An Inquiry Report On



GRID
Submitted By



COMPUTING

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

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© Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman. All rights reserved. This is a collection of information availed from various sources including internet, text books, and newspaper publications. This collection is a sole work of the Mr. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman and any kind of reuse of this work in any form is prohibited, and all the rights on this collection is reserved to him and violation of this prohibition is punishable under the laws whichever is applicable.

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies ............. 1 What Is Grid Computing? ......................................................................... 1 Grid Computing’s Ancestors..................................................................... 2 The Architecture ......................................................................................... 3 Five Big Ideas .............................................................................................. 4 Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers .......................................... 5 Virtual Organizations................................................................................. 6
From passenger jets to chemical spills .................................................................... 6

8. 9.

The Hardware ............................................................................................. 6 Design Considerations And Variations .................................................... 7

10. CPU Scavenging ......................................................................................... 8 11. History ......................................................................................................... 9 12. Father of the Grid ....................................................................................... 9 13. Current Projects And Applications......................................................... 15
Fastest virtual supercomputers ............................................................................ 17

14. Definitions ................................................................................................. 17
But what does "high performance" mean? ........................................................... 18

15. The Death Of Distance ............................................................................. 18
Faster! Faster! ..................................................................................................... 19

16. Secure Access ............................................................................................ 19
Security and trust................................................................................................ 20

17. Resource Use ............................................................................................. 20
Middleware to the rescue ..................................................................................... 21

18. Resource Sharing ...................................................................................... 21 19. But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? ....... 21

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

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20. Open Standards ........................................................................................ 22 21. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards?.................................................... 22 22. The Middleware ....................................................................................... 23
Agents, brokers and striking deals........................................................................ 23 Delving inside middleware .................................................................................. 23

23. Globus Toolkit .......................................................................................... 24
Globus includes programs such as:....................................................................... 25

24. National Grids .......................................................................................... 26 25. International Grids ................................................................................... 28 26. High-Throughput Problems .................................................................... 32 27. High-Performance Problems ................................................................... 33 28. Grid Computing In 30 Seconds ............................................................... 34 29. The Dream ................................................................................................. 34 30. ''Gridifying'' Your Application ................................................................ 35 31. Computational Problems ......................................................................... 35
Parallel calculations: ............................................................................................ 35 Embarrassingly parallel calculations: ................................................................... 36 Coarse-grained calculations: ................................................................................ 36 Fine-grained calculations: .................................................................................... 36 High-performance vs. high-throughput ................................................................ 36 And grid computing..? ........................................................................................ 36

32. Breaking Moore’s Law? ........................................................................... 37
Nice Idea, But... ................................................................................................... 37

33. More On Moore's Law ............................................................................. 38 34. Works Cited .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Index ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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huge and super-powerful computer! This huge. . granting users and applications access to vast it capabilities. data vaults. networks. Imagine several million computers from all over the world. most of which are results of academic research projects. global computer is what many people dream "the grid" will be. Now imagine that all of these computers can be connected to form a single. and instruments like mobile phones. all over the world. Grid computing is already reality. Globus primarily focuses on providing core Grid services whereas Gridbus focuses on providing user-level Grid services in addition to utility computing model for management of grid resources. USA. Grid applications often involve large amounts of data and/or computing resources that require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries. Imagine they include desktops. Australia.” Although "the grid" is still just a dream.. supercomputers. network bandwidth and storage capacity to provide a unique system image. "The grid" takes its name from an analogy with the electrical "power grid". This makes Grid application management and deployment a complex undertaking. databases and scientific instruments owned and managed by multiple organizations. and owned by thousands of different people. meteorological sensors and telescopes. and Gridbus by researchers from the University of Melbourne.. Grid middlewares provide users with seamless computing ability and uniform access to resources in the heterogeneous Grid environment..A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies Grid is an infrastructure that involves the integrated and collaborative use of computers. sprawling. What Is Grid Computing? “grid computing allows the virtualization of distributed computing and data resources such as processing. laptops. This paper presents an introduction to Grid computing and discusses two complimentary Grid technologies: Globus developed by researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and University of Southern California. The idea was that accessing computer power from a computer grid would be as simple as accessing electrical power from an electrical grid".. Several software toolkits and systems have been developed.

 I-way (information wide area year) aimed to link supercomputers using existing networks.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid Computing’s Ancestors Grid computing didn't just come out of nowhere. a challenge very relevant to digital security. which dates back to around 1990. conceptually similar to those being developed for grid computing today. and the foster-kesselman duo had published a paper in 1997. I-way strongly influenced the development of the globus project. a former director of the national center for supercomputing applications in the us. called "globus: a metacomputing infrastructure toolkit". One of i-way's innovations was a computational resource broker. It grew from previous efforts and ideas. is generally credited with popularizing the term. such as those listed below:  Grid computing's immediate ancestor is "metacomputing". Since this challenge could be broken into small parts.  Grid computing was born at a workshop called "building a computational grid". Each influenced the evolution of key grid technologies. often called "the grid bible". metacomputing. held at argonne national laboratory in september 1997. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 2 .  Fafner (factoring via network-enabled recursion) aimed to factorize very large numbers. Following this. Ian foster had previously been involved in the i-way project. clearly linking the globus toolkit with its predecessor. even fairly modest computers could contribute useful power. both conceived in 1995.  Fafner and i-way were cutting-edge metacomputing projects in the us. Larry smarr. ian foster of argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman of the university of southern california published "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". Many fafner techniques for dividing and distributing computational problems were forerunners of technology used for seti@home and other "cycle scavenging" software. which is at the core of many grid activities. as well as the legion project. Metacomputing was used to describe efforts to connect us supercomputing centers. in 1998. an alternative approach to distributed supercomputing.

A telescope. This article focuses on distributed computing technologies which are not in the traditional dedicated clusters. is the most common application of this technology. see computer cluster. "computing on demand". otherwise. The Architecture Grid architecture is the way in which a grid has been designed. mathematical.g. Equipment grids which have a primary piece of equipment e. Volunteer computing. These varying definitions cover the spectrum of "distributed computing". Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 3 . The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using a network of geographically dispersed computers. or "cloud computing". Data grids or the controlled sharing and management of large amounts of distributed data. one can also speak of several types of grids:    Computational grids (including CPU scavenging grids) which focuses primarily on computationally-intensive operations. known as utility computing. and where the surrounding grid is used to control the equipment remotely and to analyze the data produced. Functionally.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings:   A local computer cluster which is like a "grid" because it is composed of multiple nodes. which generally focuses on scientific. and sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms. and academic problems.   The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using spare computing resources within an organization. Offering online computation or storage as a metered commercial service.

