attractive and memorable public parks and historic streets. New developments should aim to create new high quality spaces for the 21st century.

Open Space should:

be considered from the outset and as an integral part of new development. They should not be areas of leftover space around buildings or on the edge of development sites; take account of surrounding topography and natural setting, and enhance views in and out; enhance and amplify existing site assets such as trees, rock outcrops, water bodies, walls, and areas of paving; be designed for ease of access and gradients, particularly for the less able-bodied and those using pushchairs; be designed for safety and security in accordance with Crime Prevention through Environment Design principles. (See Secured by Design -; be versatile, allowing different activities and groups to make use of the same space; provide natural surveillance by orientating buildings to face onto public spaces with doors, windows and active frontages rather than blank walls; be orientated to the sunpath direction and take account of the prevailing wind, sources of noise and views; accommodate desire lines across the site and link with the local transport system and path networks; maximise permeability of pedestrian and cyclist routes to introduce a greater concentration of natural surveillance; and be designed for use during the day and night, and during each season.

Fife Council aims to involve local communities from the outset in decisions on the use and design of open spaces. This will allow a sense of local ownership to develop. Management and maintenance plans will be required to accompany proposals for all outdoor space designs.

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.6 Placecheck

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.6 Placecheck
Placecheck is a method of assessing the qualities of a place, showing what improvements are needed, and focusing people on working together to achieve them. A Placecheck can start with just half a dozen people round a kitchen table, or a small group meeting on a street corner, or it may be a larger affair involving a programme of walkabouts and workshops. A Placecheck can cover a street (or part of one), a neighbourhood, a town centre, or a whole district or city. The setting might be urban, suburban or a village. The initiative can come from anyone, in any organisation or sector. A variety of types of appraisal of places can be carried out. Some define the character of a valued place. Others assess how sustainable a development is, or describe the visual qualities of a place. A Placecheck can provide a focus for bringing people together to work in collaboration to identify what needs to be done to improve the place. Developed by Urban Initiatives in the 1990s, Placecheck is now in widespread use in communities throughout the UK.

How to Placecheck
The first step is for a local partnership or alliance of people with a stake in an areas future to come together to carry out the Placecheck. Potential participants in the Placecheck could include any local stakeholders or agencies.

Options for a Placecheck event include:

a walkabout of the area a meeting or workshop event an exhibition a questionnaire an event at a community festival a combination of more than one of these.

At the core of the Placecheck is a checklist of questions intended to prompt participants to think about what might be relevant to their area. The Placecheck list is in three parts:

A: Three basic questions aimed at getting people thinking:

What do you like about this place? What do you dislike about this place? What needs to be improved?

B: Fifteen more specific questions:

The first six ask who needs to be involved in changing the place for the better, and how they can be involved in achieving that. The other nine questions focus on how people use the place and experience it. These questions may be enough to draw out the information that is required. If not, the next part provides more prompts.

C: Over 100 more detailed questions:

The information about the Placecheck tool has been derived from the Placecheck website,

These go more deeply than the 15 intermediate questions, listing a series of detailed questions under each of them.

Five examples of how an initial Placecheck might be carried out:

1. 2. People meet for a walkabout of a street or other local place. They ask themselves the three basic questions (Part A). They may go on to ask other questions on the checklist, either now or at a later occasion. The organisers of the local Placecheck draw up their own tailor-made checklist after selecting the questions that seem most relevant and adding any more that seem important locally. This checklist is then distributed to participants in a walkabout or a meeting. The participants can also refer to the full checklist if they need more ideas. A small group reads through the checklist together, answering questions that can be answered easily, ignoring those that are not relevant, and agreeing which questions need to be looked into in more detail. The organisers of the local Placecheck select ten questions from the checklist (and, if appropriate, some that may not be on the checklist but seem important locally). These are discussed at a meeting, with the full checklist available for people to refer to if they need more prompts. At a small meeting, people choose the ten questions on the checklist that seem most important to them. They compare notes and agree a list of the most important questions to focus on.

3. 4.


Community Involvement The following case study demonstrates how Perth & Kinross Council approached a Placecheck of the village of Errol.

3.6.1 Case Study: Errol, Perth & Kinross Council.

Perth & Kinross Council (PKC) Corporate Management encouraged a joint departmental approach to the Errol Placecheck rather than assigning responsibility to one department or service. A project team was consequently established from: - The Environment Service (TES): Community Greenspace; Traffic and Road Safety; Street Lighting; Roads Maintenance; Public Transport and Conservation. - Education and Childrens Services (ECS): Cultural & Community Services: ommunity Capacity; Youth Work; Performance Planning. - Housing and Community Care.

The Placecheck Process

Over two week-ends in June 2007 more than 40 people participated in a walkabout of eight zones in Errol, armed with cameras to record impressions of the quality of the village environment and areas for improvement. Staff had been pre-assigned to group walkabouts and to provide information where appropriate. Group discussions on the eight sites followed and short (2-3 months), medium (within a year) and long term (a year or more) priorities were agreed. The discussions on priorities, including input from council officers with relevant expertise, were viewed by local people as being particularly useful. Feedback indicated that the discussions were regarded as meaningful rather than merely a question and answer session, or an exercise in council officers fielding complaints/issues.Evaluation was largely positive with 68% of participants scoring Placecheck as either a good or very good way of identifying local priorities. Examples of two of the main issues arising, and proposed solutions, are set out in the following tables. Several of the proposals were expected to help solve more than one problem. Issue The Cross What Needs To Be Improved Repair and protection from vehicle damage. No longer focal point. Proposed Solution Buffer to increase protection to The Cross without use of bollards. Extend trim of whin setts and install 100 mm whin kerb. Create the impression of a narrower carriageway to encourage careful driving. Extra space for seasonal plant pots. Paint removal and lime pointing to resolve unsatisfactory repairs.

The Cross - before The Cross - after Rumble strip and parking (reduces visibility & road width) encourages slower traffic speeds Issue Traffic speed What Needs To Be Improved Perception of speeding throughout High St. Trouble spots e.g. between Post Office and Church car park. Proposed Solution Option for 20 mph zone along High St but this will require the associated legal signs. Speed reducing measures introduced which work by making drivers proceed with care due to perceptions of uncertainty. Reduced road markings. Visual obtrusions e.g. bus boarders, widened trim to Cross. Physical features such as rumble strips in whin setts on the approach to The Cross and a sleeping policeman between the Post Office and the Church - provides a better and safer link to Errol Public Park from the High St. Less expansive roadway at the junction of the High St, St Madoes Rd and Loan Brae.

Pavement build-out and road re-marking reduce traffic speeds at junction

Thirty-five local people returned in August 2007 to the feedback event where the World Caf method2 was used to generate discussion about the outcomes and actions arising from the first prioritising event. As for the first event, a crche was provided. Officers provided information on traffic survey results, costings and specifications. This was essential in order to inform prioritisation of issues identified from the first event. Priorities were grouped and rationalised to create an agenda for both the council team and local people. The agreed themes were: Community support High Street Park and countryside Gateways and streets Some small scale actions, e.g. re-painting road markings and provision of dog waste bins, had already been implemented following the first event, and these were reported on. Outline costs and the implications of progressing longer term priorities were explained.

Keeping the community informed

Following the first event a newsletter was sent to all residents to confirm the top priorities and advise on the next steps. An exhibition of the proposals to address the community priorities took place in Errol community centre from 22 November 19 December. The display was staffed for 3 evenings over one week. This was quickly followed by a further newsletter advising of progress and referring people to copies of the drawings available at several locations in the village and on the PKC website. Community participation at this stage was low. In addition, there had been ongoing email contact with some residents about particular aspects of progress that they were interested in being involved with, e.g. parents of small children who were keen to have a role in planned park improvements.

The Errol Placecheck pilot successfully engaged with the community, promoted joint working across council services and projected an image of corporate effectiveness. A diverse range of community voices were heard and priorities developed based on a broad view of agreed need and aspirations. The residents of Errol were delighted to have such a high profile with the council. The planning and presentation of the two Placecheck events were well executed and received, and the work of the PKC team was both evident and acknowledged very positively in Errol. The availability of ring-fenced monies to support priorities identified contributed to a well motivated PKC team and, to an extent, to community interest. The availability of a crche, use of cameras, good refreshments and the pilot nature of the Placecheck all contributed to a feel good factor in the village. Although unlikely to be sustained without financial investment, the immediate success of the two events was not wholly dependent on financial resources.
The World Caf,


The Placecheck benchmarked well against the national standards for community engagement, including the feedback standard which can be challenging for councils, as complex bureaucracies, to deliver. Since the Placecheck communication within the community and between the community and the PKC team has been mixed. Dialogue with local residents and community organisations remains ongoing. There had been complaints about lack of progress. Whilst this is of course legitimate, some community feedback has highlighted the continued dependency on council services to address local community issues which might be more effectively addressed within and by the community itself. For the council, rolling out the Placecheck approach without ring-fenced or top-sliced monies raises concerns about sustainability. There is apprehension about raising community expectations through an exciting process with little resources to deliver improvements. Identifying where a planned Placecheck fits with strategic priorities and clarifying expectations of both Community Planning partners and communities in generating funding for priorities would help overcome this. Effective and concentrated capacity building within communities in advance of Placecheck rollout is recommended. This will contribute to the creation of community structures and processes that can work in partnership with the council to deliver priorities identified. It will also help the community to be more involved in the planning of the Placecheck from the start. Without this, there is a danger of creating cynicism about the purpose and value of the Placecheck process within communities.

As at May 2009 the majority of the work that was planned during the Errol Placecheck process has been completed and the council is working with the community to plan the path signage. A further evaluation has been distributed to gauge the feelings of Errol Residents following the improvements and the desire for ongoing community action. There have been further meetings with the Errol Community Group who want to continue discussions on further road/traffic improvements. Since the Errol Placecheck the council has organised another Placecheck event in Dunning, which took place in August 2008 with a follow up event in November. An exhibition of design options in April 2009 invited public comment, with 52 adults and 19 children attending. An invitation for communities to be nominated if they would like to host the next Placecheck event in August 2009 has also been extended. The council intend to run the event in a settlement of around 2000 people. Nine settlements have so far expressed interest and the council is in the process of meeting with representatives from these places to allow them to put forward their case for selection. The applications will be scored against criteria and a panel will meet in May to choose the next three Placecheck areas.

Rumble strip identifies 20 mph zone

Pavement build-out as attractive feature

In addition, the council will be running a workshop for people who are interested in conducting their own Placecheck. Some support would be provided if they decided to go ahead but these areas would not have the same level of resources to support their plans as the main Placecheck areas. After the success of the Errol Placecheck the council gave its full support to take forward Placecheck across Perth and Kinross, with the allocation of significant funds and engagement of an officer on a full time and permanent contract to take forward the process. Errol Placecheck has been shortlisted for the councils Securing the Future Award. Through this award the council seeks to recognise teams of employees involved in projects that have demonstrated high levels of achievement. The awards recognise methods of service delivery that are well planned, customer focused, innovative and creative.

