An Inquiry Report On



GRID
Submitted By



COMPUTING

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

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© Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman. All rights reserved. This is a collection of information availed from various sources including internet, text books, and newspaper publications. This collection is a sole work of the Mr. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman and any kind of reuse of this work in any form is prohibited, and all the rights on this collection is reserved to him and violation of this prohibition is punishable under the laws whichever is applicable.

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies ............. 1 What Is Grid Computing? ......................................................................... 1 Grid Computing’s Ancestors..................................................................... 2 The Architecture ......................................................................................... 3 Five Big Ideas .............................................................................................. 4 Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers .......................................... 5 Virtual Organizations................................................................................. 6
From passenger jets to chemical spills .................................................................... 6

8. 9.

The Hardware ............................................................................................. 6 Design Considerations And Variations .................................................... 7

10. CPU Scavenging ......................................................................................... 8 11. History ......................................................................................................... 9 12. Father of the Grid ....................................................................................... 9 13. Current Projects And Applications......................................................... 15
Fastest virtual supercomputers ............................................................................ 17

14. Definitions ................................................................................................. 17
But what does "high performance" mean? ........................................................... 18

15. The Death Of Distance ............................................................................. 18
Faster! Faster! ..................................................................................................... 19

16. Secure Access ............................................................................................ 19
Security and trust................................................................................................ 20

17. Resource Use ............................................................................................. 20
Middleware to the rescue ..................................................................................... 21

18. Resource Sharing ...................................................................................... 21 19. But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? ....... 21

Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman

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20. Open Standards ........................................................................................ 22 21. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards?.................................................... 22 22. The Middleware ....................................................................................... 23
Agents, brokers and striking deals........................................................................ 23 Delving inside middleware .................................................................................. 23

23. Globus Toolkit .......................................................................................... 24
Globus includes programs such as:....................................................................... 25

24. National Grids .......................................................................................... 26 25. International Grids ................................................................................... 28 26. High-Throughput Problems .................................................................... 32 27. High-Performance Problems ................................................................... 33 28. Grid Computing In 30 Seconds ............................................................... 34 29. The Dream ................................................................................................. 34 30. ''Gridifying'' Your Application ................................................................ 35 31. Computational Problems ......................................................................... 35
Parallel calculations: ............................................................................................ 35 Embarrassingly parallel calculations: ................................................................... 36 Coarse-grained calculations: ................................................................................ 36 Fine-grained calculations: .................................................................................... 36 High-performance vs. high-throughput ................................................................ 36 And grid computing..? ........................................................................................ 36

32. Breaking Moore’s Law? ........................................................................... 37
Nice Idea, But... ................................................................................................... 37

33. More On Moore's Law ............................................................................. 38 34. Works Cited .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Index ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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laptops. Grid computing is already reality.. Grid middlewares provide users with seamless computing ability and uniform access to resources in the heterogeneous Grid environment. data vaults. Grid applications often involve large amounts of data and/or computing resources that require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries. most of which are results of academic research projects. Imagine several million computers from all over the world. Several software toolkits and systems have been developed..” Although "the grid" is still just a dream. . and instruments like mobile phones. and owned by thousands of different people. and Gridbus by researchers from the University of Melbourne. Now imagine that all of these computers can be connected to form a single. sprawling. Imagine they include desktops. Globus primarily focuses on providing core Grid services whereas Gridbus focuses on providing user-level Grid services in addition to utility computing model for management of grid resources. This paper presents an introduction to Grid computing and discusses two complimentary Grid technologies: Globus developed by researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and University of Southern California.A Gentle Introduction To Grid Computing And Technologies Grid is an infrastructure that involves the integrated and collaborative use of computers. This makes Grid application management and deployment a complex undertaking. Australia. huge and super-powerful computer! This huge. "The grid" takes its name from an analogy with the electrical "power grid". supercomputers... USA. network bandwidth and storage capacity to provide a unique system image. granting users and applications access to vast it capabilities. What Is Grid Computing? “grid computing allows the virtualization of distributed computing and data resources such as processing. The idea was that accessing computer power from a computer grid would be as simple as accessing electrical power from an electrical grid". meteorological sensors and telescopes. databases and scientific instruments owned and managed by multiple organizations. networks. all over the world. global computer is what many people dream "the grid" will be.

Metacomputing was used to describe efforts to connect us supercomputing centers. I-way strongly influenced the development of the globus project. ian foster of argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman of the university of southern california published "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". Following this. as well as the legion project. in 1998. which is at the core of many grid activities. Larry smarr.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid Computing’s Ancestors Grid computing didn't just come out of nowhere. Many fafner techniques for dividing and distributing computational problems were forerunners of technology used for seti@home and other "cycle scavenging" software. even fairly modest computers could contribute useful power. which dates back to around 1990. One of i-way's innovations was a computational resource broker. clearly linking the globus toolkit with its predecessor. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 2 .  Grid computing was born at a workshop called "building a computational grid". Since this challenge could be broken into small parts. a challenge very relevant to digital security. called "globus: a metacomputing infrastructure toolkit". such as those listed below:  Grid computing's immediate ancestor is "metacomputing". Ian foster had previously been involved in the i-way project.  Fafner and i-way were cutting-edge metacomputing projects in the us. often called "the grid bible". and the foster-kesselman duo had published a paper in 1997. It grew from previous efforts and ideas. an alternative approach to distributed supercomputing. metacomputing. Each influenced the evolution of key grid technologies. is generally credited with popularizing the term. held at argonne national laboratory in september 1997. a former director of the national center for supercomputing applications in the us.  Fafner (factoring via network-enabled recursion) aimed to factorize very large numbers. both conceived in 1995.  I-way (information wide area year) aimed to link supercomputers using existing networks. conceptually similar to those being developed for grid computing today.

g. Data grids or the controlled sharing and management of large amounts of distributed data.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Grid computing is a phrase in distributed computing which can have several meanings:   A local computer cluster which is like a "grid" because it is composed of multiple nodes. Equipment grids which have a primary piece of equipment e. mathematical. and sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms. A telescope. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 3 . The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using a network of geographically dispersed computers. Functionally. otherwise. which generally focuses on scientific. This article focuses on distributed computing technologies which are not in the traditional dedicated clusters. The Architecture Grid architecture is the way in which a grid has been designed. Offering online computation or storage as a metered commercial service. and academic problems. see computer cluster. or "cloud computing". "computing on demand".   The creation of a "virtual supercomputer" by using spare computing resources within an organization. known as utility computing. Volunteer computing. one can also speak of several types of grids:    Computational grids (including CPU scavenging grids) which focuses primarily on computationally-intensive operations. is the most common application of this technology. and where the surrounding grid is used to control the equipment remotely and to analyze the data produced. These varying definitions cover the spectrum of "distributed computing".