engineering. The death of distance: distance should make no difference: you should be able to access to computer resources from wherever you are. The higher layers are generally user-centric. 3. as well as portals and development toolkits to support the applications. especially when they don't know each other. sensors and telescopes that are connected to the network. The middleware layer is sometimes the "brains" behind a computing grid!  The highest layer of the structure is the application layer. Resource use: efficient. so getting grid security right is crucial. which performs general management functions like tracking who is providing grid resources and who is using them. such as computers. focused on computers and networks. This is the layer that grid users "see" and interact with. Above the network layer lies the resource layer: actual grid resources. networks. where each layer has a specific function. Standardization also encourages Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 4 . balanced use of computing resources is essential. storage. Open standards: interoperability between different grids is a big goal. and on individual pcs. 4. which includes applications in science. which connects grid resources. business. The application layer often includes the so-called serviceware.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work A grid's architecture is often described in terms of "layers".   The lowest layer is the network. making it possible for everyone can contribute constructively to grid development. and is driven forward by the adoption of open standards for grid development. finance and more. Resource sharing: global sharing is the very essence of grid computing. electronic data catalogues. 2. Sharing resources conflicts with security policies in many individual computer centers. Five Big Ideas Grid computing is driven by five big areas: 1. etc.) To participate in a grid. Secure access: trust between resource providers and users is essential.  The middleware layer provides the tools that enable the various elements (servers. 5. whereas lower layers are more hardware-centric. storage systems.

network interface. The infrastructure and programming considerations needed to do this on each type of platform are different. etc. storage. without the need to communicate intermediate results between CPUs. This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer. such as ethernet or the internet. Both supercomputers and grids can be used to run multiple parallel computations at the same time. power supply. which when combined can produce similar computing resources to a many-CPU supercomputer.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work industry to invest in developing commercial grid services and infrastructure.) Connected by a conventional network interface. Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers "distributed" or "grid computing" in general is a special type of parallel computing which relies on complete computers (with onboard CPU. Conventional supercomputers also create physical challenges in supplying sufficient electricity and cooling capacity in a single location. The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is generally favorable. or require the program to address concurrency issues. compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. but at lower cost. standalone programs to run on multiple machines (but each given a different part of the same problem). The primary performance disadvantage is that the various CPUs and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections. which may have a custom operating system. This arrangement is thus well-suited to applications where multiple parallel computations can take place independently. This is due to the economies of scale of producing commodity hardware. a "thin" layer of "grid" infrastructure can cause conventional. The primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware. however. and eliminates Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 5 . which might be different simulations for the same project. due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public internet. There are also differences in programming and deployment. This makes it possible to write and debug programs on a single conventional machine. or computations for completely different applications. It can be costly and difficult to write programs so that they can be run in the environment of a supercomputer. If a problem can be adequately parallelized. which has many CPUs connected by a local high-speed computer bus.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 6 . This sharing must be controlled. data. They will need to create a short term mitigation plan and help emergency response personnel to plan and coordinate the evacuation. sensors and networks. people within a vo choose to share their resources. The needs of each vo are different. Virtual Organizations Virtual organizations (vos) are groups of people who share a data-intensive goal. and usually time-limited. To achieve their mutual goal. From Passenger Jets To Chemical Spills Many scientists form vos to pursue their research. creating a computer grid. flexible.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time.things like computers and networks. secure. tasked with managing a chemical spill. This infrastructure is often called the grid "fabric". For example. Another example is an environmental science vo. while keeping the proprietary know-how associated with each component hidden from the other consortium members. This grid can give vo members direct access to each other's computers. a vo formed to develop a nextgeneration passenger jet will need to run complex computer simulations. biology research and more. files. Vos exist for astronomy research. which forms the physical infrastructure of a grid . alternative energy research. This vo will need to analyze local weather and soil models to estimate the spread of the spill and determine its impact. testing various combinations of components from different manufacturers. The Hardware Grids must be built "on top of" hardware. programs.

or erroneous results. Discrepancies would identify malfunctioning and malicious nodes. This idea allows us to access globally distributed resources in an integrated and data-intensive way. a billion). One level down from the "backbone" are the network links. allowing them to be handled as one huge computer. national and international) and throughput (the amount of data transferred in a specific time). A further level down are the 10 to 100mbps desktop-to-institution network links. One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are actually performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. Grids are built "on top of" high-performance networks. such as the intraeuropean geant network. where kilo means a thousand). This often involves assigning work randomly to different nodes (presumably with different owners) and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. This can facilitate commercial transactions. Networks are characterized by their size (local. and from using the system as an attack vector. One of the big ideas of grid computing is to take advantage of ultra-fast networks. Throughput is measured in kbps (kilo bits per second. misleading. This backbone links the major "nodes" on the grid (like national computing centres). or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false. Ultra-fast networks also help to minimize latency: the delays that build up as data are transmitted over the internet. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 7 . Networks link the different computers that form part of a grid. Performance of these is typically 1gbps. a million) or gbps (g for giga. mbps (m for mega. Design Considerations And Variations One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple individuals or organizations (known as multiple administrative domains). which join individual institutions to nodes on the backbone. as in utility computing. which has 10gbps performance on the network "backbone".An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Networks are an essential piece of the grid "fabric".

Usually this technique is used to make use of instruction cycles on desktop computers that would otherwise be wasted at night. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units (thus reducing the need for continuous network connectivity) and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results as expected. Other systems employ measures to reduce the amount of trust "client" nodes must place in the central system. there is a tradeoff between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported (and thus the size of the resulting network). there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. the participating nodes must trust the central system not to abuse the access that is being granted. using different operating systems and hardware architectures. parabon computation produces grid computing software that operates in a java sandbox. by interfering with the operation of other programs. With many languages. during lunch. Boinc is a common one for academic projects seeking public volunteers.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Due to the lack of central control over the hardware. Cross-platform languages can reduce the need to make this tradeoff. mangling stored information. cycle-scavenging. transmitting private data. more are listed at the end of the article. Cpu Scavenging CPU-scavenging. though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node (due to run-time interpretation or lack of optimization for the particular platform). or Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 8 . cycle stealing. In many cases. to allow various scientific and commercial projects to harness a particular associated grid. or to an open external network of volunteers or contractors. Some nodes (like laptops or dialup internet customers) may also be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. Public systems or those crossing administrative domains (including different departments in the same organization) often result in the need to run on heterogeneous systems. or for the purpose of setting up new grids. The impacts of trust and availability on performance and development difficulty can influence the choice of whether to deploy onto a dedicated computer cluster. or creating new security holes. to idle machines internal to the developing organization. Various middleware projects have created generic infrastructure. For example. or shared computing creates a "grid" from the unused resources in a network of participants (whether worldwide or internal to an organization).