............................................................................................................. More information on the Errol Placecheck is available at: Errol+placecheck/ Or contact: Diane Cassidy The Environment Service, Pullar House, 35 Kinnoull Street PERTH, PH1 5GD T: 01738 475396; E:

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.7 Placemaking

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.7 Placemaking
This information is taken from A Guide to Neighbourhood Planning in Chicago

Placemaking is a multi-faceted approach to the planning, design and management of public spaces. It involves looking at, listening to, and asking questions of the people who live, work and play in a particular space, to discover needs and aspirations. This information is then used to create a common vision for that place. The vision can evolve quickly into an implementation strategy, beginning with small-scale, do-able improvements that can immediately bring benefits to public spaces and the people who use them. Placemaking can be used to improve all of the spaces that comprise the meeting places within a community its streets, pavements, parks, buildings, and other public spaces so that they invite greater interaction between people and foster healthier, more social, and economically viable communities. But Placemaking is not just the act of building or maintaining a space; it is a process that fosters the creation of vital public destinations the kind of places where people feel a strong connection and commitment to making things better. Placemaking capitalises on a local communitys assets, inspiration and potential, creating good public spaces that promote peoples health, happiness, and economic wellbeing.

What makes a successful place?

The words spaces and places have very different meanings. A space is nothing more than a piece of land, whereas a place suggests an emotional attachment to the piece of land. In part, a successful place is about having a variety of things to do in one area. When the space becomes more than the sum of its parts, it becomes a place. For example, an area in a park that has a fountain, playground, somewhere for parents to sit, and a place to get something to drink or eat will attract people to stay there for more than a few minutes and return. If the park had a library across the street, with an outdoor area that had storytelling hours for kids and exhibits on local history, people would come to both the library and park again and again. Easy access to a bus stop or foot and cycle path and proximity to residential areas are additional components that cumulatively add up to a very successful place. When people describe a place words like safe, fun, charming, and welcoming tend to come up repeatedly. These types of adjectives describe the intangible qualities, the qualitative aspects, of a particular space. Such qualities can also be measured quantitatively in a variety of ways by using statistics or conducting research. When combined, positive, intangible qualities lead to tangible success in public spaces.

Four key qualities of a successful place Access and linkages

Access concerns how well a place is connected to its surroundings both visually and physically. A successful public space is visible, easy to get to and around. Physical elements can affect access (a continuous row of shops along a street is more interesting and generally safer to walk by than a blank wall or empty units), as

can perceptions (the ability to see a public space from a distance). Accessible public places have a high turnover in parking and, ideally, convenient public transport.

Comfort and image

Comfort and image are key to whether a place will be used. Perceptions about safety and cleanliness, the context of adjacent buildings, and a place's character or charm are often foremost in people's minds as are more tangible issues such as having a comfortable place to sit. The importance of people having the choice to sit where they want is generally underestimated.

Uses and activities

Activities that occur in a place friendly social interactions, free public concerts, community art shows, and more are its basic building blocks: they are the reasons why people come in the first place and why they return. Activities also make a place special or unique, which, in turn, may help generate community pride.


This is a difficult but unmistakable quality for a place to achieve. When people see friends, meet and greet their neighbours, and feel comfortable interacting with strangers, they tend to feel a stronger sense of place or attachment to their community and to the place that fosters these types of social activities.

Perth Town Centre: a place to meet up with friends

Impacts and benefits

Shared places help to create a sense of community. When public spaces become a part of daily life, they become linked with personal and collective milestones, for example meeting new friends, childrens first steps, celebrating local culture and entrepreneurship. Placemaking creates emotional links to places, and sharing these links helps strengthen community. The following are just a few positive benefits of Placemaking.

Bridge building places - draw a diverse population that can include women, elderly and children, as well

as an ethnic and cultural mix, and encourage people to get involved and take pride in the area. Public spaces are a "common ground."

Economic and community development - public space improvements can easily be targeted to catalyse private investment and small-scale entrepreneurial activities, such as local markets. Community identity - places nurture and define community identity through greater community organisation, a better sense of dedication and volunteerism, upholding of integrity and values, and a common vision. Democracy building - public spaces are a common goal that diverse groups can work on collaboratively in a democratic process. Youth engagement young people are often overlooked, which misses the opportunity not only to build leadership but also reduce apathy or cynicism among this age group.

Edinburgh, St Andrew Square: a thoroughfare but also a place to relax

Dunfermline Farmers Market: active use of place bringing economic value

11 Principles of Placemaking
1. The community is the expert.
People who use a public space regularly know best how the area functions.

2. You are creating a place, not a design. 3. You can't do it alone.

Design is not the only important factor so is accessibility, active uses and economic opportunities.

Partners will bring innovative ideas, financial or political support, and help plan activities.

4. They'll always say, "It can't be done."

"It can't be done" usually means: "We've never done things that way before." Keep pushing. Identify leaders in the community and build community and political support.

5. You can see a lot just by observing.

People will often adapt a place to suit their needs. A wall can be used as a place to sit and chat, to read or to eat. Observing a space allows you to learn how the space is used.

6. Develop a vision.

A vision for a public space addresses its character, activities, uses, and meaning in the community. This vision should be defined by the people who live or work in or near the space.

7. Form supports function.

Too often, people think about how they will use a space only after it is built. Keeping in mind active uses when designing or rehabilitating a space can lower costs by discouraging unnecessary landscaping and monuments, as well as potentially eliminating the need to retrofit a poorly used public space.

8. Triangulate.

Locate elements next to each other in a way that fosters activity. For example, a bench, rubbish bin, and coffee kiosk placed near a bus stop create synergy because they are more convenient for waiting bus passengers and pedestrians than if they were isolated from each other.

9. Start with the petunias.

Simple, short-term actions such as planting flowers can be a way of testing ideas and encouraging people that their ideas matter.

10. Money is not the issue.

A lack of money is often used as an excuse for doing nothing. Funds for public space improvements often are scarce, so it is important to remember the value of the public space itself to potential partners and search for creative solutions. The location, level of activity, and visibility of public spaces, combined with a willingness to work closely with local partners, can elicit resources from those involved to activate and enhance these spaces.

11. You are never finished.

Successful places change daily, weekly and seasonally, which makes management critical. A good management structure will respond effectively to different uses over time.

Power of 10
A successful place needs to have at least 10 things to do in it or 10 reasons to be there. These could include, for example, a place to sit, art to touch, music to hear, food to buy, historic information to learn about, and books to read. Most of the uses and ideas have to come from the people who would use the space, and would hopefully be somewhat unique to that place. These 10 uses should also define peoples experience of a place, and be dynamic enough to attract a range of user groups, keep people coming back, and continue evolving. Placemaking allows communities to see how their insight and knowledge fits into the broader process of making change. It allows them to become proactive versus reactive, and positive versus negative. Placemaking allows ordinary people to make extraordinary improvements, both big and small, in their communities.

The information provided above on Placemaking is taken from:

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3.8 Public Realm Design Guidance

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.8 Public Realm Design Guidance

Public realm includes all the spaces between buildings that can be freely accessed, it encompasses all outdoor areas including roads, parks, squares, pedestrian routes and cycleways. Outdoor space should stimulate the senses, yet remain human in scale. The condition and quality of our streets and spaces have a major impact on our quality of life, it is therefore important to understand how design and quality development can help to create successful places. The City of Edinburgh Council recognised the importance of design in creating successful places in its Public Realm Strategy for Fountainbridge1. The aim of this strategy document was to focus on the public realm aspects of Fountainbridge (previously a brewery) and to provide future developers with an understanding of the planning authoritys aspirations and vision for the site. The strategy built on the requirements of the pre-existing Development Brief for Fountainbridge, which established the principle of redevelopment of the site to a mix of uses. The strategy therefore provided: Confidence in a consistent level of quality over the entire development. A structure for a range of parameters, including for example the use of materials, whilst also allowing for flexibility in the development. Guidance for the determination of future detailed or reserved matters applications at the various phases of redevelopment.

The key principles of pedestrian linkage and movement were central to the strategy, as was establishing a thriving mixed use community centred around a high quality urban environment. It was expected that future planning applications would be accompanied by Design Statements, which would take reference from the Fountainbridge Public Realm Strategy.

Successful Fountainbridge, Edinburgh: busy and attractive .............................................................................................................


Fountainbridge Public Realm Strategy, City of Edinburgh Council, Supplementary_planning_guidance/Development_briefs/CEC_fountainbridge_public_realm_strategy

What Makes Good Public Realm?

A comfortable and stimulating public realm that encourages social interaction requires detailed attention to the structure of a space and the elements within it. This involves hard and soft surfaces; appropriate planting; surfaces for pedestrians and surfaces for vehicles. Issues such as security, public art, street furniture, lighting and signage should also be considered at the same time. 2 The Urban Design Compendium defined the elements of a high quality public realm as:

Activity areas Different uses Mix of users Through routes Stimulation touch, sound smell

Social Space

Strong local identity Local plants Built to last

Distinctive Places

No clutter Public art Clear place functions Discreet service /inspection boxes

Street Furniture

A Thriving Public Realm

Consistent & coordinated Legible place with fewer signs Pedestrian signs at key nodes Use of paving & floorscape art


For pedestrians Different sources overhead, bollards, on buildings, feature More light more night time activity


The case studies below are further examples of how public realm design guidance can be provided. .............................................................................................................

Urban Design Compendium, Detailing the Place: A Thriving Public Realm,

3.8.1 Case Study: Bathgate Town Centre Public Realm Design Guide
Bathgate Town Centre Public Realm Design Guide3 was prepared in conjunction with the Bathgate Town Centre Urban Design Framework4 by Ironside Farrar on behalf of West Lothian Council/Enterprising Bathgate. Enterprising Bathgate was Scotlands first Business Improvement District (BID), established following a successful ballot of businesses in the area.

Bathgate Town Centre Urban Design Framework

The Urban Design Framework is intended to fulfil three functions: Set out a vision and strategy for Bathgate town centre within a Design Framework adopted as Supplementary Design Guidance to support the West Lothian Development Plan. Provide a Design Tool for Planning Officers and developers that offers a clear interpretation of national policy guidance and urban design best practice that is specific to Bathgate and that will be used in Development Control to support the quality of design, adding clarity and consistency to the planning process. Provide understanding of how small and incremental change can support place-making and deliver a stronger more vibrant, more sustainable town centre. The Urban Design Framework identifies five strategic objective themes based on the Enterprising Bathgate BID Business Plan: Perception and Image Accessibility Clean and Attractive Safe and Secure Facilitation.

Three objectives are identified under the Accessibility theme: Encourage safe and comfortable pedestrian movement. Promote access to/from the town centre by train or bus. Improve legibility of the public space network through townscape improvements and clearer signalisation of civic amenities and car parks. An urban design appraisal of Bathgate town centre was undertaken to identify positive and negative issues that needed to be addressed. These were used as the basis for eight key design principles for the town centre: Maintaining pedestrian ease of movement. .............................................................................................................
Bathgate Town Centre Public Realm Design Guide, West Lothian Council, 2008 4 Bathgate Town Centre Urban Design Framework, West Lothian Council, 2008

Minimising barriers to movement to ensure accessibility. Promoting a more co-ordinated streetscape appearance. Improving townscape/public realm legibility. Enhancing quality of the public realm. Providing attractive and welcoming town centre gateways. Retaining and enhancing traditional character. Ensuring natural surveillance and human presence.