Resource use: efficient. where each layer has a specific function. especially when they don't know each other. 5. engineering. This is the layer that grid users "see" and interact with. electronic data catalogues. making it possible for everyone can contribute constructively to grid development. 4. Standardization also encourages Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 4 . Open standards: interoperability between different grids is a big goal. such as computers. The death of distance: distance should make no difference: you should be able to access to computer resources from wherever you are. storage systems. Secure access: trust between resource providers and users is essential. as well as portals and development toolkits to support the applications. storage. focused on computers and networks.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work A grid's architecture is often described in terms of "layers". so getting grid security right is crucial. which performs general management functions like tracking who is providing grid resources and who is using them. business.   The lowest layer is the network. which connects grid resources. 2. balanced use of computing resources is essential. Five Big Ideas Grid computing is driven by five big areas: 1. The middleware layer is sometimes the "brains" behind a computing grid!  The highest layer of the structure is the application layer. The application layer often includes the so-called serviceware. finance and more. whereas lower layers are more hardware-centric. Above the network layer lies the resource layer: actual grid resources.  The middleware layer provides the tools that enable the various elements (servers. Sharing resources conflicts with security policies in many individual computer centers. etc. and on individual pcs. sensors and telescopes that are connected to the network. which includes applications in science. The higher layers are generally user-centric. 3.) To participate in a grid. Resource sharing: global sharing is the very essence of grid computing. networks. and is driven forward by the adoption of open standards for grid development.

standalone programs to run on multiple machines (but each given a different part of the same problem). which when combined can produce similar computing resources to a many-CPU supercomputer. and eliminates Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 5 . etc. storage. This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer. This arrangement is thus well-suited to applications where multiple parallel computations can take place independently. however.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work industry to invest in developing commercial grid services and infrastructure. but at lower cost. It can be costly and difficult to write programs so that they can be run in the environment of a supercomputer. which might be different simulations for the same project. compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. Both supercomputers and grids can be used to run multiple parallel computations at the same time. without the need to communicate intermediate results between CPUs. or require the program to address concurrency issues. a "thin" layer of "grid" infrastructure can cause conventional. This is due to the economies of scale of producing commodity hardware. Grids Versus Conventional Supercomputers "distributed" or "grid computing" in general is a special type of parallel computing which relies on complete computers (with onboard CPU.) Connected by a conventional network interface. If a problem can be adequately parallelized. power supply. which has many CPUs connected by a local high-speed computer bus. Conventional supercomputers also create physical challenges in supplying sufficient electricity and cooling capacity in a single location. The infrastructure and programming considerations needed to do this on each type of platform are different. or computations for completely different applications. The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is generally favorable. which may have a custom operating system. network interface. due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public internet. The primary performance disadvantage is that the various CPUs and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections. such as ethernet or the internet. The primary advantage of distributed computing is that each node can be purchased as commodity hardware. There are also differences in programming and deployment. This makes it possible to write and debug programs on a single conventional machine.

secure. tasked with managing a chemical spill. files.things like computers and networks. programs. This infrastructure is often called the grid "fabric". which forms the physical infrastructure of a grid .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time. Another example is an environmental science vo. For example. Vos exist for astronomy research. The needs of each vo are different. data. people within a vo choose to share their resources. a vo formed to develop a nextgeneration passenger jet will need to run complex computer simulations. From Passenger Jets To Chemical Spills Many scientists form vos to pursue their research. This vo will need to analyze local weather and soil models to estimate the spread of the spill and determine its impact. They will need to create a short term mitigation plan and help emergency response personnel to plan and coordinate the evacuation. while keeping the proprietary know-how associated with each component hidden from the other consortium members. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 6 . The Hardware Grids must be built "on top of" hardware. biology research and more. creating a computer grid. testing various combinations of components from different manufacturers. flexible. sensors and networks. This grid can give vo members direct access to each other's computers. To achieve their mutual goal. Virtual Organizations Virtual organizations (vos) are groups of people who share a data-intensive goal. This sharing must be controlled. and usually time-limited. alternative energy research.

Networks are characterized by their size (local. Discrepancies would identify malfunctioning and malicious nodes. This backbone links the major "nodes" on the grid (like national computing centres).An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Networks are an essential piece of the grid "fabric". One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are actually performing the calculations might not be entirely trustworthy. mbps (m for mega. Networks link the different computers that form part of a grid. or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. such as the intraeuropean geant network. Throughput is measured in kbps (kilo bits per second. This often involves assigning work randomly to different nodes (presumably with different owners) and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. national and international) and throughput (the amount of data transferred in a specific time). which join individual institutions to nodes on the backbone. where kilo means a thousand). allowing them to be handled as one huge computer. The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false. a million) or gbps (g for giga. Design Considerations And Variations One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to multiple individuals or organizations (known as multiple administrative domains). which has 10gbps performance on the network "backbone". A further level down are the 10 to 100mbps desktop-to-institution network links. a billion). This can facilitate commercial transactions. misleading. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 7 . Performance of these is typically 1gbps. and from using the system as an attack vector. One level down from the "backbone" are the network links. Grids are built "on top of" high-performance networks. One of the big ideas of grid computing is to take advantage of ultra-fast networks. Ultra-fast networks also help to minimize latency: the delays that build up as data are transmitted over the internet. This idea allows us to access globally distributed resources in an integrated and data-intensive way. as in utility computing. or erroneous results.

or shared computing creates a "grid" from the unused resources in a network of participants (whether worldwide or internal to an organization). With many languages. though potentially at the expense of high performance on any given node (due to run-time interpretation or lack of optimization for the particular platform).An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Due to the lack of central control over the hardware. to idle machines internal to the developing organization. there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times. Usually this technique is used to make use of instruction cycles on desktop computers that would otherwise be wasted at night. or Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 8 . In many cases. The impacts of trust and availability on performance and development difficulty can influence the choice of whether to deploy onto a dedicated computer cluster. Various middleware projects have created generic infrastructure. the participating nodes must trust the central system not to abuse the access that is being granted. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units (thus reducing the need for continuous network connectivity) and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results as expected. or for the purpose of setting up new grids. parabon computation produces grid computing software that operates in a java sandbox. Boinc is a common one for academic projects seeking public volunteers. or creating new security holes. Cross-platform languages can reduce the need to make this tradeoff. Other systems employ measures to reduce the amount of trust "client" nodes must place in the central system. Cpu Scavenging CPU-scavenging. during lunch. or to an open external network of volunteers or contractors. to allow various scientific and commercial projects to harness a particular associated grid. cycle-scavenging. more are listed at the end of the article. by interfering with the operation of other programs. Some nodes (like laptops or dialup internet customers) may also be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. using different operating systems and hardware architectures. there is a tradeoff between investment in software development and the number of platforms that can be supported (and thus the size of the resulting network). cycle stealing. mangling stored information. For example. transmitting private data. Public systems or those crossing administrative domains (including different departments in the same organization) often result in the need to run on heterogeneous systems.

