An Inquiry Report On



GRID
Submitted By



COMPUTING

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

vishnudhoodhan@gmail.com | +91 9020 321 091

© Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman. All rights reserved. This is a collection of information availed from various sources including internet, text books, and newspaper publications. This collection is a sole work of the Mr. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman and any kind of reuse of this work in any form is prohibited, and all the rights on this collection is reserved to him and violation of this prohibition is punishable under the laws whichever is applicable.

1st M.C.A |M9 MCA AA 0010
Sree Saraswathy Thyagaraja College, Thippampatti, Pollachi.

For Personal Contact Use These…. Karampotta, Kozhinjampara, Palakkad. 678555

vishnudhoodhan@gmail.com | vishnudhoodhan@yahoo.

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies ............. 1 What Is Grid Computing? ......................................................................... 1 Grid Computing’s Ancestors..................................................................... 2 The Architecture ......................................................................................... 3 Five Big Ideas .............................................................................................. 4 Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers .......................................... 5 Virtual Organizations................................................................................. 6
From passenger jets to chemical spills .................................................................... 6

8. 9.

The Hardware ............................................................................................. 6 Design Considerations And Variations .................................................... 7

10. CPU Scavenging ......................................................................................... 8 11. History ......................................................................................................... 9 12. Father of the Grid ....................................................................................... 9 13. Current Projects And Applications......................................................... 15
Fastest virtual supercomputers ............................................................................ 17

14. Definitions ................................................................................................. 17
But what does "high performance" mean? ........................................................... 18

15. The Death Of Distance ............................................................................. 18
Faster! Faster! ..................................................................................................... 19

16. Secure Access ............................................................................................ 19
Security and trust................................................................................................ 20

17. Resource Use ............................................................................................. 20
Middleware to the rescue ..................................................................................... 21

18. Resource Sharing ...................................................................................... 21 19. But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? ....... 21

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

iii

20. Open Standards ........................................................................................ 22 21. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards?.................................................... 22 22. The Middleware ....................................................................................... 23
Agents, brokers and striking deals........................................................................ 23 Delving inside middleware .................................................................................. 23

23. Globus Toolkit .......................................................................................... 24
Globus includes programs such as:....................................................................... 25

24. National Grids .......................................................................................... 26 25. International Grids ................................................................................... 28 26. High-Throughput Problems .................................................................... 32 27. High-Performance Problems ................................................................... 33 28. Grid Computing In 30 Seconds ............................................................... 34 29. The Dream ................................................................................................. 34 30. ''Gridifying'' Your Application ................................................................ 35 31. Computational Problems ......................................................................... 35
Parallel calculations: ............................................................................................ 35 Embarrassingly parallel calculations: ................................................................... 36 Coarse-grained calculations: ................................................................................ 36 Fine-grained calculations: .................................................................................... 36 High-performance vs. high-throughput ................................................................ 36 And grid computing..? ........................................................................................ 36

32. Breaking Moore’s Law? ........................................................................... 37
Nice Idea, But... ................................................................................................... 37

33. More On Moore's Law ............................................................................. 38 34. Works Cited .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Index ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

iv

. and owned by thousands of different people. laptops.. Several software toolkits and systems have been developed. Grid computing is already reality. This paper presents an introduction to Grid computing and discusses two complimentary Grid technologies: Globus developed by researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and University of Southern California. Globus primarily focuses on providing core Grid services whereas Gridbus focuses on providing user-level Grid services in addition to utility computing model for management of grid resources. data vaults. databases and scientific instruments owned and managed by multiple organizations. global computer is what many people dream "the grid" will be. USA. supercomputers. network bandwidth and storage capacity to provide a unique system image. meteorological sensors and telescopes. sprawling.. .A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies Grid is an infrastructure that involves the integrated and collaborative use of computers. Imagine several million computers from all over the world. This makes Grid application management and deployment a complex undertaking. What Is Grid Computing? “grid computing allows the virtualization of distributed computing and data resources such as processing. granting users and applications access to vast it capabilities. Australia. huge and super-powerful computer! This huge. The idea was that accessing computer power from a computer grid would be as simple as accessing electrical power from an electrical grid". Imagine they include desktops. "The grid" takes its name from an analogy with the electrical "power grid". most of which are results of academic research projects.. Grid middlewares provide users with seamless computing ability and uniform access to resources in the heterogeneous Grid environment. and instruments like mobile phones. and Gridbus by researchers from the University of Melbourne. Now imagine that all of these computers can be connected to form a single. Grid applications often involve large amounts of data and/or computing resources that require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries.” Although "the grid" is still just a dream. all over the world. networks.

as well as the legion project. One of i-way's innovations was a computational resource broker. Many fafner techniques for dividing and distributing computational problems were forerunners of technology used for seti@home and other "cycle scavenging" software. It grew from previous efforts and ideas. Ian foster had previously been involved in the i-way project. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 2 . a former director of the national center for supercomputing applications in the us.  Fafner and i-way were cutting-edge metacomputing projects in the us. Larry smarr. often called "the grid bible".An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid Computing’s Ancestors Grid computing didn't just come out of nowhere. I-way strongly influenced the development of the globus project. clearly linking the globus toolkit with its predecessor. Each influenced the evolution of key grid technologies. Following this. an alternative approach to distributed supercomputing. held at argonne national laboratory in september 1997. metacomputing. even fairly modest computers could contribute useful power. is generally credited with popularizing the term. such as those listed below:  Grid computing's immediate ancestor is "metacomputing". Metacomputing was used to describe efforts to connect us supercomputing centers. ian foster of argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman of the university of southern california published "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". both conceived in 1995. called "globus: a metacomputing infrastructure toolkit". in 1998. which dates back to around 1990.  I-way (information wide area year) aimed to link supercomputers using existing networks.  Fafner (factoring via network-enabled recursion) aimed to factorize very large numbers. conceptually similar to those being developed for grid computing today. and the foster-kesselman duo had published a paper in 1997. which is at the core of many grid activities. Since this challenge could be broken into small parts. a challenge very relevant to digital security.  Grid computing was born at a workshop called "building a computational grid".

and where the surrounding grid is used to control the equipment remotely and to analyze the data produced. which generally focuses on scientific. This article focuses on distributed computing technologies which are not in the traditional dedicated clusters.   The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using spare computing resources within an organization. "computing on demand".An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings:   A local computer cluster which is like a "grid" because it is composed of multiple nodes.g. one can also speak of several types of grids:    Computational grids (including CPU scavenging grids) which focuses primarily on computationally-intensive operations. see computer cluster. mathematical. The Architecture Grid architecture is the way in which a grid has been designed. A telescope. The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using a network of geographically dispersed computers. is the most common application of this technology. otherwise. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 3 . and sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms. known as utility computing. and academic problems. Offering online computation or storage as a metered commercial service. These varying definitions cover the spectrum of "distributed computing". or "cloud computing". Equipment grids which have a primary piece of equipment e. Data grids or the controlled sharing and management of large amounts of distributed data. Functionally. Volunteer computing.

