Sie sind auf Seite 1von 58

(June 2008 TO December 2008) ON SIX MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT

Tulip Telecom Limited

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology [B.TECH]

SUBMITTED TO: Mr. S.P SINGLA (HOD ECE Deptt.)

SUBMITTED BY: KUMAR SANU ECE 8th Semester 6100405576 PUNJAB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY [Affiliated to Punjab Technical University]

VPN TECHNOLOGY An Integral Part Of Networking

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation/project report (Course code) entitled VPN TECHNOLOGY-An Integral Part Of Networking done by Mr. KUMAR SANU Enrollment No. 6100405576 is an authentic work carried out by him at TULIP TELECOM LTD, under my guidance. The matter embodied in this project work has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Date:

Signature of the Guide

For Tulip Telecom Ltd.

Self Certificate

This is to certify that dissertation/project report entitled VPN TECHNOLOGY- An Integral Part Of Networking done by me is an authentic work carried out for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of B.TECH[ECE] under the guidance of Mr.

.ANURAG SOOD & Mr. DARSHAN PATHAK.

The matter embodied in this project work has not been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.

KUMAR SANU 6100405576

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This Industrial Training project is not the result of only my hard work but there are so many peoples are involved in this project. I greatly and heartily thanks to all of them for their contribution in this project. Special thanks to my talented and polite guides Mr. Anurag Sood, Mr. Darshan Pathak & Mr. Bhanu Sharma without them the my training would not be successful. They worked on this project as developmental editor and advisor and offered their help generously when needed in every aspect of my training. Thanks for their technical help for scrutinizing every problem I faced during this tenure of training. To the guide colleges who has done more than I can guess to keep this project in order and on schedule. I wish them luck with their lives, and hope we will meet soon in a future project. Finally, this project is completed with the Bless of Almighty God and my Parents affections and my faith in God.

PREFACE This work has been done as a part of industrial training. This Purpose of industrial training is to familiarize the students with the present working environment in country and outside To provide the students with the opportunity to study the latest technical trends those have been established as well as one that what they are learning during the period of industrial training will certainly help them to develop their potential and technical skills.

As part of our industrial training we undertook a project in WAN CONNECTIVITY THROUGH VPN, Chandigarh. During our stay here we learnt how an actual project progress and what sort of problems that actually occur throughout the project. At last with all my sincere gratitude we would like to thank my friends and project guide for their efforts to help in development of project.

Introduction and Background

About TULIP TELECOM Ltd. Tulip Telecom Ltd is an INDIA based data communication services provider company. Tulips product port folio includes network integration, which not only includes designing and developing networks for its clients but also managing them.Besides this Tulip is also engaged in wireless connectivity which provides a range of point to point and point to multi-point wireless applications. Tulips network covers more than 1,000 cities and towns, has over 50,000 links for approximately more than 600 customers that include organizations across all verticals such as BFSI, telecom, logistics, retail, the government and manufacturing What adds to the companys credibility is the quality of the network it has been successful in providing to the interiors of many states. Tulips worth mentioning Akshaya project in Malappuram district of Kerala is based on last mile connectivity model which provides an area wide data connectivity network with an always-on internet model that runs on fiber and reaches connectivity to the last mile on wireless in much less cost and time. According to a Frost and Sullivan report, Tulip Telecom is the largest MPLS VPN service provider with a market share of 28%. Tulip was also short-listed as one of the 6 finalists in the Asia Innovation Awards by the Wall Street Journal at GES Singapore for its innovative use of wireless on the Last Mile

Tulip Connect We provide both inter-city as well as intra-city connectivity based upon the clients requirements. Tulip inter-city network is based on optical fiber cable provided by multiple service providers. The network is created in mesh architecture so that if any link does fail, there are multiple alternate routes available. Consequently, Tulip network has an inbuilt redundancy and provides the highest levels of uptime. In addition, Tulip has expanded its network reach to more than 300 cities in India and thus we can provide you connectivity anywhere in India. The last mile connectivity is entirely based on wireless, using radio frequency technology in Pointto-Point and Point-to-Multipoint applications. Licensed frequencies are in major cities to overcome the interference issues. Highest levels of uptime with built-in redundancies One of the largest networks in the country Bandwidth on demand, upgrade in minutes Managed MPLS enabled network Immediate connectivity and co-location services World class design, converged voice, data, video network Single point for bandwidth and network equipment

Prestigious Clients Our list of clients includes prestigious companies like the largest banks, service providers, media companies, government enterprises, call centers / BPO's and corporates.