Braverman." they led the effort to create the globus toolkit incorporating not just CPU management (examples: cluster management and cycle scavenging) but also storage management. in addition to raw CPU power. monitoring and a toolkit for developing additional services based on the same infrastructure including agreement negotiation. object oriented programming. as their owners use their resources for their primary purpose. Nodes in this model are also more vulnerable to going "offline" in one way or another from time to time. Father Of The Grid An exact extraction of an article by Amy m. CPU scavenging and volunteer computing were popularized beginning in 1997 by distributed. Volunteer computing projects use the CPU scavenging model almost exclusively. ram. security provisioning. In practice. data movement. trigger services and information aggregation. widely regarded as the "fathers of the grid. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 9 . web services and others) were brought together by Ian foster. The ideas of the grid (including those from distributed computing. cluster computing.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work even in the scattered seconds throughout the day when the computer is waiting for user input or slow devices. Carl Kesselman and Steve Tuecke. number 4).net and later in 1999 by seti@home to harness the power of networked PCs worldwide. a number of other tools have been built that answer some subset of services needed to create an enterprise grid. participating computers also donate some supporting amount of disk storage space. and network bandwidth. ( on April 2004 volume 96. History The term grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in Ian foster and Carl Kesselmans seminal work. While the globus toolkit remains the de facto standard for building grid solutions. in order to solve CPU-intensive research problems. notification mechanisms. "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". in Chicago university emagazine.

grids are a tool for amplifying computer power and storage space. And because the “father of grid computing” is also—with wife Angela Smyth. But foster. Large projects are already using the technology. “I’m on two hours’ sleep. eyes glazed behind wire-rimmed glasses.” akin to “the internet”—will perform complex tasks such as designing semiconductors or screening thousands of potential pharmaceutical drugs in an hour rather than a year. and Sun Microsystems that grids are the answer to complex computational problems—the next major evolution of the internet. a hospitals psychiatry fellow—the father of a five. Though corporations recently have begun to show interest in grids. HewlettPackard. foster says. a huge global grid—“the grid. grids allow more numbers to be crunched faster than ever before. in the same way that the internet sprouted in academia before blossoming in the commercial world. blinds shut to block the window’s glare. “i might not be too articulate today. and 11 other institutions to map a quarter of the night sky.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work “computer scientist Ian foster has developed the software to take shared computing to a global level. storage systems. and then. Just as the internet is a tool for mass communication.” The previous night a west coast student’s paper was due at midnight. 45. he worked online with some European colleagues. he thinks for a moment but comes up short.” he says in the quick cadence of a native New Zealander. Several grid projects exist today. determining more than 100 million celestial objects’ positions and absolute brightness—harnesses computer power from labs nationwide to perform in minutes scans that previously took a week.” the Arthur holly Compton distinguished service professor of computer science warns. “I’m not feeling very creative right now. and databases across existing internet lines. cinder-block walls. The national digital mammography archive (ndma) in the united states and ediamond in the united kingdom are creating digital-image libraries to hold their respective countries’ Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 10 . clearly has had more inspired moments. By linking far-flung supercomputers.” In a bare research institutes building room with white. awake anyway. servers. fermilab. research institutions have long been a ripe testing ground. 15 years.and a six-year-old. Pacific Time. who heads the distributed systems lab at Argonne national laboratory. he rarely gets to sleep in. Ian foster sits at a red table holding his laptop. but eventually. md’00. So when asked to predict how grid computing will change everyday life in five. oracle. ten. The Sloan digital sky survey—an effort at Chicago. persuading the federal government to invest in several multimilliondollar grid-technology projects and convincing companies such as IBM.

At argonne. compare her with other patient populations. compiles brain images from different databases so researchers can compare the brains of alzheimer’s patients. mammograms a year. “at 160 megabytes per exam. including the princeton plasma physics lab and lawrence berkeley national lab. By combining computer power and storage space from multiple locations. from his desktop zaluzec can maneuver video cameras in places like boulder. first used in 1999. With the access grid. or access diagnostic tools.024 gigabytes]”—traffic that wouldn’t be possible without a grid. nees seeks to advance earthquake-engineering research and reduce the physical havoc earthquakes create. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 11 . a neesgrid partner. the biomedical informatics research network. At argonne even some meetings about grids are held using grids. an 18-square-inch mini shake table. has more than 250 research “nodes”— rooms equipped to connect—on five continents. By now the access grid. Through the grid. Last fall jonathan silverstein. sits in material scientist nestor zaluzec’s office. talking with wall-projected images of scientists from other energy department labs. and the minimal daily traffic a day is expected to be 28 terabytes [a terabyte is 1. developed by argonne’s futures lab for remote group collaboration. An $82 million program funded by the national science foundation. to those of healthy people. star trek–like. moving it quickly back and forth to agitate the 2-foot-tall plastic model sitting on it.s. links civil engineers around the country with 15 sites containing equipment such as 4-meter-by-4-meter shake tables or tsunami simulators. With an expected 35 million u. used for software development and demonstration. from large groups such as a 2002 national science foundation meeting. scientists nationwide convene in a virtual conference room. engineers building san francisco’s new bay bridge tested their design structures remotely to make sure they met the latest earthquakeresistance standards. A researcher in.” the ndma web site explains. on a white argonne wall. or champaign. sm’02. to watch or participate in experiments. and chicago researchers also are experimenting with the technology. notes futures lab research manager and computer-science doctoral student mike papka. The grid. “the annual volume could exceed 5. to be completed in october.6 petabytes [a petabyte is 1 million gigabytes] a year. A similar venture. illinois. Still another project is a grid for the network for earthquake engineering simulation (nees).An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work scans. for example. san diego can activate the mini shake table. where 28 sites popped in. doctors can view a patient’s progress over time. say. A major automobile company and some oil and gas companies have developed their own access grids. At these sessions access grid programmers susanne lefvert and eric olson sit at personal computers. to smaller thursday test cruises held to keep the system bug-free. Likewise. colorado.

the researchers reasoned. along with chicago anesthesiologist stephen small and argonne/chicago computer scientist rick stevens. won a national institutes of health contract to install access grid nodes at the u of c hospitals. On the teragrid. the california institute of technology. namd. Many of its sites. which tests quantum chromodynamic theory and helps interpret high-energy accelerator experiments. In the late 1950s and early 1960s researchers realized that the machines. the university of california. the web page says. already used by some projects. Today Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 12 . “we could all meet for one moment” and relay necessary information. ambulances. most comprehensive.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work assistant professor of surgery and senior fellow in the joint argonne/ chicago computation institute. san diego.” The teragrid aims to revolutionize the speed at which science operates. the three-year prototype project could change the way hospitals process information. teragrid executive director charlie catlett says.” silverstein says. Connecting operating rooms. for instance. Another project. Then there’s the teragrid. and the pittsburgh supercomputing center—the project has since picked up four more partners. Radiologists will beam three-dimensional xray scans to surgeons—minus middlemen and waiting time. The multi-institutional mimd lattice computation collaboration. has maxed out the fastest system available. such research can move forward. the university of illinois– urbana-champaign. Students will watch not only real-time operating-room video feeds but also feeds from laparoscopic devices and robotic surgeons. Because they spent much time idly waiting for human input. Sharing resources—a practice known as “distributed computing”—goes back to computers’ early days. To be finished by late september. distributed infrastructure for open scientific research. Beginning with five sites—argonne. a parallel molecular dynamics code designed to simulate large biomolecular systems. eliminate hand-offs. the teragrid aims to be “the world’s largest. The grid allows medical workers literally to “share environments. needed to be more efficient. the emergency room. it will have 20 teraflops (a teraflop equals a trillion operations per second) of computing power and a petabyte of storage space. Launched in 2001 by the national science foundation with $53 million. then costing tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. radiology. avoid phone tag”—instead of passing messages between multiple physicians or waiting before taking the next step. multiple users could share them by doling out that unemployed power. already boast “a crosscountry network backbone four times faster than the fastest research networks currently in existence.” its web site declares. uses more than 2 million processor hours of computer time per year—and needs more. and residents’ hand-held tablet pcs. “we are in all these complex environments.