as well as portals and development toolkits to support the applications. finance and more. sensors and telescopes that are connected to the network. Above the network layer lies the resource layer: actual grid resources. This is the layer that grid users "see" and interact with. which includes applications in science. 3. electronic data catalogues. storage systems. Five Big Ideas Grid computing is driven by five big areas: 1. which connects grid resources. and on individual pcs.) To participate in a grid. such as computers. engineering. where each layer has a specific function. Open standards: interoperability between different grids is a big goal. whereas lower layers are more hardware-centric. so getting grid security right is crucial. storage. Resource use: efficient. 5. business. especially when they don't know each other. The higher layers are generally user-centric.   The lowest layer is the network. which performs general management functions like tracking who is providing grid resources and who is using them. Sharing resources conflicts with security policies in many individual computer centers.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work A grid's architecture is often described in terms of "layers". Secure access: trust between resource providers and users is essential. focused on computers and networks.  The middleware layer provides the tools that enable the various elements (servers. 2. The application layer often includes the so-called serviceware. The death of distance: distance should make no difference: you should be able to access to computer resources from wherever you are. and is driven forward by the adoption of open standards for grid development. 4. making it possible for everyone can contribute constructively to grid development. The middleware layer is sometimes the "brains" behind a computing grid!  The highest layer of the structure is the application layer. networks. Standardization also encourages Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 4 . balanced use of computing resources is essential. Resource sharing: global sharing is the very essence of grid computing. etc.

The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is generally favorable. and eliminates Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 5 . Both supercomputers and grids can be used to run multiple parallel computations at the same time. There are also differences in programming and deployment. standalone programs to run on multiple machines (but each given a different part of the same problem). This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer. such as ethernet or the internet. network interface.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work industry to invest in developing commercial grid services and infrastructure. etc. a "thin" layer of "grid" infrastructure can cause conventional. storage. This makes it possible to write and debug programs on a single conventional machine. This is due to the economies of scale of producing commodity hardware. The primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware. compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. but at lower cost. without the need to communicate intermediate results between CPUs. or require the program to address concurrency issues. which may have a custom operating system. The primary performance disadvantage is that the various CPUs and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections. The infrastructure and programming considerations needed to do this on each type of platform are different.) Connected by a conventional network interface. which when combined can produce similar computing resources to a many-CPU supercomputer. It can be costly and difficult to write programs so that they can be run in the environment of a supercomputer. due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public internet. or computations for completely different applications. which has many CPUs connected by a local high-speed computer bus. which might be different simulations for the same project. power supply. If a problem can be adequately parallelized. however. Conventional supercomputers also create physical challenges in supplying sufficient electricity and cooling capacity in a single location. This arrangement is thus well-suited to applications where multiple parallel computations can take place independently. Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers "distributed" or "grid computing" in general is a special type of parallel computing which relies on complete computers (with onboard CPU.

a vo formed to develop a nextgeneration passenger jet will need to run complex computer simulations. biology research and more. data. This grid can give vo members direct access to each other's computers.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time. This infrastructure is often called the grid "fabric". For example. creating a computer grid. Vos exist for astronomy research. sensors and networks. flexible. people within a vo choose to share their resources. secure. The Hardware Grids must be built "on top of" hardware. They will need to create a short term mitigation plan and help emergency response personnel to plan and coordinate the evacuation. while keeping the proprietary know-how associated with each component hidden from the other consortium members. The needs of each vo are different. tasked with managing a chemical spill. alternative energy research. files. To achieve their mutual goal. This sharing must be controlled. testing various combinations of components from different manufacturers. Virtual Organizations Virtual organizations (vos) are groups of people who share a data-intensive goal. Another example is an environmental science vo. which forms the physical infrastructure of a grid . This vo will need to analyze local weather and soil models to estimate the spread of the spill and determine its impact. From Passenger Jets To Chemical Spills Many scientists form vos to pursue their research.things like computers and networks. programs. and usually time-limited. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 6 .

allowing them to be handled as one huge computer. Ultra-fast networks also help to minimize latency: the delays that build up as data are transmitted over the internet. and from using the system as an attack vector. The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false. where kilo means a thousand). a billion). Networks are characterized by their size (local. as in utility computing. Networks link the different computers that form part of a grid. a million) or gbps (g for giga. Grids are built "on top of" high-performance networks. This can facilitate commercial transactions. or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. which has 10gbps performance on the network "backbone". such as the intraeuropean geant network. One level down from the "backbone" are the network links. A further level down are the 10 to 100mbps desktop-to-institution network links. mbps (m for mega. or erroneous results. This idea allows us to access globally distributed resources in an integrated and data-intensive way. Performance of these is typically 1gbps. Design Considerations And Variations One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple individuals or organizations (known as multiple administrative domains). Discrepancies would identify malfunctioning and malicious nodes. misleading. This often involves assigning work randomly to different nodes (presumably with different owners) and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. This backbone links the major "nodes" on the grid (like national computing centres).An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Networks are an essential piece of the grid "fabric". Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 7 . which join individual institutions to nodes on the backbone. One of the big ideas of grid computing is to take advantage of ultra-fast networks. national and international) and throughput (the amount of data transferred in a specific time). One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are actually performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. Throughput is measured in kbps (kilo bits per second.

or shared computing creates a "grid" from the unused resources in a network of participants (whether worldwide or internal to an organization). more are listed at the end of the article. or Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 8 . during lunch. In many cases. to idle machines internal to the developing organization. Various middleware projects have created generic infrastructure. or creating new security holes. there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node (due to run-time interpretation or lack of optimization for the particular platform). Usually this technique is used to make use of instruction cycles on desktop computers that would otherwise be wasted at night. parabon computation produces grid computing software that operates in a java sandbox. cycle stealing. by interfering with the operation of other programs. With many languages. transmitting private data. The impacts of trust and availability on performance and development difficulty can influence the choice of whether to deploy onto a dedicated computer cluster. Boinc is a common one for academic projects seeking public volunteers. mangling stored information. Cpu Scavenging CPU-scavenging. or to an open external network of volunteers or contractors. Public systems or those crossing administrative domains (including different departments in the same organization) often result in the need to run on heterogeneous systems. using different operating systems and hardware architectures. Cross-platform languages can reduce the need to make this tradeoff. Other systems employ measures to reduce the amount of trust "client" nodes must place in the central system. or for the purpose of setting up new grids. there is a tradeoff between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported (and thus the size of the resulting network). For example.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Due to the lack of central control over the hardware. Some nodes (like laptops or dialup internet customers) may also be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. to allow various scientific and commercial projects to harness a particular associated grid. cycle-scavenging. the participating nodes must trust the central system not to abuse the access that is being granted. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units (thus reducing the need for continuous network connectivity) and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results as expected.