The ideas of the grid (including those from distributed computing. number 4). Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 9 . a number of other tools have been built that answer some subset of services needed to create an enterprise grid. security provisioning. widely regarded as the "fathers of the grid. ram. Nodes in this model are also more vulnerable to going "offline" in one way or another from time to time. trigger services and information aggregation. data movement. in addition to raw CPU power. While the globus toolkit remains the de facto standard for building grid solutions. Father Of The Grid An exact extraction of an article by Amy m. participating computers also donate some supporting amount of disk storage space. as their owners use their resources for their primary purpose. Braverman.net and later in 1999 by seti@home to harness the power of networked PCs worldwide. monitoring and a toolkit for developing additional services based on the same infrastructure including agreement negotiation.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work even in the scattered seconds throughout the day when the computer is waiting for user input or slow devices." they led the effort to create the globus toolkit incorporating not just CPU management (examples: cluster management and cycle scavenging) but also storage management. In practice. Carl Kesselman and Steve Tuecke. cluster computing. in order to solve CPU-intensive research problems. object oriented programming. notification mechanisms. web services and others) were brought together by Ian foster. in Chicago university emagazine. Volunteer computing projects use the CPU scavenging model almost exclusively. CPU scavenging and volunteer computing were popularized beginning in 1997 by distributed. History The term grid computing originated in the early 1990s as a metaphor for making computer power as easy to access as an electric power grid in Ian foster and Carl Kesselmans seminal work. ( on April 2004 volume 96. "the grid: blueprint for a new computing infrastructure". and network bandwidth.

Pacific Time. persuading the federal government to invest in several multimilliondollar grid-technology projects and convincing companies such as IBM. Ian foster sits at a red table holding his laptop. The Sloan digital sky survey—an effort at Chicago. grids are a tool for amplifying computer power and storage space. And because the “father of grid computing” is also—with wife Angela Smyth. “I’m not feeling very creative right now. The national digital mammography archive (ndma) in the united states and ediamond in the united kingdom are creating digital-image libraries to hold their respective countries’ Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 10 . fermilab.” he says in the quick cadence of a native New Zealander. Though corporations recently have begun to show interest in grids. and then. he worked online with some European colleagues. 45. he rarely gets to sleep in. HewlettPackard. md’00. grids allow more numbers to be crunched faster than ever before. determining more than 100 million celestial objects’ positions and absolute brightness—harnesses computer power from labs nationwide to perform in minutes scans that previously took a week. and databases across existing internet lines. 15 years.” akin to “the internet”—will perform complex tasks such as designing semiconductors or screening thousands of potential pharmaceutical drugs in an hour rather than a year.” the Arthur holly Compton distinguished service professor of computer science warns. research institutions have long been a ripe testing ground. But foster. who heads the distributed systems lab at Argonne national laboratory. a huge global grid—“the grid. a hospitals psychiatry fellow—the father of a five. storage systems. “i might not be too articulate today. oracle. but eventually.” The previous night a west coast student’s paper was due at midnight. Several grid projects exist today. and Sun Microsystems that grids are the answer to complex computational problems—the next major evolution of the internet. he thinks for a moment but comes up short. blinds shut to block the window’s glare. and 11 other institutions to map a quarter of the night sky. Just as the internet is a tool for mass communication. clearly has had more inspired moments.” In a bare research institutes building room with white. awake anyway.and a six-year-old. Large projects are already using the technology. in the same way that the internet sprouted in academia before blossoming in the commercial world. “I’m on two hours’ sleep. ten. So when asked to predict how grid computing will change everyday life in five. servers.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work “computer scientist Ian foster has developed the software to take shared computing to a global level. foster says. cinder-block walls. eyes glazed behind wire-rimmed glasses. By linking far-flung supercomputers.

Through the grid. A similar venture. to watch or participate in experiments. engineers building san francisco’s new bay bridge tested their design structures remotely to make sure they met the latest earthquakeresistance standards. compiles brain images from different databases so researchers can compare the brains of alzheimer’s patients. sits in material scientist nestor zaluzec’s office. illinois. With the access grid. and the minimal daily traffic a day is expected to be 28 terabytes [a terabyte is 1. By now the access grid. say. developed by argonne’s futures lab for remote group collaboration. compare her with other patient populations. At argonne even some meetings about grids are held using grids.” the ndma web site explains. links civil engineers around the country with 15 sites containing equipment such as 4-meter-by-4-meter shake tables or tsunami simulators. where 28 sites popped in. or access diagnostic tools. By combining computer power and storage space from multiple locations. Still another project is a grid for the network for earthquake engineering simulation (nees). Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 11 . The grid. for example. to those of healthy people. A researcher in. from his desktop zaluzec can maneuver video cameras in places like boulder. Likewise. star trek–like. “at 160 megabytes per exam. “the annual volume could exceed 5.s. has more than 250 research “nodes”— rooms equipped to connect—on five continents. san diego can activate the mini shake table.6 petabytes [a petabyte is 1 million gigabytes] a year. an 18-square-inch mini shake table. sm’02. With an expected 35 million u. Last fall jonathan silverstein. or champaign. At argonne. to be completed in october. moving it quickly back and forth to agitate the 2-foot-tall plastic model sitting on it. talking with wall-projected images of scientists from other energy department labs. from large groups such as a 2002 national science foundation meeting. and chicago researchers also are experimenting with the technology. mammograms a year. on a white argonne wall. to smaller thursday test cruises held to keep the system bug-free. colorado. notes futures lab research manager and computer-science doctoral student mike papka. scientists nationwide convene in a virtual conference room.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work scans.024 gigabytes]”—traffic that wouldn’t be possible without a grid. At these sessions access grid programmers susanne lefvert and eric olson sit at personal computers. first used in 1999. the biomedical informatics research network. including the princeton plasma physics lab and lawrence berkeley national lab. doctors can view a patient’s progress over time. An $82 million program funded by the national science foundation. used for software development and demonstration. a neesgrid partner. A major automobile company and some oil and gas companies have developed their own access grids. nees seeks to advance earthquake-engineering research and reduce the physical havoc earthquakes create.

The multi-institutional mimd lattice computation collaboration. Sharing resources—a practice known as “distributed computing”—goes back to computers’ early days. Beginning with five sites—argonne. In the late 1950s and early 1960s researchers realized that the machines. teragrid executive director charlie catlett says. To be finished by late september. san diego. Many of its sites.” The teragrid aims to revolutionize the speed at which science operates. distributed infrastructure for open scientific research. already used by some projects. “we are in all these complex environments. such research can move forward. the university of california. multiple users could share them by doling out that unemployed power. along with chicago anesthesiologist stephen small and argonne/chicago computer scientist rick stevens. already boast “a crosscountry network backbone four times faster than the fastest research networks currently in existence. On the teragrid. then costing tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. needed to be more efficient. it will have 20 teraflops (a teraflop equals a trillion operations per second) of computing power and a petabyte of storage space.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work assistant professor of surgery and senior fellow in the joint argonne/ chicago computation institute. the three-year prototype project could change the way hospitals process information. The grid allows medical workers literally to “share environments. and the pittsburgh supercomputing center—the project has since picked up four more partners. the emergency room. namd. Another project. a parallel molecular dynamics code designed to simulate large biomolecular systems. Connecting operating rooms. the teragrid aims to be “the world’s largest. Radiologists will beam three-dimensional xray scans to surgeons—minus middlemen and waiting time. avoid phone tag”—instead of passing messages between multiple physicians or waiting before taking the next step. ambulances. won a national institutes of health contract to install access grid nodes at the u of c hospitals. radiology. Students will watch not only real-time operating-room video feeds but also feeds from laparoscopic devices and robotic surgeons. eliminate hand-offs. Today Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 12 . Because they spent much time idly waiting for human input. the web page says. has maxed out the fastest system available. which tests quantum chromodynamic theory and helps interpret high-energy accelerator experiments. “we could all meet for one moment” and relay necessary information.” silverstein says. Then there’s the teragrid. most comprehensive. Launched in 2001 by the national science foundation with $53 million.” its web site declares. for instance. and residents’ hand-held tablet pcs. the california institute of technology. the researchers reasoned. the university of illinois– urbana-champaign. uses more than 2 million processor hours of computer time per year—and needs more.