who switched from studying math and chemistry to computer science at new zealand’s university of canterbury before earning a doctorate in the field at london’s imperial college. but they’re still underutilized—“five percent usage is normal.” with standardized methods to authenticate identities.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work computers are cheaper. and thomas a. headed a prototype project. for example.” Scientists performed computationally complicated Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 13 . The concept was quickly put to use. In peer-to-peer computing. he writes in scientific american. called i-way (information wide area year). it could transform the process of scientific work. berkeley. At a 1995 supercomputing conference rick stevens. locate suitable computers. reserve time. Pc users download seti@home’s screen-saver program. creating a common language and tools. Cluster computing. similar to clusters. With steven tuecke. today the lead software architect in argonne’s distributed systems laboratory. In a sense grids are simply another variety of distributed computing. with scientists from different institutions trying to share data that was growing exponentially. now used in many forms. a software system for international scientific collaboration. he used parallel networks. and when their computers are otherwise idle they retrieve data from the internet and send the results to a central processing system. they envisioned globus software that would link sites into a “virtual organization. that analyzes data from puerto rico’s arecibo radio telescope to find signs of extraterrestrial intelligence. links multiple pcs to replace unwieldy mainframes or supercomputers. load application codes. “knitted” the sites “into a single virtual system. a virtual supercomputer based at the university of california. that linked 17 high-speed research networks for two weeks.” foster says—which is one reason many companies connect their computers to form unified networks. came to argonne in 1989. users who have downloaded specific software can connect to each other and share files. and control data movement. “high-speed networks were starting to appear. most notably seti@home. And there’s internet computing. But a lot had to happen between the grid’s earliest inklings and its current test beds.” he writes in the april 2003 scientific american. Programming specialized languages for computing chemistry codes. now director of the center for grid technologies at the university of southern california’s information sciences institute.” Indeed research was occurring more and more on an international scale. authorize specific activities. In the same way that internet protocols became standard for the web. director of the university of illinois–chicago’s electronic visualization lab.” so users could “log on once. he began the globus project. In 1994 foster refocused his research to distributed computing. Defanti. who also directs argonne’s math and computer-science division. such as napster. Foster’s team developed the software that. “and it became clear that if we could integrate digital resources and activities across networks. and carl kesselman. Foster. and then monitor their execution.

the software might not have become the de facto standard for most grid projects. Without the open-source approach. and ibm. to corporations. running around and engaged in a kind of scientific performance art. The u. defense advanced research projects agency gave the globus project $800. As the technology moves from research institutions. Such standards. the university of wisconsin helped design applications to manage a grid’s many users. in 1998 he and his colleagues also began the global grid forum. which favor databases. making the software freely available and its code open for outside programmers to read and modify. for example. with globus underlying them all.s.” he says. “everyone not sleeping for three days. nasa. When physicists overloaded one grid system by submitting tens of thousands of tasks at once. and given a chicago innovation award last year by the sun-times. the conference’s program chair and now director of the california institute for telecommunications and information technology. the uk’s e-science program is developing ways to handle the different systems. the software that does the knitting. foster says. For foster—the british computer society’s 2002 lovelace medal winner and a 2003 american association for the advancement of science fellow—such corporate ventures are a critical step in Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 14 . “success of the grid depends on everyone adopting it. a top-ten “emerging technology” by technology review in 2003.” The experience inspired much enthusiasm—and funding. named the “most promising new technology” by r&d magazine in 2002. told the new york times last july. wouldn’t have taken such an active role. has proved useful in ferreting out bugs and making improvements. still needs work to perfect security and other measures. the globus toolkit’s sole corporate funder for the past three years. noninteroperable distributed systems. The computer company also has projects under way with morgan stanley and hewitt associates. incompatible.000 a year for three years. And while foster and his crew have used an open-source approach to develop the technology. much like that used to develop the internet. “it was the woodstock of the grid. a group that meets three times a year to adopt basic language and infrastructure standards.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work simulations such as colliding neutron stars and moving cloud patterns around the planet. and the energy department began grid projects. In 1997 foster’s team unveiled the first version of the globus toolkit. “so it’s counterproductive to work in private. The national science foundation.” Brokerage firm charles schwab uses a grid developed by ibm to give its clients real-time investment advice.” larry smarr.” The globus toolkit. allow users to collaborate “with any interested party and thus to create something more than a plethora of balkanized. whose data is stored mostly in electronic files. But the open-source model. foster writes in “what is the grid?” (july 2002).

financial modeling. nasa's information power grid. already a powerful scientific tool. and foster skipped the march global grid forum meeting in berlin to talk up grids in his homeland new zealand. co. They also provide a means for offering information technology as a utility for commercial and non-commercial clients. folding@home had achieved peaks of 186 teraflops on over 160. whom foster calls “the father of time-sharing operating systems.” happily encouraging his virtual child but not wanting to impose unrealistic expectations. and “utility computing” is used synonymously. as with electricity or water.” he says. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 15 . when the grid will be as common as the internet—and as seamless. But when grids will become so ubiquitous remains a big question. gas. Today the grid is envisioned similarly. As of may 2005. There’s more to be done. important in everyday life. and if he can’t predict where the next generation will head. bristol-myers squibb. In the 1960s mit’s fernando corbato. and climate/weather modeling. Current Projects And Applications Grids offer a way to solve grand challenge problems like protein folding. which was using more than 3 million computers to achieve 23. “we haven’t nailed down all the standards. “it’s a process.000 machines. earthquake simulation..An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work making grids. As of august 2009 folding@home achieves more than 4 petaflops on over 350. multi-industry path he’s forging. Although large grids are running in both the united states and europe. and electricity. pratt & whitney. with those clients paying only for what they use. Grids offer a way of using the information technology resources optimally inside an organization. One of the most famous cycle-scavenging networks is seti@home.” described shared computing as a “utility. Even on a full night’s sleep foster—today’s father figure—hesitates to guess beyond “that’s some way out.” meaning computer access would operate like water. and american express. where a client would connect and pay by usage amount. he’s prepared the grid to lead the way.37 sustained teraflops (979 lifetime teraflops) as of september 2001. Grid computing is presently being applied successfully by the national science foundation's national technology grid.” It’s a global.000 machines.

Of this. one technical. The nasa advanced supercomputing facility (nas) has run genetic algorithms using the condor cycle scavenger running on about 350 sun and sgi workstations. the grid mp ran on about 3. the project will run 42 months. A list of active sites participating within lcg can be found online as can real time monitoring of the egee infrastructure . The enabling grids for e-science project. which at 24. which was started in 1997 and has run a number of successful projects in its history.000 machines . 2006. Beingrid (business experiments in grid) is a research project partly funded by the european commission[citation needed] as an integrated project under the sixth framework programme (fp6) sponsorship program.net. As of june 2005. along with the lhc computing grid (lcg) have been developed to support the experiments using the cern large hadron collider. which is based in the european union and includes sites in asia and the united states. but also for its budget. 2007. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 16 . their mission is “to establish effective routes to foster the adoption of grid computing across the eu and to stimulate research into innovative business models using grid technologies”.com. Until april 27. two groups of consultants are analyzing a series of pilots. is a follow up project to the european datagrid (edg) and is arguably the largest computing grid on the planet. The results of these cross analyzes are provided by the website it-tude. The project is coordinated by atos origin.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The european union has been a major proponent of grid computing. This.8 million euros.7 million is provided by the european commission and the remainder by its 98 contributing partner companies. To extract best practice and common themes from the experimental implementations. 15. until november 2009. The relevant software and documentation is also publicly accessible . is the largest of any fp6 integrated project. Many projects have been funded through the framework programme of the european commission. one business. where storage rates of several gigabytes per second (10 petabytes per year) are required. Started in june 1. which cycle scavenges on volunteer pcs connected to the internet. united devices operates the united devices cancer research project based on its grid mp product. The project is significant not only for its long duration. Many of the projects are highlighted below. Another well-known project is distributed. but two deserve special mention: beingrid and enabling grids for e-science. According to the project fact sheet.100. The lcg project is driven by cern's need to handle huge amounts of data.

 Plaszczak/wellner define grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization. performance. processing power. storage capacity and a vast array of other computing resources over the internet.525 teraflops ( as of 4 jun 2007 ) Definitions Today there are many definitions of grid computing:  The definitive definition of a grid is provided by ian foster in his article "what is the grid? A three point checklist" the three points of this checklist are:    Computing resources are not administered centrally. Fernando and the other designers of the multics operating system envisioned a computer facility operating "like a power company or water company". Open standards are used. and service (resource) sharing between organizations. capacity. Australia) defines a grid as "a type of parallel and distributed system that Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 17 . and aggregation of resources distributed across 'multiple' administrative their (resources) availability. on-demand provisioning.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Fastest Virtual Supercomputers  Boinc . selection. cost and users' quality-of-service requirements"  An earlier example of the notion of computing as utility was in 1965 by mit's fernando corbató. A grid is a type of parallel and distributed domains system that based on enables the sharing. Non-trivial quality of service is achieved. Rajkumar Buyya is a Senior Lecturer and the Storage Tek fellow of Grid Computing in the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at the University of Melbourne.  Buyya (Dr. to gain access to applications and data. using a set of open standards and protocols."  Ibm defines grid computing as "the ability.

Grids can be categorized with a three stage model of departmental grids. “The definition of Grid Computing is the simultaneous application of multiple computers to a problem that typically requires access to significant amounts of data or a large number of computer processing cycles. grid computing is attractive to geographicallydistributed non-profit collaborative research efforts like the ncsa bioinformatics grids such as birn: external grids.  ServePath. An engineering department connecting desktop machines.e.  Cern. These correspond to a firm initially utilising resources within a single group i.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work enables the sharing. A gigaflop is a billion flops. Grid computing is quickly gaining popularity due to its ability to maximize the efficiency of computing sources as well as its ability to solve large problems with considerably less computing power”. But What Does "High Performance" Mean? Performance is measured in flops. clusters and equipment. or a billion operations. cost.  Grid computing is also attractive to large commercial enterprises with complex computation problems who aim to fully exploit their internal computing power: internal grids. A flop is a basic computational operation .com defines grid computing as. one of the largest users of grid technology. enterprise grids and global grids. talk of the grid: "a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet. A global grid is a connection of enterprise and departmental grids that can be used in a commercial or collaborative manner."  Pragmatically. This progresses to enterprise grids where nontechnical staff's computing resources can be used for cycle-stealing and storage. The Death Of Distance Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 18 . performance. and users' qualityof-service requirements". and aggregation of geographically distributed autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability. capability.like adding two numbers together. selection.

the performance of wide area networks has been doubling every nine months or so over the last few years. Imagine if cars had made the same improvements in speed since 1985…you could easily go into orbit by pressing down hard on the accelerator! Faster! Faster! Some researchers have computing needs that make even the fastest connections seem slow: some scientists need even higher-speed connectivity. which means there is minimal delay when sending date to remote colleagues in "real time". it would have been stupid to send large amounts of data across the globe for processing on other computer resources. grid developers and users need to manage three important things: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 19 . Secure Access Secure access to shared resources is one of the most challenging areas of grid development. Ten years ago. Such international grids are possible today because of the impressive development of networking technology.s. so that complicated calculations requiring constant communication between processors can be performed. others need ultra-low "latency". all this is possible and more! Pushed by the internet economy and the widespread penetration of optical fibers in telecommunications systems. To avoid communication bottlenecks. Today.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Computing grids use international networks to link computing resources from all over the world. To meet such critical requirements. because of the time taken to transfer the data. grid developers also have to determine ways to compensate for failures. up to tens of gigabits per second (gbps). This means you can sit in france and use computers in the u. or work from australia using computers from taiwan. including the optimization of transport protocols and the development of technical solutions such as high-performance ethernet switching. several high-performance networking issues have to be solved. That translates to a 3000x improvement in 15 years. To ensure secure access. Other researchers want "just-in-time" delivery of data across a grid. like transmission errors or pc crashes.

When a computer finished one "job". The result? Your jobs are finished much faster.how do you determine whether a certain operation is consistent with the rules? Grids need to efficiently track of all this information.the same questions arise whenever you use your credit card in a café. orders and payments? Security And Trust The issue of security is linked to trust: you may trust the other users. Resource Use Grids allow you to efficiently and automatically spread your work across many computer resources. This means that grids need to be extremely flexible. such accounting will be used to decide pricing policies for using a grid. These accounting challenges are not new . Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 20 . Imagine if you had to do 1000 difficult maths questions. The issue of security concerns all information technologies and is taken very seriously.how do you identify a user or resource? Authorization . Imagine if the owner of a café were to lend some tables to another café. and have a reliable accounting mechanism. or you could use a computing grid.what is shared? Who is allowed to share? When can sharing occur? Authentication .. someone could read or modify your data .. you would give one question or "job" to each computer. If you used a grid of 100 computers. You could do them yourself. and so grids require new solutions. which may change from day to day. But it is a never-ending race to stay ahead of malicious hackers. Ultimately. including sophisticated data encryption techniques. New security solutions are constantly being developed. but do you trust that your data and applications are securely protected on their shared machines? Without adequate security. But grid users must share resources.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work    Access policy .how would you securely track customers.hence the warnings about security when you use your credit card on the internet.

with all 100 computers working to full efficiency. computers and data A grid can even give you access and control of remote sensors.but grid computing is not about getting something for nothing. To do this.to allocate jobs efficiently. These people could be strangers. but if they are part of the same car pool organization as you. neither did the web in its early days (remember when they called it the world wide wait?!) Resource Sharing Resource sharing is the crux of grid philosophy . Middleware uses information about the different "jobs" submitted to each queue to calculate the optimal allocation of resources. but then. your 1000 questions could be finished in a flash.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work it would automatically ask for another. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 21 . telescopes and other devices that do not belong to you. But grids are shared resources.special grid computing software .    Grids give you shared access to extra computing power A grid can also give you direct access to remote software. But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? What about your car? A computing grid is a bit like a car pool .sometimes you share your car with other people. they share their car with you. Grid computing aims to involve everyone in the advantages of resource sharing and the benefits of increased efficiency. This doesn't work perfectly yet. right? So what happens when there is a queue of people is waiting to use a computing grid? How do you decide whose "job" is next in line? Middleware To The Rescue Computing grids rely on middleware . In this way. and how long each job will take. we ideally need to know how many jobs are in each queue. other times.

they will normally put conditions on the use of those resources. and each of these developers have their own views on what makes a good standard. For example. we're one step closer to making sure all the smaller grids can connect together to form larger. Grids are kind of the same. exist in different administrative domains. Open Standards By standardizing the way we create computing grids. Grid resources are owned by many different people who run different software. This presents a major challenge. specifying limits on which resources can be used when. technology continues to evolve and provides new tools that need to be integrated within the existing grid machinery. But when was the last time you needed a ¼ inch screw and only had metric screws available? And have you ever blown up a 120v machine by accidentally sticking it into 240v mains? So much for "universal" standards! The sticky question is.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work you will generally trust each other at some level. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards? Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 22 . and use different systems for security and access. Something standard. “standard” can often be equated with “average” or “boring”: how can you innovate or invent when you’re bound by standards and regulations? How can you push the boundaries when you’re stuck inside a box? Yet how can you create something on a grand scale—something that can slot together with other grand things—unless you create something interoperable. the others will complain and eventually kick you out of the car pool. So there is trust. and there are mechanisms to deal with breach of trust. common standards for grid computing might sound obvious. Adopting open. and what can be done with them. If you are always late. when someone decides to share their computing resources on a grid. which standards should be used for grid computing? There are hundreds of software developers working to create dozens of different grids. While they work. more powerful grid computing resources. which may require revising the standards.

And all this occurs automatically. and payment for. Brokers And Striking Deals Middleware automatically negotiate deals in which resources are exchanged. special "housekeeping" agents optimize network routings and monitor quality of service. middleware includes a layer of "resource and connectivity protocols". Delving Inside Middleware There are many other layers within the middleware layer. this body is a significant force for setting standards and community developments. the broker schedules the necessary computational activities and oversees the data transfers. Together. and then strike the "deals" for access to. At the same time. Broker programs undertake the m2m negotiations required for user authentication and authorization. specific data and resources. For example. data and resources. containing hundreds of thousands of lines of computer code. Agent programs present "metadata" (data about data) that describes users. this code automates all the "machine to machine" (m2m) interactions that create a single.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The open grid forum is a standards body for the grid community. passing from a grid resource provider to a grid user. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 23 . some middleware programs act as "agents" and others as "brokers". Once a deal is set. seamless computational grid. Middleware is made up of many software programs. With more than 5000 volunteer members. and a higher layer of "collective services". The Middleware "middleware" is the software that organizes and integrates the resources in a grid. In these deals. Agents. in a fraction of the time that it would take humans at their computers to do manually.

For example. which allow the resources to communicate with each other. a team primarily involving ian foster's team at argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman's team at the university of southern california in los angeles. enabling exchange of data. This is done with communication protocols. Many major grid projects use the globus toolkit. Collective services include:      Updating directories of available resources Brokering resources (which like stock broking.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Resource and connectivity protocols handle all grid-specific network transactions between different computers and grid resources. The collective services are also based on protocols: information protocols. Globus Toolkit The globus toolkit is a popular example of grid middleware. and management protocols. communications and so on. resource management. which negotiate uniform access to the resources. resource location. computers contributing to a particular grid must recognize grid-relevant messages and ignore the rest. is about negotiating between those who want to "buy" resources and those who want to "sell") Monitoring and diagnosing problems Replicating data so that multiple copies are available at different locations for ease of use Providing membership/policy services for tracking who is allowed to do what and when. Many of the protocols and functions defined by the globus toolkit are similar to those in networking and storage today. but have been optimized for grid-specific deployments. which is being developed by the globus alliance. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 24 . covering security measures. and authentication protocols. which provide secure mechanisms for verifying the identity of both users and resources. which obtain information about the structure and state of the resources on a grid. It's a set of tools for constructing a grid.

The globus toolkit is available under an "open-source" licensing agreement. and robust data transfer mechanism Replica catalog: provides the location of replicas of a given dataset on a grid The replica management system: manages the replica catalog and gridftp. allowing applications to create and manage replicas of large datasets. and so on      Gris (grid resource information service): queries resources for their current configuration. There are two main reasons for the strength and popularity of the globus toolkit: 1. the globus toolkit has an "object-oriented approach". which means anyone is free to use or improve the software. an application can use gram or gris without having to necessarily use the globus security or replica management systems. type of storage. For example. Grids need to support a wide variety of applications created according to different programming paradigms. This is similar to the world wide web and the linux operating system. The tools can also be introduced one at a time. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 25 . bandwidth capacity. providing a bag of services so that developers can choose the services that best meet their needs. capabilities. and status Giis (grid index information service): coordinates arbitrary gris services Gridftp (grid file transfer protocol): provides a high-performance. Rather than providing a uniform programming model for grid applications. 2.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Globus Includes Programs Such As:    Gram (globus resource allocation manager): figures out how to convert a request for resources into commands that local computers can understand Gsi (grid security infrastructure): authenticates users and determines their access rights Mds (monitoring and discovery service): collects information about resources such as processing capacity. secure.

Project details Synopsis eneagrid (italy) eneagrid makes use of grid technologies to provide an integrated production environment including all the high performance and high throughput computational resources available in enea. Open to all institutions for research and test-bed activities. dutchgrid aims to coordinate various grid deployment efforts and to offer a forum for the exchange of experiences on grid technologies. the italian national agency for new technologies. Project details Synopsis dutchgrid (the netherlands) dutchgrid is the platform for grid computing and technology in the netherlands. Interoperability with other grid infrastructures is currently in operation. Project details fermilab computing division (fermilab in the u. D-grid Eneagrid Grid-ireland National grid service Norgrid Teragrid dutchgrid fermilab computing division hungrid nersc swegrid thai national grid twgrid Project details Synopsis d-grid (germany) the first d-grid projects started in september 2005 with the goal of developing a distributed.) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 26 . energy and the environment. integrated resource platform for high-performance computing and related services to enable the processing of large amounts of scientific data and information.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work National Grids National grids like those listed below combine national computing resouces to create powerful grid computing resources.s.

Project details norgrid (norway) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 27 .. and is available to select osg virtual organizations for compute and storage resources. It is also an egee testing environment for hungarian research communities that show interest in starting their own virtual organizations. Project details Synopsis hungrid (uk) hungrid is the first official hungarian virtual organization of egee. Its goal is to allow grid users of hungarian academic and educational institutes to perform the computing activities relevant for their researches and thus the vo functions as a catch-all vo for all the hungarian participants that do not (yet) have an established vo in their respective field of research. Project details Synopsis national grid service (uk) the ngs aims to provide coherent electronic access for uk researchers to all computational and data based resources and facilities. Project details Synopsis nersc (national energy research scientific computing center in the u. Nersc is part of the open science grid (osg). changing the way that computing was done at the lab by improving efficiency and making better use of resources.) users can access several nersc resources via globus grid interfaces using x509 grid certificates.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis fermigrid united fermilab’s computing resources into a single grid infrastructure.s. Project details Synopsis grid-ireland (ireland) grid-ireland fosters and promotes grid activities in ireland. involving partners across the country. Join their mailing list for up-to-the-minute ngs action. Now involved in developing and supporting innovative computing solutions and services for fermilab.

It involves involves partners across the u. Project details Synopsis swegrid (sweden) swegrid is a swedish national computational resource. as well as working to produce new grid-powered science applications to further international e-science advances. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 28 .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis norgrid aims to establish and maintain a national grid infrastructure in norway. twgrid provides the grid-related technology and infrastructure support for the lhc experiments in taiwan. Project details Synopsis twgrid (taiwan) twgrid is the taiwanese grid and a member of global grid projects including egee and wlcg. supercomputing grid) teragrid aims to build and deploy the world's largest. spanning cultures. Project details Synopsis thai national grid project (thailand) the thai national grid project is a national initiative on grid computing funded by the royal thai government through the software industry promotion agency of the ministry of information and communication technology.s. International Grids International grids cross national boundaries. consisting of 600 computers in six clusters at six different sites across sweden. technologies and more to create international resources and power global science using global computing. Project details Synopsis teragrid (u. The sites are connected through the highperformance gigasunet network. Coordinated by academia sinica grid computing. most comprehensive. Norgrid is the norwegian component in the third phase of the egee project. fastest. distributed infrastructure for open scientific research.s. languages.

nurture and promote grid technologies and applications. aiming to share technologies.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Ap grid Deisa Egee Euasiagrid Gridpp Nextgrid Open grid forum Open science grid Winds d4science eela-2 egi_ds eu-indiagrid lcg nordugrid ogf-europe pragma Project details Synopsis ap grid asia-pacific grid ap grid is a partnership for grid computing in the asia-pacific region. Project details Synopsis eela e-science for europe and latin america eela aims to provide grid facilities to promote scientific collaboration between europe and latin america. aiming to ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-infrastructure. It is co-funded by the european commission until 2010 and involves partners across europe.. Project details egee enabling grids for e-science Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 29 . Partners come from 15 countries in the asiapacific and beyond. Project details Synopsis d4science distributed collaboratories infrastructure on grid enabled technology 4 science d4science aims to create grid-based and data-centric einfrastructures to support scientific research. resources and knowledge in order to build. Project details Synopsis deisa distributed european infrastructure for supercomputing applications deisa combines the power of supercomputing centres across europe to accelerate scientific research.

7 days a week. Egi_ds includes partners across europe Project details Synopsis euasiagrid collaboration between europe and asia euasiagrid aims to pave the way towards an asian e-science grid infrastructure. bringing together more than 120 organisations to provide scientific computing resources to the european and global research community. Driven by the needs and requirements of the research community. thereby supporting collaborative scientific discoveries in the european research area. Project details Synopsis gridpp grid for uk particle physics gridpp is a collaboration of particle physicists and computing scientists from the uk and cern.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis egee is the largest multi-disciplinary grid infrastructure in the world. it is expected to enable the next leap in research infrastructures. The main objective is to develop and deploy a Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 30 . who are building a grid for particle physics. in synergy with the other european grid initiatives in europe and asia. Project details Synopsis egi_ds european grid initiative design study the european grid initiative design study aims to establish a sustainable grid infrastructure in europe. global connectivity and guaranteed quality of service.000 users. Géant aims for high speed connectivity. Project details Synopsis eu-indiagrid collaboration between europe and india eu-indiagrid will bring together over 500 multidisciplinary organisations to build a grid-enabled e-science community aiming to boost r&d innovation across europe and india. Project details Synopsis géant géant pan-european gigabit research network provides networking infrastructure to support researchers. 24 hours a day. as well as an infrastructure for network research. Egee comprises 250 sites in 48 countries and more than 68. It comprises 27 european national research and education networks.000 CPUs available to some 8. geographical expansion.

Ogf aims to promote and support grid technologies via the creation and documentation of "best practices" .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work large-scale science grid in the uk for use by the worldwide particle physics community. Project details Synopsis open grid forum international grid standards the open grid forum is a community-initiated forum of 5000+ people interested in distributed computing and grid technologies. and implementation guidelines. industry and the ordinary citizen. Project details Synopsis ogf-europe key role in european and international grid standards influencing the drive towards global ogf-europe works closely with open grid forum and plays a standardisation efforts and in bringing best practices in the european computing environment. An eufunded project with multiple partners Project details Synopsis nordugrid grids in the nordic region nordugrid is a grid research and development collaboration aiming at development. Project details Synopsis lcg worldwide lhc computing grid the mission of the lhc computing project (lcg) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high energy physics community that will use the large hadron collider. user experiences. The collaboration was established by five nordic academic institutes and is based upon a memorandum of understanding. thus creating a dynamic marketplace for new services and products. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 31 . Project details Synopsis nextgrid supporting mainstream use of grids nextgrid aims to enable the widespread use of grids by research. Involves more than 400 organizations from 50 countries.technical specifications. maintenance and support of a free grid middleware known as the "advanced resource connector" (arc).

s. dealing them out to the different computer processors in the grid.s and beyond. latin america and the caribbean by identifying common needs. Project details Synopsis pragma assembly pacific rim applications and grid middleware pragma is an open organization in which pacific rim institutions collaborate to develop grid-enabled applications and to deploy the infrastructure throughout the pacific region. maintained by the winds-la and winds-caribe projects. and formalize resourcesharing agreements. High-Throughput Problems High-throughput applications are problems that can be divided into many independent tasks. Project details Synopsis winds caribbean grid collaboration in europe. Computing grids can be used to schedule these tasks. labs and universities and provides access to shared resources for the benefit of scientific applications. aims to further develop and support ict research and development collaboration between europe.winds-lac. and proposing a long-term cooperation strategy in the field of ict research.eu platform. Pragma aims to enhance current collaborations and connections. promoting excellence research from the regions in europe. research issues and opportunities for cooperation. build new collaborations. latin america and the the www.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Project details Synopsis open science grid open grid infrastructure for collaborative science the open science grid consortium provides an open grid infrastructure for science in the u. Osg combines resources at many u. As soon as a processor finishes one Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 32 .

they're generally talking about supercomputing. hundreds of tasks can be performed in a very short time. After a "time-out" period. supercomputers are one giant computer in a single room. so it doesn't matter whether some tasks take a long time.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work task. the secret to solving these problems is "teraflops": as many as possible. helping scientists to tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system. Supercomputers are different to computing grids: where grids link computers that are distributed around an institution. applications include:? The analysis of thousands of particle collisions in a bid to understand more about our universe. which models the evolution of drug resistance and helps to design new anti-hiv drugs. or to solve problems much more quickly. fightaids@home. Examples of high-throughput :   Error! Bookmark not defined. Supercomputers generally deal with computer-centric problems. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 33 . the next task arrives. which aids in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. as in the large hadron collider computing grid The analysis of thousands of molecules in a bid to discover a drug candidate against a specific malaria protein. Grid computing allows large computational resources to be combined. These "@home" tasks involved are totally independent. which works on gravitational ray tracing. unfinished tasks are simply sent elsewhere to be processed. High-Performance Problems When people talk about "high performance computing" or hpc. using rosetta software in the open science grid  The use of volunteer computing to power applications including seti@home. country or the world. In this way. as part of the grid-enabled wisdom project  The analysis of thousands of protein folding configurations in a bid to discover more efficient ways of packaging drug proteins. or brats@home.

