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Navi Mumbai International Airport (NMIA) Enhancement in aviation facilities in Mumbai is absolutely essential for keeping the leadership

of Maharashtra in attracting Foreign Direct Investment thereby creating a place of pride for itself and add to the prosperity of its people. Therefore a second airport in the Mumbai Region has become imperative, as the existing airport at Mumbai, is fast reaching saturation level. To meet the growing demand of air travel CIDCO is going to develop a new airport. The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport is a new international airport, which is to come up at Kopra-Panvel area, is being built through public-private partnership (PPP) with private sector partner getting 74% equity while Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Govt of Maharashtra (through City and Industrial Development Corporation or CIDCO) holding 13% each. The airport is expected to become operational in 2014. The location of the proposed airport at Navi Mumbai has been considered on several parameters. Prominent among these is the fact that Navi Mumbai is expected to absorb the future growth in population, business and commercial activity of the region. The availability of physical and social infrastructure coupled with environmental friendly site with minimum resettlement and rehabilitation makes the Navi Mumbai airport project technically and financially viable. The airport would be one of world's few ''greenfield'' international state-of-art airport offering world class facilities to passengers cargo, aircrafts and airlines. The cost of the project, which is being developed through the public-private partnership route, is estimated at 5,260 crore (US$1.05 billion). The new airport will cater to 10 million passengers a year in its initial phase (end-2014), 25 million by 2020, 45 million by 2025, and 60 million by 2030, according to CIDCO. The site had several environmental problems in dealing with mangroves and rain/storm water drains in Panvel. There is an NGO fighting government agencies regarding Panvel. The ministry of environment and forests (MoEF) gave its clearance for the Navi Mumbai international airport on 14 May 2008. The environmental ministry finally cleared the project on 23 November 2010.[ The airport is also facing hurdles in the acquisition of private land. It will need 2,042 hectares. City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) still needs to acquire 424 hectares of privately owned land CIDCO officials and the state government have been negotiating with the residents of seven villages. Land acquisition is stuck as the villagers (5,000 families) are demanding a higher compensation package of 20 crore per acre. Villagers and land holders at the planned site of the airport are unhappy with the compensation paid to them by CIDCO. CIDCO then formed a committee comprising the divisional commissioner of the Konkan division and local politicians. The committee had offered the project-affected-people (PAP) two rehabilitation-related compensation options: a) 12.5% of developed land at the ready reckoner rates, in addition to monetary compensation; b) 22.5% developed land in Navi Mumbai. In response, the PAP allowed CIDCO to carry out survey work in the Chinchpada village, and not at the other 9 villages within the proposed airport site. However, they still haven't agreed completely to the compensation options offered by the CIDCO. The PAP pressure group made it clear that it hasn't yet accepted the

offer made by CIDCO, and will reach a decision only when CIDCO fulfils a list of its demands, one of which asks for appointments against pending vacancies in the development body, which are reserved for PAP. ISO 14000 ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and (c) continually improve in the above. ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at once. ISO 14000 Family of Standards ISO 14000 is a series of standards developed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to address Environmental Management: Minimize your negative impact on the environment Continually improve your environmental performance ISO 14000 environmental standards help organizations manage their environmental requirements and tie them into their overall business objectives. They fall into six categories (click for details): 1. Environmental management systems ISO 14001:2004 is the document which defines the requirements for the ISO 14000 EMS and provides guidance for its use. ISO 14001:2004 is a standard for an Environmental Management System (EMS), which requires your organization to:

Determine your organization's impact on the environment and relevant regulations to the operations of the business. Create a plan to control your processes to minimize the environmental impact. Monitor the effectiveness of the system at meeting objectives as well as legal and other. Continually analyze the results and improve your systems.

SO 14004 provides guidance on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and improvement of an environmental management system and its coordination with other management systems like ISO 9001, ISO 13485, etc.

It is not a set of requirements, it is a guidance document. An organization cannot become ISO 14004 certified. It is one of the ISO 14000 family of documents relating to the implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS). The guidelines in ISO 14004:2004 are applicable to any organization, regardless of its size, type, location or level of maturity. While ISO 14001 guidelines are consistent with the ISO 14004:2004 environmental management system model, they do not provide interpretations of the requirements of ISO 14004:2004. 2. Environmental auditing It offers comprehensive guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems audit. The objective is that by using this document, organizations can save effort, time, effort and expenditure by:

Avoiding confusion over the objectives of the environmental or quality audit program. Ensuring audit reports follow the best format and contain all the relevant information. Securing agreement of the goals for individual audits within an audit program. Evaluating the competence of members of an audit team against appropriate criteria. Reducing duplication of effort when conducting combined environmental/quality audits.