Rural Connectivity Tulip IT Services was selected as the service provider for Malappuram after they came up with a cost-effective and terrain-friendly last-mile solutions for the Akshaya Internet community centres housed there.All the options for connectivity, like fiber, cable and leased line, were explored by the state. Given the undulating hilly and highly vegetated terrain of the place, wireless emerged as the most feasible option in terms of cost and logistics in the deployment of the network. Malappuram now has a well-considered hybrid connectivity infrastructure, through a mix of wireless technologies like WipLL, Vine and 802.11.b WiFi with multiple redundancies. The backbone redundancy was provided through fiber. The 550 Akshaya e-centres are connected in a LAN environment, which, in turn, are connected to a Network Operating Centre (NOC). The NOC have direct connectivity with the Internet backbone. The NOC infrastructure would ensure browsing at no cost to users in the network. This would mean that the entire district is converted into "a small wired office" seamlessly interconnected with linkages to three world-class purveyors of the technology. Each Akshaya centre now caters to the needs of 1,000-1,500 households, enabling each to benefit from the advantages of Internet connectivity. The Malappuram experiment is only a pilot, to be replicated in phases over the entire State. As the locations of these centres are strategically planned and spatially distributed, they will form a powerful network to guide and support the e-governance initiatives, community development interventions, e-commerce and information dissemination. The connectivity infrastructure which is established through the Akshaya project, i.e., network and backbone, network centre, software, Internet access and management, can also be used to connect, apart from Akshaya centres, all panchayat offices, village offices and departmental offices spread across the district.

GENERAL BUSINESS PERCENATAGE

Abstract VPN stands for VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK. VPN SYSTEM as the name says is : 1) Network: topology where various hosts are physically connected to each other. 2) Virtual: it ia virtual because hosts are not physically connected but, connected virtually using WIRELESS Systems. 3) Private: it is private because all the clients feels as the whole network is configured privately only for their usage which is actually not true. Hence VPN system is combination of all the above three aspects of networking. This VPN application is a complete solution for Clients specially using distributive system environment where the Client keeps track of details regarding his / her remote location sites/offices to the Head-office site. This application can be used in two ways: 1) Point-to-Point: where there is direct link b/w two sites of client the service provider has no interference in this type of connectivity. 2) Multi-Point: where there is connectivity of many clients from a particular location all sharing some allotted bandwidth.

Using VPN connectivity Client can access directly to all remote location same as they would have accessed it while physically present there.

INTRODUCTION TO VPN The World has changed a lot in the last couple of decades. Instead of simply dealing with local or regional concerns, many businesses now have to think about global markets and logistics. Many companies have facilities spread out across the country or around the world, and there is one thing that all of them need: A way to maintain fast, secure and reliable communication wherever their offices are. Virtual Private Network

Image courtesy Cisco Systems, Inc. A typical VPN might have a main LAN at the corporate headquarters of a company, other LANs at remote offices or facilities and individual users connecting from out in the field. Until fairly recently, this has meant the use of leased lines to maintain a Wide Area Network (WAN). Leased lines, ranging from ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network, 128 Kbps) to OC3 (Optical Carrier-3, 155 Mbps) fiber, provided a company with a way to expand its private network beyond its immediate geographic area. A WAN had obvious advantages over a public network like the Internet when it came to reliability, performance and security. But maintaining a WAN, particularly when using leased lines, can become quite expensive and often rises in cost as the distance between the offices increases. As the popularity of the Internet grew, businesses turned to it as a means of extending their own networks. First came Intranets, which are password-protected sites designed for use only by company employees. Now, many companies are creating their own VPN (virtual private network) to accommodate the needs of remote employees and distant offices. Basically, a VPN is a private network that uses a public network (usually the Internet) to connect remote sites or users together. Instead of using a dedicated, real-world connection such as leased line, a VPN uses "virtual" connections routed through the Internet from the company's private network to the remote site or employee. In this article, you will gain a fundamental understanding of VPNs, and learn about basic VPN components, technologies, tunneling and security.

WHAT MAKES A VPN ?

A well-designed VPN can greatly benefit a company. For example, it can:


Extend geographic connectivity Improve security Reduce operational costs versus traditional WAN Reduce transit time and transportation costs for remote users Improve productivity Simplify network topology Provide global networking opportunities Provide telecommuter support Provide broadband networking compatibility Provide faster ROI (return on investment) than traditional WAN

What features are needed in a well-designed VPN? It should incorporate:


Security Reliability Scalability Network management Policy management

TYPES OF VPN

Examples of the three types of VPN

There are in general two types of VPN: 1) Remote Access VPN 2) Site-to-Site VPN

SITE-TO-SITE VPN is further classified as: 1) INTERNET VPN 2) INTRANET VPN

Remote-Access VPN . Remote-access, also called a virtual private dial-up network (VPDN), is a user-to-LAN connection used by a company that has employees who need to connect to the private network from various remote locations. Typically, a corporation that wishes to set up a large remote-access VPN will outsource to an Enterprise Service Provider (ESP). The ESP sets up a Network Access Server (NAS) and provides the remote users with desktop client software for their computers. The telecommuters can then dial a toll-free number to reach the NAS and use their VPN client software to access the corporate network. Site-to-Site VPN Through the use of dedicated equipment and large-scale encryption, a company can connect multiple fixed sites over a public network such as the Internet. Site-to-site VPNs can be one of two types:

Intranet-based - If a company has one or more remote locations that they wish

to join in a single private network, they can create an intranet VPN to connect LAN to LAN.

Extranet-based - When a company has a close relationship with another

company (for example, a partner, supplier or customer), they can build an extranet VPN that connects LAN to LAN, and that allows all of the various companies to work in a shared environment.

VPN SECURITY

As we know that security is very important for any system in such way VPN system is also uses many security techniques. A well-designed VPN uses several methods for keeping your connection and data secure:

Firewalls Encryption IPSec AAA Server

FIREWALLS: A Firewall provides a strong barrier between your private network and the Internet. You can set firewalls to restrict the number of open ports, what type of packets are passed through and which protocols are allowed through. Some VPN products, such as CISCO 1700 series router, can be upgraded to include firewall capabilities by running the appropriate Cisco IOS on them. You should already have a good firewall in place before you implement a VPN, but a firewall can also be used to terminate the VPN sessions ENCRYPTION:

Encryption is the process of taking all the data that one computer is sending to another and encoding it into a form that only the other computer will be able to decode. Most Computer encryption techniques belong to one of two categories:

Symmetric-key encryption Public-key encryption

In symmetric-key encryption, each computer has a secret key (code) that it can use to encrypt a packet of information before it is sent over the network to another computer. Symmetric-key requires that you know which computers will be talking to each other so you can install the key on each one. Symmetric-key encryption is essentially the same as a secret code that each of the two computers must know in order to decode the information. The code provides the key to decoding the message. Think of it like this: You create a coded message to send to a friend in which each letter is substituted with the letter that is two down from it in the alphabet. So "A" becomes "C," and "B" becomes "D". You have already told a trusted friend that the code is "Shift by 2". Your friend gets the message and decodes it. Anyone else who sees the message will see only nonsense. Public-key encryption uses a combination of a private key and a public key. The private key is known only to your computer, while the public key is given by your computer to any computer that wants to communicate securely with it. To decode an encrypted message, a computer must use the public key, provided by the originating computer, and its own private key. A very popular publickey encryption utility is called Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), which allows you to encrypt almost anything. You can find out more about PGP at thr PGP site.

IPSec

Internet Protocol Security Protocol (IPSec) provides enhanced security features such as better encryption algorithms and more comprehensive authentication.

Photo courtesy Cisco Systems, Inc.

A remote-access VPN utilizing IPSec IPSec has two encryption modes: tunnel and transport. Tunnel encrypts the header and the payload of each packet while transport only encrypts the payload. Only systems that are IPSec compliant can take advantage of this protocol. Also, all devices must use a common key and the firewalls of each network must have very similar security policies set up. IPSec can encrypt data between various devices, such as:

Router to router Firewall to router PC to router PC to server

AAA Servers

AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) servers are used for more secure access in a remote-access VPN environment. When a request to establish a session comes in from a dial-up client, the request is proxied to the AAA server. AAA then checks the following:

Who you are (authentication) What you are allowed to do (authorization) What you actually do (accounting)

The accounting information is especially useful for tracking client use for security auditing, billing or reporting purposes.

CONCEPT OF TUNNELING Most VPNs rely on tunneling to create a private network that reaches across the Internet. Essentially, tunneling is the process of placing an entire packet within another packet and sending it over a network. The protocol of the outer packet is understood by the network and both points, called tunnel interfaces, where the packet enters and exits the network. Tunneling requires three different protocols:

Carrier protocol - The protocol used by the network that the information is

travelling over

Encapsulating protocol - The protocol (GRE, IPSec, L2F, PPTP, L2TP) that is Passenger protocol - The original data (IPX, NetBeui, IP) being carried

wrapped around the original data

Tunneling has amazing implications for VPNs. For example, you can place a packet that uses a protocol not supported on the Internet (such as NetBeui) inside an IP packet and send it safely over the Internet. Or you could put a packet that uses a private (non-routable) IP address inside a packet that uses a globally unique IP address to extend a private network over the Internet.