The Design Framework incorporates various aspects of public realm interventions including a Public Space Network Strategy, which forms the pedestrian circulation system upon which the success of the town centre lies. This identifies routes that need to be safeguarded and where the experience of moving through them can be improved in order to encourage pedestrian movement. The Transport and Car Parking Strategy includes cycling provisions including new on-street cycle lanes to provide enhanced and safer access to the town centre and the incorporation of cycle stands in convenient and secure locations as part of any enhancement to public spaces. Planning applications for development in the town centre should be accompanied by a design statement which addresses the key design principles.

Bathgate Town Centre Public Realm Design Guide

The Public Realm Design Guide considers George Street, the main pedestrian shopping street in Bathgate within the context of the study and uses the outline design to form a basis for a town centre public realm design. It sets out outline design proposals to set clear design principles and a design vision for the way in which the street is further designed and considered. The objective is to secure a clearer understanding and design specification for the street and: Address issues associated with quality of place and respond to the wider scale issues of providing an attractive and welcoming town centre. Provide a means of representing improved environmental quality. Improve accessibility and pedestrian movement. Promote a more co-ordinated streetscape. The Public Realm Design Guide sets the eight design principles identified in the Design Framework for Bathgate into the context of George Street. In relation to the three design principles most relevant for promoting walking the design guide states:

Maintain pedestrian ease of movement

Remove the large block planters where causing a restriction to pedestrian access and visibility. Remove elements of clutter such as walls and redundant posts.

Traditional features enhance amenity & enjoyment

Minimise barriers to ensure accessibility

Remove elements such as planters and walls which cause a significant barrier to pedestrian movement. Consider best practice guidelines for the design of any new features including seating, signage and litter bins. Aim to design out level changes and steps.

Promote a more co-ordinated streetscape appearance

Consider opportunities to relocate some elements of street furniture to a more appropriate location. Establish a town centre palette of materials and elements to provide a better consistency of appearance.

Other elements of the design principles also encourage people to walk to and in the town centre, including:
Consider improvements to lighting, particularly within the vennels. Punctuate arrival points.

The Public Realm Design Guide includes an Action Plan developed using broad aspirations from the Urban Design Framework and the practical implementation works identified in the Design Guide. They also take on board the priorities identified through a public consultation exercise. The projects in the Action Plan are broken down into three broad project types: Core Projects Wider area aspirations Monitoring and project evaluation.

Attractive & welcoming gateway

The Public Realm Design Guide has been developed to provide a clear way forward in the development and implementation of physical projects to improve the town centre. It seeks to retain a clear project based strategy that will enhance quality, functionality, appeal and value. It is intended that the projects will allow flexibility that facilitates and encourages various groups and interests to champion individual projects and allows their participation in design, planning, implementation and management. The Design Guide deliberately avoids an over-aspirational shopping list of projects, which are often unrealistic for reasons of cost or practical implementation. It is important to take stock of existing features in the town centre environment, which are often of high quality, and build on these as a starting point.

3.8.2 Case Study: The Edinburgh Standards for Streets

As a capital city with a unique built heritage, the quality of the public realm is of great importance to the city of Edinburgh. The Edinburgh Standards for Streets (ESS) is a revision of the preceding Edinburgh Streetscape Manual, published in 1996. It is intended to help implement the principles of good public realm quality in a consistent manner across the city specifically in relation to the design of streets. Edinburghs streets are regarded as being more than the core of the transport network, they are movement corridors, the focus for activities and they give the city its identity. Together, all of these functions contribute to placemaking and are influenced by the design of the streets.

The Grassmarket: pedestrian-friendly Above all, Edinburghs Design Initiative, led by Sir Terry Farrell, seeks to establish Edinburgh as a city for the pedestrian. By ensuring that footways are safe, comfortable, uncluttered and attractive and that the quality of the streets contributes to the wider townscape, Edinburgh will compare favourably with other iconic cities, such as Barcelona, Copenhagen and Paris, where people like to walk. The character and characteristics of Edinburgh are embedded within the ESS, with plain and simple footways providing a suitable setting for the citys fine buildings. The ESS aims to maintain and attain a quality public realm appropriate to the citys built heritage.

Quality surfaces, space to walk

The ESS constitutes supplementary planning guidance and should be referred to along with other policy guidance contained within Edinburgh City Councils Development Quality Handbook. The ESS are crosscutting and should be considered alongside Edinburghs Local Transport Strategy and its supplementary guidance for developers, Movement and Development, as well as more specific guidance, such as the Bus Friendly Design Guide, Cycle Friendly Design Guide, Tram Design Manual and emerging Lighting Strategy. The ESS are equally applicable to existing streets and new developments and are set out in three sections: Part one: the principles including what the aspirations are for Edinburghs streets; what defines the character of Edinburghs streets; the principles for streets .

Distinctive street scapes Part two: design guidance including the arrangement of streets; footways; carriageways; signage; street furniture and features and street trees and landscaping.

Pleasant places for people to gather

Part three: delivery including delivering the principles of street design for Edinburgh; the streetscape delivery process; the design process; roads asset management plan; sustainability; and using the ESS.

St Andrew Square

The Edinburgh Standards for Streets can be viewed in full at:

Living Streets (The Pedestrians Association) is a Registered Charity No. 1108448 (England and Wales) and SC039808 (Scotland), Company Limited by Guarantee (England & Wales), Company Registration No. 5368409. Registered office 4th Floor, Universal House, 88-94 Wentworth Street. E1 7SA

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3.9 Design For Play

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.9 Design For Play

Play is a very serious business for young people. It is intrinsic to a healthy childhood. High-quality play provision offers a route to fitness that is fun. For families, it offers a safe location for meeting with friends. Perhaps most of all, well-designed play space helps make young people happy in, and with, their local neighbourhoods. Play spaces need to be integrated into the wider public realm and are not the preserve of just one profession. Depending on the local context, planners, park managers and transport professionals, as well as play workers, may need to be involved in decisions about future play provision1. Design for Play: a guide to creating successful play spaces2, provides ideas and practical resources for building new play spaces in a fresher and more inspiring manner. The guide, supported by CABE Space, advocates a fresh design-led approach to commissioning, based on 10 principles and encapsulated in one golden rule - a successful play space is a place in its own right, specially designed for its location, in such a way as to provide as much play value as possible. Practitioners are asked to imagine a play space that is: 1. 2. Designed to enhance its setting successful play spaces are designed to fit their surroundings and enhance the local environment, complementing attractive spaces and enhancing poorer environments. Located in the best possible place successful play spaces are located carefully to be where children would play naturally. While children often enjoy feeling as if they are away from adult view, there is a fine balance between a space that is pleasantly secluded and one that is remote and hidden away. Close to nature grassy mounds, planting, logs and boulders can all help to make a more attractive and playable setting for equipment, and planting can also help attract birds and other wildlife to bring the play space to life. Designed so that children can play in different ways successful play spaces can be used in different ways by children and young people of different ages and interests; they can also be important social spaces for parents and carers, as well as for children. Geared towards encouraging disabled and able-bodied children to play together children with different abilities can play together in well-designed play spaces, and parents and carers who are themselves disabled should be able to gain access to play spaces if they are to accompany their children.

3. 4. 5.

Designing and Planning for Play, Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, 2008 2 Design for Play: a guide to creating successful play spaces, Play England, the Department for Children, Schools and Families and DCMS, 2008

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Loved by the community a successful community engagement process will help create a site that the community likes and which meets its needs. (CABE Spaces What would you do with this space? offers constructive ways to involve children in public spaces3.) Where children of all ages play together good play spaces avoid segregating children based on age or ability and are laid out so that equipment and features can be used by a wide range of children. Designed to enable children to stretch and challenge themselves in every way children and young people need opportunities to experience challenge and excitement in their play. Maintained for play value and environmental sustainability good play spaces are designed and constructed using sustainable materials and maintained to encourage different play experiences. Flexible and able to evolve as the children grow Building some slack space into the layout (areas with no predefined function) can help introduce the potential for change and evolution.

Playable Spaces The Guide also highlights that as well as providing new play areas and refurbishing or upgrading old play spaces local authorities should consider making other spaces more playable. Children and young people should be able to play freely in their local neighbourhoods. Providing play opportunities is as much about creating general public space that offers play opportunities, as it is about designing and developing designated play spaces. Playable space is one expression of shared public space, which meets the needs of different people at the same time. Support for playable spaces can greatly extend the range of play opportunities offered to children and can be highly cost effective. A positive attitude towards children and young people and their play is a key feature of good playable spaces, and helps create a more child-friendly society.

Opportunity for play in city centre


Involving Young People in the Design and Care of Urban Spaces, CABE, 2004

Street play
Many children use their local street for play, especially when parents feel that they or their friends can keep an eye out for the children. Small corners that would not be noticed by adults can have great appeal for children such as side alleyways, a wider section of pavement orspace outside some garage doors. Opportunities for street play can be enhanced by reducing traffic volumes and speeds. Local streets can be planned, designed or adapted so that children and their families feel more confident about playing out. Streets that are well designed for play are usually also better for pedestrians, cyclists and the whole community. Street play is even more important now, given the significant reduction in the distance children travel independently since the 1960s, and the limited amounts of green space available in many high density housing developments (Wheway, 20074).

City Street Play


A Not Risk Averse Society, Wheway 2007

3.9.1 Case Study: Darnley Park, Stirling

Darnley Park was created on a formerly neglected city centre site. With dramatic views over Stirling to the River Forth and the Ochil Hills, it forms a serene and interesting space for people living in the immediate area of high density housing, for the many visitors to Stirlings historic Old Town, and for those using it as a through route between the upper and lower parts of the town

In developing this site, the main aim was to create a space that encouraged imaginative and child directed play, in a landscape that held local significance and meaning. The distinct but connected play spaces contain grit and sand providing safe surfaces and good play material at the same time. All actual play structures and equipment (for climbing, sliding, balancing, swinging, ball games and much else besides) have been built or chosen specifically for the site, to integrate with, complement and enhance the landscape. The site includes an unconventionally shaped ball court cut into the woodland on one side of the site. Natural wooded areas on the embankment bordering the long flight of steps connecting the site to the town centre below and surrounding the ball court have been left wild but not neglected, and are managed in such a way as to encourage children to explore and use these areas. Local residents, who had first raised the need for the park were involved throughout, participating in all project meetings during the construction period and visiting the site regularly. Local children worked with playworkers, a sculptor and an artist/blacksmith to design, make and site special boulder features.

Since the site opened it has been the focus for numerous events. Children themselves have been involved in the organisation and hosting of community events in the park, including working with playworkers and a pyrotechnician to design their own fireworks display. They have most recently been involved in planning and executing a new phase of planting on the site the edible area including raspberries, currants and pear, plum and apple trees. The park has won wide acclaim, being the sole Scottish winner of an International Architecture for Children Award in 2004.