ISO 19011 was designed so organizations can efficiently perform audits using these guidelines. Within one single standard there are now four critical decision/support resources for the efficient planning, conduct and evaluation of quality and environmental audits: 1. 2. 3. 4. A clear explanation of the principles of management systems auditing. Advice on the competence and evaluation of auditors. Guidance on the management of audit programs. Guidance on the conduct of internal or external audits.

It is a set of principles that will help anyone perform an audit effectively because it focuses on the underlying processes of audit management. It could be used when auditing any management system. 3. Environmental performance evaluation Project Level Guidance for Greenhouse Gas Reporting ISO 14064-2:2006 specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to cause greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions or removal enhancements. It includes requirements for planning a GHG project, identifying and selecting GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs relevant to the project and baseline scenario, monitoring, quantifying, documenting and reporting GHG project performance and managing data quality. 4. Environmental labeling 5. Life-cycle assessment

Life cycle assessment is a tool to evaluate the environmental result of a product, looking the usage, resource and release to environment at all states. In this assessment all aspects of environmental impacts have to be considered from the raw materials to the final disposal of used products. So the life cycle assessment is process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process un-activity, indentifying the energy, and materials uses and wastes released to the environment. It is to assess the impact of these energy and material uses and releases on the environment.

To identify the environmental improvements. The implementation of this method have three approaches like prevention and control of the air and water pollution and the protection of the environment.The market based approach is useful controlling industrial pollution and the use of eco-friendly products through cleaner technologies and this approach is based on economic instruments.It creates environmental awareness and protection. The generation of environmental awareness amongst all section of the society is pre-requisite for proper environmental management. Awareness can be created by extensive media coverage, orientation programmes and targeting women and children in the awareness programmes.

6. Environmental aspects in product standards Benefits ISO 14001 was developed primarily to assist companies in reducing their environmental impact, but in addition to an improvement in environmental standards and performance, organizations can reap a number of economic benefits including higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements (Sheldon 1997) by utilizing the ISO standard. Firstly by minimizing the risk of regulatory and environmental liability fines and improving an organizations efficiency (Delmas 2001), leading to a reduction in waste and consumption of resources, operating costs can be reduced (ISO14001.com.au 2010). Secondly, as an internationally recognized standard, businesses operating in multiple locations across the globe can register as ISO 14001 compliant, eliminating the need for multiple registrations or certifications (Hutchens 2010). Thirdly there has been a push in the last decade by consumers, for companies to adopt stricter environmental regulations, making the incorporation of ISO 14001 a greater necessity for the long term viability of businesses (Delmas & Montiel 2009) and providing them with a competitive advantage against companies that do not adopt the standard (Potoki & Prakash, 2005). This in turn can have a positive impact on a companys asset value (Van der Deldt, 1997) and can lead to improved public perceptions of the business, placing them in a better position to operate in the international marketplace (Potoki & Prakash 1997; Sheldon 1997). Finally it can serve to reduce trade barriers between registered businesses (Van der Deldt, 1997). Organizations can significantly benefit from EMS implementation through the identification of large cleaner production projects (e.g. which can drastically cut electricity costs in