A Tunneling Demonstration Site-to-Site Tunneling In a site-to-site VPN, GRE (generic routing encapsulation) is normally the encapsulating protocol that provides the framework for how to package the passenger protocol for transport over the carrier protocol, which is typically IP-based. This includes information on what type of packet you are encapsulating and information about the connection between the client and server. Instead of GRE, IPSec in tunnel mode is sometimes used as the encapsulating protocol. IPSec works well on both remote-access and site-to-site VPNs. IPSec must be supported at both tunnel interfaces to use

Remote-Access Tunneling In a remote-access VPN, tunneling normally takes place using PPP. Part of the TCP/IP stack, PPP is the carrier for other IP protocols when communicating over the network between the host computer and a remote system. Remote-access VPN tunneling relies on PPP. Each of the protocols listed below were built using the basic structure of PPP and are used by remote-access VPNs.

L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding) - Developed by Cisco, L2F will use any PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) - PPTP was created by the PPTP

authentication scheme supported by PPP.

Forum, a consortium which includes US Robotics, Microsoft, 3COM, Ascend and ECI Telematics. PPTP supports 40-bit and 128-bit encryption and will use any authentication scheme supported by PPP.

L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) - L2TP is the product of a partnership

between the members of the PPTP Forum, Cisco and the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). Combining features of both PPTP and L2F, L2TP also fully supports IPSec. L2TP can be used as a tunneling protocol for site-to-site VPNs as well as remoteaccess VPNs. In fact, L2TP can create a tunnel between:

Client and router NAS and router Router and router

The truck is the carrier protocol, the box is the encapsulating protocol and the computer is the passenger protocol. Think of tunneling as having a computer delivered to you by UPS. The vendor packs the computer (passenger protocol) into a box (encapsulating protocol) which is then put on a UPS truck (carrier protocol) at the vendor's warehouse (entry tunnel interface). The truck (carrier protocol) travels over the highways (Internet) to your home (exit tunnel interface) and delivers the computer. You open the box (encapsulating protocol) and remove the computer (passenger protocol). Tunneling is just that simple! DELHI INTER POP CONNECTIVITY

5 .3 GH Z IN FINE T

5.3 G HZ, RA DW I N 5 .3 GHZ R AD W I N

JA N AKP U RI PITAMP.
5.3 G HZ, IN FINE T

C ELE BRITY
13G HZ W IT CO M

5.3 G HZ, INFI NE T B K P

FIBE R

2 .7 GH Z A IRSP AN BH IKAJI
5.1G HZ

Met ro Eth ern e t

N EHR U PLAC E

INFI NE T

G H ITTO R N I

2 .7 GH Z A IRSP AN

1 3G H Z W ITCO M
2.7 G HZ,

Lajp atN ag ar

FIBE R RF BA CK UP M E TRO E TH E RN E T N FC TU LIP OKH LA

A IRS P A N

5 .3 GH Z R A DW IN

R aje ndr a c e pla

CP

LIFE CYCLE OF VPN CONNECTIVITY

1. CUSTOMER REQUIRMENT. 2. SURVEY 3. ANALYSIS BY PROJECT TEAM 4. LINK INSTALLATION BY ENGG. 5. TUNNEL CREATION BY NOC (NETWORK OPERATION CONTROL) 6. LOAD TESTING & CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE

Customer Requirement

Every system has a life cycle so as that VPN too have a life cycle the life cycle of any VPN begins with customer requirement face. Generally the requirement of the customer is of two types a) If a company has one or more remote locations that they wish to join in a single private network, they can create an intranet VPN to connect LAN to LAN b) When a company has a close relationship with another company (for example, a partner, supplier or customer), they can build an extranet VPN that connects LAN to LAN, and that allows all of the various companies to work in a shared environment. Depending on the requirement tulip send its sales person for further queries. Like that of the bandwidth required, what kind of data transfer will it be voice or simple file transfer, or he wants to run a application like SAP or other. Sales officer tells the approximations of the link installation. And he forwards a report to the back office for the survey report. Then afterwards the project manager decides the team size to implement the different links . After this team is decided which includes engineers and riggers .

