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# Handbook - Calculations

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Covered
Electrodes

## Calculating Filler Metal Consumption

Stainless
Steel
Products

The number of pounds of welding electrodes or welding wire necessary to complete a given weld joint may
be calculated by the formula:

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

P =

WL
E

Where:
ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

Cored
Wire
Products

W =

## Length of weld (feet)

Deposition efficiency

## Weight Per Foot of Weld Metal

Submerged
Arc
Products

Calculating the weight of weld metal requires that we consider the following items.
1. Area of the cross-section of the weld.
2. Length of the weld.

Hardsurfacing
Products

Filler Metal
Consumption

StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

4/12/2012 2:30 PM

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Covered
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In the fillet weld shown below, the area of the cross-section (the triangle) is equal to one half the base times
the height, the volume of the weld is equal to the area times the length, and the weight of the weld then, is
the volume times the weight of the material (steel) per cubic inch.

Stainless
Steel
Products

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

0.5"
(B) BASE

## Volume of Weld = .5B x A x 12

Weight of Steel = .283 lb per cu. in.
Weight of Weld
= (0.5 x 0.5) x 0.5 x 12 x .283
= .424 lb.

## CALCULATING THE WEIGHT PER FOOT OF A FILLET WELD

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

This example is for a fillet weld with no reinforcement. Similar calculations can be made for butt or lap joints.

Deposition Efficiency
Cored
Wire
Products

The deposition efficiency of an electrode or welding wire indicates the portion of that product you can
expect to be deposited as weld metal. Losses due to slag, spatter, fume and in the case of semi automatic
or automatic welding processes, the ends cut before each weld and the wire left in the feed cable make no
process 100% efficient.

Submerged
Arc
Products

For estimates of electrode or wire consumption, the following average values of deposition efficiency may be used.
Deposition

Hardsurfacing
Products

Process
Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

Efficiency

Submerged Arc

99%

98%

96%

93%

93%

86%

78%

Worksheet

59%

62%

Weight/Foot
Weld Metal

66%

Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

## * Includes 2" stub loss.

4/12/2012 2:30 PM

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It must be remembered that when deposition tests are performed in the laboratory, the deposition efficiency
is calculated by the formula:

Stainless
Steel
Products

## Weight of metal deposited

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

Deposition Efficiency

## Weight of electrode consumed

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

This does not take stub loss into consideration. The chart below shows how the laboratory established
efficiency is effected by the length of the stub.

Cored
Wire
Products

## Stub Loss Correction Table

for Coated Electrodes

Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

Electrode
Length
12"
(300 mm)
Electrode
Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction

14"
(350 mm)
Electrode

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet

18"
(450 mm)
Electrode

2"
3"
4"
5"
Deposition (50 mm) (75 mm) (100 mm) (125 mm)
Efficiency STUB
STUB
STUB
STUB
60.0%
65.0%
70.0%
75.0%
80.0%

50.0%
54.2%
58.3%
62.5%
66.6%

45.0%
46.7%
52.5%
56.2%
60.0%

40.0%
43.3%
46.6%
50.0%
53.3%

35.0%
37.9%
40.8%
43.7%
46.6%

60.0%
65.0%
70.0%
75.0%
80.0%

51.4%
55.7%
60.0%
64.3%
68.5%

47.1%
51.1%
55.0%
56.9%
62.8%

42.9%
46.4%
50.0%
53.6%
57.1%

38.3%
41.0%
45.0%
46.2%
51.4%

60.0%
65.0%
0.0%
75.0%
80.0%

53.3%
57.7%
62.2%
66.6%
71.1%

50.0%
54.2%
56.3%
62.5%
66.6%

46.6%
50.5%
54.4%
56.3%
62.2%

43.3%
46.9%
50.5%
54.2%
57.7%

Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

4/12/2012 2:28 PM

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Covered
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Stainless
Steel
Products

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products
ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

1/8

(3.2)

.027

## Pounds/Foot (Kilos/meter) of Electrode or Wire

Required per Lineal Foot or (Meter) of Weld
SM AW-Stick GM AW-Solid
FCAW-Gas
M etal Cored
Electrodes
Wires
Shielded
Wires
(.040) .043 (.064) .028 (.042) .032 (.048) .029 (.043)