locate suitable computers. today the lead software architect in argonne’s distributed systems laboratory. they envisioned globus software that would link sites into a “virtual organization. that linked 17 high-speed research networks for two weeks. it could transform the process of scientific work. for example. users who have downloaded specific software can connect to each other and share files. and control data movement. director of the university of illinois–chicago’s electronic visualization lab. And there’s internet computing. berkeley. now used in many forms. he writes in scientific american. load application codes. But a lot had to happen between the grid’s earliest inklings and its current test beds. headed a prototype project. he used parallel networks. called i-way (information wide area year). similar to clusters. Foster. and then monitor their execution. At a 1995 supercomputing conference rick stevens. and carl kesselman. In 1994 foster refocused his research to distributed computing.” Scientists performed computationally complicated Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 13 . links multiple pcs to replace unwieldy mainframes or supercomputers. Foster’s team developed the software that. With steven tuecke. with scientists from different institutions trying to share data that was growing exponentially. Pc users download seti@home’s screen-saver program. but they’re still underutilized—“five percent usage is normal. Programming specialized languages for computing chemistry codes.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work computers are cheaper. Defanti. reserve time. The concept was quickly put to use. “high-speed networks were starting to appear.” so users could “log on once. now director of the center for grid technologies at the university of southern california’s information sciences institute. that analyzes data from puerto rico’s arecibo radio telescope to find signs of extraterrestrial intelligence. “knitted” the sites “into a single virtual system. In the same way that internet protocols became standard for the web. most notably seti@home. authorize specific activities. “and it became clear that if we could integrate digital resources and activities across networks. who also directs argonne’s math and computer-science division. and thomas a. Cluster computing. who switched from studying math and chemistry to computer science at new zealand’s university of canterbury before earning a doctorate in the field at london’s imperial college.” he writes in the april 2003 scientific american.” foster says—which is one reason many companies connect their computers to form unified networks. he began the globus project. a software system for international scientific collaboration. came to argonne in 1989. In peer-to-peer computing. a virtual supercomputer based at the university of california. creating a common language and tools.” with standardized methods to authenticate identities.” Indeed research was occurring more and more on an international scale. such as napster. and when their computers are otherwise idle they retrieve data from the internet and send the results to a central processing system. In a sense grids are simply another variety of distributed computing.

foster says. foster writes in “what is the grid?” (july 2002). When physicists overloaded one grid system by submitting tens of thousands of tasks at once.” The experience inspired much enthusiasm—and funding. told the new york times last july.” The globus toolkit. named the “most promising new technology” by r&d magazine in 2002. noninteroperable distributed systems. for example. The u. making the software freely available and its code open for outside programmers to read and modify. a top-ten “emerging technology” by technology review in 2003. nasa. Without the open-source approach.” larry smarr. Such standards. But the open-source model. a group that meets three times a year to adopt basic language and infrastructure standards.” he says. has proved useful in ferreting out bugs and making improvements. “it was the woodstock of the grid. which favor databases. still needs work to perfect security and other measures. the university of wisconsin helped design applications to manage a grid’s many users. And while foster and his crew have used an open-source approach to develop the technology. much like that used to develop the internet. and the energy department began grid projects.” Brokerage firm charles schwab uses a grid developed by ibm to give its clients real-time investment advice. the uk’s e-science program is developing ways to handle the different systems. running around and engaged in a kind of scientific performance art.000 a year for three years. The computer company also has projects under way with morgan stanley and hewitt associates. the software that does the knitting. the globus toolkit’s sole corporate funder for the past three years.s. In 1997 foster’s team unveiled the first version of the globus toolkit. The national science foundation. “success of the grid depends on everyone adopting it. the conference’s program chair and now director of the california institute for telecommunications and information technology. As the technology moves from research institutions. whose data is stored mostly in electronic files. the software might not have become the de facto standard for most grid projects. and given a chicago innovation award last year by the sun-times. incompatible. wouldn’t have taken such an active role. and ibm. For foster—the british computer society’s 2002 lovelace medal winner and a 2003 american association for the advancement of science fellow—such corporate ventures are a critical step in Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 14 . in 1998 he and his colleagues also began the global grid forum. “everyone not sleeping for three days. with globus underlying them all. allow users to collaborate “with any interested party and thus to create something more than a plethora of balkanized. defense advanced research projects agency gave the globus project $800. to corporations. “so it’s counterproductive to work in private.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work simulations such as colliding neutron stars and moving cloud patterns around the planet.

and american express. Grid computing is presently being applied successfully by the national science foundation's national technology grid.000 machines. and “utility computing” is used synonymously. whom foster calls “the father of time-sharing operating systems. bristol-myers squibb. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 15 . In the 1960s mit’s fernando corbato.000 machines. They also provide a means for offering information technology as a utility for commercial and non-commercial clients. multi-industry path he’s forging. Even on a full night’s sleep foster—today’s father figure—hesitates to guess beyond “that’s some way out. Today the grid is envisioned similarly. As of august 2009 folding@home achieves more than 4 petaflops on over 350. co.” he says. important in everyday life. and climate/weather modeling. “it’s a process.” described shared computing as a “utility. Grids offer a way of using the information technology resources optimally inside an organization. when the grid will be as common as the internet—and as seamless. As of may 2005. already a powerful scientific tool.37 sustained teraflops (979 lifetime teraflops) as of september 2001.” happily encouraging his virtual child but not wanting to impose unrealistic expectations. he’s prepared the grid to lead the way. Current Projects And Applications Grids offer a way to solve grand challenge problems like protein folding. and foster skipped the march global grid forum meeting in berlin to talk up grids in his homeland new zealand. as with electricity or water. gas. folding@home had achieved peaks of 186 teraflops on over 160. pratt & whitney.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work making grids.” It’s a global. One of the most famous cycle-scavenging networks is seti@home. Although large grids are running in both the united states and europe. which was using more than 3 million computers to achieve 23. financial modeling. “we haven’t nailed down all the standards. nasa's information power grid. earthquake simulation. and if he can’t predict where the next generation will head. and electricity. There’s more to be done. But when grids will become so ubiquitous remains a big question.. with those clients paying only for what they use.” meaning computer access would operate like water. where a client would connect and pay by usage amount.