CASE STUDIES OF WORK PERFORMED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT TULIP TELECOM LIMITED. SUBMITTED BY: PRAVESH

CASE STUDIES The following is the CASE STUDIES of the various work performed in the period of Industrial Training at TULIP TELECOM LIMITED. The followed is the details of all the work performed at both client as well as Tulip Side. The work at TULIP is of following types : 1) New Installation. 2) Trouble-Shooting the installed Link at Client Side. 3) Inspection of the CPE (Client Premises Equipments). 4) VOIP PHONES 5) VIDEO CONFRENSING New Installation : New installation includes installing all the equipments i.e 1) Subscriber Premises Radio (SPR) / Modem. 2) Router (CISCO or HUEWII mainly) 3) Power Over Ethernet (PoE) 4) Antenna and Feeder(2.7MHz or 5.3 MHz) TROUBLE-SHOOTING : Trouble-shooting includes the checking of the system and diagnosing the reasons for the fault which causes the malfunctioning the link at client side. There can be many reasons of malfunctioning of the link at client side. Some of them is specified below:

1) Wireless connectivity affected due to bad alignment of the antenna because the Wireless System work on Radio Frequency (RF) which uses LINE -OF-SIGHT for connectivity. 2) There can be seepage of water in Pictal which causes carbon deposition on the pin of cable hence disconnecting the link. 3) Frequency Interference. 4) Conflicting IP. 5) Cable Breakage and Hanging of Equipments due to Bad Environmental Condition.

INSPECTION OF CPE : Inspection includes checking the Client Side Equipments (CPE) regularly for their better working of Link. Following is the work done while performing inspection at client site : 1) The inspection procedure includes checking the earthing voltage at client premises. 2) Checking the condition of equipments whether the are well maintained or not. 3) Checking the bandwidth given to the client and IP Schema of the client. 4) Checking whether the physical topology of the equipments is as per the Network Diagram i.e. First Modem, than Router, than to switch and finally towards the LAN.

FIREPRO WIRELESS MODEMS Firepro is an emerging leader of Point-to-Multipoint (PtMP) Fixed Firepro deliver Point-to-Multipoint and point-to-point solutions for both licensed and unlicensed spectrums. We also provide breakthrough in self-install, scalability, Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) coverage, State of the art QoS, Video, VoIP and various other applications..... Multiple Configuration Options Supports Multiple Applications Modular Design Dual Band Radio

WINBOX : SOFTWARE REQUIRED FOR CONFIGURATION OF FIREPRO MODEM

CONFIGURATION: THIS IMAGE SHOWS ALL THE CONFIGURATION OF THE MODEM

BANDWIDTH

THIS IMAGE REPRESENTS THE BANDWIDTH OF THE MODEM

Link installation

Based on the survey report recommendation link installation phase begins in following steps 1. Type of modem to be used. 2. Antenna required Installation of Airspan Modem

BSR The BSR, installed at the Base Station, is an encased outdoor radio module providing a 9 pin Dtype port form RS-232 serial interface and a 15 pin D-type port for data, synchronization, and power interfaces. The BSR is available in two models: BSR with an integral antenna (BSR 900 MHz TDD V-pol); BSR with two N-type ports(displayed below) for attaching up to two external antennas (BSR 900 MHz TDD Dual Ext).

SPR The SPR is an encased CPE outdoor radio module providing access to a 15 pin D-type port for Ethernet, serial, and power interfaces. The SPR model is available in two models: SPR with an integral antenna (SPRL 900MHz TDD V-pol) and SPR with an N-type port for attaching an external antenna (SPR 900MHz TDD Ext).

Site preparation and planning When preparing and planning the site, ensure the following: 1. Minimum obstructions (e.g. buildings) in the radio path between the Base Station radio (i.e. BSR) and the subscriber radios (i.e. SPR/IDR). 2. Minimum incursions on Fresnel Zone (recommended minimum of 60% clearance of first Fresnel Zone).

Minimum multipath fading: Some of the transmitted signals may be reflected from a nearby building, by water under the signal path, or from any other reflectors. This reflected ("bounced") signal can then be received by the radio receiving the signal and superimposed on the main received signal, thereby,degrading the signal strength. Airspan recommends installing the outdoor radios at the rear of the buildings roof instead of the front. When you install at the rear, the front of the building blocks incoming signals from multipath reflections. - Clean frequencies selected from Spectrum Analyzer results (see Chapters 9 and 13). received signal strength (RSS) at CPE by antenna alignment: For the IDR, RSS can be measured by the IDR's built-in RSS LEDs; for the SPR, RSS can be measured by Airspans WipConfig program or by connecting Airspan's RSS LED Plug Adapter. - Radios are mounted as far as possible from sources of interference that could degrade performance of radio. Ensure a minimum of 1-meter separation between co-located outdoor units. Radios mounted as high as possible to avoid obstructions and to increase link quality. -BSR and SPR/IDR are within maximum range of reception. -Maximum length of 100 meters CAT-5 cable connecting outdoor radio units to indoor terminating units. - Sufficient wiring conduit and cable ties to channel and protect the CAT 5 cable connecting the outdoor radio to the indoor hub/switch. - Required power source is available at the site. Maximum