3/16

(4.7)

.060

(.089)

.097

(.144)

.063

(.094)

.070

(.104)

.065

1/4

(6.3)

.106

(.158)

.171

(.254)

.112

(.167)

.125

(.186)

.115

(.171)

5/16

(7.9)

.166

(.247)

.268

(.399)

.175

(.260)

.195

(.290)

.180

(.268)

L
L

Cored
Wire
Products

(9.5)

.239

(.356)

.385

(.573)

.252

(.375)

.282

(.420)

.260

(.387)

1/2

(12.7)

.425

(.632)

.686 (1.020)

.447

(.665)

.50

(.744)

.462

(.688)

5/8

(15.8)

.664

3/4

(19.1)

Square
Butt
Joint

.781 (1.162)

.722 (1.074)

## 1.125 (1.674) 1.039 (1.546)

2.0 (2.976) 1.846 (2.747)

Filler Metal
Consumption

3/16

(4.7)

1/4

(6.3)

A
1/16"

Electrode/Wire
Consumption
Weld Metal Cost
Worksheet

Weld Metal
Required
lbs/ft (kg/m )

T
B
A

Calculations

Conversion
Tables

.699 (1.040)

## Electrode Consumption (contd.)

StubLoss
Correction

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

(.097)

3/8

Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

Weld M etal
Required
lbs/ft (kg/m)

Fillet Size
in. (mm)
L

Horizontal
Fillet
Welds

5/16

1/16

(1.6)

1/16

(1.6)

3/32
1/16

(2.4)
(1.6)

3/32

(2.4)

3/8

(9.5)

Stick Electrodes
Required
lbs/ft (kg/m )

.093

(.138)

.150

(.223)

.115

(.171)

.185

(.275)

.142
.137

(.211)
(.204)

.229
.220

(.341)
(.327)

.165

(.245)

.266

(.396)

7/16 (11.1)

(7.9)

1/2 (12.7)

Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

4/12/2012 2:27 PM

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Covered
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## Weld Metal Cost Worksheet Instructions

Stainless
Steel
Products

To help you quantify your specific cost of weld metal deposited, ESAB has developed the weld metal cost
worksheet. Directions will assist you in calculating your specific cost to deposit weld metal while comparing
it to alternative methods or product.
1. Indicate the complete descriptions of the proposed and present products at (1) and (2).

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

2. Secure the following information for the formulas (3), and write the data in the proper blanks in the
proposed method and present method columns (4).
A. Labor and Overhead

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

Actual labor and overhead rate of your customer. If this figure is unknown, select a reasonable rate
for your area. This figure will be the same in the proposed and present method columns.
B. Deposition Rate in Pounds Per Hour

Cored
Wire
Products

The deposition rate is the actual weight of weld metal which can be deposited in one hour at a given
welding current at 100% operating factor. In other words, it is the amount of weld metal which could
be deposited in one hour if the welder could weld for a full hour without stopping.

Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

C. Operating Factor

Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction

Operating factor is the percentage of a welders working day that is actually spent welding. It is the
arc time divided by the total hours worked multiplied by 100 and expressed as a percentage. A 30%
(.30) operating factor means that only 30% of the welders day is actually spent welding. If the
customers operating factor is not known, assume a 30% operating factor for SMAW, and a 45%
operating factor for semi-automatic GMAW and FCAW. For automatic GMAW and FCAW, an
operating factor of 60% to 80% may be assumed.
D. Electrode Cost Per Pound

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

Select the quantity price bracket in which the customer now purchases his filler metal. If unknown,
select the price bracket you think applicable and use for both the present and proposed calculations.

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

## Continued on next page...

6

4/12/2012 2:21 PM

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Covered
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E. Deposition Efficiency
The deposition efficiency is the relationship of the electrode used to the amount of the weld metal
deposited expressed in percent, or:

Stainless
Steel
Products

DE =

## Weight of Weld Metal

Weight of Electrode Used.