data movement. and network bandwidth. Father Of The Grid An exact extraction of an article by Amy m." they led the effort to create the globus toolkit incorporating not just CPU management (examples: cluster management and cycle scavenging) but also storage management. cluster computing. In practice.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work even in the scattered seconds throughout the day when the computer is waiting for user input or slow devices. widely regarded as the "fathers of the grid. in order to solve CPU-intensive research problems. participating computers also donate some supporting amount of disk storage space. The ideas of the grid (including those from distributed computing. security provisioning. as their owners use their resources for their primary purpose. Braverman. in addition to raw CPU power. While the globus toolkit remains the de facto standard for building grid solutions. CPU scavenging and volunteer computing were popularized beginning in 1997 by distributed. ( on April 2004 volume 96. Nodes in this model are also more vulnerable to going "offline" in one way or another from time to time. Volunteer computing projects use the CPU scavenging model almost exclusively. History The term grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in Ian foster and Carl Kesselmans seminal work.net and later in 1999 by seti@home to harness the power of networked PCs worldwide. Carl Kesselman and Steve Tuecke. in Chicago university emagazine. monitoring and a toolkit for developing additional services based on the same infrastructure including agreement negotiation. trigger services and information aggregation. notification mechanisms. number 4). "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". object oriented programming. ram. a number of other tools have been built that answer some subset of services needed to create an enterprise grid. web services and others) were brought together by Ian foster. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 9 .

persuading the federal government to invest in several multimilliondollar grid-technology projects and convincing companies such as IBM. The Sloan digital sky survey—an effort at Chicago.” akin to “the internet”—will perform complex tasks such as designing semiconductors or screening thousands of potential pharmaceutical drugs in an hour rather than a year. Though corporations recently have begun to show interest in grids. in the same way that the internet sprouted in academia before blossoming in the commercial world. Several grid projects exist today. he worked online with some European colleagues. So when asked to predict how grid computing will change everyday life in five. HewlettPackard. foster says. he rarely gets to sleep in. determining more than 100 million celestial objects’ positions and absolute brightness—harnesses computer power from labs nationwide to perform in minutes scans that previously took a week. ten. 45.” The previous night a west coast student’s paper was due at midnight. Just as the internet is a tool for mass communication. research institutions have long been a ripe testing ground. and Sun Microsystems that grids are the answer to complex computational problems—the next major evolution of the internet. but eventually. “I’m not feeling very creative right now. grids are a tool for amplifying computer power and storage space.” the Arthur holly Compton distinguished service professor of computer science warns. servers. 15 years. and 11 other institutions to map a quarter of the night sky. The national digital mammography archive (ndma) in the united states and ediamond in the united kingdom are creating digital-image libraries to hold their respective countries’ Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 10 . Ian foster sits at a red table holding his laptop. fermilab. oracle. awake anyway. “i might not be too articulate today. who heads the distributed systems lab at Argonne national laboratory. storage systems. And because the “father of grid computing” is also—with wife Angela Smyth. he thinks for a moment but comes up short. grids allow more numbers to be crunched faster than ever before. eyes glazed behind wire-rimmed glasses. cinder-block walls. and databases across existing internet lines.” he says in the quick cadence of a native New Zealander. clearly has had more inspired moments.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work “computer scientist Ian foster has developed the software to take shared computing to a global level. By linking far-flung supercomputers. Pacific Time. a hospitals psychiatry fellow—the father of a five. a huge global grid—“the grid.and a six-year-old. “I’m on two hours’ sleep. blinds shut to block the window’s glare.” In a bare research institutes building room with white. But foster. Large projects are already using the technology. md’00. and then.

to those of healthy people. doctors can view a patient’s progress over time. Last fall jonathan silverstein. “at 160 megabytes per exam. to smaller thursday test cruises held to keep the system bug-free. At these sessions access grid programmers susanne lefvert and eric olson sit at personal computers. the biomedical informatics research network. moving it quickly back and forth to agitate the 2-foot-tall plastic model sitting on it. for example. Through the grid. and chicago researchers also are experimenting with the technology. Still another project is a grid for the network for earthquake engineering simulation (nees).s. By combining computer power and storage space from multiple locations. or access diagnostic tools. star trek–like. and the minimal daily traffic a day is expected to be 28 terabytes [a terabyte is 1. “the annual volume could exceed 5. on a white argonne wall. A similar venture. has more than 250 research “nodes”— rooms equipped to connect—on five continents. links civil engineers around the country with 15 sites containing equipment such as 4-meter-by-4-meter shake tables or tsunami simulators. nees seeks to advance earthquake-engineering research and reduce the physical havoc earthquakes create. an 18-square-inch mini shake table. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 11 . engineers building san francisco’s new bay bridge tested their design structures remotely to make sure they met the latest earthquakeresistance standards. to be completed in october. first used in 1999.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work scans. developed by argonne’s futures lab for remote group collaboration. a neesgrid partner. A researcher in. At argonne even some meetings about grids are held using grids. talking with wall-projected images of scientists from other energy department labs. notes futures lab research manager and computer-science doctoral student mike papka. The grid. compiles brain images from different databases so researchers can compare the brains of alzheimer’s patients. Likewise.6 petabytes [a petabyte is 1 million gigabytes] a year. san diego can activate the mini shake table. sm’02. or champaign. including the princeton plasma physics lab and lawrence berkeley national lab. A major automobile company and some oil and gas companies have developed their own access grids. compare her with other patient populations. used for software development and demonstration. illinois. where 28 sites popped in. At argonne. scientists nationwide convene in a virtual conference room. With an expected 35 million u. say. from large groups such as a 2002 national science foundation meeting. to watch or participate in experiments. colorado. sits in material scientist nestor zaluzec’s office. from his desktop zaluzec can maneuver video cameras in places like boulder. mammograms a year. An $82 million program funded by the national science foundation.” the ndma web site explains. By now the access grid.024 gigabytes]”—traffic that wouldn’t be possible without a grid. With the access grid.

Beginning with five sites—argonne. along with chicago anesthesiologist stephen small and argonne/chicago computer scientist rick stevens. it will have 20 teraflops (a teraflop equals a trillion operations per second) of computing power and a petabyte of storage space.” silverstein says. then costing tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. Today Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 12 . radiology. most comprehensive. namd. Many of its sites.” its web site declares. Connecting operating rooms. san diego. already used by some projects. avoid phone tag”—instead of passing messages between multiple physicians or waiting before taking the next step. won a national institutes of health contract to install access grid nodes at the u of c hospitals. and the pittsburgh supercomputing center—the project has since picked up four more partners. such research can move forward. The grid allows medical workers literally to “share environments. a parallel molecular dynamics code designed to simulate large biomolecular systems. ambulances. Another project. In the late 1950s and early 1960s researchers realized that the machines. The multi-institutional mimd lattice computation collaboration. already boast “a crosscountry network backbone four times faster than the fastest research networks currently in existence. Because they spent much time idly waiting for human input. On the teragrid. eliminate hand-offs. has maxed out the fastest system available. “we could all meet for one moment” and relay necessary information. multiple users could share them by doling out that unemployed power. which tests quantum chromodynamic theory and helps interpret high-energy accelerator experiments. To be finished by late september. Students will watch not only real-time operating-room video feeds but also feeds from laparoscopic devices and robotic surgeons. the university of illinois– urbana-champaign. and residents’ hand-held tablet pcs. the researchers reasoned. Then there’s the teragrid. Launched in 2001 by the national science foundation with $53 million. the web page says. the university of california. distributed infrastructure for open scientific research. Sharing resources—a practice known as “distributed computing”—goes back to computers’ early days. uses more than 2 million processor hours of computer time per year—and needs more. needed to be more efficient.” The teragrid aims to revolutionize the speed at which science operates. the teragrid aims to be “the world’s largest. “we are in all these complex environments. the emergency room. the three-year prototype project could change the way hospitals process information. for instance. teragrid executive director charlie catlett says. Radiologists will beam three-dimensional xray scans to surgeons—minus middlemen and waiting time. the california institute of technology.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work assistant professor of surgery and senior fellow in the joint argonne/ chicago computation institute.