united devices operates the united devices cancer research project based on its grid mp product. along with the lhc computing grid (lcg) have been developed to support the experiments using the cern large hadron collider. The lcg project is driven by cern's need to handle huge amounts of data. which was started in 1997 and has run a number of successful projects in its history. This. but also for its budget. one technical. The relevant software and documentation is also publicly accessible . until november 2009. which at 24. Another well-known project is distributed. but two deserve special mention: beingrid and enabling grids for e-science. According to the project fact sheet. the grid mp ran on about 3. Many projects have been funded through the framework programme of the european commission. 15. one business.com. Of this. The nasa advanced supercomputing facility (nas) has run genetic algorithms using the condor cycle scavenger running on about 350 sun and sgi workstations.000 machines . two groups of consultants are analyzing a series of pilots. As of june 2005. To extract best practice and common themes from the experimental implementations. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 16 . where storage rates of several gigabytes per second (10 petabytes per year) are required. their mission is “to establish effective routes to foster the adoption of grid computing across the eu and to stimulate research into innovative business models using grid technologies”. 2007. Many of the projects are highlighted below. which cycle scavenges on volunteer pcs connected to the internet. is the largest of any fp6 integrated project. The project is coordinated by atos origin. Started in june 1.7 million is provided by the european commission and the remainder by its 98 contributing partner companies. A list of active sites participating within lcg can be found online as can real time monitoring of the egee infrastructure . The results of these cross analyzes are provided by the website it-tude. which is based in the european union and includes sites in asia and the united states.net.8 million euros. Until april 27. the project will run 42 months. is a follow up project to the european datagrid (edg) and is arguably the largest computing grid on the planet. The project is significant not only for its long duration.100.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The european union has been a major proponent of grid computing. 2006. Beingrid (business experiments in grid) is a research project partly funded by the european commission[citation needed] as an integrated project under the sixth framework programme (fp6) sponsorship program. The enabling grids for e-science project.

capacity. to gain access to applications and data. and service (resource) sharing between organizations. processing power. selection. A grid is a type of parallel and distributed domains system that based on enables the sharing. Fernando and the other designers of the multics operating system envisioned a computer facility operating "like a power company or water company". using a set of open standards and protocols. performance.525 teraflops ( as of 4 jun 2007 ) Definitions Today there are many definitions of grid computing:  The definitive definition of a grid is provided by ian foster in his article "what is the grid? A three point checklist" the three points of this checklist are:    Computing resources are not administered centrally. Rajkumar Buyya is a Senior Lecturer and the Storage Tek fellow of Grid Computing in the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at the University of Melbourne. on-demand provisioning. storage capacity and a vast array of other computing resources over the internet. Australia) defines a grid as "a type of parallel and distributed system that Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 17 .  Buyya (Dr. Non-trivial quality of service is achieved."  Ibm defines grid computing as "the ability. Open standards are used.  Plaszczak/wellner define grid technology as "the technology that enables resource virtualization. and aggregation of resources distributed across 'multiple' administrative their (resources) availability. cost and users' quality-of-service requirements"  An earlier example of the notion of computing as utility was in 1965 by mit's fernando corbató.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Fastest Virtual Supercomputers  Boinc .

performance. or a billion operations. A global grid is a connection of enterprise and departmental grids that can be used in a commercial or collaborative manner.e. talk of the grid: "a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet. The Death Of Distance Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 18 .  ServePath."  Pragmatically. An engineering department connecting desktop machines. and users' qualityof-service requirements". and aggregation of geographically distributed autonomous resources dynamically at runtime depending on their availability. clusters and equipment.  Cern. A flop is a basic computational operation . This progresses to enterprise grids where nontechnical staff's computing resources can be used for cycle-stealing and storage. Grids can be categorized with a three stage model of departmental grids. Grid computing is quickly gaining popularity due to its ability to maximize the efficiency of computing sources as well as its ability to solve large problems with considerably less computing power”.  Grid computing is also attractive to large commercial enterprises with complex computation problems who aim to fully exploit their internal computing power: internal grids. capability. A gigaflop is a billion flops. one of the largest users of grid technology. grid computing is attractive to geographicallydistributed non-profit collaborative research efforts like the ncsa bioinformatics grids such as birn: external grids. These correspond to a firm initially utilising resources within a single group i.com defines grid computing as. But What Does "High Performance" Mean? Performance is measured in flops. cost. enterprise grids and global grids.like adding two numbers together.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work enables the sharing. “The definition of Grid Computing is the simultaneous application of multiple computers to a problem that typically requires access to significant amounts of data or a large number of computer processing cycles. selection.

it would have been stupid to send large amounts of data across the globe for processing on other computer resources. To ensure secure access. like transmission errors or pc crashes. others need ultra-low "latency". which means there is minimal delay when sending date to remote colleagues in "real time". so that complicated calculations requiring constant communication between processors can be performed. grid developers also have to determine ways to compensate for failures.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Computing grids use international networks to link computing resources from all over the world. up to tens of gigabits per second (gbps). grid developers and users need to manage three important things: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 19 . Other researchers want "just-in-time" delivery of data across a grid. several high-performance networking issues have to be solved. Such international grids are possible today because of the impressive development of networking technology. Ten years ago. including the optimization of transport protocols and the development of technical solutions such as high-performance ethernet switching. Today. all this is possible and more! Pushed by the internet economy and the widespread penetration of optical fibers in telecommunications systems. To avoid communication bottlenecks. This means you can sit in france and use computers in the u. That translates to a 3000x improvement in 15 years. Secure Access Secure access to shared resources is one of the most challenging areas of grid development.s. To meet such critical requirements. Imagine if cars had made the same improvements in speed since 1985…you could easily go into orbit by pressing down hard on the accelerator! Faster! Faster! Some researchers have computing needs that make even the fastest connections seem slow: some scientists need even higher-speed connectivity. the performance of wide area networks has been doubling every nine months or so over the last few years. because of the time taken to transfer the data. or work from australia using computers from taiwan.

which may change from day to day. The result? Your jobs are finished much faster. but do you trust that your data and applications are securely protected on their shared machines? Without adequate security. and have a reliable accounting mechanism. When a computer finished one "job". Ultimately.hence the warnings about security when you use your credit card on the internet. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 20 .. orders and payments? Security And Trust The issue of security is linked to trust: you may trust the other users.the same questions arise whenever you use your credit card in a café.how do you determine whether a certain operation is consistent with the rules? Grids need to efficiently track of all this information.what is shared? Who is allowed to share? When can sharing occur? Authentication . or you could use a computing grid. Imagine if you had to do 1000 difficult maths questions. and so grids require new solutions.. you would give one question or "job" to each computer. Imagine if the owner of a café were to lend some tables to another café. New security solutions are constantly being developed.how would you securely track customers. someone could read or modify your data . You could do them yourself. This means that grids need to be extremely flexible. These accounting challenges are not new . But it is a never-ending race to stay ahead of malicious hackers. including sophisticated data encryption techniques. Resource Use Grids allow you to efficiently and automatically spread your work across many computer resources. The issue of security concerns all information technologies and is taken very seriously. such accounting will be used to decide pricing policies for using a grid.how do you identify a user or resource? Authorization . If you used a grid of 100 computers.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work    Access policy . But grid users must share resources.