Source: Design for Play: a guide to creating successful play spaces (Play England, the Department for Children, Schools and Families and DCMS, 2008)

Facilities for Imaginative & adventurous play in Darnley Park

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3.10 Tackling Anti-social Behaviour

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.10 Tackling Anti-social Behaviour

Anti-social Behaviour
The term anti-social behaviour covers a wide range of selfish and unacceptable activity that can blight personal and community quality of life, prevent the renewal of disadvantaged areas and create an environment where more serious crime can flourish. Anti-social behaviour is a major issue in some of the UKs more deprived or disadvantaged communities. It is also expensive with an estimated cost to the British taxpayer of 3.4bn a year. Terms such as nuisance, disorder and harassment are also used to describe some of this behaviour, which can include: Nuisance neighbours Yobbish behaviour and intimidating groups taking over public spaces Vandalism, graffiti and fly-posting People dealing and buying drugs on the street People dumping rubbish Abandoned cars Aggresive begging and anti-social drinking The misuse of fireworks Reckless driving of mini-motorbikes. A legal definition of anti-social behaviour is found in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. The Act describes such behaviour as acting in an anti-social manner as a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household as the perpetrator.

Why does it happen?

There are a variety of factors which increase the risk of anti-social behaviour. The more of these which are present, the more likely someone is to become involved in anti-social behaviour.

Parenting School

Poor parenting skills, a weak parent/child relationship and a family history of problem behaviour.

Truancy, exclusion and unchallenged bad behaviour.

Community life

Living in deprived areas with disorder and neglect, lack of community spirit, living in areas with an already high-level of anti-social behaviour.

Individual factors

Drug and alcohol abuse, alienation and early involvement in anti-social behaviour. There are a range of interventions which can help reduce the occurrence and impact of anti-social behaviour on individuals and communities. Some interventions can also help individuals and/or their parents and families change their own behaviour and enable them to tackle some of the underlying problems. The above information has been taken from the UK Governments website for preventing and tackling anti-social behaviour:

Community blighted by anti-social behaviour

What action can be taken?

Anti-social behaviour causes harm to individuals and the community and must be stopped as soon as possible, when the minimum harm has been caused. The goal of any action is to: protect victims, witnesses and the community enable the perpetrator to understand the consequences of their behaviour make sure the perpetrator changes their behaviour. Measures that can be used by the police and other agencies include: warning letters and interviews, contracts and agreements fixed penalty notices and penalty notices for disorder parenting orders, individual support orders, noise abatement notices, injunctions, dispersal powers and anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs) crack house closure orders possession proceedings against a tenant. Action may be initiated by a number of agencies including the police, local authorities, registered social landlords, housing trusts and youth offending teams.

Creating stronger communities

Most people care deeply about the neighbourhood and community in which they live, and many play an active role in making their neighbourhood a better place to live. Anti-social behaviour can significantly impact on peoples quality of life and weaken communities people who perceive high levels of anti-social behaviour are much more likely to feel that their neighbours dont look out for one another.

Too many people do not report anti-social behaviour because they dont believe their complaint will be taken seriously, or that anything will happen if they do. It is therefore important to create stronger communities where people are informed about what action is happening to address their concerns, where people feel it is worth them taking the time to pick up the phone, to go to a residents meeting or put an activity on for the local kids.

Graffiti and vandalism: needs rapid reporting and response

An example of efficient graffiti cleaning

3.10.1 Case Study: Arden & Darnley Action Plan A Partnership Response to Issues of Disorder, Vandalism & Territorialism
Glasgow Community & Safety Services
Glasgow Community & Safety Services (GCSS), established in October 2006, is a partnership between Strathclyde Police and Glasgow City Council. The staff of around 500 provides a range of services dealing with anti-social behaviour and community safety. Priority areas of work include: reducing anti-social behaviour contributing to the Cleaner Glasgow campaign community safety patrols support for families and individuals who have been victims of anti-social behaviour reducing violence against women. GCSS, which is represented on the Community Safety Partnership, is a member of the Community Planning Partnership and is represented on the Councils Senior Management Committee. Organised in three locality teams covering all five Community Health and Care Partnerships, these multi-functional teams work closely with local partners including the local community, housing associations, voluntary and other organisations. Environmental enhancement is part of the GCSSs action planning approach to tackling local problems. Action plans are developed to address issues arising in problem areas, with actions generally involving working with other agencies and local people to target immediate problems and to create longer term solutions. The Arden & Darnley Action Plan is an example of this work.

Arden and Darnley are two discrete communities which lie to the South of Glasgow and whilst once considered semi-rural communities, they have hosted several housing developments over the years and now comprise of a mixture of retail outlets and houses. Large sections of Darnley and Arden fall within the 15% most deprived areas in Scotland and a higher-than-average percentage of this population are young people. Police and community intelligence suggests that the significant issues affecting Arden and Darnley are youth disorder, vandalism and a gang culture. The M77 motorway divides these areas and would appear to be a territorial boundary for the Darnley Mad Squad and the Arden Young Toon gangs, with much of the disorder and associated activities occurring on the footbridge over the motorway and the environs at either side. There had been increasing concern regarding the high level s of anti-social behaviour within these communities.

Example of a gang tag

With rising community anxiety and the resultant fear of crime amongst local residents, a partnership meeting was convened to develop a collective response to tackle these issues. It was clear from this meeting that the issues could not be addressed by any single organisation and that a joint multidisciplinary approach was required to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to the problem. The complex nature of the issues required a response that included the key strands of enforcement, public reassurance and intervention/diversion. Those present at the meeting and the services that they represented subsequently formed a problem-solving group that operated across the Community Planning Partnership.

Analysis of the Problem

Incidents of anti-social behaviour (ASB) increased significantly between October 2007 and December 2007, and during January 2008 to March 2008 incidents were 57% higher than the previous year. As a comparison, there were 99 incidents in March 2007 and 139 in March 2008. In relation to time of day, most incidents occurred between 6pm and 11pm, peaking around 8pm, and for day of week most incidents occurred on a Friday and Saturday evening. One main ASB hotspot was identified within the Arden & Darnley areas. Each incident of ASB was considered to involve the three key elements of the offender, the victim and the location. By addressing each of these in turn resources were utilised to maximum effect. The victim, offender and location approach helped to quickly identify the significant issues affecting the local communities in Arden and Darnley: VICTIM Residents, particularly the elderly, felt vulnerable when youths congregated and this in turn raised their fear of crime. A gang culture exists between youths in Arden and Darnley and this creates the potential for young victims of violent assault. Residents have an air of apathy and cynicism; vandalism, graffiti and antisocial behaviour are prevalent in the area demonstrating a lack of service intervention. OFFENDER While persistent offenders in the area could be targeted to provide short-term relief to the community, there was little provision for a sustained response to repeated offending. There was a lack of co-ordinated diversionary activities to deter local youths from engaging in anti-social behaviour, gang fighting and alcohol misuse. LOCATION The local skate park had become a crime generator, an area where youths gathered to engage in alcohol misuse and other anti-social behaviour. This was compounded by bad design of the skate park and poor lighting. The M77 motorway acts as a natural territorial divide between opposing gangs and the footbridge leading from Aden to Darnley was also considered as being a crime generator.

The long-term, sustainable action plan identified four key objectives: 1. 2. To target unknown offenders and locations in the Arden and Darnley areas by using an enforcement, prevention, intervention and community consultation model. To provide robust diversionary activities and effectively signpost individuals to core services provided by Glasgow Community & Safety Partnership and/or other services, relevant to the individuals needs. To increase public confidence and reduce the communities fear of crime. To improve the physical appearance of the areas.

3. 4.

The Partnership sought to achieve these objectives by utilising a wide range of services. Service delivery would be directed through a task identification process based on up-to-date intelligence and recorded on an action log which highlighted issues as and when they arose. The project would involve a number of actions to be undertaken and although not an exhaustive list, included the following: ENFORCEMENT Deployment of mobile CCTV units and detection of offenders using CCTV footage. Tags photographed, collated and efforts made to identify the gang, with a view to action through the ASB legislation and Criminal/Restorative Justice system. Details of youths gathering for gang-fighting forwarded to the Community Relations Unit for joint visits and ASB legislation where appropriate. Potential for Level II surveillance/test purchase operations with regard to alleged drug/ alcohol misuse & irresponsible sale/agent purchase from off-sales premises. PREVENTION High visibility deployment of police/Community Safety Patrol Officers. Regeneration of Arden Skate Park including improved lighting and the siting of a re-deployable CCTV camera. Environmental clean-ups of areas subject to fly-tipping. Timeous graffiti removal by dedicated GCSS teams. An alcohol strategy to address alcohol misuse (link with the Community Health & Care Partnership to develop an alcohol education and responsible sale programme). Deployment of the GCSS Command Vehicle for high-profile monitoring. INTERVENTION Development of a forum for sharing information & intervention through ASB legislation. Sustained provision of diversionary activities, complemented by educational inputs and relevant support mechanisms. Utilising Glasgow South West Regeneration Agency with regard to their diversion & Routes into Employment programme Comprehensive briefing for operational personnel (Community Police & Core Shift Supervisors) for signposting individuals to services. An electronic form distributed to all personnel for referral to services such as Victims & Vulnerable Services, Family Resilience & Advocacy Services, Mediation and Violence against Women Services.

COMMUNICATION Distribution of an information leaflet outlining the proposals of the partnership and detailing services available to local dwellings and businesses. A series of qualitative surveys to ascertain public priorities and opinions. Development of a Key Individual Network comprising local residents to ensure appropriate level of public communication, standard of service delivery and to measure performance. Development of a media strategy for the duration of the project to promote success, increase community wellbeing and to provide the appropriate feedback. A dedicated Single Point of Contact (SPOC) identified within GCSS for collating and disseminating this information to the relevant service and feeding back to the problem-solving partnership.

The aim of the initial six month project, from February to July 2008, was to achieve: 10% reduction in crime. 15% reduction in ASB crime. 20% reduction in reported ASB. 10% increase in referrals under ASB legislation.

Resulting in: Increased confidence in the community to report crime, disorder and anti-social behaviour. A robust and sustainable diversionary programme for local youths. Increased feeling of well-being in the community. Strong community engagement processes. Better reporting mechanisms/referral processes between organisations.