manufacturing industries). ISO 14001 can be a very effective tool to identify these cost savings opportunities for some organizations. Project Tiger Project Tiger Scheme has been under implementation since 1973 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Government of India. Objective The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific , economic , aesthetic , cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Main objectives under the scheme include wildlife management, protection measures and site specific ecodevelopment to reduce the dependency of local communities on tiger reserve resources. Initially, the Project started with 9 tiger reserves, covering an area of 16,339 sq.km., with a population of 268 tigers. At present there are 27 tiger reserves covering an area of 37761 sq.km., with a population of 1498 tigers. This amounts to almost 1.14% of the total geographical area of the country. The selection of reserves was guided by representation of ecotypical wilderness areas across the biogeographic range of tiger distribution in the country. Project Tiger is undisputedly a custodian of major gene pool. It is also a repository of some of the most valuable ecosystem and habitats for wildlife. Tiger Reserves are constituted on a 'core-buffer' strategy. The core area is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations, where collection of minor forest produce, grazing, human disturbances are not allowed within. However, the buffer zone is managed as a multiple use area with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to the spill over population of wild animals from the core conservation unit, and to provide site specific ecodevelopmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on the core. Except for the National Parks portion if contained within, normally no relocation of villages is visualised in the buffer area, and forestry operations, NTFP collection and other rights and concessions to the local people are permitted in a regulated manner to complement the initiatives in the core unit. Project Tiger has put the tiger on an assured course of recovery from the brink of extinction, and has resurrected the floral and faunal genetic diversity in some of our unique and endangered wilderness ecosystem. The population of tigers in the country has increased significantly to about 4000 from less than 2000 at the time of launch of the project. The effective protection and concerted conservation measures inside the reserves have brought about considerable intangible achievements also, viz. arresting erosion, enrichment of water regime thereby improving the water table and overall habitat resurrection. Labour intensive activities in tiger reserves have helped in poverty alleviation amongst the most backward sections, and their dependence on forests has also reduced. The project has been instrumental in mustering local support for conservation programme in general. Approach:

Elimination of all forms of human exploitation and disturbance from the core and rationalisation of such activities in the buffer. Limitation of the habitat management to repair damage done by man. Researching facts about habitat and wild animals and carefully monitoring changes in flora and fauna.

NARMADA PROJECT Narmada Bachao Andolan is the most powerful mass movement, started in 1985, against the construction of huge dam on the Narmada river. Narmada is the India's largest west flowing river, which supports a large variety of people with distinguished culture and tradition ranging from the indigenous (tribal) people inhabited in the jungles here to the large number of rural population. The proposed Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada River near Navagam, Gujarat, India. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada River. The project took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity. The proposed Sardar Sarovar Dam and Narmada Sagar will displace more than 250,000 people. The big fight is over the resettlement or the rehabilitation of these people. The two proposals are already under construction, supported by US$550 million loan by the world bank. There are plans to build over 3000 big and small dams along the river. It is a multi crore project that will generate a big revenue for the government. The Narmada Valley Development plan is the the most promised and most challenging plan in the history of India. The proponents are of the view that it will produce 1450 MW of electricity and pure drinking water to 40 million people covering thousand of villages and towns. Some of the dams have been already been completed such as Tawa and Bargi Dams. But the opponents says that this hydro project will devastate human lives and bio diversity by destroying thousand of acres of forests and agricultural land. On the other hand it will overall deprive thousands of people of their livelihood. They believe that the water and energy could be provided to the people through alternative technological means, that would be ecologically beneficial. Led by one of the prominent leader Medha Patkar, it has now been turned into the International protest, gaining support from NGO'S all around the globe. Protestors are agitating the issue through the mass media, hunger strikes, massive marches, rallies and the through the on screen of several documentary films. Although they have been protesting peacefully, but they been harassed, arrested and beaten up by the police several times. The Narmada Bachao Andolan has been pressurizing the world bank to withdraw its loan from the project through media. The strong protests through out the country not only made impact on the local people but has also influenced the several famous celebrities like film star Aamir Khan , who has made open efforts to support Narmada Bachao Andolan. He said he only want that those who have been rendered homeless should be given a roof. He pleaded to the common people to take part in the moment and come up with the best possible solutions.