External antenna consideration

In some scenarios, where capacity demand is relatively low, external omni-directional antenna use at the Base Station may seem attractive. However, it is recommended to avoid using omnidirectional antennas (ifpossible), due to the following disadvantages that these antennas pose compared to directional antennas: - Higher sensitivity to external interferences. - Higher sensitivity to multipath, resulting in the following: - The root mean square (RMS) delay spread at the Base Station is substantially higher. -Multipath interference at the CPE side (when using omni-directional antenna at the Base Station) is substantially higher. In fact, when using an omni-directional antenna, the existence of clear Fresnel zone between BSR and SPR/IDR is insufficient to eliminate multipath interference, since multipath, in this case, can be caused by reflections originating from obstacles outside the Fresnel zone. - Higher sensitivity to alignment. Since the omni-directional antenna gain is achieved in severe signal attenuation by

narrowing the vertical beam width, a relatively low deviation in the antenna alignment will result

Transmit Power and Cable Loss Airspans AS WipLL radios provide transmit power compensation for power attenuation caused by cable loss(of cable connecting to external antenna). Cable loss is the loss of radio transmit (Tx) power as heat, and directly proportional to cable length and quality, and operating frequency. In accordance with FCC regulations, when operating in unlicensed bands, the external antennas must provide an EIRP of 36 dBm to prevent Interference with other radios. EIRP is defined as max. Power To define BSR transmit power taking into consideration cable loss (using WipManage): 1.In the BSR Zoom window, from the Configuration menu, point to RF, and then choose Power Settings. 2. Ensure the Power Management Mode Active check box is cleared. On the Power Level slide ruler, define the BSRs maximum power level, e.g. 23 dBm. 3. In the Loss Compensation field, enter the power to compensate for power attenuation due to cable length (i.e. cable loss compensation), e.g. 4 dB. 4. Click Apply, and then reset the BSR to apply the new power settings. Therefore, taking cable loss into consideration, the total power level of 27 dBm (23 plus 4) is achieved Mounting of out door Radio units Pole Mounting The BSR and SPR can be pole mounted to avoid radio wave obstructions between BSR and SPR. The supplied pole-mounting bracket is designed to support the BSR/SPR on a round pole of 45mm

diameter.

To pole mount the BSR/SPR 1. Attach the mounting bracket to the BSR/SPR using two stainless steel bolts. 2. Attach the clamping bracket to the mounting bracket using two M8-stainless steel bolts. 3. Attach the Clamping bracket to the pole by placing the two U-bolts around the pole, and then inserting the U-bolt through the Clamping bracket and securing it by screwing the two bolts on the U-bolt. 4. Adjust the vertical position of the BSR/SPR. Lock the BSR/SPR at the desired position by inserting the locking bolt in the desired position. Once the correct angle has been set both bolts must be tightened to lock the BSR/SPR bracket in place. 5. Adjust the BSR/SPR horizontal position by rotating the BSR/SPR about the pole, and then tightens the Ubolt.BSR/SPR positioning is obtained in two planes by adjustment of the mounting bracket assembly as shown in the figure below. Cabling

5 BSR-to-BSDU Cabling The BSR interfaces with the providers backbone through the BSDU (or SDA). The BSR connects to the BSDU using a CAT 5 cable. (The BSR-to-SDA cabling is the same as SPRto-SDA cabling.

Cable connection 1. Connect the 15-pin D-type male connector to the BSRs 15-pin port. 2. Connect the 15-pin D-type male connector, at the other end of the CAT 5 cable, to one of the BSDUs 15-pin D-type ports labeled BSR, located on the BSDUs rear panel.

SPR-to-SDA Cabling The SPR interfaces with the subscribers Ethernet network (LAN) through the SDA. The SPR connects to the SDA using a CAT 5 cable.

Cable connection

1. Connect the 15-pin D-type male connector, at one end of the CAT 5 cable, to the SPRs 15-pin port. 2. Connect the 15-pin D-type male connector, at the other end of the CAT 5 cable, to the SDAs

15-pinD-type

Software Installation AS WipLL provides two main configuration and management tools: WipManage and WipConfig. Before installing these tools, ensure that the following system requirements are fulfill.

Hardware requirements: 1.CPU 400 MHz minimum (recommended 1,000 MHz or more) 2. RAM 256 MB (recommended 512 MB or more) 3.Display adapter memory 8 MB 4.Graphics 1024 x 768 (recommended 1024 x 768 or more) 5.Minimum free hard disk space 500 MB (recommended 2 GB or more) 6.Network adapter 10/100 Mbps Software requirements operating systems: 1.Microsoft Windows NT 4 work station (English only) SP 3.0 or higher 2.Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional 3.Microsoft Windows XP Professional Initial Configuration To successfully establish an air and network link between the BSR and SPRs/IDRs, the following initial configuration settings (using WipConfig) must exist: 1. 2. 3. Correct IP and subnet addresses configured (according to your network addressing scheme) Correct BSR's Air MAC address configured for BSR Correct BSR's Air MAC address assigned to SPRs/IDRs

4. 5. 6.