An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Examples of these supercomputing grids are deisa in europe or teragrid in the u..g. simulations of a supernova explosion or black hole collision) Automotive/aerospace industry (e.s. helping scientists around the world to analyze and store massive amounts of data.g. while the web uses the internet to help us share information. forming a global network of computers that can operate as one vast computational resource.. And across the world. simulations of a car crash or a new airplane design) Climate modeling (e. In grid computing reality. Grid computing is making big contributions to scientific research. there are already hundreds of grids around the world. How is grid computing different from the world wide web? Simple.. Typical hpc grid applications include:     Astrophysics (e. or a particular group of users. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 34 . Grid computing uses the internet to help us share computer power. simulations of a tornado or climate prediction) Economics (e..g. each one created to help a specific group of researchers. researchers and software engineers are working to bring "the grid" closer to achieving the dream. The Dream The grid computing dream began with talk of creating an all-powerful "grid": one grid comprised of many smaller grids joined together.g. modeling the world economy) Grid Computing In 30 Seconds Grid computing is a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 35 . so that many subcalculations can be worked on "in parallel".An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work ''Gridifying'' Your Application An application that ordinarily runs on a stand-alone pc must be "gridified" before it can run on a grid. there will always be a few bugs here and there). This means that each sub-calculation can be worked on by a different processor. asking to extract data. Computational Problems There are many different ways to describe computational problems. Just like "webifying" applications to run on a web browser. Here are a few that are important to grid technology: Parallel Calculations: Parallel calculations can be split into many smaller sub-calculations. grid users need to "gridify" their applications to run on a grid. a gridified data analysis application will be able to:     Obtain the necessary authentication credentials to open the files it needs Query a catalogue to determine where the files are and which grid resources are able to do the analysis Submit requests to the grid. Once gridified. This allows you to speed up your computation. For example. initiate computations. and detecting and responding to failures (collective services). "gridification" means adapting applications to include new layers of grid-enabled software. thousands of people will be able to use the same application and run it trouble-free on interoperable grids (like most software. notifying the user when analysis is complete. and provide results Monitor progress of the various computations and data transfers.

analyzing a large databank of medical images is embarrassingly parallel.and coarsegrained calculations. High-Performance Vs. reliable network between the processors. where you vary the parameters in a model and then study the results. High-Throughput Error! Bookmark not defined. "Monte Carlo simulations".? Many interesting problems in science require a combination of fine. so that the right information is available to processors at the right time. or very tightly coupled computer clusters with lots of identical processors and an extremely fast. For example. and this is where grids can be particularly powerful: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 36 . Coarse-Grained Calculations: Coarse-grained calculations are often embarrassingly parallel. each calculation in one volume of atmosphere is affected by surrounding volumes. each sub-calculation is dependent on the result of another sub-calculation. which usually involves a big. monolithic supercomputer. Fine-grained parallel calculations require very clever programming to make the most of their parallelism..: Fine-grained calculations are better suited to high-performance computing.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Embarrassingly Parallel Calculations: A calculation is embarrassingly parallel when each sub-calculation is independent of all the other calculations. And Grid Computing. Fine-Grained Calculations: In a fine-grained calculation. since each image is independent of the others. when calculating the weather. are also coarse-grained calculations. Embarrassingly parallel calculations are ideal for high-throughput computing: more loosely coupled networks of computers where delays in getting results from one processor will not affect the work of the others. For example.

This could mean that. somehow. these many independent calculations can be distributed over many different grid clusters. Further. "Computing power doubles every 18 months" is one common misuse of Moore's observation.the number of transistors on a chip . thus adding coarse-grained parallelism and saving a lot of time. one of the founders of Intel. For example. if "network performance is doubling every nine months". For example. it might be said that these trends are "outperforming" Moore's law. Today. Using a grid. But. Breaking Moore’s Law? Moore's law was a statement made in 1965 by Gordon Moore. It is best to see Moore's law as simply a metaphor for exponential growth in the performance of IT hardware. the clock cycle of processors increases along with the increase in the number of transistors per chip. This ignores a number of trends which Moore's law does not take into account. in the case of complex climate modeling. or "data storage density is doubling every 12 months". Nice Idea. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 37 ..An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work For example. improvements in chip architecture and operating systems also make processors more powerful than the mere sum of their transistors. Even though Moore's statement was limited to a very specific quantity . researchers launch many similar calculations to see how different parameters affect their models.. Moore's law is one of the most misused concepts in computing. computer processors are not keeping up with data storage and network capacity. comparisons are made between different quantities that have nothing to do with Moore's law. comparing different growth rates using Moore's law is often misleading. this has been revised to doubling every 18 months.it is now used for just about everything else in computing. Over time. This means that processor power grows faster than Moore's law. In short. Each calculation is a fine-grained parallel calculation that needs to run on a single cluster or supercomputer. Moore noted that the number of transistors that could be squeezed on to a silicon chip was doubling every year.

with every year that passes. like climate change and sustainable power. Individual computers also become more powerful. All this computing power helps our scientists find solutions to the big questions. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 38 . which means that computer grids are increasingly able to solve increasingly complex problems.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work More On Moore's Law As a result of this exponential growth. the grid concept becomes more feasible: networks become faster and distributed processors can be more tightly integrated.

M.. December). B...org (2010. January).ibm.com/redbooks Viktors Berstis. Father of Grid Computing. K.edu/eli Jacob.org: http://www.. A. S.com Braverman. January). M. & Venugopal. (2006. Retrieved from University of Chicago Magazine: http://uchicago. Educause Learning Initiative. A Gentle Introduction to Grid Computing and Technologies. January).educause.. Fundamentals of Grid Computing. Fukui. Retrieved from educause. Grid computing.com/redbooks .. July).wikipedia.gridcafe. Introduction to Grid Computing.edu: www. (2005. April). Brown.Works Cited (2010. & Trivedi. 7 things you should know about. (2001). (2005. Retrieved from GridCafe. Retrieved from WikiPedia: http://www. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: http://www. N. (2004.edu Buyya. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: ibm. R.