“and it became clear that if we could integrate digital resources and activities across networks. a software system for international scientific collaboration. Pc users download seti@home’s screen-saver program. With steven tuecke. load application codes. Defanti. Foster. Programming specialized languages for computing chemistry codes. with scientists from different institutions trying to share data that was growing exponentially. headed a prototype project. he began the globus project. authorize specific activities.” Indeed research was occurring more and more on an international scale.” with standardized methods to authenticate identities. and when their computers are otherwise idle they retrieve data from the internet and send the results to a central processing system. that analyzes data from puerto rico’s arecibo radio telescope to find signs of extraterrestrial intelligence. but they’re still underutilized—“five percent usage is normal. Foster’s team developed the software that. similar to clusters. users who have downloaded specific software can connect to each other and share files. In 1994 foster refocused his research to distributed computing. locate suitable computers. he writes in scientific american. “knitted” the sites “into a single virtual system. In peer-to-peer computing. and then monitor their execution. But a lot had to happen between the grid’s earliest inklings and its current test beds. director of the university of illinois–chicago’s electronic visualization lab. he used parallel networks. called i-way (information wide area year). At a 1995 supercomputing conference rick stevens. most notably seti@home.” he writes in the april 2003 scientific american. The concept was quickly put to use. who also directs argonne’s math and computer-science division. And there’s internet computing.” so users could “log on once. In a sense grids are simply another variety of distributed computing. for example. came to argonne in 1989. that linked 17 high-speed research networks for two weeks. now used in many forms. who switched from studying math and chemistry to computer science at new zealand’s university of canterbury before earning a doctorate in the field at london’s imperial college.” Scientists performed computationally complicated Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 13 . they envisioned globus software that would link sites into a “virtual organization. it could transform the process of scientific work. a virtual supercomputer based at the university of california. creating a common language and tools. and carl kesselman. and control data movement. reserve time. Cluster computing. today the lead software architect in argonne’s distributed systems laboratory. links multiple pcs to replace unwieldy mainframes or supercomputers. berkeley. “high-speed networks were starting to appear.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work computers are cheaper. now director of the center for grid technologies at the university of southern california’s information sciences institute. and thomas a. such as napster.” foster says—which is one reason many companies connect their computers to form unified networks. In the same way that internet protocols became standard for the web.

In 1997 foster’s team unveiled the first version of the globus toolkit. wouldn’t have taken such an active role. still needs work to perfect security and other measures. whose data is stored mostly in electronic files. But the open-source model. and given a chicago innovation award last year by the sun-times. a group that meets three times a year to adopt basic language and infrastructure standards. “so it’s counterproductive to work in private. the software might not have become the de facto standard for most grid projects. the uk’s e-science program is developing ways to handle the different systems. running around and engaged in a kind of scientific performance art. nasa. making the software freely available and its code open for outside programmers to read and modify. foster says. And while foster and his crew have used an open-source approach to develop the technology. “it was the woodstock of the grid.s. The u. and ibm.000 a year for three years.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work simulations such as colliding neutron stars and moving cloud patterns around the planet. a top-ten “emerging technology” by technology review in 2003. defense advanced research projects agency gave the globus project $800. the university of wisconsin helped design applications to manage a grid’s many users.” The globus toolkit. the conference’s program chair and now director of the california institute for telecommunications and information technology. which favor databases. has proved useful in ferreting out bugs and making improvements. told the new york times last july. When physicists overloaded one grid system by submitting tens of thousands of tasks at once.” Brokerage firm charles schwab uses a grid developed by ibm to give its clients real-time investment advice.” larry smarr. “success of the grid depends on everyone adopting it. “everyone not sleeping for three days.” he says.” The experience inspired much enthusiasm—and funding. allow users to collaborate “with any interested party and thus to create something more than a plethora of balkanized. much like that used to develop the internet. named the “most promising new technology” by r&d magazine in 2002. in 1998 he and his colleagues also began the global grid forum. for example. incompatible. noninteroperable distributed systems. and the energy department began grid projects. the software that does the knitting. For foster—the british computer society’s 2002 lovelace medal winner and a 2003 american association for the advancement of science fellow—such corporate ventures are a critical step in Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 14 . foster writes in “what is the grid?” (july 2002). to corporations. Without the open-source approach. Such standards. the globus toolkit’s sole corporate funder for the past three years. with globus underlying them all. As the technology moves from research institutions. The national science foundation. The computer company also has projects under way with morgan stanley and hewitt associates.

. where a client would connect and pay by usage amount.” described shared computing as a “utility.000 machines. whom foster calls “the father of time-sharing operating systems. he’s prepared the grid to lead the way. earthquake simulation. and american express. gas.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work making grids. and electricity. “it’s a process. as with electricity or water. But when grids will become so ubiquitous remains a big question. financial modeling. Grids offer a way of using the information technology resources optimally inside an organization. They also provide a means for offering information technology as a utility for commercial and non-commercial clients. nasa's information power grid. important in everyday life.000 machines. One of the most famous cycle-scavenging networks is seti@home. In the 1960s mit’s fernando corbato. and “utility computing” is used synonymously. multi-industry path he’s forging.37 sustained teraflops (979 lifetime teraflops) as of september 2001. which was using more than 3 million computers to achieve 23. pratt & whitney. Grid computing is presently being applied successfully by the national science foundation's national technology grid. and foster skipped the march global grid forum meeting in berlin to talk up grids in his homeland new zealand.” happily encouraging his virtual child but not wanting to impose unrealistic expectations. As of august 2009 folding@home achieves more than 4 petaflops on over 350. Even on a full night’s sleep foster—today’s father figure—hesitates to guess beyond “that’s some way out. bristol-myers squibb.” It’s a global. and climate/weather modeling. Current Projects And Applications Grids offer a way to solve grand challenge problems like protein folding. and if he can’t predict where the next generation will head.” meaning computer access would operate like water. There’s more to be done. Although large grids are running in both the united states and europe. with those clients paying only for what they use. already a powerful scientific tool.” he says. “we haven’t nailed down all the standards. folding@home had achieved peaks of 186 teraflops on over 160. when the grid will be as common as the internet—and as seamless. Today the grid is envisioned similarly. As of may 2005. co. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 15 .