Identical frequency table configured for BSR and SPRs/IDRs Identical maximum transmission rate configured for BSR and SPRs/IDRs dentical mode (i.e. router or bridge) configured for BSR and SPRs/IDRs

Default settings:Airspans factory default settings for the AS WipLL devices are listed in the following table:

BSR Initialization

To perform BSR initial configuration: 1. Connect the PC running WipConfig to the BSR using serial cabling. 2. Start WipConfig.

3. On the toolbar, in the Communication group, select the Serial option, and then click the Connect button,WipConfig connects to the BSR. 4. Apply factory defaults to the BSR, by performing the following: a. b. c. On the toolbar, click the Set Factory Default button; A Warning message box appears. Click Yes to confirm applying factory defaults to the BSR; A Warning message box appears. Click Yes to confirm BSR reset; WipConfig applies the default settings to the SPR/IDR. 5. From the Mode drop-down list, select Bridge (i.e. for transparent bridge mode). 6. In the Network Configuration group, enter the following fields: --Eth IP Address: enter the BSRs IP address (e.g. 10.0.0.10) --Eth Subnet Mask: enter the BSRs subnet address (e.g. 255.255.255.0) --Default Gateway: enter the BSRs default gateways IP address if relevant

7. In the RF Configuration group, enter the following fields: --Air MAC Address: enter the BSRs Air MAC address (0x0000 through 0xFFFF), e.g. 0x1200 --Frequency Table ID: enter frequency table number used by BSR (0 through 63) 8. On the toolbar, click the Write button. 9. On the toolbar, click the Reset button to reset the BSR; A Warning message box appears. 10. Click Yes to confirm BSR reset. The figure below displays the BSR configured in the bridge mode.

SPR Initialization To perform SPR/IDR initial configuration: 1. Connect the PC running WipConfig to the SPR/IDR using serial cabling. 2. Start WipConfig. 3. On the toolbar, in the Communication group, select the Serial option, and then click the Connect button,WipConfig connects to the SPR/IDR. 4. Apply factory defaults to the SPR/IDR, by performing the following: a. On the toolbar, click the Set Factory Default button; A Warning message box appears. b. Click Yes to confirm; A Warning message box appears. c. Click Yes to confirm SPR/IDR reset; WipConfig applies the default settings to the SPR/IDR. 5. From the Bridge Mode drop-down list, select Bridge (i.e. transparent bridge mode). 6. In the Network Configuration group, enter the following fields:--Eth IP Address: enter the SPRs/IDR's IP address (e.g. 10.0.0.20)

--Eth Subnet Mask: enter the SPRs/IDR's subnet address (e.g. 255.255.255.0) --Default Gateway: enter the SPRs/IDR's default gateways IP address, if relevant 7. In the RF Configuration group, enter the following fields: --Index in BSR: enter the SPRs/IDR's index number to be indexed in the BSR, e.g. 2 --BSR Air MAC Address: enter the BSRs Air MAC address to which the SPR/IDR is associated, e.g. 0x1200

The

figure

below

displays

the

SPR/IDR

configured

in

the

bridge

mode

Analyzing the RF Spectrum Before setting up your wireless link between Base Station and subscribers, Airspan recommends analyzing the RF spectrum at the Base Station to select only clear frequency channels (i.e. without interferences) for building a frequency table for the wireless transmission.

Airspan recommends using frequencies that are approximately 28, 20, and 12 dB above interference levels to effectively operate in 8- (4 Mbps/3 Mbps), 4-(2 Mbps), and 2-level FSK (1.33 Mbps/1 Mbps), respectively. Accessing the spectrum analyzer:You can access the Spectrum Analyzer through either a serial or an IP network communication mode. To access the Spectrum Analyzer: 1. Start WipConfig and then connect WipConfig to the BSR by performing one of the following: --Serial mode: on the toolbar, select the Serial option, and then click Connect. --IP mode: on the toolbar, select the Network option, and then in the Remote Agent field, enter the ASWipLL device's IP address, and then click Connect. 2. In the Outlook bar, click the Spectrum Analyzer button; A message box appears informing you that the device will lose connection with all other devices. 3. Click OK. Setting up the spectrum analyzer:Before you can start analyzing the spectrum, you need to define various parameters in the Spectrum Analyzer. To set up the Spectrum Analyzer: 1. Ensure the Setup tab (located in the top-right pane) is selected. 2. In the Refresh Rate field, enter the rate (in seconds) for polling the BSR/PPR. (The default is 3 sec aximum is 3600 sec.) 3. In the Number of Sweeps group, select the option for scanning the frequency range: --ngle: scans the spectrum only once --continuous: cyclically scans the spectrum (i.e. repetitively) --Custom: you can define the number of sweeps (range is 0 through 1,000 sweeps) 4. To change the antenna gain, in the Antenna Gain field, enter the antenna gain. If you want to restore the BSRs default antenna gain, click the True Antenna Gain Value button.