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

## For instance, if it takes 4 lbs. of electrode to deposit

3 lbs. (1.4 kg) of weld metal, E = 3/4 = .75 or 75%.
F. Gas Flow Rate (Cubic Feet/Hour)

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

For GMAW with solid wires use a shielding gas flow rate of 25 to 30 cubic feet per hour. For small
diameter flux cored electrodes (1/16 or 1.6 mm diameter and under) use 35 cubic feet per hour. For
large diameter flux cored electrodes (5/64 and over) use 40-45 cubic feet per hour.
G. Gas Cost Per Cubic Foot

Cored
Wire
Products

Gas cost per cubic foot will vary depending on the type of shielding gas being used and your location.
3. Complete the calculations in the Proposed Method and Present Method columns and record the
calculated costs in the blanks on the far right, (5) & (6) of each column.

Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

4. Add the calculated cost and record the sums at the bottom, (7) & (8) of each column.
5. Subtract Present Method cost (6) from Proposed Method cost (5) for each of the sections titled Labor
& Overhead, Electrode, and Gas. Enter the differences in the blanks indicated at right (5 minus 6).
Negative numbers should be enclosed in parenthesis ( ).
Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

6. In the Total Variable Cost/lb section, subtract Present Method cost (8) from Proposed Method cost
(7). Enter the difference in the blank indicated as Total. Negative numbers should be enclosed in
parenthesis ( ).

A (negative) number in Total represents the cost reduction you will realize as a
dollar saving per pound of weld metal deposited.
7. The bottom section of the form will be useful if you must buy new equipment to use the proposed
product. That part of the form is self-explanatory with the exception of the DEPOSITION FACTOR. The
deposition factor is simply the deposition rate multiplied by the operating factor and is already a part of
the calculation as shown at (9) in the labor and overhead formula for the proposed method.
7

4/12/2012 2:21 PM

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Covered
Electrodes

## ESAB Weld Metal Cost Worksheet

Prepared For:

Stainless
Steel
Products

Customer Name
(1) Proposed Method Cost Calculation

## Formulas for Calculating

(3)

Rate

Cored
Wire
Products

Gas

=
=

\$9.80

2.05

Cost Increase

(4)

(6)

\$45.00
= \$45.00
5.4 X 0.3 =
1.62

\$27.78

1.33

(5-6)
(\$17.98)

Factor
(9)

(4)
Electrode Cost/lb
Deposition Efficiency

(3)
Gas Flow Rate (Cu ft/hr)
=
X Gas Cost/Cu ft.

1.78
0.87

(5)

(4)
40

(4)

0.02

0.8
10.2

## Total Variable Cost/lb

Deposited Weld Metal

0.08

\$11.93

(7)

(6)
0.85
0.64

(4)

(5)

Submerged
Arc
Products

\$45.00
4.59

Result
(Cost Reduction)

@250 Amps
(5)

\$45.00
10.2 X 0.45

(3)

Electrode

(4)

## Labor & Overhead

Labor & =
Cost/Hr
Overhead Deposition XOperating

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

Hardsurfacing
Products

Date:

0
5.4

## Total Variable Cost/lb

Deposited Weld Metal

(5-6)
0.72

(6)
=

(5-6)

0.08

(8)
=

(7-8)

\$29.11

(\$17.18)
Total

Pounds of Weld Metal and Welder Man Hours Required to Amortize Equipment Cost
Equipment Cost
Power Supply
Wire Feeder
Gun & Accessories

Filler Metal
Consumption

Total

Savings/lb
\$2,900

\$2,900
\$17.18

Required to
Amortize Cost
(9)
=
168.8

4.59
=

Required to
Amortize Cost
37 Hours

StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

4/12/2012 2:20 PM

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Covered
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## ESAB Weld Metal Cost Worksheet

Prepared For:

Stainless
Steel
Products

Customer Name
(1) Proposed Method Cost Calculation

## Formulas for Calculating

(3)

Rate

Cored
Wire
Products

Gas

=
=

\$9.80

2.05

Cost Increase

(4)

(6)

\$45.00
= \$45.00
5.4 X 0.3 =
1.62

\$27.78

1.33

(5-6)
(\$17.98)

Factor
(9)

(4)
Electrode Cost/lb
Deposition Efficiency

(3)
Gas Flow Rate (Cu ft/hr)
=
X Gas Cost/Cu ft.