Chipko Movement Chipko Movement, started in 1970's, was a non violent movement aimed at protection and conservation of trees and forests from being destroyed. The name of the Chipko moment originated from the word 'embrace' as the villagers used to hug the trees and protect them from wood cutters from cutting them. Chipko movement was based on the Gandhian philosophy of peaceful resistance to achieve the goals. It was the strong uprising against the against those people, who were destroying the natural resources of the forests and disturbing the whole ecological balance. It was first started in the Chamoli district in the year 1973 and from there it spread to the other parts of the country. There is one very famous story about the girl, Amrita Devi, who died while trying to save the trees grown in her village. The village was under the rule of the local Maharaja, who desired to built a palace for his family. He ordered his servants to bring wood from the nearby village. When the wood cutters arrived the village to cut the tress, Amrita and other women of the village jumped in front of the trees and hugged them. She said they will have to cut her first before the trees. The servants were helpless to follow the orders and cut the tree. Amrita Devi died on the spot. Before offering her head to the Maharajas servants, Amrita enchanted :- seir santhe runkh raheb, to bhee sastojan (it is till a small price to pay if at the cost of my head the tree is saved). The incident inspired the several other rural womens, who in 1970's launched such similar movements in different parts of India. The incident inspired the several other rural womens, who in 1970's launched such similar movements in different parts of India.It is really surprising that the women of that age were better aware about the significance of forests. The rural women in India actively participated in the movement, who knows about deforestation and its future consequences. Some of the key women leaders who fought for the protection of forests, whom they call it their maternal mother were Gaura Devi, Sudesha Devi, Bachni Devi, Dev Suman, Mira Behn, Sarala Behn and Amrita Devi. The Chipko Movement gained momentum under Sunderlal Bahuguna, an eco activist, who spent his whole life persuading and educating the villagers, to protest against the destruction of the forests and the Himalayan mountains by the government. It was he, who made appeal to the Prime Minister of India Mrs Indira Gandhi to ban the cutting of tress. He shouted the slogan 'ecology is the permanent economy'. Another main leader of the movement was Mr. Chandi Prasad Bhatt, who advocated the development of small scale local industries, which were based on the sustainable use of the forests resources for the local benefits. There were many slogans that originated during that period. For example :Embrace the trees and Save then from being felled The property of our hills, Save them from being looted One of the major achievement of the Chipko movement was the ban on cutting the trees for

the 15 years in the forests of Uttar Pradesh in 1980. Later on the ban was imposed in Himachal Pardesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar, Western Ghats and Vindhayas. All this was done on the order of the Indian Prime Minister after the strong protests by the activists through out the country. THE ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986 In the wake of Bhopal tragedy, the Government of India enacted the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA) under article 253 of the constitution.

The main objective of this Act is to provide the protection and improvement of environment (which includes water, air, land, human being, other living creatures, plants, micro-organism and properties) and for matters connected therewith. There is a constitutional provision also for the environment protection. Article 48A, specify that the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country and every citizen shall protect the environment (51 A). The Environment (Protection) Act is applicable to whole of India including Jammu & Kashmir. Environment: It includes water, air, and land and the inter-relationship which exists among and between water, air and land and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organism and property. Environmental Pollution: It means any solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to environment and human being are known as pollutant and presence of any pollutant in the environment in such proportion and concentration that has bearing on health and environment is termed as "Environmental Pollution". Handling: In relation to any substance, it means the manufacturing, processing, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, use, collection, destruction, conversion, offering for sale, etc. Occupier: It means a person who has control over the affairs of the factory or the premises, and includes, in relation to any substance, the person in possession of the substance. The Act provide power to make rules to regulate environmental pollution, to notify standards and maximum limits of pollutants of air, water, and soil for various areas and purposes, prohibition and restriction on the handling of hazardous substances and location of industries (Sections 3-6). The Central Government is empowered to constitute authority or authorities for the purpose of exercising of performing such of the powers and functions (Sec 3), appoint a person for inspection (Sec 4), for analysis or samples and for selection or notification of environmental laboratories. Such person or agency has power to inspect or can enter in the premises or can take samples for analysis (Secs 10, 11). According to the section 5, the Central Government may issue directions in writing to any person or officers or any authority to comply. There could be closure, prohibition of the supply of electricity or operation or process; or stoppage or regulation of the supply of electricity or water or any other service. Section 6 empower the government to make rules to achieve the object of the Act. Persons carrying on industry, operation etc. not to allow emission or discharge of environmental pollutants in excess of the standards (Sec 7). Persons handling

hazardous substances must comply with procedural safeguards (Sec 8) and occupiers must furnish the information to authority. Penalty

Whoever Person or Owner/Occupier of companies, factories or whichever source found to be the cause of pollution may be liable for punishment for a term which may extend to five years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or both (Sec 15, 16, 17). If not comply fine of Rs. 5000 per day extra and if not comply for more than one year then imprisonment may extend up to 7 years. Section 17 specify that Head of the department/ in-charge of small unit may be liable for punishment if the owner /occupier produce enough evidence of innocence. The CPCB or state boards have power to close or cancel or deny the authorisation to run the factory/institution/hospital whichever is causing pollution. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against govt. officer who has exercise power in good faith in pursuance of this Act (Sec 18).