To extract best practice and common themes from the experimental implementations. Of this. is a follow up project to the european datagrid (edg) and is arguably the largest computing grid on the planet. where storage rates of several gigabytes per second (10 petabytes per year) are required. The lcg project is driven by cern's need to handle huge amounts of data. but two deserve special mention: beingrid and enabling grids for e-science. which at 24.com. 2007.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The european union has been a major proponent of grid computing. Until april 27. The project is coordinated by atos origin. united devices operates the united devices cancer research project based on its grid mp product. one technical. Many of the projects are highlighted below. is the largest of any fp6 integrated project. Another well-known project is distributed. As of june 2005.000 machines . Beingrid (business experiments in grid) is a research project partly funded by the european commission[citation needed] as an integrated project under the sixth framework programme (fp6) sponsorship program. The results of these cross analyzes are provided by the website it-tude. their mission is “to establish effective routes to foster the adoption of grid computing across the eu and to stimulate research into innovative business models using grid technologies”. until november 2009. 15. The nasa advanced supercomputing facility (nas) has run genetic algorithms using the condor cycle scavenger running on about 350 sun and sgi workstations.7 million is provided by the european commission and the remainder by its 98 contributing partner companies. one business. A list of active sites participating within lcg can be found online as can real time monitoring of the egee infrastructure . The relevant software and documentation is also publicly accessible . the project will run 42 months. which cycle scavenges on volunteer pcs connected to the internet.100. which was started in 1997 and has run a number of successful projects in its history. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 16 . which is based in the european union and includes sites in asia and the united states. the grid mp ran on about 3. The enabling grids for e-science project. The project is significant not only for its long duration. This. along with the lhc computing grid (lcg) have been developed to support the experiments using the cern large hadron collider. 2006. two groups of consultants are analyzing a series of pilots.net. Many projects have been funded through the framework programme of the european commission. According to the project fact sheet. Started in june 1.8 million euros. but also for its budget.

"  Ibm defines grid computing as "the ability. on-demand provisioning. Fernando and the other designers of the multics operating system envisioned a computer facility operating "like a power company or water company". using a set of open standards and protocols. Open standards are used. storage capacity and a vast array of other computing resources over the internet.525 teraflops ( as of 4 jun 2007 ) Definitions Today there are many definitions of grid computing:  The definitive definition of a grid is provided by ian foster in his article "what is the grid? A three point checklist" the three points of this checklist are:    Computing resources are not administered centrally. selection. Australia) defines a grid as "a type of parallel and distributed system that Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 17 . Non-trivial quality of service is achieved.  Plaszczak/wellner define grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization.  Buyya (Dr. to gain access to applications and data. and service (resource) sharing between organizations. and aggregation of resources distributed across 'multiple' administrative their (resources) availability. Rajkumar Buyya is a Senior Lecturer and the Storage Tek fellow of Grid Computing in the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at the University of Melbourne. performance. cost and users' quality-of-service requirements"  An earlier example of the notion of computing as utility was in 1965 by mit's fernando corbató.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Fastest Virtual Supercomputers  Boinc . A grid is a type of parallel and distributed domains system that based on enables the sharing. processing power. capacity.

performance. Grids can be categorized with a three stage model of departmental grids. talk of the grid: "a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet. This progresses to enterprise grids where nontechnical staff's computing resources can be used for cycle-stealing and storage. These correspond to a firm initially utilising resources within a single group i. or a billion operations.  Cern.  ServePath. one of the largest users of grid technology.com defines grid computing as. A global grid is a connection of enterprise and departmental grids that can be used in a commercial or collaborative manner. An engineering department connecting desktop machines. selection. Grid computing is quickly gaining popularity due to its ability to maximize the efficiency of computing sources as well as its ability to solve large problems with considerably less computing power”. and aggregation of geographically distributed autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability. enterprise grids and global grids. “The definition of Grid Computing is the simultaneous application of multiple computers to a problem that typically requires access to significant amounts of data or a large number of computer processing cycles. But What Does "High Performance" Mean? Performance is measured in flops."  Pragmatically. cost. A flop is a basic computational operation . A gigaflop is a billion flops.  Grid computing is also attractive to large commercial enterprises with complex computation problems who aim to fully exploit their internal computing power: internal grids.e. capability.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work enables the sharing. and users' qualityof-service requirements".like adding two numbers together. grid computing is attractive to geographicallydistributed non-profit collaborative research efforts like the ncsa bioinformatics grids such as birn: external grids. The Death Of Distance Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 18 . clusters and equipment.

because of the time taken to transfer the data. so that complicated calculations requiring constant communication between processors can be performed. Other researchers want "just-in-time" delivery of data across a grid. That translates to a 3000x improvement in 15 years. Imagine if cars had made the same improvements in speed since 1985…you could easily go into orbit by pressing down hard on the accelerator! Faster! Faster! Some researchers have computing needs that make even the fastest connections seem slow: some scientists need even higher-speed connectivity. This means you can sit in france and use computers in the u. several high-performance networking issues have to be solved. it would have been stupid to send large amounts of data across the globe for processing on other computer resources. grid developers and users need to manage three important things: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 19 . To avoid communication bottlenecks.s. up to tens of gigabits per second (gbps).An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Computing grids use international networks to link computing resources from all over the world. grid developers also have to determine ways to compensate for failures. To ensure secure access. Ten years ago. including the optimization of transport protocols and the development of technical solutions such as high-performance ethernet switching. the performance of wide area networks has been doubling every nine months or so over the last few years. Secure Access Secure access to shared resources is one of the most challenging areas of grid development. like transmission errors or pc crashes. others need ultra-low "latency". Today. all this is possible and more! Pushed by the internet economy and the widespread penetration of optical fibers in telecommunications systems. Such international grids are possible today because of the impressive development of networking technology. To meet such critical requirements. which means there is minimal delay when sending date to remote colleagues in "real time". or work from australia using computers from taiwan.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 20 . Imagine if you had to do 1000 difficult maths questions.what is shared? Who is allowed to share? When can sharing occur? Authentication . The issue of security concerns all information technologies and is taken very seriously. When a computer finished one "job". orders and payments? Security And Trust The issue of security is linked to trust: you may trust the other users. Imagine if the owner of a café were to lend some tables to another café. and have a reliable accounting mechanism. New security solutions are constantly being developed. which may change from day to day.hence the warnings about security when you use your credit card on the internet. you would give one question or "job" to each computer. Resource Use Grids allow you to efficiently and automatically spread your work across many computer resources. But grid users must share resources. This means that grids need to be extremely flexible. Ultimately.how do you determine whether a certain operation is consistent with the rules? Grids need to efficiently track of all this information. But it is a never-ending race to stay ahead of malicious hackers.the same questions arise whenever you use your credit card in a café.how do you identify a user or resource? Authorization ..An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work    Access policy . including sophisticated data encryption techniques.how would you securely track customers. someone could read or modify your data . You could do them yourself. If you used a grid of 100 computers. or you could use a computing grid.. and so grids require new solutions. These accounting challenges are not new . such accounting will be used to decide pricing policies for using a grid. but do you trust that your data and applications are securely protected on their shared machines? Without adequate security. The result? Your jobs are finished much faster.