A full quantitative evaluation (Systems for Tasking & Operational Resource Management, Crime Management System and the Scottish Intelligence Database) and review will be carried out on completion of the project. In addition qualitative door-step interviews and consultation events will be conducted at the beginning and end of the project. It is expected that the partnerships formed and the joint delivery of services will continue after the completion of this initiative and this will develop as a model of good practice that can be applied beyond the Arden & Darnley area. The project achieved a 40% reduction in anti-social behaviour. For further information on the Arden & Darnley Action Plan please contact: Eleanor Lee, Manager for Services Development, Glasgow Community and Safety Services T: 0141 276 7739; E:

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3.11 Health Impact Assessment

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.11 Health Impact Assessment

Health impacts are the overall effects of a policy, strategy, programme or project on the health of the population. This may include direct effects on health and more indirect effects through intermediate factors that influence the determinants of the health of the population. Such impacts may be felt immediately, in the short term or after a longer period of time. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) has been defined as a combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, programme or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.1 HIA uses a range of methods and evidence to identify potential or actual health impacts of policies or proposals in order to maximise positive impacts and minimise any negative impacts on health. The purpose of HIA is to provide information to inform decision making. Therefore, it is usually done before the proposal has been implemented. HIA is a way to promote healthy public policy, influence the social determinants of health, improve health and reduce health inequalities in Scotland. Consideration of health inequalities should be central to health impact assessments. HIAs should identify different groups that may bear different impacts, and show how each group will be affected, positively or negatively. In order to reduce health inequalities, recommendations should aim to maximise the benefits to the most vulnerable groups, and show how those who will be disadvantaged by the proposal may be compensated.2 Other benefits of HIA include improved inter-agency collaboration and public participation. In summary, HIAs will address the three key questions of: Who will be affected by this proposal? What health impacts, good and bad, will they bear? What should be done to improve the health impacts? Some local authorities have produced Supplementary Planning Guidance (see case study 3.11.2) to ensure that the local context is included in guidance on HIA. The depth of analysis in HIA can vary depending on the scale of the proposal being considered, the potential health impacts and the resources available for the work. There are three generally recognised levels of HIA: Screening a short, structured discussion of a proposal seeking to indentify affected populations and potential impacts. Screening is usually the first step of a more detailed HIA but can suffice if there is no concern about significant negative health impacts. Rapid Appraisal more detailed assessment of affected populations usually including a community profile. Appraisal of health impacts will require reference to the research literature and evidence base. It should incorporate input from local people and other stakeholders. .........................................................................................................
Health Impact Assessment: main concepts and suggested approach, World Health Organisation Gothenburg consensus paper, 1999, 2 Scottish Health Impact Assessment Network,

Detailed HIA includes detailed community profiling and systematic review of evidence as well as extensive stakeholders and community consultation.3 The eight steps to carrying out a HIA are:4 Step Step 1 Screening Purpose Identify who might be affected, potential impacts and what determinants of health might be affected as the basis for deciding whether a HIA should be done

Step 2 Step 3

Setting up the HIA team Set up a team with appropriate expertise and people from different perspectives Scoping Set the geographical, population and time boundaries over which to predict impacts. Identify the population groups that might be affected Collate relevant data on the local population and feature(s) of the area Engage and consult local people and other stakeholders to identify their views on possible impacts Identify likely health impacts from the proposal and carry out further review of evidence or research to inform recommendations

Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Local profile Involve stakeholders Identify and assess impacts

Step 7 Step 8

Make recommendations Use findings to recommend adjustments to the proposal or make other changes that would improve health impacts Monitor impacts Monitor the actual impacts that arise after implementation of the policy or proposal

Health Determinants
Health Determinants1 are the personal, social, cultural, economic and enviromental factors that influence the health status of individuals or populations. These include a range of factors such as income, employment, education, social support, to name but a few. The potential impacts on these determinants of health should be considered in a HIA.

HIA as part of Environmental Impact Assessment

For proposals already subject to Environmental Impact Assessment it may be considered sensible to include HIA in this process. If including HIA as part of EIA it is important to ensure that all health impacts are considered, not just those arising from physical hazards. Affected communities should have an opportunity to participate early in the process, and it is important to consider how health benefits can be maximised as well as how to minimise risks. .........................................................................................................
Adapted from Health Impact Assessment of greenspace a guide (2008) 4 Adapted from Heath Impact Assessment: a guide for local authorities (2001)

Integrated Impact Assessment

Policy makers have a growing number of impact assessments to carry out as part of policy making and planning. These include economic assessment, environmental impact assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and many more. There is a clear need to reconcile and combine these various assessment processes to reduce the burden on policy makers and make any trade-offs between different development areas explicit. This has led to growing interest in integrated assessments,5 or at least integrated assessment screening, which includes environment, health, equality, economic and other impacts as appropriate. Including health within integrated assessment can ensure it is considered as part of a wider framework and reduce duplication of assessment.

Example from Designing Streets of how a HIA of development plans can assist decision making: Plan A - dispersed & car dependent layout that does not encourage physical activity. Plan B - compact, permeable and mixed use layout that encourages physical activity

HIA and Other Impact Assessments


3.11.1 Case Study: Health Impact Assessment of Glasgow East End Local Development Strategy
Project Background
Glasgow City Councils vision for the draft East End Local Development Strategy (EELDS) was to create a vibrant, new, city district through a regeneration process based on reinvention and reconnection. Existing and new communities would benefit from a new approach to living in cities, as regeneration in the East End would be a model of sustainable development, addressing issues of population health, environmental quality and meeting peoples needs. There were four main drivers behind the Glasgow Centre for Population Health (GCPH) undertaking a HIA:6 1. 2. 3. 4. The commitment by Glasgow Council to integrate health into the strategic planning process. The local strategy setting out the regeneration framework for part of the Clyde Gateway, which is a national regeneration priority. The health of the population of the East End is amongst the poorest in the UK. The need to meet objectives under Phase IV of the World Health Organisations (WHO) Healthy Cities programme, of which Glasgow is a member.

WHO recommended determinants of health that can form the basis for healthy urban planning Opportunity for healthy lifestyles Social cohesion and supportive social networks Housing quality Access to diverse employment opportunities Access to high-quality facilities educational, cultural, leisure, retail, health and open space Opportunity for local food production and healthy food outlets Road safety and a sense of personal security An attractive environment with acceptable noise levels and good air quality Good water quality and sanitation Reduction in emissions that threaten climate stability

Piloting Health Impact Assessment as a Method of Integrating Health Into Planning: a case study of the Draft East End Local Development Strategy, 2007, GCPH

Rapid appraisal techniques were used for this pilot HIA. A participatory stakeholder workshop was held over two days, which included a half-day site visit to the development areas. Stakeholders were divided into groups for the two days and, using a list of health determinants that had been prioritised according to the contents of the EELDS, helped identify potential impacts on health. The GCPH provided a summary of self-reported health status for the community living in the East End which acted as a baseline against which to judge the potential impacts on health of existing communities. The elements of the draft EELDS that were appraised by stakeholders at the workshop were: Strategic Objectives Regeneration Zones Developing a strategy for integrated transport networks Developing a strategy for integrated infrastructure Design Principles for Neighbourhoods. Developing a strategy for access to services Developing a strategy for economic development Developing a strategy for housing choice Neighbourhood Design Objectives

Summary of outputs from the HIA

As well as providing the communitys views on the determinants of health with respect to the EELDS the consultation identified a number of suggestions made by stakeholders, with the intention of strengthening the health protecting or health promoting aspects of the EELDS. The determinants of health of concern to the stakeholders were:

Mentioned with Mentioned with respect Mentioned with respect to 2 or more respect to 5 or more to 3 or more elements elements of EELDS elements of EELDS of EELDS Accessibility Connectivity Community engagement, involvement and participation Identity Choice of housing Emergency service provision Sustainable transport Choice of employment Integrated infrastructure Sustainable construction Accessibility to leisure Greenspace Designing out crime SUDS Odour from Dalmarnock Waste Water Treatment Works Integrating River Clyde with Greenspace Using water as a feature in the East End Safety Construction impacts

Some issues raised by stakeholders were not covered in the draft EELDS, in particular: provision for emergency services in terms of access, physical infrastructure and operation, and contingency planning - this was felt especially important in view of the large sporting facilities in or planned for the East End; and managing construction impacts, especially as development would be extensive throughout the East End.

Those responsible for the EELDS were therefore asked to consider introducing the issues of provision of infrastructure for emergency planning and of managing construction impacts into the EELDS. Consequently, two types of suggestions were made by stakeholders: 1. 2. Suggestions aimed at those responsible for the EELDS, some of which mention joint planning with several public sector organisations, and: Suggestions that require liaison with other organisations and agencies for effective implementation.

Glasgow City Council incorporated many of the suggestions from the HIA, as well as comments from a wider consultation, into the final strategy.

Community Consultation: part of HIA process

3.11.2 Case Study: Supplementary Planning Guidance for Health Impact Assessment, West Lothian Council
A key driver for the production of this Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) was West Lothian Councils increasing realisation that a much wider range of factors than the provision of health services are important for determining public health. These include life circumstances, low income, employment, education, housing and the environment. Large planning applications are generally required to be accompanied by Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) documented in Environmental Statements (ESs), which often play an important role in influencing the decision to grant or refuse planning consent for proposed developments. Although ESs, or the general application documentation, can include assessments of health impacts, it is the councils view that they rarely cover the wider social and psychological elements or even the direct impacts in a systematic manner. In general, environmental benchmarks such as the health protection-based National Air Quality Objectives (NAQO), are used to assess the significance of the potential impacts. However, there is little discussion of the health impacts of achieving or not achieving the benchmarks.

Development Planning
Development planning is regarded by the council as being integral to health because it affects the determinants of health. Although good health is related to the quality of healthcare available, often more significant to peoples wellbeing are factors like: good quality housing and developments; well designed street scenes; well laid out neighbourhoods; quality and efficiency in transport systems; opportunities to experience leisure and cultural services activities; and green and open space. Development Planning is pivotal in establishing parameters at a strategic level for such health determinants. The impacts of major planning decisions are long-lasting and the health impacts of those decisions can also be significant. Growing evidence of the potential for the design, build and shape of the environment in addressing the greatest public health concerns in Scotland such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, depression, social inequality, safety and violence was a motivator for the council. The council intends to prepare a HIA for Local Development Plans to be produced following the commencement of new Development Planning regulations, to be introduced as part of the Planning etc (Scotland) Act 2006. The aim of such a HIA will be to identify the potential health impacts of development, maximise positive benefits and minimise negative health impacts.

Development Control
While the council will produce a high level HIA that will determine sites to be allocated for development, not all necessary detail will be able to be considered at this strategic level on the local development plan. For this reason, the council advise that it is desirable that larger scale development applications should be accompanied by their own HIA, which should include greater detail.

As a guide, the council compiled a list of application types that should generally be accompanied by an HIA: housing developments of 100 units or more (there would also be a caveat to ensure that there wasnt an obvious subdivision of a site to avoid doing a HIA e.g. a site of 100 units or less split into two or three different sites); industrial/commercial sites over 3000sqm in floor area; all retail developments over 10000sqm in floor area; all mineral development proposals; all brownfield sites/sites that display, or have a history of, contamination; all wind farm proposals; all waste management/recycling sites; developments of significant infrastructure such as roads that can lead to significant increases in noise or air pollution;

any development which will increase or amend traffic levels or patterns in an area where air quality parameters are at or above 75% of the relevant limit value which does apply or will apply in three years time i.e. 2011. This is to take account of tightening air quality standards. (Air Quality standards are to change from 31 December 2010) The councils Environmental Health unit will require to be consulted to ascertain whether this criterion applies; where residential accommodation is proposed for a site which is or is likely to be: - categorised as Noise Exposure Category (NEC) C or D in terms of PAN56; - a Candidate Noise Management Area (CNMA) in terms of Noise Action Planning under the Environmental Noise (Scotland) Regulations 2006; or - subject to an internal noise level which is greater than the current World Health Organisation recommendations (currently no more than 30dB(A) in bedrooms when required for sleep, 35dB(A) in other rooms). The councils Environmental Health unit will require to be consulted to ascertain whether this criterion will apply.

and any other category of development where the council considers submission of a HIA necessary.