Water and air pollution Water covers over 70% of the Earths surface and is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. This consequently harms human health and the natural environment. When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits. Water pollution has many sources. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India. Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies. Such water, which ultimately ends up in our households, is often highly contaminated and carries disease-causing microbes. Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides. Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities. It amounts to a very small fraction of the sewage by weight. But it is large by volume and contains impurities such as organic materials and plant nutrients that tend to rot. The main organic materials are food and vegetable waste, plant nutrient come from chemical soaps, washing powders, etc. Domestic sewage is also very likely to contain disease-causing microbes. Thus, disposal of domestic waste water is a significant technical problem. Sewage generated from the urban areas in India has multiplied manifold since 1947. Today, many people dump their garbage into streams, lakes, rivers, and seas, thus making water bodies the final resting place of cans, bottles, plastics, and other household products. The various substances that we use for keeping our houses clean add to water pollution as they contain harmful chemicals. In the past, people mostly used soaps made from animal and vegetable fat for all types of washing. But most of todays cleaning products are synthetic

detergents and come from the petrochemical industry. Most detergents and washing powders contain phosphates, which are used to soften the water among other things. These and other chemicals contained in washing powders affect the health of all forms of life in the water. Effects of water pollution The effects of water pollution are not only devastating to people but also to animals, fish, and birds. Polluted water is unsuitable for drinking, recreation, agriculture, and industry. It diminishes the aesthetic quality of lakes and rivers. More seriously, contaminated water destroys aquatic life and reduces its reproductive ability. Eventually, it is a hazard to human health. Nobody can escape the effects of water pollution. The individual and the community can help minimize water pollution. By simple housekeeping and management practices the amount of waste generated can be minimized. What is Air Pollution? Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution. Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different groups of individuals are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. The extent to

which an individual is harmed by air pollution usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging chemicals, i.e., the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chemicals must be taken into account. Examples of short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. In the great "Smog Disaster" in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentrations of pollution. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. It is estimated that half a million people die prematurely every year in the United States as a result of smoking cigarettes. Research into the health effects of air pollution is ongoing. Medical conditions arising from air pollution can be very expensive. Healthcare costs, lost productivity in the workplace, and human welfare impacts cost billions of dollars each year. How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution?

In many countries in the world, steps are being taken to stop the damage to our environment from air pollution. Scientific groups study the damaging effects on plant, animal and human life. Legislative bodies write laws to control emissions. Educators in schools and universities teach students, beginning at very young ages, about the effects of air pollution. The first step to solving air pollution is assessment . Researchers have investigated outdoor air pollution and have developed standards for measuring the type and amount of some serious air pollutants. Scientists must then determine how much exposure to pollutants is harmful. Once exposure levels have been set, steps can be undertaken to reduce exposure to air pollution. These can be accomplished by regulation of man-made pollution through legislation. Many countries have set controls on pollution emissions for transportation vehicles and industry. This is usually done to through a variety of coordinating agencies which monitor the air and the environment. At the United Nations, the Atmosphere Management Program carries out world wide environmental projects. In the United States, the primary federal agency is the Environmental Protection Agency. Many state and local organizations also participate in monitoring and controlling the environment. GREEN MARKETING Green marketing is a way to use the environmental benefits of a product or service to promote sales. Many consumers will choose products that do not damage the environment