1.78
0.87

(5)

(4)
40

(4)

0.02

0.8
10.2

## Total Variable Cost/lb

Deposited Weld Metal

0.08

\$11.93

(7)

(6)
0.85
0.64

(4)

(5)

Submerged
Arc
Products

\$45.00
4.59

Result
(Cost Reduction)

@250 Amps
(5)

\$45.00
10.2 X 0.45

(3)

Electrode

(4)

## Labor & Overhead

Labor & =
Cost/Hr
Overhead Deposition XOperating

ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products

Hardsurfacing
Products

Date:

0
5.4

## Total Variable Cost/lb

Deposited Weld Metal

(5-6)
0.72

(6)
=

(5-6)

0.08

(8)
=

(7-8)

\$29.11

(\$17.18)
Total

Pounds of Weld Metal and Welder Man Hours Required to Amortize Equipment Cost
Equipment Cost
Power Supply
Wire Feeder
Gun & Accessories

Filler Metal
Consumption

Total

Savings/lb
\$2,900

\$2,900
\$17.18

Required to
Amortize Cost
(9)
=
168.8

4.59
=

Required to
Amortize Cost
37 Hours

StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

4/12/2012 2:20 PM

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Covered
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## Weight Per Foot of Weld Metal for Fillet Welds and

Elements of Common Butt Joints (lb/ft) Steel
Instructions

Stainless
Steel
Products

## 1. Make a drawing of the cross-section of the joint to exact scale.

2. Divide the cross-section into right triangles, rectangles and
sketch in the desired reinforcement.
3. Measure the thickness, angles angle leg lengths, root opening
and the length and height of the reinforcement.
4. Total the weight per foot of each of the elements from the chart
for the weight per foot of the weld.

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products
ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires
Cored
Wire
Products
Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Conversion
Tables

1/8
3/16
1/4

.027
.040
.053

.053
.080
.106

.080
.119
.159

.106
.159
.212

.159
.239
.318

.212
.318
.425

.002
.005
.009

.005
.011
.019

.007
.016
.028

.011
.025
.044

.015
.035
.061

.027
.060
.106

.027
.035

5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2

.066
.080
.091
.106

.133
.159
.186
.212

.199
.239
.279
.318

.265
.318
.371
.425

.390
.478
.557
.637

.531
.637
.743
.849

.015
.021
.028
.037

.029
.042
.057
.075

.044
.064
.087
.114

.069
.099
.129
.176

.096
.138
.188
.245

.166
.239
.325
.425

.044
.053
.062
.071

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

lbs./ft. of Rectangle A
G
1/8" 3/16" 1/4"
3/8"

lbs./ft. of Rectangle A
G
1/8" 3/16" 1/4"
3/8"

1/2"

45

lbs./ft. Reinforcement C
H
1/16" 1/8" 3/16" 1/4"

.884
.106
.124
.141

.212

1/2"

lbs./ft. of Triangle B
S
10
15 22 1/2 30

9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4

.119
.133
.146
.159

.239
.265
.292
.318

.358
.398
.438
.478

.478
.531
.584
.637

.716
.796
.876
.995

.955
1.061
1.167
1.274

.047
.058
.070
.084

.095
.117
.142
.169

.144
.178
.215
.256

.223
.275
.332
.396

.383
.464
.552

.451
.664
.804
.956

.080
.088
.097
.106

.159
.177
.195
.212

.239
.265
.292
.318

.354
.389
.424

13/16
7/8
15/16
1

.172
.186
.199
.212

.345
.371
.398
.425

.517
.557
.597
.637

.690
.743
.796
.849

1.035
1.114
1.194
1.274

1.380
1.486
1.592
1.698

.098
.114
.131
.149

.198
.230
.263
.300

.301
.349
.400
.456

.464
.538
.618
.703

.648
.751
.863
.981

1.121
1.300
1.493
1.698

.115
.124
.133
.141

.230
.248
.266
.283

.345
.371
.398
.424

.460
.495
.530
.566

1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4
1 7/8
2
2 1/4
2 1/2
2 3/4
3