Procedure for HIA submission and consideration

The West Lothian Council Supplementary Planning Guidance for Health Impact Assessment can be viewed in full at:

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3.12 Integrating Health into Planning

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.12 Integrating Health into Planning

Equally Well,1 the report of the Ministerial Task Force on health inequalities, contends that public services will need to redesign and refocus if health inequalities are to be tackled effectively. The Scottish Government will provide resources to test and promote this approach through health inequalities learning networks. As outlined in the Equally Well Implementation Plan,2 initially these networks will operate through eight test sites within community planning partnerships in areas of Scotland experiencing high levels of health inequalities. The test sites will focus on areas where local authorities and their partners can improve on both the reach and impact of mainstream local services, within existing resources, drawing on the knowledge and opinions of frontline staff who deliver services, and the people who use them. Each test site will address a different aspect of health inequalities and of how the corresponding Equally Well recommendations can be taken forward. Resources will be required to apply continuous improvement techniques locally, as well as to bring together all the evidence available to inform good practice, track progress and spread learning in order to influence change more widely in public services. Integrating health into current and future city planning will be the focus of one of two test sites in Glasgow. This test site builds on previous experience of incorporating health considerations into the planning process through Glasgows East End Local Development Strategy.3 That showed the potential to consider the health impact of neighbourhood design and development. The test site aims to develop good practice in incorporating health within the planning process; incorporate lessons learned from existing experience; provide new and innovative means for partners to engage with each other; offer new ways of shaping the health impact of private sector investment in buildings and land; and assess the impacts on inequalities in health and wellbeing. A key principle of the text is to reduce peoples exposure to factors in the physical and social environment that cause stress, are damaging to health and well-being, and lead to inequalities. .............................................................................................................

Equally Well, the Report of the Ministerial Task Force on Health Inequalities, Scottish Government, 2008,

Equally Well: Implementation Plan, Scottish Government, 2008,

Glasgow East End Local Development Strategy, Glasgow City Council, 2008, Other Resources Health and the Physical Characteristics of Urban Neighbourhoods: a critical literature review, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2007, Healthy Urban Planning in Three UK Policy Contexts, Terry Blair-Stevens and Russell Jones, 2006, Healthy Cities and Urban Governance, World Health Organisation,

3.12.1 Case Study: Glasgow Healthy Sustainable Neighbourhoods Model

To assist a better understanding of how to incorporate a holistic definition of health into the complexities of planning and development processes, which would in turn inform decisions on quality place-making, Etive Currie of Glasgow City Council Development and Regeneration Services developed the Healthy Sustainable Neighbourhoods Model. Figure 1: Healthy Sustainable Neighbourhoods Model

Key aspects of the model

The model is represented as pieces of a jigsaw because a healthy sustainable neighbourhood is a dynamic composition of nine spatial planning themes between which there is a balance. If pieces are missing or are of an inappropriate scale, shape or size, then the jigsaw is unbalanced, a situation in which failure of place is a real prospect. Using the model, the nature of the imbalance can be identified and corrective balance actions/ policy actions can be identified and acted upon.

Creative consultation
Local residents can play a crucial role in the spatial planning process.

This model can enable all parties to become involved in consultations about place-making. Local people can use this model to provide further evidence in influencing decision makers relative to mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing positive well-being effects. This model was developed from experience of being involved in a Health Impact Assessment of the Glasgow East End Local Development Strategy (GEELDS) approved by the Council in February 2008. The consultation process of the GEELDS involved the use of Scrapbooks where people were asked about their daily journeys and how they made them feel. This was enough to show how important the built environment is to peoples health and well-being. This model interprets the Social Model of Health (Dahlgren & Whitehead 1991) in a way that is accessible to professionals and communities alike. Everyone is familiar with the concept of a jigsaw and how the pieces slot together. There are many elements which have to be included within a successful place. The model has been successfully tested against two spatial plans to date. It will also be used for the Health Impact Assessment of the 2014 Commonwealth Games, the accompanying question set is still being developed. The model has also been well received by the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) and the Scottish Government as a potential model for the formulation of national guidance for an integrated approach to Healthy Urban Planning.

Key values of the model

Replace dependency on professional planning and urban design jargon. Integration of public policies at national, regional and local levels. Appreciate the inter-relationship of the themes in place-making. Monitor quality of place and evaluate place-making decision process. Increase mutual understanding of issues relating to individuals health and well-being and encourage people to talk about place-making and health. To support Planners and others involved in the regeneration process to integrate not only health considerations, but also issues of equality and sustainability.

Etive Currie, BA (Hons) MRTPI Development & Regeneration Services, Glasgow City Council, 2008 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be copied, modified, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any material form or by any means (whether electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise and whether or not incidentally to some other use of this publication) for commercial use without the prior written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Design and Patents Act, 1968

For further details on the Healthy Sustainable Neighbourhoods Model contact: Etive Currie, Senior Planner, Development & Regeneration Services, Glasgow City Council, 229 George Street, Glasgow G1 1QU Tel: 0141 287 8662; Email:

Images from the community consultation on the Glasgow East End Local Development Strategy (Courtesy of Dr R Jones, GCPH)

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3.13 Cleanliness Index Monitoring System

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.13 Cleanliness Index Monitoring System

The Cleanliness Index Monitoring System (CIMS)1 has been developed by Keep Scotland Beautiful (KSB) to assist local authorities to assess local environmental quality. The CIMS package provides a reliable and consistent method of validating street cleansing. Designed for those bodies under the Duty contained in section 89 (1) of the Environmental Protection Act 1990,2 CIMS provides an accurate performance indicator regarding the cleansing standards of relevant land. Local authority discussions with KSB at the planning stage will shape the final survey that is to be undertaken. The initial discussions should outline what can be offered in terms of the CIMS package i.e. a tailored survey which determines the cleanliness index, variance of cleanliness grades, the presence or absence of adverse environmental quality indicators, breakdown by geographical divisions, electoral wards, street sweeping responsibilities etc. Other criteria can be assessed at the request of the local authority/ agency. CIMS offers an external street cleansing validation service that applies standard monitoring techniques, allowing comparisons to be made between local authorities. The CIMS package includes training in parts II and IV of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 for both client and contractor staff and the use of the monitoring methodology. The sample size of a typical Local Environmental Audit and Management System3 survey uses a 2% sample of streets cleansed by the local authority whereas the CIMS method takes a minimum of a 10% sample size. The results of the CIMS surveys are written into a report designed to provide practical management information for the local authority/other agency to consider and act upon. The report will be of particular value in facilitating the co-operation between those parties involved in implementation of the street cleansing contract and thereby provide an independent validation of cleansing standards. Validation surveys are conducted at least once a year and are undertaken by KSB trained officers. The aim of these surveys is to reflect the cleanliness levels as stated in the Code of Practice on Litter and Refuse (Scotland) 20064. This is done through the collection of both quantitative and qualitative information on overall cleanliness levels of relevant roads as prescribed by the local authority.

1 Cleanliness Index Monitoring System, Keep Scotland Beautiful, Environment Protectional Act 1990, Office of Public Sector Information, 3 Local Environmental Audit and Management System, Keep Scotland Beautiful,
2 4

Code of Practice on Litter and Refuse issued under section 89 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, Scottish Executive Environment Group, 2006,

Grades of Cleanliness
The Code of Practice is based on the concept of four standards, or grades, of cleanliness:

Grade A: no litter or refuse

Grade B: predominantly free of litter and refuse, apart from a few small items

Grade C: consistent distribution of litter and refuse with minor accumulations

Grade D: heavily littered with significant accumulations

Whilst Grade A is clearly the ideal, it is not reasonable to expect that standard to be maintained at all times in all places. Technical difficulties may make it impossible to achieve in some circumstances, and it is unlikely to be maintained for long periods in the most heavily trafficked areas. Grade A should be seen as the standard which thorough conventional sweeping should achieve in most circumstances. Based on land use and time, the Code of Practice sets out reasonable and acceptable standards of cleanliness, which Duty Bodies can be expected to meet. What matters is maintaining the cleanliness of an area rather than how often it is cleaned. It is for the courts to decide the size of areas to be considered for the purposes of assessing defacement by litter and refuse, where relevant by comparing photographic evidence with the photographic examples in the Code of Practice, and considering any directions by the Scottish Ministers. However, it is suggested that for streets a realistic area to be considered should be in the order of 50 metres in length and include the back line through to, and including, the channel or gutter.


Zoning is based on location and land use. The Code of Practice divides land types into 12 broad categories or zones according to land usage and volume of traffic. Within the broad descriptions of zones, it will be for the local authority or other duty body to allocate geographical areas to particular zones. The duty body should take a common sense approach to zoning. For example it is preferable not to divide a short street into three different zones simply because there is a variety of types of building and usage in the street. In such a case, one zone should be chosen and this should reflect the predominant use. The zoning requirement has been in place since 1991 and it is for the duty body to allocate their land to the zones and to publicise these. It is clear that this allocation must be given due publicity, not least to avoid unjustified complaints, although how it chooses to do so will be a matter for each individual body under the duty. Annotated maps in council offices and libraries may be appropriate. Section 95 of the Act requires certain local authorities to keep a register in which are recorded details of land which has been designated a Litter Control Area and where Street Litter Control Notices have been issued. Duty bodies could use a similar arrangement to publicise their zoning.

Zone 1 town centres, shopping centres and shopping streets; major transport centres; central car parks; other busy public places, local roads around large secondary schools and FE colleges (1000+ students); local roads within these areas high density residential areas; busy recreational land; suburban car parks and transport centres; high density industrial estates; local roads around primary schools and small secondary schools (<1000 students); local roads within these areas low density residential areas; other recreational land including picnic areas and laybys; other transport centres; low density industrial estates; high-technology business parks; local roads within these areas rural/semi rural roads that do not directly link towns and villages; public areas in and around rural and small suburban railway stations amenity beaches; recreation beaches; sensitive conservation areas; other beaches motorways; strategic routes rural roads linking towns and villages relevant land of designated educational institutions operational railway land canal towpaths to which the public has access land attracting large numbers of people for specific events only

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10 Zone 11

Zoning should be reviewed periodically to ensure that it is appropriate and to reflect changes in land use. Re-zoning should be done after a period of consultation. Any person under the duty, other than a local authority, should consult the local authority when changing an existing zone or zoning previously un-zoned areas.

Zones, with expected cleanliness standards and timescales are set out in figure 1. The time periods given are maximum response times for cleaning an area which has become littered. They do not represent intervals between cleansing, which in many cases could be longer.