over less environmentally friendly products, even if they cost more. With green marketing, advertisers focus on environmental benefits to sell products such as biodegradable diapers, energy-efficient light bulbs, and environmentally safe detergents. People buy billions of dollars worth of goods and services every yearmany which harm the environment in how they are harvested, made, or used. Environmentalists support green marketing to encourage people to use environmentally preferable alternatives, and to offer incentives to manufacturers that develop more environmentally beneficial products. The concept of green marketing has been around at least since the first Earth Day in 1970. But the idea did not catch on until the 1980s, when rising public interest in the environment led to a demand for more green products and services. Manufacturers responded to public interest by labeling hundreds of new products "environmentally friendly"making claims that products were biodegradable, compostable, energy efficient, or the like. In spite of its growing popularity, the green marketing movement faced serious setbacks in the late 1980s because many industries made false claims about their products and services. For instance, the environmental organization CorpWatch, which issues annually a list of the top ten "greenwashing" companies, included BP Amoco for advertising its "Plug in the Sun" program, in which the company installed solar panels in two hundred gas stations, while continuing to aggressively lobby to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Without environmental labeling standards, consumers could not tell which products and services were truly beneficial. Consumers ended up paying extra for misrepresented products. The media came up with the term "greenwashing" to describe cases where organizations misrepresented themselves as environmentally responsible. In 1992, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) stepped in to prevent further deception. The FTC created guidelines for the use of environmental marketing claims such as "recyclable," "biodegradable," "compostable," and the like. The FTC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defined "environmentally preferable products" as products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared to other products and services that serve the same purpose. The label "environmentally preferable" considers how raw materials are acquired, produced, manufactured, packaged, distributed, reused, operated, maintained, or how the product or service is disposed. Today, special labels help the public identify legitimate environmentally preferable products and services. Several environmental groups evaluate and certify products and services that meet FTC standardsor their own tougher standards. One popular product that has received certification is shade-grown coffee, an alternative to coffee beans that are grown on deforested land in the tropics. During the late 1990s, green marketing received a large boost when President Bill Clinton issued executive orders directing federal offices to purchase recycled and environmentally preferable products. Some industries adopted similar policies. Examples of environmentally-beneficial products and services:

Paper containing post-consumer wastepaper Cereals sold without excess packaging

Shade-grown coffee beans Cleaning supplies that do not harm humans or environment Wood harvested from sustainable forests Energy-efficient lightbulbs Energy-efficient cars Energy from renewable sources of energy such as windmills and solar power Objectives of Green Marketing There are two main objectives to be defined when it comes to promoting an Ecofriendly product: Improve environment quality This objectives focuses on the technical part of the product and addresses whether the product in concern has a better environmental quality than its peers. When it comes to claims, it is always essential to support them with actual studies or certification.

Customer Satisfaction

The second objective - Customer Satisfaction is what will eventually result in the success of your Green Campaign or any marketing campaign. If the customers are not satisfied with your product regardless of its environmental advantage it will result in transfer of loyalty to other competing brands. Here it is imperative to understand the attitudes that drive the purchase decisions and identify the different demography before actively campaigning from NGOs, Govt bodies to your average high school student, the reasons behind the environmental motivation and may vary from group to group although the core message remains the same: for a better environment.

Whom to target and Where

To be successful, marketers must be pragmatic in identifying their target audience when and where consumers are most receptive to the environmental cause. While campaigns prior to Earth day, Earth hour, websites and periodicals dedicated to the environment might seem to fit the requirement - marketers should remember that consumers are as complex as the environment itself. In addition, advertising focused on such specialized channels may target only a niche audience. Green is going mainstream The most current and highly effective channel to communicate with consumers across a broad spectrum today is the social network. The internet is a ubiquitous medium and consumers can be found on many social networks with facebook, myspace, bebo and twitter taking the lead. Companies have been harnessing the power of these tools to reach out to users with specific interests. As the Environment is a social cause social networks is fast becoming one of the most preferred marketing channels today. However, companies must be extremely diligent in their communication as the social network opens up the possibility of a two-way communication rather than one-way channel. Feedback both positive and negative is imminent and it is important to monitor and respond well to queries.