.239
.265
.292
.318

.478
.531
.584
.637

.716
.796
.876
.955

.955
1.061
1.167
1.274

1.433
1.592
1.751
1.910

1.910
2.123
2.335
2.547

.188
.232
.281
.334

.379
.468
.567
.674

.577
.712
.861
1.023

.890
1.099
1.330
1.582

1.241
1.532
1.853
2.206

2.149
2.653
3.210
3.821

.159
.177
.195
.212

.318
.354
.389
.424

.477
.531
.584
.637

.637
.707
.777
.849

.345
.371
.390
.425

.690
.743
.796
.649

1.035
1.114
1.194
1.274

1.380
1.486
1.592
1.698

2.069
2.229
2.388
2.547

2.759
2.972
3.184
3.396

.393
.455
.523
.594

.792
.918
1.053
1.197

1.201
1.393
1.599
1.820

1.857
2.154
2.473
2.813

2.589
3.002
3.447
3.921

4.484
5.200
5.970
6.792

.230
.248
.266
.283

.460
.495
.531
.566

.690
.743
.796
.849

.920
.990
1.061
1.132

.478
.530
.584
.636

.955
1.061
1.167
1.274

1.433
1.592
1.751
1.910

1.910
2.123
2.335
2.547

2.865
3.184
3.502
3.821

3.821
4.245
4.669
5.094

.752
.928
1.123
1.337

1.516
1.871
2.264
2.695

2.303
2.844
3.441
4.095

3.561
4.396
5.319
6.330

4.963
6.127
7.414
8.823

8.596
10.613
12.841
15.282

.318
.354
.389
.424

.637
.707
.778
.849

.955
1.061
1.167
1.273

1.273
1.415
1.556
1.698

T
Inches 1/16"

Calculations

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

lbs./ft. of Triangle B
S
10
15 22 1/2 30

T
Inches 1/16"

.311

45

lbs./ft. Reinforcement C
H
1/16" 1/8" 3/16" 1/4"

4/12/2012 2:20 PM

Handbook - Calculations

1 of 1

http://www.esabna.com/EUWeb/FM_handbook/577fm8_10.htm

Covered
Electrodes

## Weight Per Meter of Weld Metal for Fillet Welds

and Elements of Common Butt Joints (Kg/m) Steel
Instructions

Stainless
Steel
Products

## 1. Make a drawing of the cross-section of the joint to exact scale.

2. Divide the cross-section into right triangles, rectangles and
sketch in the desired reinforcement.
3. Dimension the thickness, angles angle leg lengths, root opening
and the length and height of the reinforcement.
4. Total the weight per meter of each of the elements from the
chart for the weight per meter of the weld.

Solid Wire
& Rod
Products
ESAB
TIG & MIG
Wires
Cored
Wire
Products
Submerged
Arc
Products
Hardsurfacing
Products

Filler Metal
Consumption
StubLoss
Correction

Calculations
Electrode/Wire
Consumption

Filler Metals
ASTM
Steels

Conversion
Tables

1.588

Kg/m of Rectangle A
G
3.175 4.783 6.350 9.525 12.700

3.18
4.76
6.35

0.040
0.060
0.079

0.079
0.119
0.158

7.94
9.53
11.11
12.70

0.098
0.119
0.135
0.158

T
mm
14.29
15.88
17.46
19.05

T
mm

## Weld Metal Cost

Worksheet
Weight/Foot
Weld Metal
Weight/Meter
Weld Metal

Kg/m of Triangle B
S
15 22 1/2
30

10

0.003
0.007
0.013

0.007
0.016
0.028

0.010
0.024
0.042

0.016
0.037
0.065

0.022
0.052
0.091

0.040
0.089 0.040
0.158 0.052

0.022
0.031
0.042
0.055

0.043
0.062
0.085
0.112

0.065
0.095
0.129
0.170
Kg/m of

0.247
0.356
0.484
0.632

10

15

0.102
0.147
0.192
0.262
Triangle
S
22 1/2

0.143
0.205
0.280
0.365
B

1.588

## 0.198 0.296 0.394 0.580 0.790

0.237 0.356 0.473 0.711 0.948
0.277 0.415 0.552 0.829 1.106
0.315 0.473 0.632 0.948 1.263
Kg/m of Rectangle A
G
3.175 4.783 6.350 9.525 12.700