Grid computing aims to involve everyone in the advantages of resource sharing and the benefits of increased efficiency. right? So what happens when there is a queue of people is waiting to use a computing grid? How do you decide whose "job" is next in line? Middleware To The Rescue Computing grids rely on middleware .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work it would automatically ask for another.    Grids give you shared access to extra computing power A grid can also give you direct access to remote software. These people could be strangers. To do this. but if they are part of the same car pool organization as you.to allocate jobs efficiently. Middleware uses information about the different "jobs" submitted to each queue to calculate the optimal allocation of resources. we ideally need to know how many jobs are in each queue. computers and data A grid can even give you access and control of remote sensors. telescopes and other devices that do not belong to you. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 21 .sometimes you share your car with other people. In this way. your 1000 questions could be finished in a flash. and how long each job will take. This doesn't work perfectly yet. But grids are shared resources. neither did the web in its early days (remember when they called it the world wide wait?!) Resource Sharing Resource sharing is the crux of grid philosophy . they share their car with you.but grid computing is not about getting something for nothing. but then. with all 100 computers working to full efficiency.special grid computing software . But Would You Trust Your Computer To A Complete Stranger? What about your car? A computing grid is a bit like a car pool . other times.

For example. Something standard. Grid resources are owned by many different people who run different software.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work you will generally trust each other at some level. and use different systems for security and access. “standard” can often be equated with “average” or “boring”: how can you innovate or invent when you’re bound by standards and regulations? How can you push the boundaries when you’re stuck inside a box? Yet how can you create something on a grand scale—something that can slot together with other grand things—unless you create something interoperable. If you are always late. and there are mechanisms to deal with breach of trust. and each of these developers have their own views on what makes a good standard. Adopting open. But when was the last time you needed a ¼ inch screw and only had metric screws available? And have you ever blown up a 120v machine by accidentally sticking it into 240v mains? So much for "universal" standards! The sticky question is. Grids are kind of the same. which may require revising the standards. more powerful grid computing resources. and what can be done with them. Who Is In Charge Of Grid Standards? Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 22 . they will normally put conditions on the use of those resources. technology continues to evolve and provides new tools that need to be integrated within the existing grid machinery. when someone decides to share their computing resources on a grid. Open Standards By standardizing the way we create computing grids. which standards should be used for grid computing? There are hundreds of software developers working to create dozens of different grids. the others will complain and eventually kick you out of the car pool. exist in different administrative domains. we're one step closer to making sure all the smaller grids can connect together to form larger. This presents a major challenge. While they work. So there is trust. specifying limits on which resources can be used when. common standards for grid computing might sound obvious.

Delving Inside Middleware There are many other layers within the middleware layer. At the same time. the broker schedules the necessary computational activities and oversees the data transfers. Agent programs present "metadata" (data about data) that describes users. containing hundreds of thousands of lines of computer code. With more than 5000 volunteer members. The Middleware "middleware" is the software that organizes and integrates the resources in a grid. passing from a grid resource provider to a grid user. middleware includes a layer of "resource and connectivity protocols". specific data and resources. Together. data and resources. Middleware is made up of many software programs. Agents. in a fraction of the time that it would take humans at their computers to do manually.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work The open grid forum is a standards body for the grid community. this body is a significant force for setting standards and community developments. and payment for. And all this occurs automatically. For example. some middleware programs act as "agents" and others as "brokers". seamless computational grid. In these deals. and a higher layer of "collective services". special "housekeeping" agents optimize network routings and monitor quality of service. this code automates all the "machine to machine" (m2m) interactions that create a single. Brokers And Striking Deals Middleware automatically negotiate deals in which resources are exchanged. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 23 . Broker programs undertake the m2m negotiations required for user authentication and authorization. and then strike the "deals" for access to. Once a deal is set.

For example. resource location. Many of the protocols and functions defined by the globus toolkit are similar to those in networking and storage today. Many major grid projects use the globus toolkit. Collective services include:      Updating directories of available resources Brokering resources (which like stock broking. resource management. but have been optimized for grid-specific deployments. a team primarily involving ian foster's team at argonne national laboratory and carl kesselman's team at the university of southern california in los angeles. It's a set of tools for constructing a grid. covering security measures. which provide secure mechanisms for verifying the identity of both users and resources. which obtain information about the structure and state of the resources on a grid. is about negotiating between those who want to "buy" resources and those who want to "sell") Monitoring and diagnosing problems Replicating data so that multiple copies are available at different locations for ease of use Providing membership/policy services for tracking who is allowed to do what and when. and authentication protocols. enabling exchange of data. communications and so on. computers contributing to a particular grid must recognize grid-relevant messages and ignore the rest. and management protocols. The collective services are also based on protocols: information protocols. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 24 . which negotiate uniform access to the resources. which allow the resources to communicate with each other.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Resource and connectivity protocols handle all grid-specific network transactions between different computers and grid resources. This is done with communication protocols. which is being developed by the globus alliance. Globus Toolkit The globus toolkit is a popular example of grid middleware.

bandwidth capacity. The globus toolkit is available under an "open-source" licensing agreement. type of storage. and status Giis (grid index information service): coordinates arbitrary gris services Gridftp (grid file transfer protocol): provides a high-performance. This is similar to the world wide web and the linux operating system. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 25 . 2. and robust data transfer mechanism Replica catalog: provides the location of replicas of a given dataset on a grid The replica management system: manages the replica catalog and gridftp. the globus toolkit has an "object-oriented approach". an application can use gram or gris without having to necessarily use the globus security or replica management systems. and so on      Gris (grid resource information service): queries resources for their current configuration. capabilities. For example. secure. There are two main reasons for the strength and popularity of the globus toolkit: 1.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Globus Includes Programs Such As:    Gram (globus resource allocation manager): figures out how to convert a request for resources into commands that local computers can understand Gsi (grid security infrastructure): authenticates users and determines their access rights Mds (monitoring and discovery service): collects information about resources such as processing capacity. allowing applications to create and manage replicas of large datasets. Grids need to support a wide variety of applications created according to different programming paradigms. which means anyone is free to use or improve the software. providing a bag of services so that developers can choose the services that best meet their needs. Rather than providing a uniform programming model for grid applications. The tools can also be introduced one at a time.

Project details Synopsis dutchgrid (the netherlands) dutchgrid is the platform for grid computing and technology in the netherlands. Interoperability with other grid infrastructures is currently in operation. Project details fermilab computing division (fermilab in the u. D-grid Eneagrid Grid-ireland National grid service Norgrid Teragrid dutchgrid fermilab computing division hungrid nersc swegrid thai national grid twgrid Project details Synopsis d-grid (germany) the first d-grid projects started in september 2005 with the goal of developing a distributed. Project details Synopsis eneagrid (italy) eneagrid makes use of grid technologies to provide an integrated production environment including all the high performance and high throughput computational resources available in enea. energy and the environment. integrated resource platform for high-performance computing and related services to enable the processing of large amounts of scientific data and information.s.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work National Grids National grids like those listed below combine national computing resouces to create powerful grid computing resources. the italian national agency for new technologies. Open to all institutions for research and test-bed activities. dutchgrid aims to coordinate various grid deployment efforts and to offer a forum for the exchange of experiences on grid technologies.) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 26 .

involving partners across the country. Its goal is to allow grid users of hungarian academic and educational institutes to perform the computing activities relevant for their researches and thus the vo functions as a catch-all vo for all the hungarian participants that do not (yet) have an established vo in their respective field of research. Project details Synopsis grid-ireland (ireland) grid-ireland fosters and promotes grid activities in ireland. Nersc is part of the open science grid (osg). It is also an egee testing environment for hungarian research communities that show interest in starting their own virtual organizations. Project details norgrid (norway) Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 27 . Join their mailing list for up-to-the-minute ngs action. Project details Synopsis hungrid (uk) hungrid is the first official hungarian virtual organization of egee. Project details Synopsis nersc (national energy research scientific computing center in the u..) users can access several nersc resources via globus grid interfaces using x509 grid certificates. and is available to select osg virtual organizations for compute and storage resources.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis fermigrid united fermilab’s computing resources into a single grid infrastructure. Project details Synopsis national grid service (uk) the ngs aims to provide coherent electronic access for uk researchers to all computational and data based resources and facilities. changing the way that computing was done at the lab by improving efficiency and making better use of resources.s. Now involved in developing and supporting innovative computing solutions and services for fermilab.