Category Zone
Town Centres etc 1 High Density Residential etc Low Density Residential etc Areas Not falling Into Zones 1 3 Beaches (amenity)

Cleanliness Standard
A B 6 hrs C 3 hrs D

1 hr

12 hrs

6 hrs 3 hrs

2 weeks

12 hrs

6 hrs

2 weeks 1st June to 15th September

1 week

60 hrs 48 hrs


16th September to 31st May 4 weeks 1st June to 15th September 1 week 16th September to 31st May 4 weeks Monthly hand picking of litter As Necessary


Beaches (recreation) Beaches (sensitive conservation areas) Beaches (other) Motorways & Strategic Routes (hard surface areas) Motorways & Strategic Routes (grassed areas) Local Roads (hard surface areas) Local Roads (grassed areas) Educational Institutions (hard surface areas) Educational Institutions (grassed areas) (term time)

5c 5d 6a

4 weeks

1 week


4 weeks

1 week


2 weeks

5 days


2 weeks

5 days


24 hrs

24 hrs


24 hrs

24 hrs

Figure 1: Cleanliness Standards Sixteen local authorities have used CIMS over the last few years. All 32 local authorities are using LEAMS, the national performance indicator for street cleanliness. For more information on the Keep Scotland Beautiful Cleanliness Index Monitoring System contact: Donna Niven Programme Manager, Keep Scotland Beautiful

3.13.1 Case Study: CIMS in Glasgow City Council

With a population of around 580,000 in the city and 1.5 million in the greater Glasgow area, Glasgow is Scotlands biggest city and its commercial capital. It is the UKs largest retail centre after London and one of its most visited cities with over 3 million visitors annually. Glasgow City Council has a long history of making use of CIMS surveys to inform and measure improvements in the cleanliness and local environmental quality of the city. This began with a series of surveys in the West End, which were then used to measure the effectiveness of the then new Community Warden Service in 10 of the most deprived wards in the city. The results of this survey contributed to the creation in 2007 of the Clean Glasgow campaign. With the aim of improving the city by reducing the amount of environmental degradation, the Clean Glasgow campaign recognises the link between anti-social behaviour and the environment. Within this context the cleanliness and safety of the city is a key issue for Glasgow citizens and businesses.

Clean Glasgow The vision of this award winning campaign is: A Glasgow free from litter, graffiti and other grime crime. Effective and efficient public services. Businesses and residents playing their part in keeping the city clean. Integrated public services solutions that make Glasgow a cleaner and safer environment. Approach
The Clean Glasgow Team (consisting of internal Council and external partners) was tasked with addressing the litter issues within the city in a co-ordinated manner, including service provision, education and enforcement. Importantly, the team identified the deficiencies in each of these areas and set realistic targets for improvement. CIMS was identified as one of the preferred measurement tools for evaluating service delivery and overall impact of this co-ordinated approach. It was recognised that the city centre makes a huge impression on both residents and visitors to the city, and that the central area has special requirements for dealing with the high volume of litter generated by the number of people and businesses in the area. The principal retail area is known as The Golden Z and comprises the pedestrianised Argyle Street, Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street in the city centre. This area also has the citys main transport hubs, 2 major railway stations and Buchanan Street Bus Station. At the request of Clean Glasgow, Keep Scotland Beautiful carried out a series of CIMS surveys in the city centre, focusing on the provision of litter bins and the negative impact of business waste. The survey consisted of 100% of The Golden Z and 50% of the wider city centre area. By repeating the

survey on a further two occasions over the next year significant improvements were indentified, not only in the standards of cleanliness found but in the public environs throughout the city centre. The Clean Glasgow campaign team also recognised the importance of the gateways to the city in creating an overall impression. So, while the city centre CIMS surveys were being carried out, further audits were undertaken by Keep Scotland Beautiful of the main arterial routes into the city centre to determine the public impression of the entrances into the city. These were also revisited the following year to determine progress, again with encouraging results.

CIMS is regarded by Glasgow City Council as a key mechanism for auditing the environment and cleanliness index and for maintaining cleanliness standards. The Clean Glasgow campaign team therefore intends to use CIMS to deliver improvement throughout the city, including cleanliness standards and environmental quality relating to the Commonwealth Games in 2014. The CIMS 2008 survey results show that the Clean Glasgow campaign has had a positive impact in the city with 45% of residents feeling that there had been an improvement in littering within the city centre.

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3.14 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance and Evalution of Active Travel Projects

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.14 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance and Evaluation of Active Travel Projects
Until recently traditional transport appraisal models could not sufficiently demonstrate the role of active travel modes; nor quantify the costs and benefits of a switch of mode, for example of user health benefits from a change from car to bicycle. This resulted in transport planning being primarily concerned with, and limited to, issues relating to the movement of motor vehicles. Consequently walking and cycling infrastructure proposals have often been given lesser consideration to more substantial transport planning proposals such as roads infrastructure or public transport proposals. Health benefits arising from active travel include improved personal health, with consequent positive impacts such as reduced mortality and economic gain to employers arising from reduced absenteeism. If the health benefits from walking and cycling are not considered systematically this may lead to assumptions that such benefits are not realised. Given that health benefits might constitute a large proportion of the total benefits of active travel modes, excluding them from an appraisal would appear to be inconsistent with the STAG objective led approach. This failure to properly consider the role of walking and cycling in transportation proposals is also in variance with the importance placed on these modes by the Scottish Government, which recognises the considerable health and environmental benefits that these modes can offer. However, since the 2009 amendments to the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)1 the wider benefits of sustainable modes of transport such as walking and cycling can now be captured by transport appraisal. As for other modes, the STAG can and should now provide a useful framework to help authorities consider the costs and benefits of potential walking and cycling proposals. The amendment to section 7 (Environment) of the STAG Technical Database guidance ensures that health benefits arising from physical fitness are included in project appraisal. Incorporating the health benefits of active travel as a sensitivity test also keeps STAG in line with latest Department for Transport (DfT) guidance2 on the subject, published in July 2008. At the strategic level, estimates of changes in the levels of walking and cycling will be able to give a fairly high-level assessment of the impact of options on physical fitness. At a project level, walking and cycling schemes which increase physical activity can be expected to deliver two types of benefit: Reduced mortality rates; and Reduced absenteeism rates. .............................................................................................................
Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance, Transport Scotland 2 TAG Unit 3.14.1: Guidance on the Appraisal of Walking and Cycling Schemes, Department for Transport

The methodology for calculating mortality rates is taken from the World Health Organisation (WHO) project Quantifying the Health Effects of Cycling and Walking (2007)3 and its accompanying model the Health Economic Assessment Tool for cycling (HEAT)4. Although this approach captures only the benefits associated with reduced mortality and not those associated with reduced morbidity, morbidity impacts will to some degree be captured by the assessment of absenteeism rates. The HEAT methodology calculates the number of preventable deaths per person taking up moderate physical exercise through walking or cycling. A value is assigned to the prevention of a fatality, and the value of a life will increase in line with real GDP growth per capita. Reductions in short term absence from work can result from the improved levels of health of those who increase their physical activity by walking or cycling. These business benefits can be monetised and entered into the appraisal as a value in the Appraisal Summary Table under the heading of physical fitness. Transport Scotland recognises that appraisal of the health benefits of walking and cycling as modes of physically active travel is an area of appraisal that is still developing and for which the evidence base is still growing. Accordingly, Transport Scotland will continue to monitor developments in this area to ensure that guidance in this regard represents best-practice.

Dedicated walking & cycling route in Vauban, Germany .............................................................................................................

Quantifying the Positive Health Effects of Walking and Cycling, Pan-European Programme on Transport, Health and Environment, World Health Organisation, 2008, 4 Health Economic Assessment Tool for Cycling, Pan-European Programme on Transport, Health and Environment, World Health Organisation, 2008, pre-2009/health-economic-assessment-tool-heat-for-cycling.-user-guide-2008

3.14.1 Case Study: Adaptation of STAG 1 Methodology to a Demonstration Cycling Project

STAG 1 methodology was applied to a demonstration proposal for improvements to a cycle commuter route between Falkland and Glenrothes. The existing six mile route is on-road leaving Falkland on the A92 for 2 miles, then joins the A92 dual carriageway trunk road at a busy roundabout for just over a mile, at which point it becomes on-road along the B969 and then off-road into Glenrothes town centre.

Levels of service of the different modes were scored against the Governments impact objectives of environment, safety, economy, integration and accessibility/social inclusion to give a rank order of those modes that best delivered desirable outcomes. Scores were assigned within the parameters of A, as the most desirable outcome, through to G as the least desirable outcome. The table below demonstrates this interrelationship:
i(a) E 2 E 2 E 2 C 0.5 C 0.5 i(b) F/G 5.66 E/F 2.83 C 0.5 D 1 D 1 OBJECTIVE ii iii A B 0.125 0.25 A B 0.125 0.25 B 0.25 A 0.125 A 0.125 D 1 F 4 F 4 iv v Score 8.285 5.455 6.75 9.75 13.625 9.625 Rank 3rd 1st 2nd 5th 6th 4th

Cycling (existing) Cycling (improved) Bus Car Car Share (1+1)

A 0.125 A 0.125 E 2 F 4 E 2

A 0.125 A 0.125 D-F 1-4 F 4 E 2

From this calculation it can be demonstrated that improvements to the cycling route (i.e. off-road provision for the busiest section of the route along the A92 dual carriageway section) would, overall, deliver the Governments impact objectives ahead of all other modes of transport. In other words, the levels of service provided by a safer commuter route between Falkland and Glenrothes avoiding cycling on the busy A92 dual carriageway would:
Take 30 minutes to cycle - LOS = E. 2 mile cycle along A92 (4,523 veh/day) - Safety LOS = E/F 1.1 mile on segregated cycle path alongside A92 (22,565 veh/day) Safety LOS = E 2 miles cycle along B969 (9,826 veh/day) and off-road section Safety LOS = F/C Take two minutes to get the bike out of the garage LOS = A. Provide 60 minutes exercise per day (this includes the return journey) LOS = B. (If only cycling one-way: LOS = C) Emit only 4 g/km/p CO2 per journey LOS = A. Cost the user (Allowance for cycle maintenance costs) only 1 pence per mile LOS = A. Accessibility Safety

Integration Health

Environment Economic

Translating rank scoring into a comparison of levels of problem can further contribute to decision making processes on transport proposals.

16 6t h


12 5t h 4t h


Level of Problem (Points)

3rd 8 1st


Cycle (Existing)

Cycle (Improved)



Car Share

Travel Mode

Conclusion The outcome of this appraisal is that for an average journey length of 6 miles and the provision of a segregated cycle path along the busy dual carriageway section of the route, cycling is the overall best choice of transport for this particular journey taking account of Accessibility, Safety, Integration, Health, Environment and Economic objectives. This suggests a strong case for more investment in off-road cycling provision within a 6 mile radius of town centres, as part of a Sustainable Transport Strategy.

The full report on this demonstration proposal is available at: Paths for All Partnership, Using the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance to Evaluate Sustainable Travel Projects

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3.15 Health Improvement Tools for the Single Outcome Agreement Process

Living Streets is the national charity that stands up for pedestrians. With our supporters we work to create safe, attractive and enjoyable streets, where people want to walk.

3.15 Health Improvement Tools for the Single Outcome Agreement Process
In early 2007, the Scottish Governments Public Health & Wellbeing Directorate commissioned NHS Health Scotland (NHSHS) to review and sharpen performance management of actions to improve Scotlands health outcomes and reduce health inequalities. This is known as the Health Improvement Performance Management (HIPM) Review. The overall aim of the HIPM Review is to support the National Performance Framework (NPF) and the introduction of Single Outcome Agreements (SOAs) with local authorities and their partners. The first phase of the review involved development of a performance management framework for health improvement. In the second phase NHSHS produced a number of tools to support community planning partners in developing SOAs. The tools help to clarify links between longer term local outcomes in SOAs against which progress is publicly reported and the shorter term outcomes of service delivery that might be included in performance management information. The tools have been developed in collaboration with Scottish Government, NHS Boards, local authorities and third sector organisations and represent work in progress. In development workshops in October 2008 partners from a range of organisations suggested that the tools would be helpful in supporting the development of SOAs and that they should be made available in their current form to those who would like to use them. The four main tools developed in the HIPM Review are: Outcomes triangles intended for use by those working at a strategic level, setting high level outcomes and indicators for SOAs. They can be used to show the key outcome categories relevant for longer term strategic planning and SOAs.