BOMBAY OIL SPILL The 2010 Mumbai oil spill occurred after two Panamian-flagged ships, MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia-III collided off the coast of India near time. MSC Chitra, which was outborne Mumbai on 7.08.2010 at around 9:50 A.M local time from South Mumbais Nava Sheva port collided with the inbound MV Khalijia-III which immediately threw out the oil containers from MSC Chitra into the Arabian Sea. Khalijia-III was apparently involved with another mishap on July 18, 2010. MSC Chitra, registered in Panama, is owned by Mediterranean Shipping Company, a public limited company based in Geneva, Switzerland. Its management operations are conducted from Hong Kong, while its local agents in Mumbai look after the loading and unloading of its ships. Its a big shipping company owing 140 ships, Mr. Khalid said. Khalijia, on the other hand, is owned by Gulf Rock KSC, a Kuwait-based public limited company, with management operations in Navi Mumbai. The company is listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange. When the MSC Chitra collided with the Khalijia on 7.08.2010, it had a cargo of 1,219 containers holding 2662 tonnes of fuel, 283 tonnes of diesel and 88040 litres of lubricant oil. Thirty-one containers had pesticide in them. The Chitra tilted sharply under the impact of the collision, resulting in the oil spill and now, containers of pesticide bobbing off on the sea. The foreign cargo ship, which collided with another vessel about 10 km off Mumbai harbour, tilted further spilling oil for the third day continuously as Navy and Coast Guard made hectic efforts to contain the leak. The Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Thiru Ashok Chavan claimed that they have already filed cases against the captains of the two ships which are from abroad. Thirty three crew members, including two Pakistanis, were rescued following the incident. The Navy and the Coast Guards have been carrying out anti-pollution operations every day to check and neutralise the oil spill. Six coastguard vessels and a helicopter with anti-pollution dispersal spray systems were pressed into service on 8th August 2010 to contain the oil spill. A high-level meeting, attended by the officials of the Maharashtra Government Environment Department, National Disaster Response Force, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, Shipping department, Mumbai Port Trust and other concerned agencies has been convened to assess the situation and steps to be taken to bring it under control. Fishing associations have been also requested not to carry out any fishing activities till the oil spill is contained. Officials are yet to locate the leakage. The thick oil slick has been sighted two to three kms around the vessel Chitra. As on 10th Aug 2010, traffic had been suspended as the containers were still sighted floating into the channel thus making navigation hazardous. During aerial surveillance concentrated residual oil patches have been sighted adjoining areas of BARC and Sewri. Around 800 tonnes of oil is floating on the sea comes dangerously close to the coast line. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has intervened and asked for a report from the Union Shipping Ministry on the oil spill. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has also been

alerted by the Coastguard to stop using sea water for cooling down purposes as the slick has reached Sewree area where BARC is located. Hectic efforts continued to combat the oil spill spanning around two miles in the Arabian Sea. In the biggest such operation mounted so far in the Indian sea waters, authorities have deployed five Indian Coast Guard (ICG) ships, one helicopter and one small aircraft for controlling the massive oil spill. The ships ICG Sankalp, Amrit Kaur, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Kamla Devi and C-145 have joined the ICG AOPV Sangram, which was deployed since 9th August 2010 to monitor the oil spill and guide relief efforts. A Chetak helicopter and a small Dornier aircraft were pressed into service for aerial spray of dispersants to tackle the thick oil slick. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trusts acting chairperson N N Kumar said these pumps can suck out oil at the rate of 30 metric tonnes an hour. The ship Chitra was carrying 2662 metric tonnes of fuel when it started. Nearly 879 metric tonnes has flown out. Besides, there are 283.8 tonnes of diesel and 88,040 litres of lube oil on board. It is expected to take eight days to drain out the oil. Coast Guard officials said a crane called Sea Patriot C4 mounted on a ship has been arranged and has been positioned close to Chitra to continuously pump out the oil. The submerged containers were lifted by using air bags and towed to a shallow corner. Simultaneously, the containers on the ship will be removed with a crane, placed on a barge and then taken to JNPT. Impact of the Mumbai Oil Spill The situation is chilling. A snake which came in from the sea was covered in oil and chemicals and was struggling. Neither could it go back into the sea as it is filled with oil, nor could it remain in the open in the baking sun. The oil spill has turned deadly. And its not just this one snake. Fishermen claim that their fishing nets in the sea are all covered with oil. No one is willing to buy such fish. The marine life here is contaminated. This has been confirmed by initial reports carried out by the state government. The oil slick has even entered the sensitive mangrove belt. While the government is working towards a swift clean up, environmentalists fear it may be too late. Environmentalists worry that the oil slick will enter the mangroves and mudflats and once that happens nothing can be done to clean it up. Moreover he believes that India has the technology or the intent. The Environment Minister Thiru Jairam Ramesh claims that removing the entire oil from the sea will take 45 days. Comprehensive detailed investigation on damage on mangrove forest will be done by Maharashtra Pollution Board. And while the leak may have been plugged, going by the extent to which the slick has spread, it will be a while before the villagers can return to the seas for their livelihood. As the crisis related to the oil spill off Mumbai coast becomes bigger, its business as usual in the metropolis. Even as mangroves turn black due to the oil slick and toxic chemical bottles