International Grids International grids cross national boundaries. Project details Synopsis thai national grid project (thailand) the thai national grid project is a national initiative on grid computing funded by the royal thai government through the software industry promotion agency of the ministry of information and communication technology. supercomputing grid) teragrid aims to build and deploy the world's largest. consisting of 600 computers in six clusters at six different sites across sweden. technologies and more to create international resources and power global science using global computing. It involves involves partners across the u. Coordinated by academia sinica grid computing. Project details Synopsis teragrid (u. Project details Synopsis swegrid (sweden) swegrid is a swedish national computational resource. twgrid provides the grid-related technology and infrastructure support for the lhc experiments in taiwan. The sites are connected through the highperformance gigasunet network. fastest. most comprehensive. as well as working to produce new grid-powered science applications to further international e-science advances.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis norgrid aims to establish and maintain a national grid infrastructure in norway. Norgrid is the norwegian component in the third phase of the egee project. spanning cultures. languages. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 28 . distributed infrastructure for open scientific research. Project details Synopsis twgrid (taiwan) twgrid is the taiwanese grid and a member of global grid projects including egee and wlcg.s.s.

It is co-funded by the european commission until 2010 and involves partners across europe. Project details Synopsis deisa distributed european infrastructure for supercomputing applications deisa combines the power of supercomputing centres across europe to accelerate scientific research. aiming to ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-infrastructure. Project details egee enabling grids for e-science Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 29 .An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Ap grid Deisa Egee Euasiagrid Gridpp Nextgrid Open grid forum Open science grid Winds d4science eela-2 egi_ds eu-indiagrid lcg nordugrid ogf-europe pragma Project details Synopsis ap grid asia-pacific grid ap grid is a partnership for grid computing in the asia-pacific region. aiming to share technologies. resources and knowledge in order to build. Project details Synopsis eela e-science for europe and latin america eela aims to provide grid facilities to promote scientific collaboration between europe and latin america. Partners come from 15 countries in the asiapacific and beyond. Project details Synopsis d4science distributed collaboratories infrastructure on grid enabled technology 4 science d4science aims to create grid-based and data-centric einfrastructures to support scientific research. nurture and promote grid technologies and applications..

000 CPUs available to some 8. Driven by the needs and requirements of the research community. Project details Synopsis géant géant pan-european gigabit research network provides networking infrastructure to support researchers. thereby supporting collaborative scientific discoveries in the european research area. in synergy with the other european grid initiatives in europe and asia. Egee comprises 250 sites in 48 countries and more than 68. The main objective is to develop and deploy a Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 30 . as well as an infrastructure for network research. who are building a grid for particle physics.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Synopsis egee is the largest multi-disciplinary grid infrastructure in the world. It comprises 27 european national research and education networks. global connectivity and guaranteed quality of service.000 users. bringing together more than 120 organisations to provide scientific computing resources to the european and global research community. Project details Synopsis eu-indiagrid collaboration between europe and india eu-indiagrid will bring together over 500 multidisciplinary organisations to build a grid-enabled e-science community aiming to boost r&d innovation across europe and india. Project details Synopsis egi_ds european grid initiative design study the european grid initiative design study aims to establish a sustainable grid infrastructure in europe. 7 days a week. Egi_ds includes partners across europe Project details Synopsis euasiagrid collaboration between europe and asia euasiagrid aims to pave the way towards an asian e-science grid infrastructure. 24 hours a day. Géant aims for high speed connectivity. geographical expansion. Project details Synopsis gridpp grid for uk particle physics gridpp is a collaboration of particle physicists and computing scientists from the uk and cern. it is expected to enable the next leap in research infrastructures.

thus creating a dynamic marketplace for new services and products. Involves more than 400 organizations from 50 countries. Ogf aims to promote and support grid technologies via the creation and documentation of "best practices" . An eufunded project with multiple partners Project details Synopsis nordugrid grids in the nordic region nordugrid is a grid research and development collaboration aiming at development. user experiences. and implementation guidelines. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 31 . maintenance and support of a free grid middleware known as the "advanced resource connector" (arc). Project details Synopsis nextgrid supporting mainstream use of grids nextgrid aims to enable the widespread use of grids by research.technical specifications. Project details Synopsis ogf-europe key role in european and international grid standards influencing the drive towards global ogf-europe works closely with open grid forum and plays a standardisation efforts and in bringing best practices in the european computing environment. Project details Synopsis lcg worldwide lhc computing grid the mission of the lhc computing project (lcg) is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high energy physics community that will use the large hadron collider. Project details Synopsis open grid forum international grid standards the open grid forum is a community-initiated forum of 5000+ people interested in distributed computing and grid technologies. industry and the ordinary citizen. The collaboration was established by five nordic academic institutes and is based upon a memorandum of understanding.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work large-scale science grid in the uk for use by the worldwide particle physics community.

research issues and opportunities for cooperation. dealing them out to the different computer processors in the grid. and formalize resourcesharing agreements. latin america and the caribbean by identifying common needs. and proposing a long-term cooperation strategy in the field of ict research. As soon as a processor finishes one Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 32 . Project details Synopsis pragma assembly pacific rim applications and grid middleware pragma is an open organization in which pacific rim institutions collaborate to develop grid-enabled applications and to deploy the infrastructure throughout the pacific region. High-Throughput Problems High-throughput applications are problems that can be divided into many independent tasks. aims to further develop and support ict research and development collaboration between europe. latin america and the the www. promoting excellence research from the regions in europe. maintained by the winds-la and winds-caribe projects. Project details Synopsis winds caribbean grid collaboration in europe. Osg combines resources at many u.s and beyond.eu platform.winds-lac. build new collaborations. Computing grids can be used to schedule these tasks.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Project details Synopsis open science grid open grid infrastructure for collaborative science the open science grid consortium provides an open grid infrastructure for science in the u. Pragma aims to enhance current collaborations and connections. labs and universities and provides access to shared resources for the benefit of scientific applications.s.