5. To define the frequency range for which you want to analyze, define the following fields:

--Start Freq: frequency from where you want to scan (i.e. lower frequency) --Stop Freq: frequency to where you want to scan (i.e. upper frequency) Viewing Results:The Spectrum Analyzer results are plotted on the graph as well as displayed in the Results table (to access the Results table simply click the Results tab). The following measurements are displayed: --Average received signal strength (RSS) per frequency (plotted white line on the graph) --Maximum hold received signal strength (RSS) per frequency (plotted yellow line on the graph) --Distance (in spectrum RF) that the BSR/PPR can establish a viable communication link with another transmitter. This is displayed in the TxRxOffset field.

9 Configuring PCs IP Address

To establish IP network connectivity between your PC running the NMS (WipConfig or WipManage) and the AS WipLL devices, you need to configure your PC's TCP/IP address settings in accordance with your AS

WipLL network's IP addressing scheme: 1.Define PCs (i.e. Ethernet card) IP address so that its in same subnet as the BSR/BSDU. 2.Configure PCs default gateway with the IP address of the BSR, or with the IP address of a router if oneexists between the PC and BSR. To configure your PCs IP address settings 1. On the Windows desktop, right-click My Network Places, and then from the shortcut menu, choose Properties; The Network and Dial-up Connections folder appears. 2. Right-click the desired connection, and then from the shortcut menu, choose Properties; The Local Area Connection Properties dialog box appears. 3. In the Components list, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click Properties; The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box appears:

4. Select the Use the Following IP Address option, and then enter the following fields: --IP Address: PCs IP address, e.g. 10.0.0.2 --Subnet Mask: PCs subnet mask address, which must be the same as the BSR/BSDU (e.g. 255.255.255.0) so that the PC is in the same subnet as the BSR/BSDU --Default Gateway: PCs default gateway, which can be the BSRs IP address (e.g. 10.0.0.10), or if a router exists behind the BSR, then the routers IP address 5. Click OK. 10 Establishing Link Using WIP manage Once you have initialized the BSR and SPR/IDR using WipConfig, you need to add various WipManage elements to establish a viable air and network link between the BSR and SPR/IDR. Adding a BS group:To add a BS Group: 1. In the Database Tree, right-click , and then from the shortcut menu, choose Add BS Group. BS Group Add dialog box appears.

2. In the Group Name field, enter a name for the BS Group, e.g. Manhattan_1, and then click OK.

Adding a BS:You can now add a Base Station (BS) to the BS Group you added in the previous subsection. To add a BS: 1. In the Database Tree, click the (e.g. Manahattan_1) branch to which you want to add the BS. 2. In the BSs Map view (in the right pane), right-click an empty area, and then from the shortcut menu choose Add BS; The BS Add dialog box appears. 3. In the BS Name field, enter a name for the BS, e.g. Times Square, and then click OK.

Adding a BSR You can add up to six BSRs to each BSDU, allowing a maximum of 24 BSRs (6 BSRs x 4 BSDUs) per BS. In our example, we need to add a BSR with IP address 10.0.0.10. To add a BSR: 1. In the Database Tree, double-click the (e.g. Times Square) branch.

2. Right-click one of the six blue rectangles in the same row as the BSDU to which you want to add the BSR, and then from the shortcut menu, choose Add BSR; The BSR-Add dialog box appears.

3. In the Manage IP field, enter the BSRs IP address, e.g. 10.0.0.10. 4. In the Get Community and Set Community fields, enter the SNMP community rights. 5. Click OK.

The Permitted SPRs-Add dialog box appears.

2. In the IP Address field, enter the SPRs/IDR's IP address (e.g. 10.0.0.20)3. Click OK; The SPR index #2 icon appears green, as shown below, indicating that a viable air and network link exists with the SPR/IDR. You can now manage the SPR/IDR.

Testing BSR/SPR Network Link:You can test the BSR-SPR/IDR link by pinging the SPR/IDR from a PC located behind the BSR.