30

45

0.065 1.315
0.079 0.158
0.092 0.185
0.106 0.210 0.315
Kg/m Reinforcement C
H
1.59
3.18
4.76
6.35

0.177
0.198
0.217
0.237

0.356
0.394
0.434
0.473

0.533
0.592
0.652
0.711

0.711
0.790
0.869
0.948

1.065
1.184
1.303
1.481

1.421
1.579
1.736
1.896

0.070
0.086
0.104
0.125

0.141
0.174
0.211
0.251

0.214
0.265
0.320
0.381

0.332
0.409
0.494
0.589

0.463
0.570
0.690
0.821

0.671
0.988
1.196
1.423

0.119
0.131
0.144
0.158

0.237
0.263
0.290
0.315

0.356
0.394
0.434
0.473

0.527
0.579
0.631

20.64
22.23
23.81
25.40

0.256
0.277
0.296
0.315

0.513
0.552
0.592
0.632

0.769
0.829
0.888
0.948

1.027
1.106
1.184
1.263

1.540
1.658
1.777
1.896

2.053
2.211
2.369
2.527

0.146
0.170
0.195
0.222

0.295
0.342
0.391
0.446

0.448
0.519
0.595
0.679

0.690
0.800
0.919
1.056

0.964
1.117
1.284
1.460

1.668
1.934
2.222
2.527

0.171
0.185
0.198
0.210

0.342
0.369
0.396
0.421

0.513
0.552
0.592
0.631

0.684
0.737
0.789
0.842

28.58
31.75
34.93
38.10

0.356
0.394
0.434
0.473

0.711
0.790
0.869
0.948

1.065
1.184
1.303
1.421

1.421
1.579
1.738
1.896

2.132
2.369
2.605
2.842

2.842
3.159
3.474
3.790

0.280
0.345
0.418
0.497

0.564
0.696
0.844
1.003

0.859
1.059
1.281
1.522

1.324
1.635
1.979
2.354

1.847
2.280
2.757
3.283

3.198
3.948
4.776
5.686

0.237
0.263
0.290
0.315

0.473
0.527
0.579
0.631

0.710
0.790
0.869
0.948

0.948
1.052
1.156
1.263

41.28
44.45
47.63
50.80

0.513
0.552
0.580
0.632

1.027
1.106
1.184
1.263

1.540
1.658
1.777
1.896

2.053
2.211
2.369
2.527

3.079
3.317
3.553
3.790

4.105
4.422
4.738
5.053

0.585
0.677
0.778
0.884

1.178
1.366
1.567
1.781

1.787
2.073
2.379
2.708

2.763
3.205
3.679
4.186

3.852
4.467
5.129
5.834

6.672
7.738
8.883
10.106

0.342
0.369
0.396
0.421

0.684
0.737
0.790
0.842

1.027
1.106
1.184
1.263

1.369
1.473
1.579
1.684

57.15
63.50
69.85
76.20

0.711
0.789
0.869
0.946

1.421
1.579
1.736
1.898

2.132
2.369
2.605
2.842

2.842
3.159
3.474
3.790

4.263
4.723
5.211
5.686

5.686
6.317
6.947
7.580

1.119
1.381
1.671
1.989

2.256
2.784
3.369
4.010

3.427
4.232
5.120
6.093

5.298
6.542
7.916
9.420

7.385
9.117
11.032
13.129

## 12.791 0.473 0.948 1.421

15.792 0.527 1.052 1.579
19.107 0.579 1.158 1.736
22.740 0.631 1.263 1.894

1.894
2.106
2.315
2.527

0.119
0.177
0.237

0.158 0.237
0.237 0.356
0.315 0.473

0.315
0.473
0.632

45

Kg/m Reinforcement C
H
1.59
3.18
4.76
6.35

10

4/12/2012 2:18 PM