get washed ashore, at the Mumbai docks fish continues to be brought in and hundreds of fishermen continue to go out to sea. Over 31 containers with hazardous chemicals are still missing and need to be found. Debris can still be seen floating in the waters. The water around the damaged MSC Chitra is clear but that is because the ship is in deep sea and the debris is getting washed ashore. But the fishermen claim there is no need to panic. They are worried people will stop eating fish, affecting their business in turn. The crisis related to the oil spill off Mumbai coast becomes bigger.. Even as mangroves turn black due to the oil slick and toxic chemical bottles get washed ashore, at the Mumbai docks fish continues to be brought in and hundreds of fishermen continue to go out to sea. Over 31 containers with hazardous chemicals are still missing and need to be found. Debris can still be seen floating in the waters. The water around the damaged MSC Chitra is clear but that is because the ship is in deep sea and the debris is getting washed ashore. But the fishermen claim there is no need to panic. They are worried people will stop eating fish, affecting their business in turn. They claim that there is no connection between the oil spill and fish. Despite the warnings of the state government and Environment Ministry for the fisherman of Mumbai it is business as usual. They insist there is nothing wrong. For them it is just another day. Loss due to spill Four billion dollar of trade will be lost if the oil spill off the Mumbai coast is not dealt with by the weekend. The situation has already prompted exporters and importers to ask the government for financial relief,. The recent oil spill off the Mumbai coast has disrupted cargo traffic at JNPT and Mumbai port. And if the situation is not addressed by the end of the week (15th august 2010), the Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO) estimates that USD 4 billion of trade cargo will be lost. After all, these two ports handle 60% of Indias container traffic. The FIEO says that losses are mounting with each day of delay. It pegs losses to Indian importers and exporters at USD 20 million by the end of the week. The Federation is now asking the government to help contain these financial losses by waiving demurrage, detention and other charges which arise from suspension of operations at the ports. Oil companies, meanwhile, are putting on a brave face, for now. They say that fuel production at their Mumbai plants are normal, and add that the port disruption will not mean a shortage of supplies, for the time being. ONGC is also working to compensate for the blocked ports by diverting crude to its two facilities through pipeline.

This measure, it says, will ensure supplies are not impaired. Officials at oil marketing companies IOC, BPCL and HPCL agree, saying they have enough inventories to survive this crisis. The Maharashtra government is going all out to assure the people that port activities will resume as soon as possible. But experts point out that if port operations remain suspended past the 15th of august, Mumbai could run out of fuel. The Earth Summit The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro was unprecedented for a UN conference, in terms of both its size and the scope of its concerns. Twenty years after the first global environment conference, the UN sought to help Governments rethink economic development and find ways to halt the destruction of irreplaceable natural resources and pollution of the planet. Hundreds of thousands of people from all walks of life were drawn into the Rio process. They persuaded their leaders to go to Rio and join other nations in making the difficult decisions needed to ensure a healthy planet for generations to come. The Summits message that nothing less than a transformation of our attitudes and behaviour would bring about the necessary changes was transmitted by almost 10,000 onsite journalists and heard by millions around the world. The message reflected the complexity of the problems facing us: that poverty as well as excessive consumption by affluent populations place damaging stress on the environment. Governments recognized the need to redirect international and national plans and policies to ensure that all economic decisions fully took into account any environmental impact. And the message has produced results, making eco-efficiency a guiding principle for business and governments alike.

Patterns of production particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste are being scrutinized in a systematic manner by the UN and Governments alike; Alternative sources of energy are being sought to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change; New reliance on public transportation systems is being emphasized in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog; There is much greater awareness of and concern over the growing scarcity of water.

The two-week Earth Summit was the climax of a process, begun in December 1989, of planning, education and negotiations among all Member States of the United Nations, leading to the adoption of Agenda 21, a wide-ranging blueprint for action to achieve sustainable development worldwide. At its close, Maurice Strong, the Conference Secretary-General, called the Summit a historic moment for humanity. Although Agenda 21 had been weakened by compromise and negotiation, he said, it was still the most comprehensive and, if implemented, effective programme of action ever sanctioned by the international community. Today, efforts to ensure its proper implementation continue, and they will be reviewed by the UN General Assembly at a special session to be held in June 1997.

The Earth Summit influenced all subsequent UN conferences, which have examined the relationship between human rights, population, social development, women and human settlements and the need for environmentally sustainable development. The World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, for example, underscored the right of people to a healthy environment and the right to development, controversial demands that had met with resistance from some Member States until Rio.