right? So what happens when there is a queue of people is waiting to use a computing grid? How do you decide whose "job" is next in line? Middleware To The Rescue Computing grids rely on middleware . we ideally need to know how many jobs are in each queue. other times.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work it would automatically ask for another. but if they are part of the same car pool organization as you.to allocate jobs efficiently.but grid computing is not about getting something for nothing. computers and data A grid can even give you access and control of remote sensors.special grid computing software . Middleware uses information about the different "jobs" submitted to each queue to calculate the optimal allocation of resources. Grid computing aims to involve everyone in the advantages of resource sharing and the benefits of increased efficiency. telescopes and other devices that do not belong to you. This doesn't work perfectly yet. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 21 . These people could be strangers. they share their car with you. but then. with all 100 computers working to full efficiency.    Grids give you shared access to extra computing power A grid can also give you direct access to remote software. But grids are shared resources. But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? What about your car? A computing grid is a bit like a car pool . In this way.sometimes you share your car with other people. To do this. and how long each job will take. your 1000 questions could be finished in a flash. neither did the web in its early days (remember when they called it the world wide wait?!) Resource Sharing Resource sharing is the crux of grid philosophy .

technology continues to evolve and provides new tools that need to be integrated within the existing grid machinery. which may require revising the standards. Grids are kind of the same. So there is trust. Open Standards By standardizing the way we create computing grids. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards? Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 22 . we're one step closer to making sure all the smaller grids can connect together to form larger. and there are mechanisms to deal with breach of trust. when someone decides to share their computing resources on a grid. specifying limits on which resources can be used when. “standard” can often be equated with “average” or “boring”: how can you innovate or invent when you’re bound by standards and regulations? How can you push the boundaries when you’re stuck inside a box? Yet how can you create something on a grand scale—something that can slot together with other grand things—unless you create something interoperable. Grid resources are owned by many different people who run different software. For example. This presents a major challenge. common standards for grid computing might sound obvious. more powerful grid computing resources. the others will complain and eventually kick you out of the car pool. If you are always late. which standards should be used for grid computing? There are hundreds of software developers working to create dozens of different grids. and each of these developers have their own views on what makes a good standard. and what can be done with them. But when was the last time you needed a ¼ inch screw and only had metric screws available? And have you ever blown up a 120v machine by accidentally sticking it into 240v mains? So much for "universal" standards! The sticky question is. and use different systems for security and access.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work you will generally trust each other at some level. Something standard. Adopting open. While they work. they will normally put conditions on the use of those resources. exist in different administrative domains.

In these deals. and payment for. Once a deal is set. Agents. containing hundreds of thousands of lines of computer code. specific data and resources. seamless computational grid.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The open grid forum is a standards body for the grid community. With more than 5000 volunteer members. passing from a grid resource provider to a grid user. Delving Inside Middleware There are many other layers within the middleware layer. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 23 . and then strike the "deals" for access to. Broker programs undertake the m2m negotiations required for user authentication and authorization. The Middleware "middleware" is the software that organizes and integrates the resources in a grid. data and resources. the broker schedules the necessary computational activities and oversees the data transfers. Middleware is made up of many software programs. Together. this body is a significant force for setting standards and community developments. some middleware programs act as "agents" and others as "brokers". And all this occurs automatically. special "housekeeping" agents optimize network routings and monitor quality of service. Agent programs present "metadata" (data about data) that describes users. middleware includes a layer of "resource and connectivity protocols". At the same time. Brokers And Striking Deals Middleware automatically negotiate deals in which resources are exchanged. For example. this code automates all the "machine to machine" (m2m) interactions that create a single. and a higher layer of "collective services". in a fraction of the time that it would take humans at their computers to do manually.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 24 . The collective services are also based on protocols: information protocols. resource management. which is being developed by the globus alliance. and authentication protocols. computers contributing to a particular grid must recognize grid-relevant messages and ignore the rest. It's a set of tools for constructing a grid. Many major grid projects use the globus toolkit. a team primarily involving ian foster's team at argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman's team at the university of southern california in los angeles. and management protocols. Collective services include:      Updating directories of available resources Brokering resources (which like stock broking. Globus Toolkit The globus toolkit is a popular example of grid middleware. but have been optimized for grid-specific deployments.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Resource and connectivity protocols handle all grid-specific network transactions between different computers and grid resources. Many of the protocols and functions defined by the globus toolkit are similar to those in networking and storage today. This is done with communication protocols. which obtain information about the structure and state of the resources on a grid. is about negotiating between those who want to "buy" resources and those who want to "sell") Monitoring and diagnosing problems Replicating data so that multiple copies are available at different locations for ease of use Providing membership/policy services for tracking who is allowed to do what and when. communications and so on. which allow the resources to communicate with each other. resource location. which provide secure mechanisms for verifying the identity of both users and resources. covering security measures. For example. enabling exchange of data. which negotiate uniform access to the resources.

secure. Rather than providing a uniform programming model for grid applications. and status Giis (grid index information service): coordinates arbitrary gris services Gridftp (grid file transfer protocol): provides a high-performance. capabilities. There are two main reasons for the strength and popularity of the globus toolkit: 1. Grids need to support a wide variety of applications created according to different programming paradigms. and so on      Gris (grid resource information service): queries resources for their current configuration. an application can use gram or gris without having to necessarily use the globus security or replica management systems. the globus toolkit has an "object-oriented approach". This is similar to the world wide web and the linux operating system. providing a bag of services so that developers can choose the services that best meet their needs. The tools can also be introduced one at a time. bandwidth capacity. The globus toolkit is available under an "open-source" licensing agreement. 2. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 25 .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Globus Includes Programs Such As:    Gram (globus resource allocation manager): figures out how to convert a request for resources into commands that local computers can understand Gsi (grid security infrastructure): authenticates users and determines their access rights Mds (monitoring and discovery service): collects information about resources such as processing capacity. which means anyone is free to use or improve the software. type of storage. For example. and robust data transfer mechanism Replica catalog: provides the location of replicas of a given dataset on a grid The replica management system: manages the replica catalog and gridftp. allowing applications to create and manage replicas of large datasets.

Open to all institutions for research and test-bed activities. energy and the environment. Interoperability with other grid infrastructures is currently in operation.s.) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 26 . integrated resource platform for high-performance computing and related services to enable the processing of large amounts of scientific data and information. D-grid Eneagrid Grid-ireland National grid service Norgrid Teragrid dutchgrid fermilab computing division hungrid nersc swegrid thai national grid twgrid Project details Synopsis d-grid (germany) the first d-grid projects started in september 2005 with the goal of developing a distributed. Project details Synopsis eneagrid (italy) eneagrid makes use of grid technologies to provide an integrated production environment including all the high performance and high throughput computational resources available in enea. Project details fermilab computing division (fermilab in the u. Project details Synopsis dutchgrid (the netherlands) dutchgrid is the platform for grid computing and technology in the netherlands.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work National Grids National grids like those listed below combine national computing resouces to create powerful grid computing resources. dutchgrid aims to coordinate various grid deployment efforts and to offer a forum for the exchange of experiences on grid technologies. the italian national agency for new technologies.