Outcomes Triangle Template

e.g. We live longe r, hea lthier liv es e.g. We have ta ckled the significant inequalit ie s in Scottish s oc ie ty e.g. We hav e im pr ov ed t he life chance s of childre n, young people a nd familie s at risk




Wealthier & Fai rer Smarter Heal thier Safer & Stronger Greener

Outcomes related to service delivery


Results chains intended for use by NHS strategists and planners to prioritise resource allocation in line with shared outcomes used in revised HEAT targets. Results chains link the inputs, activities, outputs and short-term outcomes at service delivery level to the key higher level outcome categories in the NPF and/or SOAs for a single delivery organisation. Multiple results chains intended for use by strategists and planners working within the context of Community Planning to identify partner contributions to improving shared priority health outcomes. Multiple results chains link the inputs, activities, outputs and short-term outcomes at service delivery level to the key higher level outcome categories in the NPF and/or SOAs for a range of partner organisations. Outcome frameworks intended for use by planners, analysts and performance managers who need to develop a robust and plausible case for why and how certain partner actions or services will contribute to higher level national or local outcomes. Outcome frameworks provide the detailed outcome maps underpinning the above tools. They comprise strategic logic models showing the links between high level and intermediate outcomes, and a series of nested logic models showing potential pathways between inputs, and short-term outcomes.

Walking & Cycling in action

Further information and examples of each of these tools is available at: Tools to help achieve strategic outcomes related to increased physical activity are available at:

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3.16 Master-planning

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3.16 Master-planning 3.16 Master-planning

Master planning is a fairly recent innovation. It is part of the planning toolkit for creating sustainable and well-designed places, sitting alongside Design Frameworks, Design Guides and Development Briefs. A very flexible tool, it can be used in various contexts to deliver a vision as illustrated below. A master plan has got to be practical and deliverable, therefore can be the means to ensure that quality and aspirations for a development or regeneration are not only addressed within the planning process but become reality on the ground. Master plans are the best way to deliver sustainable places.

Aspirations through to delivery

Master plans can be a very useful tool to deliver aspirations, such as places that really work for people, streets that put pedestrians before traffic and spaces that encourage active travel as outlined in key Scottish Government policy and planning documents . To achieve success in delivering these, it is important to make sure that they are identified as key outcomes at the start of the process of developing the master plan. Street layouts should be configured to allow walkable access to local amenities for all street users. Walkable neighbourhoods are characterised by having a range of facilities within 5 minutes (up to about 400m) walking distance of residential areas which residents may access comfortably on foot. Where amenities cannot be provided within this area, good public transport links to relevant facilities should be accessible.In many cases, it may be better for a new development to reinforce existing centres and facilities rather than providing alternative facilities Source: Designing Streets1

............................................................................................................. 1 Designing Streets: A Policy Statement for Scotland, Scottish Government, 2010

Successful master planning processes will involve active community engagement and involvement from inception through to delivery. Across Scotland evidence from this dialogue with communities shows that such aspirations for streets and places that work for people walking are shared on the ground too. For example on Tornagrain near Inverness, similar themes came up in the master planning process: The new town were proposing will: be compact and built for pedestrians rather than cars be big enough to accommodate an excellent range of community and leisure facilities and local shops contain a wide, but integrated, range of homes for different household sizes and incomes have excellent public transport, walking and cycling connections to Inverness, Nairn and the airport and airport business park generate jobs have good links to major local employment centres.

From : Tornagrain, A Planned Town for the Highlands 2 This development now has planning permission to proceed. See the Living Streets document, Walkipedia3 for more information. Who can use Master planning? There is no one definition of how a master plan needs to work or how it can be used. Often master plans come out of a development plan that has identified key areas of land and elements for development in an area such as housing, a school and services. They then act as a three-dimensional written and visual statement to start to shape design of the area. This process may be led by a local authority, who then work with the local community and key partners on design and delivery. This was the case with the eastern expansion of Dunfermline, where the community and developers such as house builders were key partners in shaping the development. Master plans can be brought forward by developers, with a planning application for consideration by a local authority to propose regeneration and development in an area e.g. Leith Waterfront. In some cases master plans are kick-started by the community. This was the case on the island of Gigha, where a master plan was used to help deliver a suite of aspirations and vision for the island set out by the community. The masterplan focused on encouraging population increase on the island and engaging with existing residents to agree a physical and spatial plan for growth.

Where can master plans be used?

Master planning can be suitable for urban, mainland, rural, island contexts, new developments, regeneration or a mix of both. They can be used for a wide range of developments from very big, complex development projects through to small regeneration projects or simple proposals for new development. .......................................................................................................................................

Tornagrain, A Planned Town for the Highlands Walkipaedia:A literature Review of Walking in Scotland, 2009. Living Streets and Paths for All

Raploch, Stirling In Raploch, Stirling4, a master plan process was undertaken in relation to regeneration of the area, engaging and involving people who already lived there about how particular elements of the area would be changed. The redevelopment is now well underway and has embodied key elements such as traffic calming, neighbourhood facilities and improved street conditions. Polnoon, near Eaglesham village, is a very small example where a master plan involving only 121 homes has resulted in a new design for a sustainable development seeking to make better use of space and encouraging cycling and walking. Scottish Government has worked with the developer and local authority to put the six qualities of a successful place into practice. Even this small example demonstrates how design principles and guidance can be translated into actual development proposals. On the ground the outcomes for walking and active travel resulting from this will be well-connected, barrier-free streets, convenient local green space and design to encourage people to walk more in safe areas.

The successful master plan

In any successful master plan, the vision and aspirations have to be clear and accessible. Incorporating them into a master plan means they are not just rhetoric but that the plan has to then set out in a practical way how they will actually be delivered and become a reality. In a master plan, the vision, the practical elements of delivery such as cost, source of finance, how services will be accessed, engineering on the ground, who will lead on each element and how it will be phased need to be set out clearly. In practice, the process of master planning should make sure that all the right questions have been asked. The process should lead to different options and means of delivery being considered. Essentially, it has to come up with a balance sheet that works whether financially, for the community or national priorities a development that delivers on social, economic and environmental outcomes. If done properly, it should result in a place that works and is genuinely sustainable. Instead of dealing with each element of a development individually, this tool can ensure the whole development really works for people. ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Raploch Masterplan and Design Guide, 2004, Raploch Urban regeneration Company, 5 Polnoon Masterplan: Idea to design - Residential Streets Project, 2009, Scottish Government.

Rather than just hoping that people can get around on foot - improving health, well being, social, economic and environmental outcomes - through master planning you can ensure people will be encouraged to walk in safe and pleasant places in line with key government policy. There are practical tools to help ensure master plans deliver against policy priorities such as those outlined above. Scottish Government has provided some key questions to use against the draft master plans to double check. Some of these questions are set out here: Welcoming Will buildings and layout make it easy for people to find their way around? Will new landmarks or gateways be created, helping people to find their way around? Will good use be made of views? Will the development provide (or be close to) community facilities, such as a school, park, play areas, shops, pubs or cafes? Safe and pleasant Will the development have active frontages to streets? Will all routes and public spaces be overlooked? Will the proposed uses encourage activity at all times of day? Will the public and private space be clearly defined? Is public space well designed, and will suitable management arrangements be put in place? Will routes and spaces be safe? Easy to get to and move around Will a network of continuous routes be created? Will areas with the highest densities be located where access to public transport is best? Will public transport facilities be well-connected and safe? Will public spaces, roads and footpaths be connected into well-used routes? Will there be provision for and promotion of a range of transport options? Will the building layout take priority over the roads and car parking, so that highways do not dominate? Will the streets be pedestrian, cycle and vehicle-friendly? Will car parking be well-integrated into the street scene? Will the scheme integrate with existing roads, paths and surrounding development? Will public spaces and pedestrian routes be overlooked and feel safe? Will the development have easy access to public transport? Has the masterplan considered green networks in and around the proposed development area, and made provisions to connect to these or enhance their value? Have opportunities been taken to incorporate biodiversity features (such as green roofs) into the fabric of the buildings and into the spaces between them? Resource efficient Will the development include a range of features that reduce its environmental impact and carbon footprint? Will buildings and spaces be adequately sheltered? Will buildings or spaces out-perform statutory minima, such as building regulations? From: PAN 83: Planning Advice Note: Master Planning6

PAN 83: Planning Advice Note: Master Planning, 2008, Scottish Government

Master plans take time but are a practical way to make a vision a reality. The inclusive process means the development is much more likely to be undertaken in an efficient, cost effective way, deliver on policy priorities and work for the local community. Master plans can result in sustainable places that work for the people who live in them, delivering national to local aspirations by means of a practical framework.

Community Consultation

3.16.1 Three Case Studies

Case Study 1: Lochgelly, Fife This master plan is developing as part of an approach to community regeneration which came about from an aspiration to deliver social, economic and physical changes in Lochgelly and associated land allocation by the local authority. The project has the support of the Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative. A comprehensive dialogue has been undertaken with the local community, using the Charette process, a form of intensive consultation which engages local people in the design process for their community. The Charette ran for six days in March 2010, inviting participation from the community in a local space over that time. Lochgelly should ultimately provide an example of a sustainable community developed through a clear vision and implemented by both the public and private sectors, with extensive public consultation. Lochgelly Charette, Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative charette series.

Craigmillar, Edinburgh

Case Study 2: Craigmillar, Edinburgh In Craigmillar the objective was to promote and regenerate Craigmillar. There were six regeneration themes identified: A New Heart for Craigmillar Economic Development Education and Lifelong Learning Young People Access and Movement Living in Craigmillar Masterplans are being undertaken for each neighbourhood within a Development Framework for the area. Key design principles identified as overarching for the whole regeneration included hierarchy of spaces and connectivity /permeable neighbourhood. The outcomes will include more than 3000 new homes, new schools, a commercial centre, job opportunities and apprenticeships, new facilities for young people, transport linkages and shared space, and landscaping such as water features, public parks, sports/play areas with consideration to making the most out

of open space in the area. Considerable progress has been made on a number of neighbourhoods, which are seen to be delivering local streets, greenspace and community facilities in a well-designed , safe and convenient environment. From PARC, Craigmillar Presentation Case Study 3: Ardler, Dundee A long standing and successful approach to masterplanning is demonstrated at Ardler in Dundee. Here, a consortium of developers was chosen to develop a masterplan, in consultation with Dundee City Council, for the redevelopment of a 1960s hard to let area. The concept for development identified the need for a hierarchy of road types, routes linking the area back into the city, a new focus within central Ardler and different neighbourhoods throughout the area. This has, for the most part, been successfully delivered and includes over 1,000 mixed tenure housing in neighbourhoods, central community facilities and open space and carefully designed streets and accessible footpaths. Significant community involvement has been an ongoing feature during masterplan preparation and subsequent development. Long-term strategies for social inclusion and community development has seen the Ardler Village Trust set up by local people and partners in the regeneration to help achieve this. Ardler Village Trust

Ardler, Dundee

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