unfinished tasks are simply sent elsewhere to be processed. the secret to solving these problems is "teraflops": as many as possible. supercomputers are one giant computer in a single room. helping scientists to tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system. Supercomputers generally deal with computer-centric problems. In this way. or brats@home. hundreds of tasks can be performed in a very short time. using rosetta software in the open science grid  The use of volunteer computing to power applications including seti@home. or to solve problems much more quickly. the next task arrives. Grid computing allows large computational resources to be combined. These "@home" tasks involved are totally independent. as in the large hadron collider computing grid The analysis of thousands of molecules in a bid to discover a drug candidate against a specific malaria protein. as part of the grid-enabled wisdom project  The analysis of thousands of protein folding configurations in a bid to discover more efficient ways of packaging drug proteins. applications include:? The analysis of thousands of particle collisions in a bid to understand more about our universe. they're generally talking about supercomputing. which aids in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. so it doesn't matter whether some tasks take a long time. country or the world. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 33 . Examples of high-throughput :   Error! Bookmark not defined. After a "time-out" period. which works on gravitational ray tracing.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work task. High-Performance Problems When people talk about "high performance computing" or hpc. fightaids@home. Supercomputers are different to computing grids: where grids link computers that are distributed around an institution. which models the evolution of drug resistance and helps to design new anti-hiv drugs.

each one created to help a specific group of researchers. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 34 . simulations of a car crash or a new airplane design) Climate modeling (e. The Dream The grid computing dream began with talk of creating an all-powerful "grid": one grid comprised of many smaller grids joined together.. researchers and software engineers are working to bring "the grid" closer to achieving the dream. there are already hundreds of grids around the world. while the web uses the internet to help us share information. helping scientists around the world to analyze and store massive amounts of data.. How is grid computing different from the world wide web? Simple. or a particular group of users.g. Grid computing uses the internet to help us share computer power. Grid computing is making big contributions to scientific research.g. In grid computing reality.. Typical hpc grid applications include:     Astrophysics (e. And across the world.g..g. forming a global network of computers that can operate as one vast computational resource.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Examples of these supercomputing grids are deisa in europe or teragrid in the u. simulations of a tornado or climate prediction) Economics (e. simulations of a supernova explosion or black hole collision) Automotive/aerospace industry (e. modeling the world economy) Grid Computing In 30 Seconds Grid computing is a service for sharing computer power and data storage capacity over the internet.s.

Computational Problems There are many different ways to describe computational problems. grid users need to "gridify" their applications to run on a grid. This allows you to speed up your computation. there will always be a few bugs here and there). thousands of people will be able to use the same application and run it trouble-free on interoperable grids (like most software. For example. "gridification" means adapting applications to include new layers of grid-enabled software. and provide results Monitor progress of the various computations and data transfers. Just like "webifying" applications to run on a web browser. and detecting and responding to failures (collective services). notifying the user when analysis is complete. so that many subcalculations can be worked on "in parallel". Here are a few that are important to grid technology: Parallel Calculations: Parallel calculations can be split into many smaller sub-calculations. This means that each sub-calculation can be worked on by a different processor. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 35 . initiate computations. Once gridified. asking to extract data.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work ''Gridifying'' Your Application An application that ordinarily runs on a stand-alone pc must be "gridified" before it can run on a grid. a gridified data analysis application will be able to:     Obtain the necessary authentication credentials to open the files it needs Query a catalogue to determine where the files are and which grid resources are able to do the analysis Submit requests to the grid.

For example. and this is where grids can be particularly powerful: Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 36 . each calculation in one volume of atmosphere is affected by surrounding volumes. where you vary the parameters in a model and then study the results. analyzing a large databank of medical images is embarrassingly parallel. Coarse-Grained Calculations: Coarse-grained calculations are often embarrassingly parallel. Embarrassingly parallel calculations are ideal for high-throughput computing: more loosely coupled networks of computers where delays in getting results from one processor will not affect the work of the others.. High-Throughput Error! Bookmark not defined. since each image is independent of the others. For example. Fine-grained parallel calculations require very clever programming to make the most of their parallelism. or very tightly coupled computer clusters with lots of identical processors and an extremely fast. so that the right information is available to processors at the right time. "Monte Carlo simulations". And Grid Computing. which usually involves a big. each sub-calculation is dependent on the result of another sub-calculation. High-Performance Vs.and coarsegrained calculations.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work Embarrassingly Parallel Calculations: A calculation is embarrassingly parallel when each sub-calculation is independent of all the other calculations. reliable network between the processors. are also coarse-grained calculations. monolithic supercomputer. Fine-Grained Calculations: In a fine-grained calculation.? Many interesting problems in science require a combination of fine.: Fine-grained calculations are better suited to high-performance computing. when calculating the weather.

Breaking Moore’s Law? Moore's law was a statement made in 1965 by Gordon Moore. Nice Idea..the number of transistors on a chip . Today. in the case of complex climate modeling. "Computing power doubles every 18 months" is one common misuse of Moore's observation. It is best to see Moore's law as simply a metaphor for exponential growth in the performance of IT hardware. improvements in chip architecture and operating systems also make processors more powerful than the mere sum of their transistors. thus adding coarse-grained parallelism and saving a lot of time. computer processors are not keeping up with data storage and network capacity. it might be said that these trends are "outperforming" Moore's law. these many independent calculations can be distributed over many different grid clusters. Further. Moore's law is one of the most misused concepts in computing. Over time. researchers launch many similar calculations to see how different parameters affect their models. For example. comparing different growth rates using Moore's law is often misleading. Using a grid. Moore noted that the number of transistors that could be squeezed on to a silicon chip was doubling every year. the clock cycle of processors increases along with the increase in the number of transistors per chip. For example. somehow. This ignores a number of trends which Moore's law does not take into account..it is now used for just about everything else in computing. Each calculation is a fine-grained parallel calculation that needs to run on a single cluster or supercomputer. But. if "network performance is doubling every nine months". This could mean that. In short. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 37 . comparisons are made between different quantities that have nothing to do with Moore's law. Even though Moore's statement was limited to a very specific quantity . or "data storage density is doubling every 12 months". This means that processor power grows faster than Moore's law. this has been revised to doubling every 18 months.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work For example. one of the founders of Intel.

which means that computer grids are increasingly able to solve increasingly complex problems. with every year that passes. like climate change and sustainable power. All this computing power helps our scientists find solutions to the big questions. Jeevan Kumar Vishwakarman 38 . Individual computers also become more powerful. the grid concept becomes more feasible: networks become faster and distributed processors can be more tightly integrated.An Inquiry Report On Grid Computing – a Report Work More On Moore's Law As a result of this exponential growth.

R.. N. Brown. Introduction to Grid Computing. January). January).. (2004.ibm. K. Educause Learning Initiative. Retrieved from University of Chicago Magazine: http://uchicago. April).Works Cited (2010. Father of Grid Computing. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: http://www. July). Retrieved from educause. A. (2001).. M. M. January). A Gentle Introduction to Grid Computing and Technologies. (2006.wikipedia.org: http://www. Grid computing. Retrieved from IBM RedBooks: ibm. December). & Venugopal.. Retrieved from GridCafe..edu: www. B..edu/eli Jacob.com/redbooks Viktors Berstis. & Trivedi.org (2010.com Braverman. S. (2005.gridcafe.edu Buyya.educause. Retrieved from WikiPedia: http://www. Fundamentals of Grid Computing.com/redbooks . (2005. 7 things you should know about. Fukui.

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