s. Now involved in developing and supporting innovative computing solutions and services for fermilab.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis fermigrid united fermilab’s computing resources into a single grid infrastructure. Project details Synopsis hungrid (uk) hungrid is the first official hungarian virtual organization of egee. changing the way that computing was done at the lab by improving efficiency and making better use of resources.) users can access several nersc resources via globus grid interfaces using x509 grid certificates. Join their mailing list for up-to-the-minute ngs action. Project details Synopsis grid-ireland (ireland) grid-ireland fosters and promotes grid activities in ireland. Project details norgrid (norway) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 27 . Nersc is part of the open science grid (osg). involving partners across the country.. Project details Synopsis nersc (national energy research scientific computing center in the u. and is available to select osg virtual organizations for compute and storage resources. Its goal is to allow grid users of hungarian academic and educational institutes to perform the computing activities relevant for their researches and thus the vo functions as a catch-all vo for all the hungarian participants that do not (yet) have an established vo in their respective field of research. Project details Synopsis national grid service (uk) the ngs aims to provide coherent electronic access for uk researchers to all computational and data based resources and facilities. It is also an egee testing environment for hungarian research communities that show interest in starting their own virtual organizations.

technologies and more to create international resources and power global science using global computing. as well as working to produce new grid-powered science applications to further international e-science advances. The sites are connected through the highperformance gigasunet network. Coordinated by academia sinica grid computing. most comprehensive. Norgrid is the norwegian component in the third phase of the egee project.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis norgrid aims to establish and maintain a national grid infrastructure in norway. spanning cultures. Project details Synopsis thai national grid project (thailand) the thai national grid project is a national initiative on grid computing funded by the royal thai government through the software industry promotion agency of the ministry of information and communication technology. fastest. Project details Synopsis teragrid (u. International Grids International grids cross national boundaries. supercomputing grid) teragrid aims to build and deploy the world's largest.s. languages. distributed infrastructure for open scientific research. consisting of 600 computers in six clusters at six different sites across sweden. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 28 . Project details Synopsis twgrid (taiwan) twgrid is the taiwanese grid and a member of global grid projects including egee and wlcg. It involves involves partners across the u. Project details Synopsis swegrid (sweden) swegrid is a swedish national computational resource. twgrid provides the grid-related technology and infrastructure support for the lhc experiments in taiwan.s.

Project details Synopsis eela e-science for europe and latin america eela aims to provide grid facilities to promote scientific collaboration between europe and latin america. Project details egee enabling grids for e-science Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 29 .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Ap grid Deisa Egee Euasiagrid Gridpp Nextgrid Open grid forum Open science grid Winds d4science eela-2 egi_ds eu-indiagrid lcg nordugrid ogf-europe pragma Project details Synopsis ap grid asia-pacific grid ap grid is a partnership for grid computing in the asia-pacific region. Partners come from 15 countries in the asiapacific and beyond. Project details Synopsis deisa distributed european infrastructure for supercomputing applications deisa combines the power of supercomputing centres across europe to accelerate scientific research. It is co-funded by the european commission until 2010 and involves partners across europe. aiming to ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-infrastructure. Project details Synopsis d4science distributed collaboratories infrastructure on grid enabled technology 4 science d4science aims to create grid-based and data-centric einfrastructures to support scientific research. nurture and promote grid technologies and applications. aiming to share technologies. resources and knowledge in order to build..

Project details Synopsis géant géant pan-european gigabit research network provides networking infrastructure to support researchers. Project details Synopsis egi_ds european grid initiative design study the european grid initiative design study aims to establish a sustainable grid infrastructure in europe. global connectivity and guaranteed quality of service. it is expected to enable the next leap in research infrastructures.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis egee is the largest multi-disciplinary grid infrastructure in the world. 7 days a week. bringing together more than 120 organisations to provide scientific computing resources to the european and global research community. thereby supporting collaborative scientific discoveries in the european research area. Project details Synopsis eu-indiagrid collaboration between europe and india eu-indiagrid will bring together over 500 multidisciplinary organisations to build a grid-enabled e-science community aiming to boost r&d innovation across europe and india. The main objective is to develop and deploy a Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 30 . in synergy with the other european grid initiatives in europe and asia.000 CPUs available to some 8. 24 hours a day. Egi_ds includes partners across europe Project details Synopsis euasiagrid collaboration between europe and asia euasiagrid aims to pave the way towards an asian e-science grid infrastructure. It comprises 27 european national research and education networks. Project details Synopsis gridpp grid for uk particle physics gridpp is a collaboration of particle physicists and computing scientists from the uk and cern. geographical expansion. Driven by the needs and requirements of the research community. as well as an infrastructure for network research. Egee comprises 250 sites in 48 countries and more than 68.000 users. Géant aims for high speed connectivity. who are building a grid for particle physics.

Project details Synopsis lcg worldwide lhc computing grid the mission of the lhc computing project (lcg) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high energy physics community that will use the large hadron collider. Involves more than 400 organizations from 50 countries.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work large-scale science grid in the uk for use by the worldwide particle physics community. Project details Synopsis ogf-europe key role in european and international grid standards influencing the drive towards global ogf-europe works closely with open grid forum and plays a standardisation efforts and in bringing best practices in the european computing environment. maintenance and support of a free grid middleware known as the "advanced resource connector" (arc). Project details Synopsis nextgrid supporting mainstream use of grids nextgrid aims to enable the widespread use of grids by research. Project details Synopsis open grid forum international grid standards the open grid forum is a community-initiated forum of 5000+ people interested in distributed computing and grid technologies. industry and the ordinary citizen.technical specifications. An eufunded project with multiple partners Project details Synopsis nordugrid grids in the nordic region nordugrid is a grid research and development collaboration aiming at development. Ogf aims to promote and support grid technologies via the creation and documentation of "best practices" . thus creating a dynamic marketplace for new services and products. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 31 . The collaboration was established by five nordic academic institutes and is based upon a memorandum of understanding. and implementation guidelines. user experiences.

High-Throughput Problems High-throughput applications are problems that can be divided into many independent tasks. Computing grids can be used to schedule these tasks. maintained by the winds-la and winds-caribe projects. Osg combines resources at many u. and proposing a long-term cooperation strategy in the field of ict research. Project details Synopsis winds caribbean grid collaboration in europe. As soon as a processor finishes one Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 32 . build new collaborations. latin america and the the www.winds-lac. Pragma aims to enhance current collaborations and connections.s and beyond.eu platform. promoting excellence research from the regions in europe. and formalize resourcesharing agreements. research issues and opportunities for cooperation. dealing them out to the different computer processors in the grid. aims to further develop and support ict research and development collaboration between europe. Project details Synopsis pragma assembly pacific rim applications and grid middleware pragma is an open organization in which pacific rim institutions collaborate to develop grid-enabled applications and to deploy the infrastructure throughout the pacific region.s.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Project details Synopsis open science grid open grid infrastructure for collaborative science the open science grid consortium provides an open grid infrastructure for science in the u. labs and universities and provides access to shared resources for the benefit of scientific applications. latin america and the caribbean by identifying common needs.

so it doesn't matter whether some tasks take a long time. which aids in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. hundreds of tasks can be performed in a very short time. Examples of high-throughput :   Error! Bookmark not defined. Grid computing allows large computational resources to be combined. helping scientists to tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system. the secret to solving these problems is "teraflops": as many as possible. the next task arrives. Supercomputers are different to computing grids: where grids link computers that are distributed around an institution. which works on gravitational ray tracing. which models the evolution of drug resistance and helps to design new anti-hiv drugs. High-Performance Problems When people talk about "high performance computing" or hpc. or brats@home. they're generally talking about supercomputing. unfinished tasks are simply sent elsewhere to be processed. In this way. supercomputers are one giant computer in a single room. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 33 . using rosetta software in the open science grid  The use of volunteer computing to power applications including seti@home. These "@home" tasks involved are totally independent. country or the world. applications include:? The analysis of thousands of particle collisions in a bid to understand more about our universe. or to solve problems much more quickly. as part of the grid-enabled wisdom project  The analysis of thousands of protein folding configurations in a bid to discover more efficient ways of packaging drug proteins. Supercomputers generally deal with computer-centric problems. After a "time-out" period. fightaids@home. as in the large hadron collider computing grid The analysis of thousands of molecules in a bid to discover a drug candidate against a specific malaria protein.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work task.

simulations of a supernova explosion or black hole collision) Automotive/aerospace industry (e. simulations of a tornado or climate prediction) Economics (e.. while the web uses the internet to help us share information. Typical hpc grid applications include:     Astrophysics (e. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 34 . Grid computing is making big contributions to scientific research..g..g. there are already hundreds of grids around the world. simulations of a car crash or a new airplane design) Climate modeling (e. researchers and software engineers are working to bring "the grid" closer to achieving the dream. or a particular group of users. each one created to help a specific group of researchers. How is grid computing different from the world wide web? Simple. In grid computing reality. Grid computing uses the internet to help us share computer power. And across the world. The Dream The grid computing dream began with talk of creating an all-powerful "grid": one grid comprised of many smaller grids joined together. forming a global network of computers that can operate as one vast computational resource. modeling the world economy) Grid Computing In 30 Seconds Grid computing is a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet. helping scientists around the world to analyze and store massive amounts of data.g..s.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Examples of these supercomputing grids are deisa in europe or teragrid in the u.g.

thousands of people will be able to use the same application and run it trouble-free on interoperable grids (like most software. and detecting and responding to failures (collective services). asking to extract data.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work ''Gridifying'' Your Application An application that ordinarily runs on a stand-alone pc must be "gridified" before it can run on a grid. "gridification" means adapting applications to include new layers of grid-enabled software. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 35 . initiate computations. For example. so that many subcalculations can be worked on "in parallel". Computational Problems There are many different ways to describe computational problems. This allows you to speed up your computation. notifying the user when analysis is complete. Once gridified. Here are a few that are important to grid technology: Parallel Calculations: Parallel calculations can be split into many smaller sub-calculations. Just like "webifying" applications to run on a web browser. there will always be a few bugs here and there). This means that each sub-calculation can be worked on by a different processor. grid users need to "gridify" their applications to run on a grid. a gridified data analysis application will be able to:     Obtain the necessary authentication credentials to open the files it needs Query a catalogue to determine where the files are and which grid resources are able to do the analysis Submit requests to the grid. and provide results Monitor progress of the various computations and data transfers.

analyzing a large databank of medical images is embarrassingly parallel. which usually involves a big.? Many interesting problems in science require a combination of fine. are also coarse-grained calculations. since each image is independent of the others. "Monte Carlo simulations". or very tightly coupled computer clusters with lots of identical processors and an extremely fast. each calculation in one volume of atmosphere is affected by surrounding volumes.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Embarrassingly Parallel Calculations: A calculation is embarrassingly parallel when each sub-calculation is independent of all the other calculations.. For example. Fine-Grained Calculations: In a fine-grained calculation. Fine-grained parallel calculations require very clever programming to make the most of their parallelism. and this is where grids can be particularly powerful: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 36 . each sub-calculation is dependent on the result of another sub-calculation. so that the right information is available to processors at the right time. Embarrassingly parallel calculations are ideal for high-throughput computing: more loosely coupled networks of computers where delays in getting results from one processor will not affect the work of the others.: Fine-grained calculations are better suited to high-performance computing. Coarse-Grained Calculations: Coarse-grained calculations are often embarrassingly parallel. where you vary the parameters in a model and then study the results. And Grid Computing. reliable network between the processors.and coarsegrained calculations. when calculating the weather. For example. High-Performance Vs. monolithic supercomputer. High-Throughput Error! Bookmark not defined.

these many independent calculations can be distributed over many different grid clusters. "Computing power doubles every 18 months" is one common misuse of Moore's observation. comparing different growth rates using Moore's law is often misleading. This ignores a number of trends which Moore's law does not take into account. Today. computer processors are not keeping up with data storage and network capacity. Each calculation is a fine-grained parallel calculation that needs to run on a single cluster or supercomputer. Even though Moore's statement was limited to a very specific quantity . Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 37 . Moore noted that the number of transistors that could be squeezed on to a silicon chip was doubling every year. one of the founders of Intel. This could mean that. Nice Idea. if "network performance is doubling every nine months". researchers launch many similar calculations to see how different parameters affect their models. the clock cycle of processors increases along with the increase in the number of transistors per chip. But.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work For example. For example. Further. improvements in chip architecture and operating systems also make processors more powerful than the mere sum of their transistors. Over time. Using a grid. comparisons are made between different quantities that have nothing to do with Moore's law. in the case of complex climate modeling. or "data storage density is doubling every 12 months". it might be said that these trends are "outperforming" Moore's law. This means that processor power grows faster than Moore's law. thus adding coarse-grained parallelism and saving a lot of time. this has been revised to doubling every 18 months. somehow.the number of transistors on a chip . It is best to see Moore's law as simply a metaphor for exponential growth in the performance of IT hardware. In short.it is now used for just about everything else in computing. Moore's law is one of the most misused concepts in computing.. Breaking Moore’s Law? Moore's law was a statement made in 1965 by Gordon Moore.. For example.

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 38 .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work More On Moore's Law As a result of this exponential growth. like climate change and sustainable power. All this computing power helps our scientists find solutions to the big questions. Individual computers also become more powerful. the grid concept becomes more feasible: networks become faster and distributed processors can be more tightly integrated. which means that computer grids are increasingly able to solve increasingly complex problems. with every year that passes.

January). Grid computing. (2006.. K. Retrieved from University of Chicago Magazine: http://uchicago.edu Buyya..educause. & Trivedi. Retrieved from WikiPedia: http://www. B. N. M.. S.com/redbooks .org (2010.edu: www.. Introduction to Grid Computing. (2001). 7 things you should know about.. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: ibm.com/redbooks Viktors Berstis. Fukui. January).gridcafe. (2005. April). A. (2005. M. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: http://www.wikipedia.ibm. R.com Braverman. Father of Grid Computing.. Fundamentals of Grid Computing. July). A Gentle Introduction to Grid Computing and Technologies. Retrieved from educause. January).Works Cited (2010. (2004. Retrieved from GridCafe. & Venugopal.edu/eli Jacob. Brown. December). Educause Learning Initiative.org: http://www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful