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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION


Access to serviced land is probably one of the most critical determinants of urban life. Conceptually land servicing can be bifurcated to land development and provisions of roads. Development of road hence is indispensable not only in terms of accessibility to new areas but also with regards to the transportation of people and goods. In India, national highways of about 58,112 running kilometers accounts for less than 2 % of entire road network of the country but carry 40 % of total traffic. Urban road around whole of the city plays same role as that national highways at country level. Thus planning, developing and implementing an urban road project like ring road of 60 meters width in Ahmedabad needs to be done strategically as per the existing and proposed land use and considering environmental and social aspects along with potentiality of the area. Development of major roads in the cities worldwide and nationwide has been done through different land pooling methods of acquisition, transfer of development rights and so on. For the first time perhaps Town Planning Scheme tool is used for such a big project. The basis of the work therefore will start with exploration of Town Planning Scheme mechanism and provisions of town planning act and its limitations. Since now many more options for the development and implementation of road projects are available like transfer of development rights, selling of floor space index, build- operate- transfer approach with traditional forms of land acquisition and Town Planning Schemes with modified forms of land readjustment, it is worth to study them in detail and review various strategies of the development and implementation of urban road projects to evolve an appropriate strategy.

1.1 Background of the study


Since beginning of the century in India local bodies, under the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 were responsible for planning and implementation of infrastructure including road works in urban area. But its functions were limited within the city limits and problems started cumulating outside the city limits. This resulted in an increase in urban population with unplanned area expansion. To control this unplanned growth in fringe area and with a objective of providing adequate infrastructure facilities, new act namely Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976 was enacted that came into force from 1st February 1978. Under the said act powers to control & regulate the development and to provide infrastructure in urban area lies with the area / urban development authorities constituted to fulfill the objective of the act. Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA) has prepared the Revised Development Plan for the area under its jurisdiction considering the needs of the city in which a ring road of 60 meter width is proposed at a distance of 4-6
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

km away from existing ring road of 40 m width. The Revised Development Plan of AUDA sanctioned by Government on dated 18/5/2002 may be referred for the proposals including ring road proposals at annexure P-1. Development of the road network to cope up for the increase in the urban population, the physical expansion of the city and vehicular traffic, is one of the most important development activity proposed in the development plan. The proposed ring road is of approximately 76 km in length and estimated to be constructed at the cost of about Rs. 320 crores excluding cost of the land. Land required for it is to be made available through Town Planning Scheme in residential and other permissive zones while it is to be acquired through land acquisition act for the area where road passes through the agriculture zone. Also due to budgetary constraints, AUDA envisages the project to be developed in a commercial format, with recovery of investment predicted on the levy of tolls as may be feasible. The ring road proposal is a vital proposal not only from the planning point of view for AUDA but a landmark in city development. But some questions that need attention when project, though called city level but actually as big as of a regional level, is expected to be developed through Town Planning Scheme. T. P. Scheme prepared by authority at draft level needs to be finalized by town planning officer and sanctioned by govt. for real implementation. Draft scheme sanction legally allows, implementation and taking the possession of the land for roads, drainage, water supply, streetlight only, and the land allotted in scheme for rest purposes, like plots for sale for residential and commercial, social infrastructure, socially & economically weaker section housing and garden/open space can vest with authority only after the sanction and implementation of preliminary scheme. These legal provisions in act and AUDA being an authority that has no taxation powers and limited income from development charge and such other fees only, an appropriate strategy may be evolved for developing and implementing urban road projects that may be applicable to other cities of similar context in Gujarat. Again in Town Planning Schemes, the environmental and social impacts and assessments are not carried out, which are must for the turnkey projects even for financial assistance from institutions like World Bank.

1.2 Need for the study


The proposed ring road shall be a milestone in road infrastructure of the city looking from the point of view of its size of 76 km length, 60 m width and worth Rs.320 crores that is fairly of the size of an expressway. But when the major land for it is to be got through Town Planning Scheme for which we have a bitter experience of delay in procedure, it may be better to assess other tools available to develop and implement such road. It may be noted that amended town planning act has provision for vesting of land earmarked for roads to the authority immediately after the sanction of draft scheme. But rest of implementation including transfer of plots between private owners can be done after sanction of preliminary scheme. Land owner whose full or lions share of original plot comes under roads, shall get the final plot allotted in lieu of original plot only after preliminary scheme is sanctioned. To avoid any such
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

complications and study better planning alternate that makes easy implementation can be thought to save time and money the study seems necessary.

1.3 Relevance of the study to planning framework


Planning today is fast changing to a field wherein the enabling-facilitating approach is being emphasized. Also, with the advent of the private sectors into certain planning areas, the planner needs to perform the functions of not only a technical consultant but also a liasoning agency. In this view, project development and implementation become important areas that need to be looked at in detail. The related research questions that shall be addressed here are as follows: 55 km length of ring road out of 76 km total length passing through residential, commercial and other permissive zones shall need total 330 ha of land from these zones. Rest 21 km long road passes through agriculture zone, where land is to be acquired under land acquisition act. The 330 ha of land to get through T.P. Scheme shall need at least forty schemes and to have continuity and contiguous planning more sixty schemes roughly shall be needed to prepare totaling hundred or more schemes therefore, Is it viable to rely only upon T. P. Scheme for such big infrastructure project? Will it not be an obligation on part of authority to provide other infrastructure, once T. P. Scheme is prepared even if there is low development? What is the feasibility of levying toll on bridges or road to be used for city road network, which is acquired through T. P. Scheme? Whether private firms can be involved in bearing construction cost on BOT basis as cost of works proposed in the scheme is to be a part of scheme? What shall be the traffic coming on the entire ring or links of the road and future projected traffic over base year traffic to see its financial viability? Is it financially viable and possible for authority to acquire the land and construct the ring road? What are the other methods that may be thought for alternative like transfer of development rights, selling of F.S.I. or other land pooling methods? How such type of roads has been developed in other countries? What methods were adopted and how far they have been successful? What shall be the environmental implication on the city due to the project? What are the social impacts of project on villages surrounding ring road area and city itself?

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Should State government and Central government or highways authority be asked to bear the part cost of ring road, as it is to cater more of regional traffic?

1.4 Aim of the study


To evolve an appropriate strategy of development and implementation for Urban Road projects, through a case study of proposed 60-meter wide AUDA ring road.

1.5 Objectives of the study


i. To review development and implementation strategies for urban road projects in urban areas and in Gujarat particularly. ii. To document salient features of success stories in urban road development projects. iii. To check the feasibility of proposed ring road in terms of traffic & transportation. iv. To develop an option taken by AUDA for the development and implementation of the road. v. To prepare a feasibility report with financial strategy to finance the project through Town Planning Scheme mechanism. vi. To assess environmental and social impacts of such urban roads on city.

vii. To evolve an appropriate strategy of development and implementation for the AUDA ring road and such other urban roads.

Scope & Limitations of the study


i. ii. All relevant data and information regarding town-planning schemes are of AUDA area and do not include corporation limit schemes. The study will focus on the ring road and its linkages only. Traffic and transportation will only be related to this road and not the entire city or network. Land use/land management will be related to the land in and around ring road and its link network only.

iii.

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

iv.

Some of the options of development will only be applied to the Gujarat Town Planning & Urban Development Act and areas.

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

1.7 Methodology of the study


Study of urban roads & their Development & Implementation Strategy options to evolve an appropriate strategy Case study: 60 Meter wide AUDA Ring Road Primary survey of traffic volume, site etc Secondary data collection of maps & information from Census/AUDA/AMC/TP & VD

Road classification and road hierarchy in the city

Traffic Analysis its evaluation with respect to development potentiality

Environmental & Social Assessment of the project

Development and Implementation strategy options within legal framework & its concepts
Land Acquisition Method Transfer of Development Rights Other forms of land readjustment

Town Planning Scheme

Built Operate Transfer approach

Financial Analysis Identification of problems and shortfalls

Selection for the strategy option Assigning weightage to each option

Evolving an appropriate strategy for development and implementation of urban road and its applicability to ring road of AUDA in respect to zoning proposal

Recommendations of Dev. & Implementation Strategy Options in similar context

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

1.8 Analytical Framework


The data shall be analysed as below. Demographic profile along with the zoning proposal for the actual need of developable areas and need of preparation of Town Planning Schemes for proposed ring road development. Time schedule of preparation and sanction of Town Planning Schemes for the probable time period for completion of project. Financial aspects including cost of works for the financial viability of project through Town Planning Scheme. Willingness to pay survey and anticipated traffic data for the need of projects itself and if to develop on commercial format of Build-Operate & Transfer or any such other privatization method. Land use for water bodies & thick plantations for environmental impact. Social status and facilities available in the villages on alignment for social impacts, which are not covered in Town Planning Schemes. Traffic and transportation movement pattern will be assessed.

Now a day for the development and implementation of any infrastructure project, planning need along with financial viability as well as mode of development of project including source of availability of land may have to be explored by the developing and implementing agency but the environmental and social impact assessment is must from the society point of view and even for any financial institute who is going to fund the project. The ring road of AUDA is to be developed through Town Planning Schemes where such impact assessments are not done.

1.9 Use of the study


Road network is one of the important components of transportation system at city level and higher levels of state and so on. Development and implementation strategy of big city level of given ring road size is often coupled with environmental and ecology. It is not only important but also essential at the planning stage itself to consider environmental and social impact of the proposed road on surroundings along with financial aspect. The study shall be useful mainly for the developing and implementing authority AUDA but simultaneously it shall be useful for the state government and all funding agencies giving loans. The strategy evolved from the study would be applicable to similar road projects in similar context for other cities particularly in Gujarat.
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 2.0 DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OPTIONS WITHIN LEGAL FRAMEWORK & ITS CONCEPTS
For the development of the road, firstly it is required to get the open space for road, demarcate the plots and do road alignment, fill up the low lying areas and construct the road. We generally use land acquisition method for obtaining the land for road joining two settlements and then the Government or its agencies do construction. Though in urban areas, roads are developed through the town planning mechanism also but the cost of construction included in the scheme cost does not match with the actual cost resulting in the deterioration of levels of urban roads. For better development and implementation of urban road projects, it is necessary to see various other alternatives adopted in other states and countries including development through transfer of development rights, Built- Operate and Transfer and others if any.

2.1 Town Planning Scheme


Town Planning Scheme is an effective tool of implementation of Development plan of city. As per The Gujarat Town Planning & Urban Development Act 1976, TPS means scheme prepared under act and includes plans, together with descriptive matter, if any, relating to it. Legally speaking it is a statutory provision of pooling together all the land under different ownership and redistributing in a properly reconstituted form after deducting for roads and public purpose.

2.1.1 Background of the T.P. scheme


Planning is continuous and the planning system should be such that ensures continuity. Commencing from 1915, when Bombay town planning act was enforced which enabled preparation of Town Planning Schemes only, town planning practice in India has come a long way. During these periods, planning was piecemeal and such approach continued to be the practice for about four decades. The then Bombay Town Planning Act, 1954 repealed the earlier act that made obligatory for the authority to prepare development plans for the city area only. Implementation of this plan however has generally been poor and they have been criticized to be rigid and static having little regards to investment planning efforts and taking very long time in process formulation and approval. In Gujarat the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1954 was replaced / repealed by the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act 1976 which has come into force with effect from the date 01-02-1978. As per the provisions of this act, it became mandatory for local planning authorities to prepare development plans for the area including peripherals areas of municipalities where development started taking place. Since then Town
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Planning Scheme has become a useful tool for implementing development plan proposals. In addition to detail area planning, T. P. Scheme also provides legislative support and finance for implementation. The technique is rational and equitable it has provided support both from local authorities and landowners. These features make it a unique technique amongst those developed elsewhere in the world for similar purposes. The fundamental objective of the readjustment technique is to make land available for development at least cost to development authorities and improve the environment effectively. Also the rapid urbanization and the changing growth pattern in size and class of cities/towns/nagars, through planned, controlled and developed manner will stop haphazard development.

2.1.2 Town Planning Scheme Mechanism


To ensure planned growth of a city, main considerations of (1) the rural pattern of land holding to be reorganized in patterns more suitable for modern urban use, (2) a portion of the land to be appropriated for provision of roads and social amenities (such as schools, gardens and housing for the poor) and (3) the cost of infrastructure provision to be recovered through the development process, are fulfilled through the schemes. Since the owners of the plots under the scheme area directly enjoy the benefits of the development due to Town Planning Scheme, it is appropriate that the direct beneficiaries contribute towards the cost of such development in proportion to the benefits. The owner receives compensation for the land deducted from his original plot. He also retains at least half of the increment in market value of his plot immediately available and full increment in future. Carving out for roads and sites for public uses is possible without dispossessing any one owner totally. All the owners in proportion to the area of their original holdings equitably share the deduction of area on that account. It encourages peoples participation at different stages. It also provides opportunities for representation at different stages. The democratically elected body viz. The local authority prepares the draft scheme after giving due opportunity to the owners and the persons affected. The State Government sanctions the draft scheme with modifications if necessary and appoints the Town Planning Officer. The Town Planning Officer acts as an arbitrator and finalize his decision after giving due opportunity to all affected by the proposals. This technique is beneficial to the owners, to the local authority and to the town as a whole and so they join hands and contribute proportionately towards the cost. Benefits to the owners a. With the inception of the scheme, the development momentum is accelerated availing the benefits of development to the owner earlier. b. The owner retains at least half the increment in market value of the plot on a particular date i.e. the date of declaration of intention to prepare the scheme. He
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

retains future increments in market value fully as the acceleration of development momentum increases due to scheme. Benefit to the society a. b. c. d. e. Planned development keeps pace with increasing urbanization thereby controlling haphazard urban sprawl. It is possible to achieve planned decentralization of activities in congested city center by developing competitive activity-centers at suitable locations in the outer suburban areas. The hierarchical rod network improves safety and environmental quality of the area. It is possible to achieve optimum use of scarce and costly urban land through plots of regular shape, efficient layout and acquisition of sites for public uses at desired location and in required quantity. It encourages peoples participation in planning and development process. Benefits to the local /appropriate authority a. b. c. d. e. Local authoritys responsibility of providing basic services in the areas is facilitated by preparation of town planning scheme. The land acquisition for roads and public purposes is made easier under the scheme compared to the alternative of the Acquisition Act. The local authority is able to raise finance through contribution from the direct beneficiaries viz. the owners and that too in exact proportion of the benefits received by them. The sites for public uses and roads are available at right location, at right time and in the required quantity. More than this, the deduction of area on that account is equitably distributed over all the owners. The local authority can use land as a resource to raise funds without taxing the people and can also check land speculation.

2.1.3 Procedure for preparation of T.P. Schemes in Gujarat


According to The Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act, 1976 the Town Planning Scheme preparation procedure has three tiers i.e. a. Draft scheme to be prepared by the appropriate authority. b. Preliminary scheme to be prepared by town planning officer. c. Final scheme by town planning officer. Developing or developed area or the area potential to be developed is identified for draft Town Planning Scheme and intention to make a scheme is declared after following due procedure. The land parcels in such area are normally irregular in shape. Some of the land parcels may not have access and adequate linkage with the main town and other parts of the town through regular road network. The land parcels are marked on a map and are pooled together on the map. The whole area is then laid out into regular shaped plots after carving out roads and sites for public uses / purposes. The area required
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

for roads and sites for public uses are carved out from each land parcel, which are to be proportionately reduced in size. The reconstituted plot called final plot is normally located on or near original land parcels called original plots. The owner is allotted back the final plot, which is normally reduced in size (area) but improved in terms of shape and accessibility. The owner gets compensation for the area deducted from his original plot. The owner has to pay half or less than half of the increment in the market value of the final plot to the local authority as his contribution towards cost of town planning scheme. Tentative proposals of the reconstitution are made and compensations and incremental contribution is calculated u/s 78,79 & 80. The meeting of the owners and persons interested in the scheme area is called to elicit the public opinion and suggestion regarding proposals of the scheme as per rule 17.The authority on considering suggestions/objection received on the basis of the merits may modify and sent the draft scheme for approval to Govt. which may be sanctioned with or without modification under Section 48. The process of infrastructure development is made faster by amendment of Act in 1999 whereby as per section 48-A, as soon as the Government sanctions the draft scheme, the lands under roads and civic amenities vest with the Appropriate Authority without any encumbrances. By this amendment the infrastructure development and finalization of Town Planning Scheme run hand in hand. Town Planning Officer appointed for the finalization of the scheme sub-divide it into preliminary scheme and the final scheme under the Act where he decides for physical planning in preliminary scheme and finance in final scheme. The Town Planning Officer has to record and enter in the Scheme every decision given by him. The calculations and estimates shall be set out and recorded in Form F, Form G and in other statements as prescribed in Gujarat Town Planning & Urban Development Rules, 1979. Plan of the Town Planning Scheme showing original plots and final plots marked as Annexure P-1-A and the statement showing redistribution of the areas along with valuation and compensation/ contribution and net demand to be paid by owner or to be paid to owner popularly known as F form is shown on next page for the reference and understanding. The F form shown here is as an example with assuming an original plot of 1000 Sq.Mt. allotted the final plot after 40 % deduction. The original plot value and undeveloped final plot value given at col. 6 & 9 is assumed to be Rs. 500/- per Sq. Mt. depending upon sales of nearby lands. While the value of final plot in developed condition that is assuming all works contemplated in scheme are completed on date of declaration of intention is presumed to be Rs. 1250/- per Sq. Mt. depending upon the appreciation the land shall get due to the development of the T.P.S. 11

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

FORM-F
(RULE 21 & 35.)

DRAFT TOWN PLANNING SCHEME No.


REDISTRIBUTION AND VALUATION STATEMENT THE GUJARAT TOWN PLANNING & URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACT 1976 ORIGINAL PLOT T Revenue VALUE IN RUPEES e Survey Without Name of n Number reference Owner u ---------NumArea in to Inclusive r C. S. ber Sq.Mtrs value of of e NO. structures structures 2 3 3(a) 4 5 6 (a) 6(b) XYZ New 1 1 1000 500000 500000

Sr. No.

1 1

Number 7 1

Area in Sq.Mtrs 8 600

FINAL PLOT VALUE IN RUPEES Undeveloped Developed Without Without reference Inclusive reference Inclusive to value of of structures to value of of structures structures structures 9(a) 9(b) 10 (a) 10(b) 300000 300000 750000 750000

Contribution (+) Compensation Under Section 80 Colmn 9(b) MINUS Column 6(b) 11 -200000

Addition to (+) Net demand or deduction from (+) or by Increment from (-) (-) owner being (Section 78) Contribution Contribution the addition of Column (Section 79) to be made columns 10(a) MINUS 50% of under other 11,13,14, Column 9(a) Column 12 Section columns 12 13 14 15 450000 225000 25000

Remarks

16

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Thus the T. P. Scheme mechanism for providing serviced land for urban growth is basically a land reconstitution mechanism. Irregularly shaped agricultural survey numbers are reconstituted for urban use and an equal portion of every survey number is taken away to provide roads and land for other civic facilities. The reconstituted land remains with the original landowner. It is a particularly fair and equitable method of land development: where the development agency simply plays the role of a facilitator; where people are consulted at every stage; where the benefits of development accrue to the original land owners (farmers in the periphery of the city) and their sentimental value of attachment to their land is not lost; where the cost of development is equitably distributed over land owners; where the development agency does not undertake commercial risk but relies on the market forces to do so; where the development agencys role in allocating land is minimum and; where financial outlays of the development agency are minimal. Salient provisions and sections of the town planning act in context to roads and allotment are given below for reference.
Section 40. Making and Contents of a Town Planning Scheme. (2) A Town Planning Scheme may be in accordance with the provisions of this Act in respect of any land, which is: (i) (ii) In the course of development; Likely to be used for residential or commercial or industrial or for building purposes; or [Explanation: - For the purpose of this Sub Section the expression land likely to be used for building purposes shall include any land likely to be used as, or for the purpose of providing, open spaces, roads, streets, parks, pleasure or recreation grounds parking spaces or for the purpose of executing any work upon or under the land incidental to a Town Planning Scheme, whether in the nature of a building work or not.] Already built upon. A Town Planning Scheme may make provision for any of the following matters, namely: (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) The laying out or relaying out of land, either vacant or already built upon; Lay-out of new streets or roads, construction, diversion, extension, alteration, improvement and closing up of streets and roads and discontinuance of communications; The construction, alteration and removal of buildings, bridges and other structures; The allotment or reservation of land for roads, open spaces, gardens, recreation grounds, schools, markets, green-belts, dairies, transport facilities, public purposes of all kinds; Drainage inclusive of sewerage, surface or sub-soil drainage and sewage disposal; Lighting; Water supply;

(iii) (3)

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

(j)

The reservation of land to the extent of ten percent; or such percentage as near thereto as possible of the total area covered under the scheme, for the purpose of providing housing accommodation to the members of S.E.W.S. The allotment of land from the total area covered under the scheme, to the extent of; Fifteen percent for roads. Five percent for parks, playgrounds, garden and open space. Five percent for social infrastructure such as schools, dispensary, fire brigade, public utility place as earmarked in the Draft Town Planning Scheme. Fifteen percent for sale by appropriate Authority for residential, commercial or industrial use depending upon the nature of development.

(jj )

(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Provided that the percentage of the allotment of land specified in paragraphs (i) to (iii) may be altered depending upon the nature of development and for the reasons to be recorded in writing; (b) The proceeds from the Sale of land referred to in Para (iv) of subclause (a) shall be used for the purpose of providing infrastructure facilities. The land allotted for the purposes referred to in paragraphs (ii) and (iii) of sub-clause (a) shall not be changed by variation of schemes for the purpose other than public purpose.

(c)

Section 42. Making and Publication of Draft Scheme.

(1)

Within *nine months* from the date of the declaration of intention to make a Scheme under Section 41, the Appropriate Authority shall make a draft scheme of the area in respect of which the said declaration has been made and publish the same in the Official Gazette, along with the draft regulations for carrying out the provisions of the scheme: Provided that on application by the Appropriate Authority in that behalf, the State Government may, from time to time, by notification, extend the aforesaid period by such period or periods, as may be specified, therein so however, that the period or periods so extended shall not in any case exceed *three months* in the aggregate.

Section 48. Power of State Government to Sanction Draft Scheme. (1) The Appropriate Authority shall, within three months from the date of the publication of the draft scheme in the Official Gazette, submit the draft scheme with any modifications that may have been made therein under Section 47 together with the objections, which may have been communicated to it, to the State Government for sanction. If the State Government sanctions such scheme, it shall in such may think fit, the State Government may, within three months from the date of its receipt, by

(2)

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

notification, sanction such scheme with or without modifications or subject to such conditions as it may think fit to impose or refuse to sanction it. (3) If the State Government sanctions such scheme, it shall in such notification state at what place and time the draft scheme be open for the inspection of the public.

Section 48-A. Vesting of Land in Appropriate Authority.

(1)

(2)

Where a draft scheme has been sanctioned by the State Government under Sub Section (2) of Section 48, (hereinafter in this section, referred to as The Sanctioned Draft Scheme), all lands required by the Appropriate Authority for the purposes in clause (c), (f), (g) or (h) of Sub Section (3) of Section 40 shall vest absolutely in the Appropriate Authority free from all encumbrances. Nothing in Sub Section (1) shall affect any right of the owner of the land vesting in the Appropriate Authority under that Sub Section. The provisions of Section 68 and 69 shall mutatis mutandis apply to the sanctioned draft scheme as if, (i) Sanctioned draft scheme were a preliminary scheme, and In Sub Section (1), for the words comes into force, the words, brackets and figures the date on which the draft scheme is sanctioned under Sub Section (2) of Section 48 were substituted.

(3)

(ii)

2.1.4 Financial aspects of T.P. scheme


In the T. P. Scheme, the land needed for public purpose such as amenity spaces and roads is retained from the land pooled and compensation is paid for such acquired land/deducted land at the value prevailing on the date of declaration of intention to prepare the scheme. It is observed that on one side the procedure of acquisition of the land is taking a long time. Secondly, the property holders in the schemes are not interested in parting their valuable lands at the values fixed under the law and as they are getting the compensation at lesser values then the prevailing rate in the market. In the present format by virtue of preparing the scheme it is assumed that the land value in the developed state would be more then in the undeveloped state, thus accruing monetary benefits to the land holders This monetary benefit is because of enterprise of the planning authority, which prepares and implements the scheme. Therefore, it is split, part of which is allowed to retain by the landholders and the planning authority recovers the remaining part. This retained part of the finance generated by the scheme is used to pay compensation for the lands required under the scheme and to carry out works contemplated under it. This is known as Incremental Contribution. The maximum extent of incremental contribution restricted in the act is 50% of the total expected enhancement in the land value. The experience over the years has shown that this contribution fails to meet the actual cost of the scheme for execution of the draft scheme, sanction and coming into force of 15

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

the final scheme. Thus, the concept of the betterment levy though sound in principle is found to be too inadequate in practice. It is therefore, necessary that some alternative have to be found.

2.1.5 Drawbacks of the T. P. Scheme


Entire study regarding T. P. Scheme carried out in depth analysis shows inordinate delays experienced at each stage for preparation, finalization and sanction of the Town Planning Scheme and has other drawbacks as below. Procedure laid in the act for preparation of T.P. scheme is time consuming & laborious. Difficulties encountered in change of the land records. Delays in sanction to the draft scheme, preliminary scheme and final scheme by Govt. Delay in the appointment/constitution of the Board of Appeal/Tribunal. Delay in the survey of the scheme area and demarcation of the proposals of the scheme. Considerable time passes for implementation of the scheme proposals and collection of incremental contribution. Due to delay in every level, estimate of cost of works frustrated and revised estimate with escalation factor takes place. This may not be ideal condition for specific scheme. Concept of T. P. Scheme is more or less considered to be / regarded to be capitalistic approach. Social interaction to land is not considered. Environmental impact is not evaluated.

2.1.6 Suggestions
a. T. P. Scheme should be viewed as a land development or land improvement project and ought to be seen as a project and manage as project Town Planning Officer should not only prepare and finalize the scheme but would stand responsible till the proposals are totally implemented on site. The draft scheme preparation itself should be entrusted to town planning officer and the draft should be only finalized. The stages of town planning schemes namely draft, preliminary and final may be reduced to single stage only so that draft scheme prepared by authority is implemented directly. The draft scheme also can be implemented completely by making an amendment suggested below where all land owners give the consent of accepting the proposals of draft scheme in writing and that is sanctioned by government so that authority gets all public purpose plots also and people can get their final plots immediately that can be developed. 16

b. c.

d.

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Suggested Amendments Development Act, 1976.

in

Gujarat

Town

Planning

and

Urban

Insert new sections modify/add in as given below at relevant sections as numbered.


Section 42. (A) Intimation for consent offer and its acceptance The appropriate authority may also publish the following intimation for tendering the consent by the land owners along with the publication of draft town planning scheme under Section 42 to agree, accept and shift, it necessary, to the boundaries of the final plot (s) as reconstituted and allotted as per the proposals of the draft scheme to be submitted under Section 48 (1) of the Act and to hand over possession to the appropriate authority of their land covered under the public purpose plots. The Appropriate Authority may consider the consent offer received in the prescribed manner from the land owners as provided under Section 42 (A) (1) any time before the draft scheme is submitted to the government for sanction under Section 48 (1) and if accepted communicate the same to the land owners regarding the acceptance subject to the sanction of the draft scheme under Section 48 (2) in the prescribed manner under intimation to the Town Planning Officer, if any. Provided that the list of land owners whose offer for consent as specified in Section 42 (A) (1) has been received by the appropriate authority and accepted as provided under Section 42 (A) (2) shall also be submitted to the State Government for sanction along with the draft scheme. Section 48 (A) vesting of land in Appropriate Authority. Provided that the public purpose plots allotted to the appropriate authority for which the consent is offered by the land owners as provided under Section 42 (A) (1) and accepted by appropriate authority under Section 42 (A) (2) shall also vest absolutely in appropriate authority on sanction of the draft scheme under Section 48 (2), free from all encumbrances: Further provided that the allotment made to the land owners of their respective final plots who have offered the consent as provided under Section 42 (A) (1) and accepted by the appropriate authority under Section 42 (A) (2) shall stand confirmed in all respects on sanction of the draft scheme under sub-section 2 of Section 48 and no alteration by the town planning officer in respect of these final plots, except variation owing to demarcation, shall be made without the request in writing by the appropriate authority and the land owner both while finalizing the draft scheme under Section 52. Section 52. Contents of Preliminary and Final Scheme. (i-a) record in writing the consent offered by land owners under Section 42 (A) (1) and accepted by Appropriate Authority under Section 42 (A) (2) and sanctioned along with the draft scheme under Section 48 (2) by the Government.

Statement of objects & reasons


R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

By the Amendment Act 2 of 99 time limits for preparation of the Draft Town Planning Scheme is substantially cut short. This Amendment Act also enabled the appropriate authority to take possession of the roads land on sanction of the draft scheme. Finalization of the Town Planning Scheme is taking a long time. This results into delayed possession of the public purpose plots to appropriate authority and transfer of final plots possession to plot holders subsequently delayed implementation of the whole scheme. To overcome this situation and enable the balanced urban development in a time bound manner, it is necessary to further amend certain provisions of the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Rules, 1979 as below: Rule 18 (A) Consent Offer and its Acceptance The consent offer as provided in Section 42 (A) (1) and accepted under section 42 (A) (2) shall be as far as possible in forms No. S and T respectively marked as annexure D.

2.2 Land Acquisition act, 1894


For implementation of any urban development programme, availability of land and its controls are necessary. Acquisition of land for creating an adequate stock of urban land is necessary not only for future growth but also for a large number of public uses. One of the most important legal tools to acquire the land is the Land Acquisition Act of 1894. The right to acquire the land by the State for the public utility has been recognized all over the world. The basic principle of this act is to give top priority to the welfare of the community and that private interests are always subordinate. The right to acquire the land is however not confiscator in nature but imposes obligation on the part of the state to pay appropriate compensation, before acquiring the land. The basis of compensation to be paid to the owner for the loss of his property rests with the state to settle. The main obstacle in the development work is the distribution of land into a large number of ownerships and the purpose of acquisition is to combine the different ownerships into one authority for the development programme.

2.2.1 Use of land acquisition act


Public agencies have used The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 as the main instrument for stocking land for urban development. Further, the act can be used to acquire land for housing, education, health and other public purposes and for registered or cooperative societies, but not for companies.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The affected landowners, piqued at the low rate of compensation as determined by public authorities in respect of their properties under process of acquisition, drag the public agencies into protracted litigations, which unduly prolong urban development process. The Land Acquisition (amendment and validation) Act 1976 tried to overcome some of difficulties in the acquisition process. For example, the amendment provided that section 6 proceedings must be completed within 3 years of notification under section 4. Not stopping at this, the act was amended in 1984 and as per the amended statute, the entire acquisition process was required to complete and amount of compensation determined within three years of the initial notification under section 4, otherwise acquisition process abates automatically. The amended act also makes the compensation more attractive for the owner by providing payment of solatium at 30% of the market value as compared to 15%. Due to amended provisions in the LA Act, government has to arrange not only for the compensation amount but also the enhancements, which keep coming over the period of development (sometimes 15-20 years) as a result of judgments of the various courts of law. The amendments have thus substantially increased the compensation liabilities of the public agencies involved in urban development, and it is becoming increasingly difficult for these agencies to undertake large-scale acquisition of land. It is so necessary to look into alternative methods of land assembly, which would reduce dependence on government funds at the beginning of the development process.

2.2.2 Aims and objectives


The Act deals with the law to acquire the land for Public purpose and for Companies, or Societies. For public purpose is meant the land to be acquired to benefit a large section of the community. For companies purpose the land is taken to mean everything in connection with land such as buildings standing on it, standing trees, crops etc. the act also provides the speedy method of finding compensation to be paid to acquire the land, the manner in which the land is to be acquired, norms and forms to be followed for acquisition. Salient provisions and sections of the land acquisition act in context to roads are given below for reference.
Section 4 (1): Publication of Preliminary Notification and Powers of Officer When the local Government thinks appropriate to acquire the land for public purposes, a notification to that effect is published in the Government Gazette. Such notice has to be given in the locality. Section 5-A: Hearing of Objection Any person interested in the and which is needed or likely to be needed for public purpose or for a company, has to file objection against such acquisition of land on or before the date specified in the preliminary notification under section 4(1).
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Section 6: Declaration of Intended Acquisition If the local government is satisfied after considering the report made under Section 5A, sub-section (2), that the land is required for public purpose or any company, the declaration to that effect is made in the Government Gazette, and the Deputy Commissioner may proceed to acquire the land. Section 11: Award by the Deputy Commissioner On the date so fixed, the Deputy Commissioner will proceed to enquire into the claims of all persons interested in the land and then pass award. (The total amount of compensation to be paid and its apportionment amongst the various co-shares is called Award). Section 17: Special Powers of Taking Possession in case of Emergency In case of urgency the Government can though no such award has been made, take possession of any waste or available land needed for public purposes or for a company. Such land shall thereupon vest absolutely in the Government. Emergency cases such as (1) Sudden change of navigable river, (2) Land necessary for railway, (3) Land necessary for maintenance of traffic, (4) Land required fro making ghat station or providing convenient connection to any such station, (5) Owing to breaches or damage to road etc. Section 23: Matters to be considered for Determination of Compensation In determining the amount of compensation to be awarded for land acquisition, the court shall take into consideration the following: a. b. c. d. Market value i.e. the actual use value at the time of publication of the first notification under Section 4, sub-section (1). Compensation to be paid for standing crops, trees, etc. Compensation to be paid for the damage of the land. Damage caused to movable or immovable property or the earnings. Compensation for change of residence or change of occupation.

2.2.3 Review of Land Acquisition Act


A review of situations dealing with the implementation of Development Plans indicates that the bottlenecks exist largely due to the land acquisition acts in India, which are tardy. The Gujarat Land Revenue Regulations, 1972 has origin from the nineteenth century and hence several sections in context to modern era, and changing economic order, deem necessary to review and revise some of the sections. The most time consuming activities identified in land acquisition proceedings are (1) Inquiry of land records, (2) Manual processing of the proposals (3) Controversial situation due to fixation of compensation and (4) Issues pertaining to rehabilitation. 20

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The comparative statement between T. P. Scheme and Land Acquisition Methods are given below: Table 2.2.3 A Comparative statement of development through T. P. Scheme & Land Acquisition Act method
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Particulars Mostly used Acquisition of land Compensation paid is based on Building of roads and infrastructures Land appreciation to owners Serviced plots availability T. P. Schemes In States of Gujarat and Maharashtra Temporarily acquired without paying compensation Prevailing market prices of developed land in nearby areas Using betterment charges levied on reconstituted plots. Reconstituted final plot after deducting some percent for road and public purpose so benefit accrues to both. Private and public plots are developed simultaneously. Land Acquisition In states of Delhi, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka In bulk for permanently. Prevailing agriculture land price of near by areas and solatium is paid. Using government funds or loans. Owner is displaced of whole land , so benefit of appreciation accrues to authority only. Serviced plots are sold after very long period at very higher rates benefiting acquired agency Slow Agencies become powerful and large scale land developer The share is by displaced person only. Externalities to the land owners on the vicinity Depends on willingness of acquiring agencies

4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Development process Development agencies status Sharing of land Externalities Availability of serviced land

Fast Self financing and no profit no loss basis development Equal share of land is contributed by every owner No externalities to others Depends on willingness of owner

Considering above the Town Planning Scheme mechanism may seem more equitable and democratic compared to the method of bulk acquisition. But Town Planning Schemes are more appropriate in areas where development has already started and land values are high with potentiality of development is in near future while for undeveloped, under developed or agricultural use area, land acquisition may be a better tool. Also other forms of development for infrastructure like T.D.R., B.O.T., selling of F.S.I. can be better alternative then above two traditional methods may be seen.

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2.3 Transfer of Development Rights (T.D.R)


T.D.R. is a non monetary compensation in the form of Floor Space Index (F.S.I.) credit equivalent to the gross area of plot reserved for public purpose in the Development Plan and additional amenities such as D.P. roads etc. appropriate authority subject to the terms and conditions. It is mandatory for every city to undertake the preparation of 'Development Plans'. Such plans typically take into account the expected increase in population and the demand for services including infrastructure. The spatial layout of the planned or expected activities is what constitutes the 'Development' or 'Master' plan. Typically for the planned municipal and related services, land would have to be acquired. In most cities, the local bodies as well as the state government own a very small part of the land. Hence, land would have to be acquired from private parties for public purposes. The actual implementation of development plans reveals that in the metropolitan areas only a small fraction of the proposed targets in the plans are actually achieved. In determining the 'fair price of land' to be acquired, governments generally try to rely on the past records of sales transactions. These are rarely reported or recorded correctly since transaction taxes are high and the role of 'black money' in the economy is large. Today, local bodies or the state governments do not have adequate funds to acquire the necessary land even at the recorded low rates. Land owners, on the other hand, are always opposed to the reservation being proposed on their land, because upon acquisition of the land, the amount of compensation receivable would tend to be typically a fraction of its traded price. The other associated (transaction) costs of acquisition are high. Local authorities are therefore either unable to acquire lands or are slow to buy notified land, because of tight budgetary resources. When the local authority fails to buy the notified land within the specified period, the reservation on the land is automatically deemed deleted. This under acquisition of land therefore puts a severe brake on the provision of public services and in bringing about improvements in the city. The citizen, ultimately, bears the cost of poor amenities and services. A pragmatic solution to this problem could be the use of 'Transfer of Development Rights'.

2.3.1 Operating mechanism of TDR


The Urban Development Plans Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI), Government of India (GOI 1996), define Transferable Development Rights as, 'Development Right to transfer the potential of a plot designated for a public purpose in a plan, expressed in terms of total permissible built space calculated on the basis of Floor Space Index or Floor Area Ratio allowable for that plot for utilization by the owner himself or by way of transfer by him to someone else from the present location to a specified area in the plan, as 22

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

additional built up space over and above the permissible limit in lieu of compensation for the surrender of the concerned plot free from all encumbrances to the Planning and Development Authority.' The TDR as a mechanism utilizes the real estate market, rather than the market for land, to compensate the landowner, whose development rights have been curtailed. It allows for the transaction of development rights as build able area. It aims at enabling the use of land for public purpose at little or no cost to the public exchequer. Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) programmes have been used to achieve various purposes, such as (i) landmark preservation; (ii) open space preservation; (iii) preservation of fragile lands; (iv) as a primary system of land use regulation; (v) as a method of encouraging the construction of moderate and low income housing; (vi) as a method of regulating the location and timing of community growth; (vii) and to provide for acquisition of land under reservation for urban services. The US has used TDR in a variety of ways compared with Mumbai as shown in the Table 2.3.1. The predictability of development could be increased and thus planning for public services could be improved without alienating the owner completely of the intangible value of his property. Transfer of Development Right (TDR) programmes do not need 'correct' prices in land markets. To the extent that the distortions are similar at both locations, it works, since the acquirer does not have to grapple with absolute price as such. The advantages to the authority when TDRs are used are many: (i) Monetary Compensation is avoided when the property owner opts for TDRs; (ii) The acquired land is available free of title disputes, encroachments, and encumbrances. Thus the authority can put the land to immediate use. Consequently, implementation of the master plan can be speeded up. The advantages to the plot owner are :(i) Compensation is given in the form of build able area as against monetary compensation. An individual plot owner can earn, by selling his development rights, and amount, that could be many times the government compensation in traditional acquisition; (ii) Since much less time is taken for the entire procedure, the plot owner gets the development right faster. For good values and to prevent cauterization, two or more growth centers or a very high level to dynamism is required. In order to a make TDR work, it is necessary to ensure that the markets for the Development Rights allow existing. Similarly, identification of land values (into certain categories) in all areas of city and indexing them before giving the TDR is necessary. On the user side, it is also desirable that heavily congested area is not allowed to use for fresh increase in Floor Space Index (FSI) or density. Also a clear definition of the receiving zones and high-density growth centres would also be desirable.

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Table 2.3.1 T.D.R. Programmes at various urban centers


PartiCulars Objective Montegomery Country Preserve agriculture Within country New Jersey Environmental protection Across countries Chicago Preserving landmarks Within district Virginia To replace zoning Within country Mumbai, India To acquire reserved land for social amenities Within the limit of MCGM (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) Allowable built-up space

Transfer limits

DR Based on

Acreage

Suitability of land for development All farmers No Varied according to type of land

Person getting DR DR Bank Value of right

Farmers in agri-cultural area Yes In multiples of five acres

Difference between allowed and consumed FSI Landmark owner Yes Equal to area of unutilized FSI

Acreage

All landowners No Dependding on use

All landholder having land under reservation No Equal to the area of permissible FSI (built-up space)

2.4

The development model of Gurgaon


The standard economy approach to the land development issue is to allow private development of land and need involve the private sector in real estate development. The private colonizers have been involved in land development in Haryana on a large scale and these colonizers have operated in tandem with the state urban development agency Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA). Here license to develop land is given to the colonizers by the Town Planning Department of the State Government subject to an evaluation of the title of the land, extent and situation of the land, capacity of the applicant to develop scheme. The colonizers have to pay proportionate development charges if the main lines of roads, drainage, sewerage, water supply and electricity are to be laid out and constructed by the Government or any other authority. The responsibility for the maintenance of all roads, open spaces, public parks and public health services would be placed with the developers for five years

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after the date of issue of completion certificate. Thereafter, all such roads, open spaces, public parks and public health services would be transferred free of cost to the State government or the local authority. The Act also stipulates that, in addition to physical infrastructure the colonizers would provide social amenities in the layout developed by them. The developer has to construct on his own cost, schools, hospitals, community centers and other community buildings on the trends set apart for the purpose. Alternatively, the developer can transfer these lands free of cost to the state government, which can be allotted to any person or institution for the purpose. Salient Features of Model in Gurgaon Land is to be initially acquired/ purchased by the developer by negotiating with the farmers who held authentic land titles with the help of the village. The developer would be entitled to develop maximum 55% of the land area as residential plotted area and 45% compulsorily for public use (social amenities such as schools, hospitals, community centers, parks, and playgrounds for recreation and clubs for entertainment. If the developer fails to do so then he would be required to transfer free of charge the land to the government who in turn will transfer land to suitable institution for further development as per the guidelines. The developer would be responsible for providing all the internal infrastructure facility like water supply, sewerage, electricity and roads within the colony so as to ensure the buyers comfort and desire. To pay proportionate charges for external or off-site infrastructure services like roads, water supply, sewerage, drainage and electricity - will be laid by the development authority. After granting of the completion certificate, the developer will have to maintain the colony for the period as agreed upon.

Limitation in the Context of Gurgaon Model The limitation of the private sector involvement in land development is highlighted in Haryana. The colonizers are active in the areas adjoining the NCT of Delhi and this is due to captive demand of the colonizer of the residents of Delhi. Also, they have catered to the higher and middle income groups ignoring the demand of the lower - income groups and the economically weaker sections of the population. The housing supply to the latter categories has been limited to the proportions stipulated by the Town Planning Department. It can, thus, be concluded that the private sector is guided by profit maximization motives and cannot be expected to cover the entire spread of population both across geographical areas and income groups. This brings out the role to be played by the state agencies in land development facilitating the private sector involvement and directly catering to the needs of the sections of the population ignored by the private sector.
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

2.5 Build-Operate-Transfer approach


BOT (Build Operate Transfer) where the private sector takes primary responsibility for funding, designing, building and operating the project. Control and formal ownership of the project is then transferred back to the public sector. Hence BOT is nothing but a tool to represent a unique and flexible solution to implement infrastructure projects through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) venture. It may be noted here that presently the tool of BOT has been discussed over here as an implementation tool for urban road project and development method can be from any of the above discussed methods. PPPs are not only an alternative to Government budgetary constraints; they are also the means to improve the quality and delivery of public services. The intervention by the private sector can reduce inefficiency and respond effectively to user demands. PPPs can release states resources, which can be used for other purposes. The United Nations has become increasingly prominent as an advocate of PPPs. Given the lack of budgetary resources and needs in the transition economies; PPPs are a strategic necessity rather than a policy option. PPPs can also achieve social and environmental objectives. Thus, the concept of PPPs has become very attractive and is reflected in many UN global initiatives that can take different forms like Contracting out or management contracts where the private sector is only partially involved, for example it provides a service or manages without taking any risk; Joint ventures where the private and public sector jointly finance, own and operate a facility; Leasing where part of the risk is transferred to the private sector; Possible variations on this theme can be BOOT (Build Own Operate Transfer); DFBO (Design Build Finance Operate); DCMF (Design Construct Manage and Finance); BLT (Build Lease Transfer) and many others; BOO (Build Own Operate) where the control and the ownership of the projects remain in private hands.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

2.5.1 Salient features of BOT


The paucity of funds with government for the infrastructure demands a solution to be explored by private participation. When the scenario is reviewed the following observations on the implementation of road infrastructure may noted: In order to overcome resource constraints felt by the governments in developing countries, attempts are being made to involve the private sector by mobilizing its resources in terms of both finance and skills, for implementing projects in the transport sector. In the BOT approach, there is a distinct transfer of risk from the government to the private sector. There is also the transfer of quality control concerns to the concessionaire, who will do a better job if given responsibility for the entire project and earns profit. The main risks, which the private sector would face in transport infrastructure projects, are uncertain traffic forecasts, facing losses due to unforeseen natural calamities and also prospects of getting entangled in legal battles. There is also a fear of facing inconsistent government policies. To improve the finances of the government agencies a number of measures have been recommended ranging from introduction of surcharges to levying different development cess and floating of bonds. But except for the latter, hardly any recommendations have been implemented. The main financing structure for privately financed projects would comprise both debt and equity. Effective organizational arrangements are crucial for making execution of privately financed projects successful. Experience to date on BOT projects in India and abroad is based on a limit number of projects. It is, however, sufficient to point out that BOT is not an easy option for a sponsoring authority as it requires stability in government, a suitable legal framework, new mechanisms for rapid decision making and competent technocrats and advisers.

The approach is definitely not the easy option for governments as well as private promoters. To be implemented efficiently, it requires: Stable government with key government personnel. Suitable legal framework. New government mechanisms for rapid decision-making. Competent technocrats in a range of disciplines who understand the private sector. Competent pool of advisers. 27

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Substantial amount of top management time, in financial as well as normal technical fields. High front-end costs. Substantial risk which only the larger companies can contemplate. The demand for transport services is derived demand and hence depends on the development of other sectors of the economy. Highways, which have a long waiting period for obtaining the return on investments, need some protection against such eventualities. It also relates to legal battles for acquired land or encroachment on roads. This is one of the important issues in India, as legal battles continue for years during which, if any stay order is obtained, the project operation and toll collection may be adversely hampered. There is also a fear of facing non-consistent government policies. The project companys first and foremost task will be to ensure that the government is firmly committed to such an enterprise and to the project.

2.5.2 Funding of the projects


The main idea behind the BOT concept is to mobilize ingestible resources in the private sector into the development of infrastructure projects. In order to realize this objective, the entrepreneur is to stick to a reasonable debt equity ratio. The entrepreneur should have sufficed stake in the project so that he takes full interest in efficiently managing and completing the project as per schedules. For this purpose, it is essential that on percentage of project cost, say about 15 per cent be compulsorily, mobilized by the entrepreneur as his share and the same deployed before the funds from other sources are utilized on the project. As the costs of borrowed capital are considerable in the competing business environment, entrepreneur should carefully plan his cash flow and borrow capital at suitable intervals. In order that the project be sufficiently attractive to the entrepreneur, interest costs on the borrowed capital along with fair returns on the project costs be allowed to be entrepreneurs in addition to the cost of the construction, maintenance and operation of the facility. Commercial activities along the highways like advertisement hoardings; roadside motels, and restaurants, service stations etc. could be developed for making the project more viable while creating facilities for road users. The commercial activities could be operated on completive business principles whose accounts could be maintained and scrutinized similar to that of project accounts. The income so derived could be incorporated in the cash flows to defray project costs to that extent.

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While planning the commercial activities along the highways all principles of traffic safety and smooth flow of traffic should be scrupulously followed as per the relevant standards and guidelines. As the expenditure incurred by a private entrepreneur is to be collected back by him as agreed upon in BOT approach through toll levy, the pros and cons of toll financing also need study as below. Toll financing advantages: It accelerates realization of economic benefits by speedy construction of new highways which otherwise might be delayed due to budgetary constraints. It offers strong incentives for taking up cost effective projects on priority. Toll roads being self-financing and revenue generating free budgetary resources for the preservation of the existing road network, which could also help ease pressure for increase in highway taxes. Toll roads have also been used to relieve peak-hour traffic congestion by setting toll rates to reflect congestion costs. Toll roads are constructed and operated purely on commercializes as business proposition with right control over time and cost-over runs.

Disadvantages: Toll roads are costly as compared to public funded roads. Tolling tends to decrease the use of the facility. Thus, the facility is put too less efficient use.

Availability of government support It is necessary to establish in advance the financial viability of such a proposition, since no entrepreneur is likely to be attracted for a project which is not sure to give desired rate of return from the investment. Thus, the feasibility of the proposed project needs to be determined in advance before offers for private sector participation is invited. Government support can be by way of acquiring and leasing out on nominal rent, the land required for the project or actual financial support. Government can also give additional facilities to the entrepreneur to make the project viable. These include: Tax concession Concession on Sales Tax on the materials of construction Concession on the Octroi duties Advertisement rights in the right of way Permission to generate revenue by tree plantation in the road side land Concession from payment of royalty fees on quarry materials 29

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Giving additional land for development by roadside Giving a guarantee for minimum return etc.

Even after giving all the above concessions and obtaining clearances and acquisition of land when offers are called for, all concerns like delay in acquiring land and obtaining environmental clearance of Government are not done away with.

2.5.3 International privatization experience


The majority of developed countries have traditionally used general revenues, fuel taxes on motor vehicles and debt financing the capital markets via long term bonds serviced by toll, for funding their highway development programmes. While Germany and UK have not relied on tolls for the development of their highway network, toll road financing is an important mechanism in France, Italy, USA and Japan. The experience of these countries provides valuable insights into how the public and private sectors may help in developing a road network. The Federal Interstate Highway Programme of USA has been financed primarily by vehicle fuel taxes. Toll roads account for less than 10 per cent of the system, none of which is operated by private concessionaires. The role of the private sector is limited to financing toll roads through capital markets. Toll road authorities issue debt instruments known as revenue bonds, which are serviced entirely by toll revenues collected by the issuing authority. Interest on these bonds is exempted from taxes. Toll rates are relatively low resulting from the low cost of capital and high traffic volumes. In France limited access, grade-separated expressways known as Auto routes have been developed for the last 30 years. Most of the new Autoroutes however have experienced lower traffic growth rates and hence reduced toll revenues. The French toll system has resorted to cross subsidization. Surpluses from the more highly trafficked routes finance deficits of less profitable routes both within each concessionary network and throughout the national toll road system via compensatory deposits and advances from Auto routes de France. Thus, each concessionary company will have more and less profitable routes within its own network, which gives the concessionaire financial equilibrium and profit. Majority of concession agreements stipulate that the Government will share the risks of force measure. The Fresh experience demonstrates that high toll rates can adversely affect the growth of traffic and the financial viability of the project, and without adequate guarantees, only the strongest concessionaires can survive adverse economic conditions. In the case of Japan as in France and Italy, the initiating factor for private sector participation was to find a suitable method of financing costly expressway/roads without undue burden on the budget. In the early years of operation, the Japan Highway Public Corporation (JHPC) depended on
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Government subsidies and loans from the Government and World Bank. Over time, these systems have become self-sustaining and do not require any aid from the Central Government budget. It now relies primarily on loans from private financial institutions, serviced from toll revenues. The Japanese expressway policy is also one of cross-subsidization, wherein toll revenues from heavily trafficked routes help to finance the costs of unprofitable segments.

2.5.4 Observations on BOT approach in Gujarat


In Gujarat, till few years back the government or its agency constructed most of the roads where land was acquired through land acquisition act or town planning schemes sometimes. Though through Town Planning Schemes big sized roads or regional level roads were not constructed. But after getting possession of land for the road by any of above method, construction and maintenance part were states cup of tea. Now days private organizations have come into the picture and build- own- operate & transfer or similar other concession methods have been operated for it. In Gujarat, mainly HalolVadodara and Ahmedabad- Mehsana highways have been given for development by such method by Gujarat Toll Company. The expansion of Ahmedabad Rajkot highway is also going on similarly. For the purpose of providing for a framework for participation by persons other than the Government and Government agencies in financing, construction and maintenance and operation of infrastructure projects an act named Gujarat Infrastructure Development Act, 1999 is in force in the state of Gujarat from 28th April 1999. But Government of Indias experience with private sector till date clearly shows that only BOT projects to have got off the ground so far are bridges and bypass. Highways and expressways are financially non-viable. The possibility of non-toll roads being improved in the future creates uncertainty regarding traffic toll roads. Investment in roads is typically of long duration with long gestation period; hence proper access to long-term resources is crucial. The current debt instrument in the market is only for short duration. Unless financial assistance is provided these projects by way of subsidy and/or cheap credit they will fail to attract private investment. It is urgently required that debt burden on these projects should be reduced either by providing moratorium of interest and repayment for the initial investment by channelising cheap credit e.g. pension funds, provident funds, insurance funds etc. to finance a certain percentage of the debt. In the case of expressways, while the cost of construction in India is at par international costs, it is not possible to levy matching tolls. Indian roads will be to charge only Rs. 0.50 per km. on an average as against Rs. 2 per km. in the way. This is due to the fact that cost of operation and fuel price for commercial
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

vehicles in India are very high resulting in lower VOC savings and hence low levy tolls. Till date, governments and private sector have had limited experience in dealing with each other as equal partners on complex toll road projects. In most cases, toll charges do not cover the full cost of roads and hence fail to provide acceptable financial rate of return to the private enterprise. Privatization has successful only with the active government support in the form of provision of finance at low rates subsidies, tax holidays, legal assurances and guaranteed traffic and returns etc. Some of the measures introduced for augmenting the income from toll roads are discussed below: Granting of land rights to encourage development made the projects viable. Allowing private toll road operators to share in the revenues of the existing publicly owned toll roads. Offering Shadow tolls to private operators i.e. tolls paid from government revenues on the basis of traffic flows. Fiscal incentives to lower the project cost and/or promote private sector investment in roads. Setting up special financial institutions and development of instrument for resource mobilization for providing long term loans and creation of special road funds to (a) finance certain percentage of cost at reasonable interest rates and/or moratorium on loan repayment (b) make long term financing available when private financing is not likely to be sufficient. The government has set up infrastructure development banks.

As per the section 4(1)(a) of the Gujarat Infrastructure Development Act, 1999, concession agreement is made between the agency and government for the project to be developed on BOT basis. As per section 6, assistance by state government or its agency including conferment of right to develop any land is to be given. Hence here in case of development and implementation of AUDA ring road, at least for the part of road section that is excepting cross drainage works or bridges land, the land has to be legally owned by AUDA to avoid any complications in future to go for the BOT method.

2.6 Prcis of the above methods useful to Ring Road development


Above studies show that of the many options available for development of road projects, tools practiced mostly in India & particularly in Gujarat are land acquisition method and Town Planning Scheme followed sometimes by build operate & transfer approach. 32

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Town Planning Scheme is rational, equitable and democratic for carving out area for roads and contribution is proportionately shared towards cost. But the tool has lacunae for getting delays. The land acquisition method along with time consuming expels out the person from his land totally putting social unjustification. Transfer of development rights is now emerging as an alternative to conventional land acquisition method. TDR saves the authority from paying the compensation in cash immediately and person can utilize his right in need time. TDR can best be used for development plan roads. Though it becomes necessary that the markets for the development rights allow existing. Other land readjustment methods with some fine difference from Town Planning Scheme mechanism as practiced in other countries where directly final scheme status is applied to draft scheme unlike in Gujarat also helps in development of roads faster. Involvement of private sectors as in case of Gurgaon model of development can relieve authority from burden of development of roads along with other infrastructure. While once if land for road is available build operate- transfer approach can be effectively applied to few big roads or over bridges and tolled to reduce financial burden. Also other concession forms like BOOT (Build Own Operate Transfer); DFBO (Design Build Finance Operate); DCMF (Design Construct Manage and Finance); BLT (Build Lease Transfer) and many others; BOO (Build Own Operate) where the control and the ownership of the projects remain in private hands and public private partnership can be applied.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 3.0 TRANSPORT PLANNING PROCEDURE & ROAD NETWORK CLASSIFICATION


The urban transportation planning process is based on a set of principles and assumptions, the most basic of which is that travel patterns are tangible, stable and predictable. In addition to this fundamental assumption, it has been found necessary in the light of experience to assume that: 1. Decisive relationships exist between all modes of transport, and that the future role of a particular mode cannot be determined without giving consideration to all other modes. 2. The transportation system influences the development of an area, as well as serving that area. 3. Areas of continuous urbanization require a region-wide consideration of the transport situation. 4. The transportation study is an integral part of the overall planning process, and cannot adequately be considered in isolation. 5. The transportation planning process is continuous, and requires constant up dating, validating and amendment. Given these principles and assumptions it is evident that if transportation planning is to be effective it must be comprehensive and co-ordinate with other aspects of the overall planning process. It must therefore reflect the views of all the specialists involved in planning the engineer, the traffic and transportation specialists, the town planner, and the economist- as well as meeting the requirements of the population at large. The principal steps involved in the urban transportation planning process can be readily identified as: 1. The collection of land-use, population, economic and travel pattern data for the present-day situation. 2. The establishment of quantifiable relationships between present-day movements and the land-use, population and economic factors. 3. The prediction of land-use, population and economic factors to the target date for the study. 4. The prediction of the origins, destinations and distribution of the future movement demands, using the relationships established for the present-day situation and the predicted land-use, population and economic factors. 5. The prediction of the person-movements likely to be carried by the different modes of travel at the target date. 6. The assignment of predicted trips to alternative co-ordinate transport systems.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

GLOSSARY: Assignment: When estimating traffic flows between an origin and a destination, and there is a choice of route available, then an assignment to the alternative routes must be made. Cost Benefit Ratio: A study designed to assist in choosing between alternative schemes where different levels of expenditure and different degrees of benefit are involved. Desire Line, Desire line diagram: A desire line is a straight line drawn on a map between two points to indicate a desire for a journey to be made between those points. It does not indicate the actual route of the journey. A desire line diagram is used to in practice to summarize the desires for movement between specific zones, lines between identical pairs of zones being grouped together so that the composite width of the group of lines is in proportion to the total number of desired movements. Diverted Traffic: Traffic, which has changed from its previous route of travel to another route, without change in origin or destination. Environmental Area: An area having no extraneous traffic and within which considerations of environment predominate over the user of vehicles. Freeway: The American equivalent of a motorway. Other terms are also used to describe high capacity roads such as expressways or throughway, some of which indicate varying standards of design. Generated Traffic (as used in Cost- Benefit studies): Traffic which did not previously exist in any form but which results when additional facilities are provided or existing facilities are improved. An alternative term used to describe the same features is Induced Traffic. Origin and Destination Survey: A survey to determine the origins and destinations of journeys. Peak Hour: In respect of any road the period of one hours duration in the 24- hour day during which the greatest amount of traffic is carried. In practice it is usual to distinguish morning, midday or evening peak- hours. Screen Line: An imaginary line drawn across part of a traffic study area, across which the total numbers of movements of any kind are determined, in order to check the estimated traffic flows across the same line. Traffic Management: The promotion of a more efficient movement of traffic within a given a street system by rearranging the flows, controlling the intersections and regulating the times and places of parking.

Transportation Study: A comprehensive study of all the demands for movement in a locality to provide a basis for a coordinated planning of transport systems. Such a study involves the use of origin and destination surveys, home- interviews surveys and other investigations.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Trip: A one-way movement between a point of origin and a point of destination

3.1 Road Network Classification and Hierarchy


A road classification or hierarchy of system is a fundamental tool for urban development and road management. Grouping roads with similar functions improves transportation planning, road infrastructure design and maintenance and traffic operations. Depending upon the basic area of urban or rural, roads can be classified.

3.1.1 Rural Roads


Rural Roads in the Indian context are: Primary Roads 1 Expressway and National Highways (NH) Connects major ports, foreign highways, capital cities, major cities, industrial centers, and tourist centers. Roads required for strategic movement for defense purposes are also included. Expressway differs from a national highway in that it has a median through out, access to it is controlled, grade separation at crossings is provided, and only fast moving vehicles are allowed. Secondary Roads 2 State Highways (SH) These are arterial roads of the state connecting with NH of same and adjacent states, district headquarters, and important cities of the state. The geometric design standards for NH and SH are the same. 3 Major District Road (MDR) Connects areas of production and markets Connects to state highways Lower design speed and geometric specifications than NH/SH Tertiary Roads 4 Other District Roads (ODR) Connects rural areas of productions to market centers Connects Taluka head quarters and to major district roads 5 Village Roads (VR) Connects villages or groups thereof Connects to other district roads

3.1.2 Urban Roads


Urban roads serve a variety of functions. These are transport, additional transport and non-transport functions.
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

[1]

Transport Functions Roads which provide for high speed traffic movement termed as mobility (or movement) function

An extreme example of this is the freeway or the expressway, which represents a road that has no local access along it and serves the only function of carrying thru traffic. Roads which provide access to properties, termed as access function An extreme example of this is the cul-de-sac that only provides for local access and does not carry thru traffic. Roads having mixed function, i.e. both mobility and access

Relationship between Mobility and Land Access No Access Traffic No local access No through traffic

Arterials Mobility

Sub-arterials
Collectors or Distributors

Land Access Unrestricte d access [2]

Access roads

Additional Transport Functions In certain situations roads may have additional transport functions to perform such as: Serving as bus routes, providing parking spaces, providing space for movement of pedestrians and bicycles Non-Transport Functions In addition to their transportation function, some roads may also have equal-priority non-transport functions to perform such as: 37

[3]

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Recreational, Social and Economic Table 3.1.2. Classification of Urban Roads based on the functional hierarchy
Type of Other urban popular road names Arterial Main Distributor Level Transport function Mainly mobility and restricted access Other Transport function Parking Public transport routes Nontransport functions Description

Subarterial

Secondary Distributor

Mainly mobility and sometime s access

Parking Public transport routes

Could have recreation al/ social/ economic functions Could have recreation al/ social/ economic functions

CollectOr

Local Distributor

Mobility and access

Parking

4 Access Estate roads or Locals Mainly access and restricted mobility Parking

Connects main traffic generators Connects to Rural roads Distributes traffic within the city Provides for cross-city travel Connects main residential/comm ercial zones Connects to arterial roads Provides for cross-zonal travel Connects main activities within a neighborhood Connects to sub-arterial roads Provides for crossneighborhood travel Volumes and speeds lesser than sub-arterials Through traffic is negligible and should be discouraged Sometimes access roads are dead ends Low speeds

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.1.3 Characteristics Main Arterials and Sub-arterials


Main arterials are intended to provide high mobility and therefore have to be designed for high operating speeds and high level of service. In order to preserve its capacity, management of access on to main arterials is a crucial task. Changes in the abutting land uses at times put pressure on allowing access on to it. However, the same should be reviewed at the time of preparing the overall development plan on the city and no ad hoc decisions should be taken. They server longer trips that are either passing through the city or terminating at important locations such as the CBD, large commercial areas, large residential areas, large industrial areas, and other activity centers. The sub-arterial system interconnects with and augments the major arterial system. It offers slightly lower level of service and accommodates trips of slightly shorter lengths. Therefore operating speeds are less than main arterials. They connect commercial, residential, shopping, recreational activities at a zonal or sector level. No main or sub-arterial should penetrate through a residential neighborhood.

3.1.4 Collectors
This category of road provides for both mobility and land access within commercial, residential, and industrial areas. The carriageway configuration may be standardized in terms of number of lanes, median requirements, etc but other cross-section elements need to be provided on case-by-case basis. The factors that influences determination of other cross-section elements such as parking, footpath width, bus-bays, IPT stands, access treatment, etc depend upon the type, scale, and density of adjacent development.

3.1.5 Access Roads (or Locals)


Access roads could be providing land access in residential areas, commercial areas, industrial areas, etc. Access roads are dealt with at the micro level and do not warrant attention at the development plan level (ie the city level). The trip lengths are very short and hence, corresponding volumes and speeds re also low. In the context of Gujarat, the access roads are looked into at the time of preparation of the TP Scheme for an area.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.2 Design of New Urban Networks


There are several types of road and street, but that they can be grouped into two distinct functional groups: 1. 2. Traffic routes (mostly arterial roads), the main function of which is to provide efficient traffic mobility. Local streets that provide access to local areas (the areas bounded by arterial roads or other barriers), but in a wider sense contribute to the overall function of such areas.

The design of new urban networks include: Network design issues Road network function and design Residential area planning Traffic route (arterial road) networks Local street networks Access managed traffic routes

The need for good design Design considerations are important as if the overall road and street network is properly designed, many of the problems associated with road traffic are reduced to a manageable level or else do not arise. For example, the volume of traffic in a local residential street is an important determinant of residential amenity. Networks can be designed to keep traffic volumes to acceptable levels and can thus avoid the problems associated with excess traffic volume. Similarly, the speed of traffic is another determinant of local amenity and safety; network design, through the avoidance of long or continuous streets, can play an important role in keeping vehicle speeds to an acceptable level. It is important to note that if new networks are properly and sensitively designed, this will avoid later traffic problems requiring retroactive traffic management solutions, at least in local networks; most if not all-local area traffic management is a consequence of poor initial network design. For example, in its submission to the 1987 inquiry conducted by the Victorian State Parliaments Social Development Committee, the City of Nunawading stated that most of the effort of traffic engineers in Nunawading is directed towards rectifying traffic problems that are a consequence of previous planning deficiencies in the road network and developments. (Social Development Committee, 1987, p 103). 40

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.2.1 Road Network Function and Design


Function Roads and streets perform two fundamental but conflicting roles relating to traffic movement, and access to land use activities. It is therefore logical that a classification philosophy should consist of two basic road types, which have fundamentally different functional goals. The first being traffic routes, the main function of which is to provide efficient traffic mobility (the arterial road network), and the second being local streets, the main function of which is to provide access and thereby contribute to the overall functioning of local areas (i.e. the area bounded by arterial roads or other barriers). The two basic road types will necessarily have different management goals. For traffic routes, the goal is to optimise traffic movement in terms of efficiency and safety. For local streets, the goal has to do with amenity and environment, i.e. to be a good place to live (residential streets), or to conduct a business (commercial or industrial streets). The design and operation of the respective arterial roads, local streets, and the networks of which they are part should reflect these goals. Design The direction from which the network design is approached depends on which network (local network or traffic network) is being considered. The design of local areas, including the street system, is a human scale task. Local area design must be based on the needs of those who live and do business there, not the need for traffic efficiency. This necessarily implies that the street network within a local area is a product that is developed after considering all the other facets that make up the fabric of a good place to live. Conversely, the design of traffic route networks is a regional efficiency task. The shape or configuration of the traffic route network is largely determined by the spacing required to allow proper functioning of the economic, social and other activities in the region, based upon the relative location of other developed areas and their major traffic generators. In new areas, some of these locations may already be determined as they may use existing road reserves. The approximate location of regional arterials is likely to be imposed on a new area after consideration of transport and topographical opportunities and needs.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.3 Local Street Networks


As mentioned previously, local street networks, unlike arterial networks, should be designed from the bottom up. Subject to some physical constraints, and the possible need to function as service or bus routes and even flood ways, there is considerable freedom in locating local streets. The layout pattern of the local street network will be determined by the need to satisfy multiple performance criteria, particularly social criteria, as well as constraints to keep vehicle speeds and volumes to nominated levels. The basis of the process in the various guides includes consideration of: Constraints and opportunities: Existing major services (eg. pipelines, power lines), Existing physical barriers (eg. rivers, hills, railway lines), and Existing natural features for retention and use (eg. stands of trees, creeks, farm houses and tracks). Traffic routes: Location of existing or planned arterials, and Location of existing road reserves, which may or may not be required. Public transport: Basic public transport provisions (eg. how can a requirement for access to a bus route within 500m of all houses be met?), and Existing nearby public transport facilities. Provision of neighbourhood facilities: Primary and secondary schools, Child care, Local health care, and Local and regional commercial centres. Sites for active and passive open space. Pedestrian pathway opportunities. Creation of a community or suburb identity. Cost considerations.

Consideration of these factors allows the preparation of an initial Outline Development Plan (ODP). Arterial roads It has been usual in recent years to prevent direct access from residential allotments and minor developments to the more major arterial roads, either by the use of service roads or plantation reserves. There has been a clear physical distinction between the arterials and local streets. In many developing

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

areas, this is now being extended to lower levels within the traffic route hierarchy. Local distributors and collectors An access-managed collector or local distributor route could appear visually similar to an existing traditional residential collector road which has a high percentage of corner allotments. The no access function would require the corner allotments to have vehicular and pedestrian access via a local street there would be a legal ban on direct access from abutting property to the traffic route. There would also be residential parking bans along the traffic route, with parking possibly only associated with local shops, community facilities, and schools. This allows the route to be of a narrower cross-section, and to be visually different. The main difference between the traditional residential collector and an access-managed collector is that the former was designed as a multi-function road forming the focus of the residential area, while the latter functions solely to facilitate vehicular access between the major traffic route network and local streets. The street network, open space, and pedestrian or cycle networks would be designed to minimise the demand for pedestrian and cycle use of the minor traffic routes, whereas previously all activity was concentrated onto the collector. Appropriate building setbacks (determined by traffic volumes) would be required to avoid traffic noise problems in adjacent houses. Access control Denial of access to traffic routes would typically be by a plantation reserve or other legal entity shown on the property title. Currently the most usual method for access control is the use of plantation reserves. The ownership and maintenance costs of the reserve are usually with the highway authority. This creates an immediate disadvantage to their use. Ideally, the facilitation of the access control method adopted would be to allow any plantation reserve, landscape easement or road verge to be incorporated into the landscaping of the abutting residence.

3.3.1 Local streets


Local streets are those spaces, which are reserved for the provision of vehicular access to a small number of houses. The residents of the street can also use the space for play and recreation. The design incorporates factors to contain volumes and speeds to preserve the amenity of the adjacent residents.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.5m carriageway (1 lane). This will allow one private vehicle to pass a cyclist with comfort. Off street parking areas are provided to discourage on-street parking. Widening should be provided at bends to allow for a semi-trailer to gain access to the houses situated in these streets. The use of a 4.0m carriageway provides only sufficient room for a private vehicle to pass a vehicle parked on-street, but could create difficulty for trucks. A 4.5m carriageway provides insufficient room for private vehicles to pass without slowing down, and again creates difficulties for trucks. The distance travelled on this street would be of the order of less than 100m generally, with access to less than around 10 residences. 5.0m and 5.5m carriageway (2 lane). The reason for the use of the larger width lies with the proportion of trucks and buses anticipated to use the route. A 5.0m carriageway is generally appropriate for all applications except those where a bus route is located. This width permits one vehicle to pass another parked vehicle without slowing down. Two moving private vehicles may also pass each other without slowing down. On a 5.5m carriageway, a private vehicle and a truck or bus can also pass without slowing down, doing so with caution on a 5.0m pavement. Two trucks or buses may pass each other with care on a 5.5m pavement, but may experience some difficulty on a 5m pavement. It is impossible for two vehicles to park opposite each other on a 5.0m or 5.5m carriageway without blocking passage for another vehicle. On a 6.0m carriageway it is possible for a small vehicle to pass between two parked vehicles, but a truck or bus cannot pass. Drivers may not therefore appreciate the inconvenience they may cause. The maximum distance that drivers should be expected to travel on this route is around 500m. Speed is constrained by geometry, including street length and alignment, so driver frustration may become a difficulty if excessive distances have to be traversed. 7.0m carriageway (3 lanes). This width provides for two vehicles to pass a third parked vehicle without slowing down. Similarly, two moving vehicles can readily pass a cyclist. It is also obvious that two moving vehicles cannot simultaneously occupy the same space between two parked vehicles, and therefore one of them has to give way. An 8.0m carriageway may just provide sufficient space for two small vehicles to pass two parked vehicles, creating a dilemma if there is insufficient space. A 7.0m carriageway avoids this dilemma. Traffic routes 44

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

A traffic route is provided to serve a movement rather than an access function. The design is therefore oriented to moving significant volumes of traffic. As stressed above, access to these routes from abutting properties should be minimised to improve safety and capacity. Traffic routes, as mentioned previously, are designed to move traffic from one location to another. Their function is reflected in the cross sections considered appropriate for their design. Provision for the parking of vehicles on these routes is not made, as there should be no access to developments adjacent to the route. 6.0m (1 lane in each direction). This cross section provides for one 3.0m lane in each direction. It is appropriate to provide for the movement of up to around 10,000 vehicle/day, providing adequate intersection treatments are provided. This type of road would be access controlled, providing links from the residential street network to the more major traffic routes in the network. The distance travelled on this road would also be limited to generally less than 1 or 2km. 6.0m + 6.0m (median) + 6.0m (2 lanes each direction with median). This cross section provides for two 3.0m traffic lanes in each direction separated by a centrally located median. The provision of the median assists in providing suitable intersection treatments, as well as improving safety and expanding the possibilities for landscaping and the aesthetic design of roads. The median provides sufficient width to store a passenger car perpendicular to the traffic stream. Tapers associated with right turn deceleration and storage lanes may also overlap. Additional median widening at closely spaced major intersections may be necessary where it is desired to have back-to-back full-width turning lanes. The traffic lanes need to be widened from 3.0m to 3.5m where it is anticipated that commercial vehicles will be present or where vehicle speeds will be higher. This cross section is appropriate for providing for up to 30,000 vehicle/day, again dependent on other road network and infrastructure constraints. 10.5m + 6.0m (median)+ 10.5m (3 lanes each direction + median). This cross section provides for three 3.5m traffic lanes in each direction, separated by a central median. It has significant capacity for carrying large volumes of traffic, up to around 50,000 vehicle/day, dependent on the intersection controls and adjacent road network.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 3.3.1 Road Classification System for an IPTS


Characteristic Traffic Movement versus property access Locals Property access primary function Collectors Traffic movement and property access of equal importance 2,500-8,000 Minor Arterials Traffic movement primary consideration; some property access control 8,000-20,000 Major Arterials Traffic movement primary consideration; subject to property access control >20,000 National & State Highways Traffic movement primary consideration; no property access >40,000

Typical daily motor vehicle traffic volume (both directions) Minimum number of peak period lanes (excluding bicycle lane) Desirable connections Flow Characteristics

< Or = 2,500

One (one-way streets) or two

One (one-way streets) or two

Two

Four

Four

Locals, collectors Interrupted flow

Locals, collectors, arterials Interrupted flow

Collectors, arterials, Uninterrupted except at signals and zebra crossings 40-60 Footpath on both sides Wide curb lane or special facilities desired

Legal speed limit, km/h Accommodation of Pedestrians Accommodation of Cyclists

40-50 Footpath on one or both sides Special facilities as required Generally not provided Not applicable Restrictions preferred 0-150

40-50 Footpath on both sides

Collectors, arterials, expressways Uninterrupted except at signals and zebra crossings 50-60 Footpath on both sides

Major arterials, Highways Free-flow (grade separated) 80-100 Pedestrians prohibited Cyclists prohibited or confined to hard shoulders Express buses only. E.g. NH8C Not applicable No restrictions

Surface Transit Surface transit daily passengers Heavy Truck restrictions (e.g. seasonal or night time) Typical spacing between traffic control devices, m Typical right-of-

Permitted <or = 1,500 Restrictions permitted 215-400

Preferred 1,500-5,000 Generally no restrictions 215-400

Preferred >5,000 Generally no restrictions 215-400

Not applicable

15-22

20-27

20-30

20-45

>45

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

way width, m

3.4 Road Development in Gujarat


Roads in Gujarat have been developed since 1941 to date under three plans namey Nagpur plan, Bombay plan and Lucknow plan. The results of these three plans have been though satisfactory but it has not yet achieved its targets. The lengths of roads per 100 Sq. Km. Of area has increased from 12.40 to 36.35 Kms. instead of target from 21 to 82 Kms. The road length in Ahmedabad district is more than the state average of 37.03 Kms. per 100 Sq.Km.. Below table gives the glimpses of roads development progress in state and district of Ahmedabad. Table 3.4 Road development in Gujarat
Sr. No Type of Road . 1 National Highways 2 State Highways 3 Major District Roads All Main Roads 4 Other District Roads 5 Village Roads All other Roads Road length per 100 Sq. Km. Area Nagpur plan 1941-61 Target Achieved Bombay plan 1961-81 Target Achieved 3602 1424 6168 9158 14382 10633 24152 21215 16441 10870 17035 1534 33476 26211 32 24 Lucknow plan 1981-2001 Target Achieved 3920 1570 12020 19717 22540 20501 38480 41788 10481 18991 76406 29472 82 36.35

15715

11116

23435 21

11513 12.4

Road Length per 100 Sq. Km. In Km.


Year 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 Ahmedabad District Road Area( Sq. Km.) length (Km.) 8707 8707 8707 43.68 44.54 44.67 Gujarat State Area( Sq. Km.) 196024 196024 196024 Road length(Km.) 36.35 36.81 37.03

Road Length in Kms. by Category


Road category Ahmedabad district 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 121 121 121 1175 1142 364 1001 1170 1140 376 1071 1170 1139 380 1079 1995-96 1570 19717 20501 10481 18991 Gujarat State 1996-97 1997-98 1570 1570 19761 20815 10435 19584 72165 19796 20915 10495 19815 72591

National Highway State Highway M.D.R. O.D.R. V.R. Total

3803 3878 3889 71260 Source: Basic Transport Statistics, Gujarat, 1996 to 1998

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

3.5 Successful examples of development of roads


As already discussed above, majority of roads in India are developed through land acquisitions or some form of land pooling method and then the implementation that is construction of the road was mostly done by government itself. Though now the concept of BOT approach and publicprivate partnership has started. In other countries, most of the roads have been developed through PPPs basis with any of the concessions forms mentioned above.

3.5.1 MSRDC- Mumbai- Pune expressway project


The expressway is opened to traffic in the portion from Kon to Aadoshi on 1st May 2000 (Kusgaon to Ozarde) and in part (Ozarde to Somatnephata) is opened to traffic from 27th July 2000 and (Somatnephata to Kiwale) is opened to traffic from 10th June 2000 and traffic is plying smoothly on expressway since then. Panvel Bypass Package I & II (total length 9.750 kms) have been completed and the Expressway is now opened for full length of 95 km from 1st March 2002. The average number of vehicles plying on the expressway per day is about 12,000. Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and is growing significantly in size and population. So also Pune, the cultural capital of Maharashtra is growing into a major industrial and commercial center. Hence, the importance of Mumbai - Pune road has increased tremendously. The traffic on this highway was 60755 PCU in 1997 and is projected to be more than 1,00,000 PCU by the year 2004. In 1990, the Government of Maharashtra appointed RITES and Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick of UK to carry out feasibility studies for the new expressway to be operated on toll basis. RITES submitted their report in 1994 with the estimated cost of project at Rs. 1146crores. The Government of Maharashtra entrusted the work of the construction of the Mumbai - Pune Expressway to MSRDC in March 1997 on Build - Operate & Transfer (BOT) basis with permission to collect toll for 30 years. The environmental clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India was received on 13th October 1997. The Forest Clearance was received on 11th November 1997. For the purpose of preparing detailed estimates, designs and preparation of bid documents, the work was divided into 8 sections. To facilitate proper supervision, six renowned international consultants were appointed.Total Project Cost including escalation is Rs. 1630 crores which includes cost of land acquisition of 640 Ha. of land for the road and 455 Ha. for murrum querries and dumping.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 3.5.1 Toll rates in Mumbai-Pune Expressway


Present toll rates for 95 km of the Expressway w.e.f. from 1/4/2002 Type of Vehicle Car Light vehicles & mini buses Trucks Buses 3 Axle vehicle Multi axle vehicle Toll Rates in Rupees 100.00 155.00 215.00 295.00 510.00 680.00

The rates may be noted here as such high toll rates may be feasible for long road of 75 Km. To 100 Km. in case of expressway or national highway. But when the question comes for ring road under reference, it is not possible to levy more toll as peopole shall be using in piece meal and complete stretch of 76 Km. is not going to be used by single individual at once. Again as the road shall be pasing through urban areas and shall have more number of access from local roads, entry or exit from ring road shall not be possible to restict.

3.5.2 Development of road projects in other countries


The idea of highway systems evolving into road utilities has entered serious discussion in several countries around the world. National studies have been conducted in New Zealand, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In New Zealand, the transport ministry focused its large planning study on how to divest all highways to a small set of government-owned but commercially run highway corporations. Over the past decade, several dozen countries have adopted the buildoperate-transfer (BOT) model of competitively awarding long-term concessions to private consortia to finance, design, build, and operate major new highways as toll roads. The pioneers of this model are the toll-road systems of France and Italy, which were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1990s, BOT highways were built in other countries in Europe, Israel, South Africa, in Australia, in most of Latin America, and in much of Asia (and, in a limited way, in a number of states in the U.S.). In 1999, Canada, Italy, and Portugal went even further, actually selling off existing state toll-road owner-operators. In each case, they sold the physical facilities plus a longterm franchise to operate them (ranging from 33 to 99 years). Other operators were also allowed into the toll-road market.

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3.5.3 Golden quadrangle highways


National Highway authority of India is in process of development of golden quadrangle highway connecting four major cities of the country i.e. Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkatta and Delhi. Out of the four links, link between Delhi- Mumbai of 1430 Kms. length passes through Ahmedabad bypass up to AhmedabadVadodara expressway for 15 Kms. Finance mechanism proposed by NHAI for the project is by Through budgetary allocations from the Government of India. Cess. Loan assistance from international funding agencies. Market borrowing Private participation like BOT, Annuity & Special Purpose Vehicle.

It may be noted that the NHAI had invited proposals for consultancy in April 2002 for making Chiloda Ranasan road of 14 Kms. a four lane road & modernizing to give Ahmedabad city a 25 Kms. long bypass connecting Chiloda and Aslali.

3.5.4 The Development of C. G. Road on public-private Front


The design of the redevelopment of the C. G. Road is a significant milestone in the cityscape of Ahmedabad. The C. G. Road Redevelopment was initiated at the time when the very idea or notion that a street might be designed in such detail was alien to Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Realizing the project therefore, not only required design inputs but also the development of a financing mechanism and intense construction and project management against overwhelming apprehensions regarding the viability of the project. The judicious use of available space has resulted in one of the finest multipurpose streets that offers a relaxed and safe environment for walking, strolling, shopping or just musing around, along with organized parking and smooth traffic flow. Its design draws on experiences from great streets all over the world but adapted to the needs of the city of Ahmedabad. The project has emerged as a model public private partnership in urban development, using an unconventional source of finance. It has come to symbolize urban regeneration in Ahmedabad.

Key Dates October 1994 December 1994 December 1995 January 1997

Initiation of the Project Acceptance by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Agreement between A.M.C. and Arvind Mills Limited Completion of the Project

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Situation before the initiative began: Ahmedabad has a network of approximately 1200 km of roads. Most roads consist of no more than an asphalt strip in the center, dirt on either side, rudimentary road lighting or a haphazard maze of utility lines underneath. With rapid increase in traffic volumes in the last decade the road network of Ahmedabad has come under severe strain. Due to a lack of well-designed streets traffic in the city is disorganized and slow, pedestrians are unsafe and noise and air pollution levels are high. The C. G. Road is an important thoroughfare for fast moving traffic. However this is not its only function. It is also the prime-shopping street of Ahmedabad and has some of the best restaurants in the city. Despite the disorganized traffic and parking and dirt along this edges, the people used to converge on this street to shop, stroll and hang out. Visitors to the various establishments on the C.G. Road park their vehicles on the road. The road is also used for loading and unloading goods meant for shops, restaurants and offices on the road.

C.G. Road before redevelopment

C.G. Road after Redevelopment

The motivation for the Design for Redevelopment and the Initiative Streets take up about a quarter of the land of our cities. They are the arteries that make our cities functional. That they should be well designed is crucial for a number of reasons: effective flow of traffic, safety of those using them (particularly the young, old and disabled), lowering of air and noise pollution, generation of commerce and tourism and the enforcement of law and order. Well-designed streets can also help in beautifying cities and projecting an image appropriate to the international roles that they are aspiring to play. It hardly needs to be emphasized that our streets are totally inadequate. No systematic effort has gone into devising adequate designs for our streets. There was a strong need felt to therefore, to undertake an initiative to prepare a design for redeveloping an existing street to demonstrate the importance of street design in the city.

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Issues addressed by the design The critical issues addressed by the design were: 1. Accommodation of multiple functions on the street: Thoroughfare for fast moving traffic. Prime shopping area. Pedestrian safety. On street parking. Integration of utilities in street design Loading and unloading of goods meant for shops, restaurants and offices 2. Limited width of the street The width of the C.G. Road was limited to 100 feet and was not possible to increase it any further. Due to this the width had to be judiciously allocated to best serve the multiple functions of the road. Being in a sense zero sum game no allocation to a particular function could be improved without compromising elsewhere. Therefore, the carriageway could not be increased without either compromising on the parking or the pedestrian areas.

Setting of priorities The priorities of issues to be addressed by the design were set in a participatory mode, with the involvement of all the stakeholders. Formulation of objectives, strategies and mobilization of resources The objectives: To prepare a design to incorporate the multiple functions of the street given the width constraints. To package the design as a commercially viable project. Actions Taken 1. The design was reviewed by Prof. Allan Jacobs, from University of California, Berkeley and author of Great Streets, as a part of the Better Streets Initiative. 2. A sample stretch of the road was done to illustrate the design. 3. Parking management system was put in place. Resource mobilization The Arvind Mills Limited agreed to put upfront Rs. 3.5 crore for financing the project. The rest of the amount was to be put up by the AMC. The Arvind Mills were given the advertisement rights on the road to cover the capital outlay without the interest.

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Problems faced while preparing the plan 1. Being a pioneering designs initiative, lack of awareness about design concepts, new ways of doing things raised a lot of apprehensions, questions and doubts amongst the citizens during the construction phase. 2. Innovative construction techniques and new materials were employed for the first time in street construction hence it was difficult to find appropriate suppliers for materials and contractors to execute the design. 3. As the utilities such as telecom, electricity etc., are provided by different agencies, coordination between them had to be ensured. Overcoming the problems 1. A sample stretch of the road was executed. 2. Meetings with the people were held on the street to allay the apprehensions. Results achieved 1. The C.G. Road after redevelopment has emerged as the finest multipurpose street of the city. It provides a relaxed and safe environment for shopping and strolling, has easy and well organized parking and ensures an efficient and smooth flow of traffic. The project has emerged as a model public private partnership, employing an unconventional resource to finance a development project that can be emulated in future. The project has become a symbol of urban regeneration in Ahmedabad. The project focused attention on street design.

2. 3. 4.

Sustainability The Arvind Mills Limited agreed to finance the redevelopment up to the extent of Rs 35 million up front. The AMC agreed to bear all additional costs incurred. The AML is to recover its capital contribution (minus the interest) from advertising revenues on the C. G. Road. Following the recovery of the amount invested by AML the advertising revenues will go to AMC. There is no time limit for achieving self-sufficiency. Table 3.5.5 Financial Profile of C.G. Road % Contribution 10 90 100

Partner

Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation The Arvind Mills Ltd.* Total


interest on the same.

*The Arvind Mills Ltd. is to recover its capital outlay from advertisement rights. It is not charging

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Lessons learnt from the C.G. Road Redevelopment The most important lessons learnt from the C.G. Road Redevelopment are: 1. Streets play an important role in the cities and it is necessary that these public spaces are well designed and provide a safe environment. 2. It is possible to implement well designed streets in the Indian context. 3. Private investment is public infrastructure can be made possible through innovative mechanisms.

3.6 Salient features of Successful stories applicable to Ahmedabad


Above successes in road projects or proposals by NHAI can selectively be applied to the development of ring road thoughtfully. Making Town Planning Schemes only for implementing ring road only may not be so result oriented as combination of more than three- four methods of development can give better result that shall help the institution like AUDA to sustain financial liability. The development of Mumbai- Pune express way can best be applied to projects of urban road like ring road where the land was acquired by land acquisition and the construction part has been done through Build- Operate-Transfer approach with permission to collect toll for 30 years. The only difference between the said express way and proposed ring road being that express way is joining two big cities and caters the traffic of regional as well as national level, while the ring road is for city of Ahmedabad only where the road shall be used more as a byepass of regional traffic. The advantage city shall get in near future is decongestion of traffic. But than the road being urban nature, can be developed throuh Town Planning Scheme, transfer of development rights or acquisition act as deem fit for the link depending upon the potentiality of area and need for planning to micro level.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 4.0 THE CASE STUDY OF RING ROAD


Ring Road was conceptualized in Revised Development Plan of 2011 AD of AUDA. The concept of providing Ring Road around city is similar to modern and developed metro cities of western world. It is assumed that the Ring Road will cater to AUDA population and also to regional through traffic. Thus Ring Road will help to ease the congestion on Western Bypass (Sarkhej Highway) & Eastern Bypass (Naroda Narol Highway). The Revised Development Plan of AUDA in which the said ring road is conceptualized with proposed Town Planning Schemes in Ahmedabad Urban Complex area may be referred at annexure P-2. The plan showing alignment of proposed ring road along with the chainage and junction details & civil works is given at annexure P-3. The ring road will be an arterial urban road for convenient traffic movement within city and at the same time will serve for the easy access to and fro from the city for making easy exit out of city. Some lengths of this road may also serve the through traffic connecting NH 8, 8A, 8C, 59 and important State Highways and other roads connecting Ahmedabad. It will have two major bridges over river Sabarmati and five over-bridges over railway tracks. This Ring Road, in the western side of the Ahmedabad crosses the southern side of the Sarkhej-Gandhinagar highway (NH-8C) near Sanathal village and towards Khodiyar on the northern side of it. Similarly on the eastern Ahmedabad the Ring road crosses the Mumbai highway (NH-8) at the Aslali junction, Ahmedabad Vadodara Express Highway at Hathijan junction, the Ahmedabad - Indore (NH-59) at village Singarva and Udaipur Highway near Dharsan. This way the Ring Road will even serve as a bypass at the western and eastern sides of Ahmedabad. The Ring Road also gets connected with the network of various radial roads from the city. The Right of Way for this road is proposed to be 60mt. This Ring Road will have two major bridges across Sabarmati river and five road over bridges (ROBs) across various railway lines.

4.1 Profile of City of Ahmedabad & its growth


From an area of 0.16 sq. km in 1411 AD when city was founded to today city covers almost an area of 434 sq. km. The city has grown equally in all directions due to its topography and plain terrain making need of circular and radial roads as prime road network of the city. The history of spatial expansion (physical growth) of a city could be explained in terms of waves of urban growth. The history of Ahmedabad stretches as far back in the year 1411, when Sultan Ahmed Shah built a citadel at the site of old Ashaval and encouraged the development of a new town in its vicinity and named after him. Thus, Ahmed Shah founded the city of Ahmedabad in the year 1411. In 1456, a wall was constructed enclosing a group of villages and the city limits were defined. The area of the city during the period 1411-1770
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was 5.3 Sq. Kms. The establishment of first textile mill in 1857 was a landmark in the history of growth of Ahmedabad. With the expansion of the textile industry, development began to spill over (beyond the city walls) towards the northeast and southeast of the walled city. The industrial and residential growth, however, was confined to the east side of the river Sabarmati. The construction of Ellis Bridge across the river in late 19th Century opened up the western side of the river for urban expansion. Construction of six more bridges namely, the Gandhi bridge, the Sardar Patel bridge (1900-1940), the Nehru bridge (1959), the Subhash bridge (1973), the Shastri bridge (1990) and Indira bridge (1982) across the river, accelerated this development. Development of the region on the western side of the river has been, mainly residential in nature. Industrial development has been concentrated on the eastern side and the walled city has continued to maintain its supremacy as a commercial center. During the period the city has continued to increase as a result of incorporation of fringe areas into the city limit. The Chronology of Development of Ahmedabad is given at Annexure A. Today the AMC covers 190.84 sq. km. However, the spread of urban development is far more than this. The Ahmedabad Urban Complex as defined by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority in the Revised Development Plan covers an area of 434.02 sq. km. The overall pattern is one of concentric growth. A road network of rings and radial has supported this pattern. The plan showing proposed road network of revised development plan, AUDA is given at annexure P-4 which gives a clear idea of the road pattern of city. The road network of the city can be bifurcated into major and minor road network, which further can be classified as major arterials minor arterials and collectors.

4.1.1 Major road network


Major National Highways and State highways very well link Ahmedabad City. It lies on the N.H.No.8, which links Delhi with Bombay. An important branch is linked to Gandhidham and Rajkot. This highway from Vapi to Mehsana is called the Golden Corridor since all the major industries in Gujarat are located on and around this major linkage. The important industrial towns located on this highway are Vapi, Surat, Ankleswar, Bharuch, Vadodara, Anand,Nadiad,Ahmedabad, Kalol and Mehsana. A new Expressway is under construction, which shall connect Ahmedabad with Vadodara, which shall be exclusively used for commuters for Ahmedabad, Nadiad, Anand, and Vadodara. This new Expressway nearing completion shall considerably reduce the commuting time between the two cities. While the four growth centres fall on the major State linkages, Dehgam is on the major State Highway from Ahmedabad to Modasa, Sanand is on the highway to Viramgam while Mahemdabad is located on the State Highway to

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Nadiad. Several other towns of Gujarat are also well connected. They are Gandhinagar, Bhavnagar, Amreli, Kapadvanj, Surendranagar, Dholka etc.

4.1.2 Minor Road Network


Most of villages in the study area have been linked with all weather roads and hence motor able during the all seasons. All the neighborhood areas within the Ahmedabad City and Ahmedabad Urban Complex have well laid bitumen tar roads. The major radial roads in the Ahmedabad City are the Ashram Road, Gandhi Road, Relief Road (Tilak Road) C.G.Road, University Road, Satellite Road, Drive-in-Road, the new 132 feet proposed ring road is being laid all around the Ahmedabad to ease the traffic and improve the transport facility in Ahmedabad.

4.1.3 Road network Hierarchy of Ahmedabad


Looking from the road networking system and functional criteria of the roads as discussed in the roads classification ahead, in Ahmedabad, below identified select Roads and Streets can be classified to provide a representative Road Hierarchy for the city. Whereas it is beyond the scope of the study to identify all of the streets and roads, the list is comprehensive enough to support any immediate public transport improvements. The plan showing the existing and proposed road network of Ahmedabad from the Revised Development Plan of AUDA is shown at annexure P-4. Table 4.1.3.a Major Arterials in Ahmedabad
(Including parts of National & State Highways that traverse within urban limits)

Name NH 8 C NH 8 A SH 43 SH 41 NH 8 SH 3 Drive-in Road 132 Road 120 Road Shyam Prasad Vasava Road Balwant Rai Mehta Road Dr. Tankaria Road Satellite Road J.N.Road/Rd.R d/Ashram Rd (River Front Rd.)

From Makarba Narol Sabarmati (RTO) Sabarmati Narol Khokhra/Mehmdabad Thaltej Sabarmati Income tax Kalupur Delhi Darwaja Lal Darwaja Isckon Juhapura

To Gandhinagar Naroda Gandhinagar (GEB) Kalol Bareja Mehamdabad Income Tax Juhupura Paldi Naroda Shaibaug Delhi Darwaja ParimalGarden-Paldi Sabarmati (RTO)

Type of Road Part of Ring Part of Ring Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Ring Road Ring Road Radial Ring Road Radial Radial Ring Road

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Table 4.1.3.b Minor Arterials in Ahmedabad


Name C.G. Road Vejalpur Road St.Xaviers College Road Jamalpur Road Gheekanta Road Lal Bahdur Shastri Rd Thakar Bapa Rd. Walled City Perimeter Relief Road Gandhi Road From Panchvati Ayojan Nagar LD college Khamasa Delhi Darwaja Ahmedabad Gymkhana Saraspur Sardar Bridge Kalupur Kalupur To S.P.Stadium Vejalpur Mithakali Underbridghe (via C.G.Road Junction) Behrampura Relief Road Type of Road Ring Road Radial Ring Road Radial Radial

Ghodasar (Via Lala Ring Part Bahdur Stadium) D Colony Ring Part Gandhi Bridge (via Ring Road Kalupur) Lal Darwaja Radial Lal Darwaja Radial

Table 4.1.3.c Collectors in Ahmedabad


Name Hanumansigh Rd Chandrashekar Azar Road Dhumketu Rd Kharawala Rd Jhaverchand Meghani Road Madhusudan Oza Road From D Colony Rami ni Chali Fathepura Mithakali Asarwa Sardar Colony To Haripura Lal Bahdur Shastri Stadium Vasna Gujarat College Meghani Nagar Vadaj Type of Road Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Ring Part

It can be well understood that most of the state highways as shown in the plan at annexure P-3 and P-4 namely National Highways NH-59 to Kapadvanj, NH-8 to Himatnagar,NH-8A to Kandla, NH-8 to Mumbai & Expressway to Vadodara and State Highways SH-68 to Modasa,SH-43 to Gandhinagar, SH41 to Mehsana, SH to Ambli, SH-17 to Sanand, SH-4 to Dholaka, SH-142 to Dholaka & SH-3 to Mehamadabad act also as major arterials as radials from the city going outwards city and crossing the proposed ring road. While roads like Sarkhej - Gandhinagar NH-8C and Narol - Naroda NH-8 have become the city main arterials now also acting as part of rings. The roads in city including C.G. Road,Gandhi road, Relief road are minor arterials having primary consideration of traffic with controlled property access. Collectors and locals actually is beyond scope to include all but generallu the Town Planning Schemes road of second level can be collectors where traffic movement and access have equal importance and the third tier roads which are mainly given for property access as primary function to final plots as locals. 58

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4.1.4Project location and salient features of the Ring Road


The proposed ring road is located around Ahmedabad City, which will have total length of 76.313 km. The project road is proposed away from development of city, so as to avoid local traffic and to cater AUDA traffic as well as through traffic. The project road is divided in to four links taking in to consideration the crossings with National Highways radiating from the city. The project links defined are as under, Link 1 : From NH-8A junction near Sanathal to NH-8 junction near Aslali14.106 km. Link 2 : From NH-8 junction near Aslali to NH-8 junction near Ranasan 25.518 km. Link 3 : From NH-8 junction near Ranasan to NH-8C junction near Vaishnodevi - 13.827 km. Link 4 : From NH-8C junction near Vaisnodevi to NH-8A junction near Sanathal- 22.862 km. The salient features of the proposed Ring Road are as stated below: Total length of Ring Road - 76.313 km. Roadway Configuration - 4 lane divided Proposed Right of Way - 60m. River Bridges proposed on Sabarmati - 2 nos. Railway over bridges across various Railway lines - 5 nos. Junctions with existing National Highway - 6 nos. Junctions with State Highways - 13 nos. Other Major Junctions - 1 nos. Villages on Route - 23 nos. Administrative progress Feasibility Study and Preliminary Project report is prepared and simultaneously survey of 600 M wide corridor for development of TP Schemes along the proposed ring road alignment is in progress. Survey map for the ring road for area of Oganaj and Khoraj may be referred at annexure P-5. The notification under Lands Acquisition Act (Section 4) for acquisition of land of agricultural areas is declared for Link 1 i.e. from Sanathal to Aslali, of length of 14.106 km. The process of approval for crossing/merging with National Highways and Expressway is initiated by AUDA and request for approval has been forwarded to National Highways department and National Highways Authority of India. The process of approval for Railway Over Bridges with Railways was initiated in July 2001. The approval for General Arrangement Drawing of proposed R.O.B. across Ahmedabad - Rajkot B.G. railway line near Shilaj is obtained from Western Railways. The approval for site of proposed R.O.B. across Ahmedabad-Mumbai B.G. railway line near Vatva loco-shed is obtained from Railways and process of getting approval for GAD of the same is in progress.
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The present status of the project is as point wise stated below. Alignment of 76.313 km. of Ring Road is finalized "On Ground". Demarcation on Ground of 60 m Right-of-way along with Final Centerline is completed. Advance possession for ROW Land Width of 60m for about 55km length is obtained "By Consent" from landowners & for Remaining Length similar process is in progress. Topographic Survey incorporating Traverse and Leveling Completed. Survey Drawings are completed. Traffic Surveys and Analysis including estimation of traffic on various links is completed. Site Selection and General Arrangement for Sabarmati Bridge at Kamod village on Link 1: NH-8A (Sanathal) to NH-8 (Aslali) is completed. Site Selection and General Arrangement for proposed all five Railway Over Bridges is completed. Site for Sabarmati Bridge near Amiyapur village on Link 4:NH-8 (Ranasan) to NH-C(Khoraj) is Finalized. The consultants have submitted Final Preliminary Project Report along with Cost estimate and based on the same, tenders for link-4, linl-1 and link-2 are prepared for the work. Tenders for link- 4 i.e. from NH-8C junction near Vaishno Devi to NH-8A junction near Sanathal are awarded and construction is in progress. Salient Features, Link 1: NH-8A (Sanathal) to NH-8 (Aslali), 14.10 km. Total length of Ring Road - 14.106 km. Roadway Configuration - 4 lane divided Proposed Right of Way - 60m. River Bridges proposed on Sabarmati - 1 nos. Minor Bridges - 3 nos. Junctions with existing National Highway - 2 nos. Junctions with State Highways - 3 nos. Other Major Junctions - 1 nos. Villages on Route - 4 nos. Cost of construction: Rs. 78.00 Crores

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Salient Features, Link 2 : NH-8 (Aslali) to NH-8 (Ranasan), 25.518 km. Total length of Ring Road - 25.518 km. Roadway Configuration - 4 lane divided Proposed Right of Way - 60m. River Bridges proposed on Sabarmati - NIL Railway Over Bridges - 2 nos. Minor Bridges - 2 nos. Junctions with existing National Highway - 3 nos. Junctions with State Highways - 2 nos. Junction with Expressway - 1 no. Villages on Route - 4 nos. Cost of construction: Rs. 104.00 Crores

Salient Features, Link 3 : NH-8 (Ranasan) to NH-8C (Khoraj), 13.82 km. Total length of Ring Road - 13.827 km. Roadway Configuration - 4 lane divided Proposed Right of Way - 60m. River Bridges proposed on Sabarmati - 1 no. Railway Over Bridges - 2 nos. Junctions with existing National Highway - 2 nos. Junctions with State Highways - 3 nos. Junction with Expressway - NIL Villages on Route - 6 nos. Cost of construction: Rs. 90.00 Crores

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Salient Features, Link 4: NH-8C (Vaishnodevi) to NH-8 A(Sanathal), 22.862 km. Total length of Ring Road - 22.862 km. Roadway Configuration - 4 lane divided Proposed Right of Way - 60m. River Bridges proposed on Sabarmati - NIL Railway Over Bridges - 2 nos. Minor Bridges - NIL Junctions with existing National Highway - 2 nos. Junctions with State Highways - 5 nos. Junction with Expressway - NIL Villages on Route - 8 nos. Other Major Junctions - 1 no. Cost of construction: Rs. 60.00 Crores

The table below gives the number of junctions and crossing the proposed ring road shall be crossing including river, railway, national & state highways and other major & minor roads. Table 4.1.4 Summary of junctions & crossings in ring Road alignment
Sr. No. Ring Road Link & Length % Age Of total Length National Highway & Expressway Junction State Highway Junction Major Arterial Junction Minor Roads No. bridges Of

1 2 3 4

Link-1 (14.10 Km) Link-2 (25.52 Km) Link-3 (13.82 Km) Link-4 (22.86

18.48 33.44 18.11 29.97

2 3+1 2 2

3 2 3 5

1 0 0 1

4 4 6 8

1 River & 3 Minor 2 Railway & 2 Minor 1 River & 2 Railway 2 Railway Over 62

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Km) bridges The above table gives a clear idea that the ring road is mainly crossing highways and major arterials of the city. Also the road is of the right of way of 60 Mt. cannot be used for direct access from city sub arterials or collectors and locals. It can be used to have some access for city traffic through service road but then the project if has to be taken up as Build- Operate & Transfer in future, the care has to be taken right now for developing as what kind of road? In nutshell, it can be concluded from the above that the ring road is going to fulfill the purpose of regional level road and cater to regional traffic and hence development of it through the town planning scheme seems to be unjustifiable. Planning Alternatives Before finalizing the alignment of proposed ring road, various alternatives are taken in to account like geometric features of existing facility, traffic characteristics, and proposed facility and future, growth of traffic of the alternatives proposed by various authorities as below. Capacity Augmentation of existing NH network The existing network comprises of different links of National highways, State Highways, bypass roads, Major district roads and other roads. The existing traffic plying on all the links is mixed of urban and through traffic. Additional Land Acquisition for junction improvement is not possible due to thick urbanized areas and the expansion to be made for improvement in flow pattern plying on existing bypass will result in to large amount of investment. Considering all factors, it is felt that the option of capacity augmentation of bypass is not feasible. Alternative proposed by NH Authority The Alternative proposed by National Highway Authority if considered gives the alignment proposed by them with more length than the alignment proposed by AUDA. Moreover, the alignment is proposed out of AUDA limit for most of the length. In view of the above situation, the alignment proposed by NH Authority is not suitable to be adopted as a ring road. Alternative proposed by AUDA The alignment of project link was marked by AUDA on Development Plan including bridge sites. The site reconnaissance survey was carried out and alignment was finalized. Alternative Routes The availability of alternative routes provides an opportunity for some traffic to escape the use of the proposed link so as to avoid paying the toll. This will be possible only if the alternative route is compatible and quite and convenient for the movement of ring road traffic. A reconnaissance survey for all possible alternative routes to the proposed link of the AUDA ring road was carried out, with a view to ascertain the category and type, alignment, geometric standards, condition, constraints etc., of such roads. The proposed AUDA ring road traverses through a terrain wherein there are no alternatives roads
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available in the close vicinity expect the major radiating roads crossing the proposed ring road and leading to various regions of the State. The roads available are only the village roads to provide connectivity to the villages. These roads are narrow with bad alignment, poor geometric and congested. Also, the road users may not be aware of such roads. In view of this, it is felt that there is no possibility for any alternative route for road users to avoid tolled ring road. Hence, the influence of alternative roads in this case is considered as nil.

4.2 Brief note on revised development plan of AUDA


Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA) constituted on 1st February, 1978 under the provisions of Gujarat Town Planning & Urban Development Act, 1976 had its principal development plan sanctioned on 2 nd November, 1987 and came into force on 3rd December, 1987. The said development plan was to be revised within ten years as per Sec.-21. AUDA prepared and published the revised draft development plan on 29 th November, 1997 u/s. 13 and after following the due procedure prescribed in the act of inviting suggestions and objections and modifying the plan accordingly, the plan was finally submitted to the government's on 25th May, 1999 for sanction. Government after publishing the modifications and modifying the plan, sanctioned the same vide notification no. GH/V/59 of 2002/DVP/1599/1368/L, dated 18th May 2002 and made it into force from the same date. The said sanctioned revised development plan of AUDA including AMC along with proposals for zoning, reservations, general development control regulations and transport road network, has a vital proposal of sixty mts. wide ring road around the city of a length of approximately 76 kms. passing through various zones. This ring road was initially proposed by AUDA under Sec.-13 of 120 mts. width and 200mt. no development zone on both sides totaling 520 mts. wide proposal that was objected by huge mass and so the alignment and width after reconsideration was changed and reduced to 60 mts. The proposed land use in Ahmedabad Urban Complex area is as under. Ahmedabad Urban Complex (AUC) The Ahmedabad Urban Complex (AUC) includes all the land inside the proposed 60m wide AUDA Ring Road, a 200 m wide strip of land outside the Ring Road and contiguous pockets of urban land at Sanahal, Khodiyar, Singarva, Badodara, etc. Proposed Land Use in Ahmedabad Urban Complex Area excluding Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Area and Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Area (2011 A.D.) as per the sanctioned development plan is as below.

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Table 4.2.a Proposed land use in Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation area


Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Use/Designation Residential Walled City and Village Sites (Gamtal) General Industrial Special Industrial Commercial Agricultural/Recreational/Open Space/Gardens Education Area under reservations now designated as special Development Area Roads and Railways Water Bodies (including Rivers) Total Area TotalArea (Hect .) 8340.22 645.56 2006.51 786.72 263.06 1643.60 387.30 1955.37 2117.67 937.97 19084.00 % of Total Area of AMC 43.70 3.38 10.51 4.12 1.38 8.61 2.03 10.25 11.10 4.92 100.00

Source: Revised Development Plan of AUDA

Table 4.2.b Proposed land use in AUC area excluding Corporation area
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Zone Residential Type-I (R-1) Residential Type-II (R-2) Commercial Industrial Light Industrial Educational/Public Purpose Service & Institutional purpose Residential Type III (R-3) High Floor Hazard Treatment Plants (AUDA, AMC) Ring Road DP Roads and Railways in AUC area outside AMC Agriculture Total Area in Ha. East 2881.00 346.00 345.00 444.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 184.00 650.00 196.00 521.00 800.00 6367.00 Area in Ha. West 5652.00 3672.00 463.00 464.60 97.30 367.00 42.00 3006.00 353.00 285.00 255.00 725.00 1822.00 17203.90 TotalAre a in Ha. 8533.00 4018.00 808.00 908.60 97.30 367.00 42.00 3006.00 537.00 935.00 451.00 1246.00 2622.00 23570.90 % of total area 36.20 17.05 3.42 3.85 0.41 1.55 0.17 12.75 2.28 3.96 1.91 5.23 11.24 100.00

Source: Revised Development Plan of AUDA

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 4.2.c Total AUC area including AMC area


S.No. 1. 2. 3. Urban Area Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Cantonment Ahmedabad Urban Complex excluding AMC Total AUC area Area in Hectares 19084.00 559.00 23570.90 43213.90 (432.14 sq. km.)

Source: Revised Development Plan of AUDA

The total urbanizable area in the Ahmedabad Urban Complex (after deducting the areas of Agriculture Zone, High Flood Hazard Zone, Treatment Plants from the total AUC area) comes to 391.20 Sq.km. The planning of urban road to cater the need of city for coming years is to be done in advance but development and implementation of these roads depend on the growth of city in context to the demographic profile. For the case study of AUDA ring road demographic profile and distribution of population over next decade in different zones is as under.

4.2.1 Demographic profile


The growth rate of population in AUDA has been 35.28 % during the 81-91 decade while it was 28.25 % during the 91-01 decade. Population projections for the AUDA area indicate that by 2011 AD, the total population in this area will be approximately 70 lakhs. The population in the Ahmedabad Urban Complex Area is projected to reach 63.86 lakhs, as below. Table 4.2.1.a Population Projection
Sr. No 1 2 Name of Area Ahmedabad City Ahmedabad Urban Complex (including AMC) Ahmedabad Urban Complex (excluding AMC) AUDA area Area Sq.kms 190.84 432.14 Population as per Census 1981 2159127 2501905 1991 2876710 (12.32) 3451795 (37.97) 2001 3515361 (22.20) 4456212 (29.10) Projected Population 2011 4616447 (31.13 6386966 (43.32)

235.70

342778

575085 (37.77)

940851 (63.60)

1770519 (88.18)

4 5

1294.65

2569047

Ring road 257.83 190564 Affected villages (Figures in parenthesis show the decadal growth rate)
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

3881470 (35.28) 164639 (-13.60)

4978029 (28.23) 278499 (28.23)

6993842 (40.49) 365942 (31.40)

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The list of settlements in AUDA area and summary of no. of settlements included in Ahmedabad Urban Complex area and settlements through which ring road passes along with its population from 1981 to 2001 and projected population for 2011 is separately given at annexure B. The list of settlements with density through which the ring road is passing is as under: Table 4.2.1.b List of settlements through which ring road is passing
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Existing Landuse Function U R R R R R R R R U U U U U U U R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Name of the village CHANDKHEDA Amiyapur Bhat Chiloda Khoraj Ranasan Sugad Zundal Sanathal HATHIJAN MAKARBA (VP) MUTHIYA (OG) NARODA (OG) NIKOL (OG) OKAF (OG) SARKHEJ (VP) Tragad VATVA (OG) Ambli Aslali Badrabad Bhadaj Bilasiya Fatewadi Hanspura Hebatpur Kamod Kathwada Khodiyar Lambha Oganaj Ramol Shilaj Vanzar Vastral Vinzol Visalpur Total Area 1048.26 197.79 694.95 581.94 763.03 290 427.6 668.92 1575.72 245.83 1093.97 52.51 440.31 811.61 408.6 638.65 355.96 603.51 358.07 1094.68 710.04 810.44 350.98 879.54 248.08 285.87 557.67 1915.24 413.39 636.98 1459.5 725.69 850.96 537.71 1137.19 160 1751.77 25783 Population 1981 10240 955 1634 2398 4272 947 1240 2759 5441 2388 5251 1931 44658 20543 1753 9503 1390 15484 1661 4955 1699 1315 1290 2695 1080 2191 1033 7670 1814 2882 3450 5996 3888 1580 5050 4351 3177 190564 Population 1991 35560 1100 2830 3096 4865 1131 1461 3134 4541 112 9846 50 4108 4969 5415 9569 1747 1734 1775 5444 1846 1473 1408 3835 1364 1690 1484 11328 2431 6080 4068 6819 3819 2310 5523 2921 3753 164639 Population 2001 55477 1250 3780 4457 5746 1413 1673 3400 5080 92 18090 985 44636 17035 1562 23086 2241 4311 1976 6284 2083 1757 1669 5394 1720 1888 1866 13859 2904 16725 4719 O/G 4194 3152 6935 2851 4209 278499

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The table showing list of settlements through which ring road is passing shows that most of the settlements are of rural nature and major land use function is agriculture. So the road is more of highway and less of a city road.

4.2.2 Distribution of population


The projected population of 63.86 lakhs for the Ahmedabad Urban Complex area is to be distributed over the proposed urbanizable area as per Revised Draft Development Plan of AUDA. According to the report of AUDA the projected population of AUC area is 60.48 lakhs. To be more optimistic and envisaging better development and increase in potentiality due to ring road and also to check distribution and requirement of developed land, higher side is taken for projection in AUC area here. Considering the present characteristics and development pattern of Ahmedabad to be similar only, total population the city can carry in sustainable way is done in 2-3 ways as below. Table 4.2.2.a Population distribution according to zones Assumed Zones Area (sq.km.) 6.45 193.08 Density 2011 (Persons/ sq.km.) 50000 25000 Population Served 2011 322500 4827000

Walled City/Gamtals in AMC Residential Type 1 (gross area including roads in both AMC and AUC) Residential Type - II AMC Reservations released for development Residential Type - III Total

40.18 19.55 30.06 285.32

20000 25000 4000

803600 488750 120240 6562090

Though here very conservative stand to density is adopted but in real terms the area achieves much more density. Looking from the density achieved in various schemes in AUDA area from the table at annexure C density of 200 to 250 persons per hectare is not only common but also desirable to achieve compact growth and better utilization of urban land.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 4.2.2.b Population Distribution over Urbanized Area to Gross Density


Planning area Area (sq. km) Population 2001 Density 2001 (persons/ sq.km) 18420 5524 Assumed density 2011 (persons/ sq. km.) 25000 15000 Or @20000 Or @ 25000 Population served 2011 4771000 2554500 Or 3406000 Or 4257500 7325500 Or 8177000 Or 9028500

AMC Total Urbanizable Area (less AMC & RIII area) Total

190.84 170.30
(432.1426.225.37-9.3530.06190.84)

3515361 940851

361.14

Above densities have been considered as per the prevailing general development control regulations. The table shows that if compact development is allowed as planned in residential I & II zones, it can accommodate much more population than projected for 2011 AD and hence development through Town Planning Scheme may be needed phase wise even in next twenty years. All Town Planning Schemes are not needed to be prepared immediately just for the sake of single road.

4.3 Inference of alignment and demography


The ring road alignment when analysed clearly shows that it is passing through mainly rural areas and crossing national highways and state highways at many places. The ring road obviously is not crossing so many city roads as it is quite away from presently developed area. Then under the circumstances, the feasibility of developing through town planning scheme can be replaced by other option of developing it by Government. Also the demographic profile when analysed states that it shall take quite a long time to have the proposed residential areas to get fully developed and accommodate the projected population. This again shows that residents of the city now may not use the ring road developed but more it shall be used by regional traffic so it may prove too early to develop the ring road through town planning scheme method.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 5.0 TRAFFIC ANALYSIS & ITS EVALUATION OF THE CASE STUDY
Generally traffic is defined as movement of people; goods and vehicles between spatially separated points and thus include all types of vehicles viz. mechanized, motorized and non- motorized. Traffic operation is depended on traffic management practices adopted to optimize the use of the existing road network with a view to improve traffic flow and road safely. The nature and characteristic of the existing traffic on the national highways, state highways, major district and some other district roads being intercepted by proposed ring road links were examined by the AUDA during the detailed site reconnaissance survey. It was observed that the traffic passing through these roads comprises of mixed composition of vehicles ranging from heavy goods vehicles to buses, cars, auto rickshaws and scooters to slow moving bicycles and carts. In order to assess the intensity of the traffic and to determine the flow of traffic likely to divert and use the proposed link of ring road, data from the continuous classified traffic volume count and origin-destination surveys got done by AUDA and primary traffic survey conducted self are used as below.

5.1 Traffic Surveys and Forecasting


The following traffic surveys are carried out for assessment of the magnitude and characteristics of current traffic.

5.1.1 Classified Traffic Volume Count


The continuous classified volume count survey was conducted round the clock for seven days at all the survey locations simultaneously from 08.00 hours of 26th August 2000 to 2nd September 2000 by AUDA. All categories of vehicles, as mentioned in IRC code, passing through the survey stations were counted and recorded in the prescribed format. An equivalency factor of Passenger Car Units (PCU) was applied on the recorded vehicles so as to convert the vehicles of different size and category into a common scale of PCU values as per the IRC guidelines (IRC: 64 -1990). The list of all survey stations is given at annexure T-1 which may be referred in the plan at annexure P-3. The complete recorded traffic count data for station No. 1 for the said week including for all days and all hours for one day is given at annexure T-2. The recorded traffic count data for each station was analyzed and averaged for seven days to obtain the value of Average Daily Traffic (ADT) with directional distribution in up and down directions, vehicle composition by volume and PCU and hourly variation of average daily traffic for each survey station. The summary of traffic volume count for Average Daily Traffic number

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

and PCU with its composition by no. & PCU is given at annexure T-3 for all 19-survey stations. The directional distribution of traffic volume for UP traffic towards Ahmedabad and DOWN traffic out of Ahmedabad is given at annexure T-4. The comparative statement for slow moving vehicles, fast moving vehicles and combine of both slow & fast moving traffic is given at annexure T-5'. The comparison is made on Bar Chart as below: COMPARISON OF ADT PCU AT ALL STATIONS

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The traffic volume count table and its summary shows that traffic is of mixed nature but mostly comprising of fast moving vehicles which amounts to more than 95 % composition by PCU namely on stations no. 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18 & 19.Though on rest of the stations there is a fair amount of slow moving vehicular traffic ranging from 10 % to highest 35 % near Ambli village. Again all the stations have more or less same UP and DOWN traffic i.e. 50-50 %. Out of the total volume of fast moving vehicle, the composition by volume of PCU is higher for trucks on most of the roads followed by cars/jeeps. Highest of trucks PCU is at station no. 19 near Kamod of 74.24 % followed by 53.58 % at station no. 8 near Vaishnodevi on NH-8C. While for cars the highest composition is 32.22 % near Amiyapur for Gandhinagar highway. Two wheelers traffic is also considerably high at all the stations. The composition of traffic of different types of fast moving vehicles and slow moving vehicles is shown by Pie Chart as below:
LEGEND SHOWING COM POSITION OF TRAFFIC VOLUM E FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF VEHICLES

Truck/ Tractor trailor BusA.M.T.S. Car/ Jep/ Van Total Slow Vehicles

Truck

LCV

Agriculture tractor Mini Bus Scooter/ Motor cycle

Bus S.T. 3-W (Passengers)

Bus Pvte. 3- W ( Goods)

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

TRAFFIC COMPOSITION BY PCU IN PERCENTAGE

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Station No.13,SH-68 nearEnasan

Station No.14,Near Kathaw ada

12.54 15.25 9.81 2.57

1.68

18.31 7.09 2.13 0.04 12.23

28.12

1.74

22.04

15.72

1.51 1.13

11.64

3.47

8.99

6.27 7.52 0.35 0.36 8.471.04

Station no.15,NH-59 nearOdhav

Station No.17,SH-3 Near Vinzol 8.58

18.05 12.94 2 18.46

1.38

19.26 6.29 2.24 5.3 0.81 0.24 6.73 6.31

1.9 6.85 13.18

8.63

1.52

18.44 9.2 3.19

3.94

8.85

8.06

7.28

Station No.18,NH-8 Near Asalali 7.21 2.65 4.72 13.52 1.09 1.79 13.08 0.01 0.7 2.46 6.84 34.53

Station No.19,SH-142 Near Kam od

3209032 .86 .96 .88 7 5. . 8 5 0 90.0 18 1 . .02. 11 2 1 .7 0 7

11.41

4 .2 74

5.1.2 Origin-Destination Survey


75

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The main purpose of carrying out the Origin-Destination survey is to ascertain the proportion of through, semi-through and local traffic with respect to the proposed ring road link. Origin-Destination survey was conducted by AUDA at the same locations considered for traffic volume count. The survey was conducted for three continuous days in both directions. Vehicles moving towards Ahmedabad were considered as up direction, and outward direction was taken as down direction traffic. O-D survey was conducted by roadside interview method on random sample basis for goods vehicles (MAV/Truck/LCV) and passenger vehicles (Bus/Car/Auto rickshaw/Scooter) by recording the responded information on the prescribed format. For the purpose of analysis, O-D movements of vehicles were divided into 28 zones as given at annexure T-6. The plan showing Origin Destination zones is given at annexure P-11. The origin and destination matrix for surveyed vehicles MAV, truck, LCV, bus, car, auto-rickshaw and scooter were prepared respectively for each survey station. Data collected in the field were analysed to obtained the travel pattern of fast moving vehicles through the survey stations and ascertain the proportions of through, semi-through and local traffic with respect to the proposed link of the AUDA ring road. The sample size of cars, auto-rickshaws and scooters/motor cycles were less as their drivers were not willing to stop at survey stations, since they felt insecure and plied fast. Moreover, in case of the auto-rickshaws, making a number of short-distance to and from trips through the survey stations were reluctant to answer more than once. The sample survey has Origin -Destination and traffic movement from one station to other station for station no. 2 & 19 to near by station is given at annexure T-6a for reference. From the above origin destination survey a matrix was formed to give an idea of PCU in the base year to move from one station to another and consequently on all links. One of the matrixes formed is given at annexure T6b for reference. After establishing the traffic based on past traffic counts as below, the traffic expected to be diverted on all links is estimated.

5.1.3 Establishment of Base Year Traffic


The base year traffic flow is the primary input for determination of future traffic demand. Existing flow of passenger and goods traffic and the pattern of traffic movement being served by the existing highways are to be assessed by their travel pattern, magnitude and characteristics. The basic data input for the study is the requirements of the existing traffic volume on each highway, their origin-destination and type of commodity carried. The past data available on traffic volume count from 1996 to 2000 April at the nearby permanent stations on intersecting roads in terms of vehicles with average annual growth of traffic is given at annexure T-7a & PCU per day is given at annexure T-7b.

5.2 Traffic Forecast / Growth Rate


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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

For the design of new facility, reliable traffic projections for the design life of the project road is very essential. The traffic projections are carried out for the project road for the period up to year 2030 after establishing growth rate for the traffic by various approaches. The traffic growth rate is primarily related to changes or variations likely to take place in the project road influence area over the design horizon, with respect to economic and social developments like Industrial development, distribution of agricultural surplus, possible population changes, distribution of income, and growth of vehicle population. The growth rate adopted for different types of vehicles is as annexure T-8. The part of the annexure T-7a & b is put below for analysis for traffic growth. Table 5.2.a
Past Traffic Data At Permanent Count Station (In PCU Per Day) Sr. No.
2 3 5 7

Year Location
SH-4, Sarkhej SH-142, Kamod SH-3, Vinzol SH-68, Enasan

1996
11343 10536 14355 12788 16412 11110 10645

1997
11886 10736 14463 13048 9787 10692 10868

1998
12067 15707 15549 13786 9765 10821 11047

1999
12128 12841 15682 13646 10141 10944 11174

2000 (April)
12337 14199 15460 14083 10497 10806 NA

10 Sola-Bhadaj road 11 Bopal- Ambli road 12 A'bad-Viramgam road

Source: State Highway Division, R & B Department, G.O.G. and Basic Transport Statistics of Gujarat Table 5.2.b
Average Daily Traffic (ADT) Projection (By PCU) Years
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

Sanathal - Sarkhej Section ( Between Nh-8a & Sh-4 )* MAV Truck LCV Bus Car/Jeep 3 -W 2-W
954 1428 2088 2984 4166 5707 7820 7107 10637 15557 22231 31034 42519 58255 1370 1957 2732 3725 4962 6485 8476 489 667 888 1155 1474 1882 2402 1013 1381 1840 2393 3054 3898 4975 239 311 395 490 596 725 882 676 923 1229 1599 2040 2604 3322

Total
11848 17304 24729 34577 47326 63820 86132

*Link in isolation, when other links are not constructed

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

The traffic projections done by AUDA is based on the average annual growth rate by types of vehicles given at annexure T-8 ranging per year from 5.5% for three Wheelers to 8.5% for MAV/truck and decreasing over every five year by half percentage. But if we see the actual past traffic census done by Government shown in the above table no. 5.1.3.a, it is found that the traffic growth is not so high as taken for projections which simply does not justify the ring road development from traffic point of view done by authority even. Traffic census data for permanent count stations near the survey locations show an unsteady trend of vehicle growth. The growth of traffic based on the past trend of traffic for the base year 2000 near each survey location is given at annexure T-9. Also based on the growth rates on the base year traffic on each section of the proposed links of the ring road, traffic projections in terms of number of PCU are estimated from 2000 to 2030 A.D. and marked as annexure T-10 and projected traffic on junctions is given at annexure T-11. The traffic projections are also made for both the situations of the particular link considered in isolation and when other joining links are completed where traffic projected is more. Divertible Traffic The divertible traffic on the ring road is obtained from the expanded O-D matrix below for each station. The traffic likely to use the sections of the proposed link is ascertained from the origins and destinations of traffic at each survey station. Thus, the traffic expected to divert and traffic anticipated on the sections of the proposed link in terms of ADT number and ADT PCU of ring road works out as below. Table 5.2.c Average Daily Traffic to be diverted in PCU on the link at present Type of Vehicle
MAV Truck LCV Bus Car/Jeep/Van Autorickshaw Scooter/Motor Cycles Total

VaishnodeviSanathal
3033 11148 966 2292 2710 11 72 20232

Sanathal Asalali
2714 12534 2700 3541 2527 94 110 24220

Asalali Ranasan
978 5513 1098 3134 969 149 147 12038

Ranasan Vaishnodevi
410 426 135 642 471 78 128 2290

Source: Feasibility study & preliminary project report for proposed ring road, AUDA.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road Composition of PCU of traffic to be diverted by type of vehicle on each link in base year 2000

Percent. of PCU

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Ranasan Vaishnodevi Asalali - Ranasan Sanathal Asalali VaishnodeviSanathal

MAV

Autorickshaw
Types of Vehicle

Total PCU to be diverted on each link

25000 20000 No. of PCU 15000 10000 5000 0

Vaish nodeviSanathal

Ranasan Vaishnodevi

Total

Name of Link

Table No. 5.2.d Traffic Growth anticipated in PCU with (%) at all links Year VaishnodeviSanathal Asalali Ranasan Sanathal Asalali Ranasan Vaishnodevi
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 20232 29547(46.0%) 42223(42.9%) 59029(39.8%) 80799(36.8%) 109044(34.9%) 147274(35.0%) 24219 35226(45.4%) 50139(42.3%) 69827(39.2%) 95225(36.3%) 128066(34.5%) 172380(34.6%) 12038 16516(37.2%) 23290(41.0%) 32146(38.0%) 43483(35.3%) 58124(33.6%) 77778(33.8% ) 2289 3236(41.3%) 4480(38.4%) 6071(35.5%) 8072(32.9%) 10648(31.9%) 14065(32.1%)

Source: Feasibility study & preliminary project report for proposed ring road, AUDA.

Thus the traffic growth anticipated at four links ranges between 37.2 % on Aslali-Ranasan link to highest of 46.0 % on Vaishnodevi-Sanathal link. Though the traffic growth anticipated in percentage is more or less same on all the links but in absolute figures the traffic anticipated on Ranasan-Vaishnodevi link is very less, which shows the development of this link could be delayed.
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Seasonal variation In order to find seasonal variation in traffic, traffic volume data for the year are required. Due to unavailability of data, toll collection revenue at Shastri Bridge across the river Sabarmati, which is in the vicinity of section of proposed ring, can be used to final seasonal variation in traffic. The analysis indicates that traffic is lowest in month of June and maximum traffic flow is in the month of November. There is about 12.26 percent variation between traffic flow of November and June. This trend in seasonal variation of traffic is expected for the traffic on links of proposed ring road section. The traffic surveys for the present study are carried out in the month of December for which the seasonal correction factor is 0.96. The desire line traffic and link loading corrected for seasonal variations are given at annexure T-12.

5.3

Willingness to pay Toll Survey


The road users may be benefited in terms of savings in vehicle operating cost, savings in travel time and improved level of service. The extent to which the users may be willing to pay toll on this ring road is to be assessed for arriving at the suitable toll rate structure. The willingness to pay toll (WTP) survey has been carried by AUDA at a five survey locations. The willingness to pay toll survey was done by getting the response from MAV, truck, LCV, bus, car, auto rickshaws and scooters/motor-cycle users. The acceptable toll rates by the respondents were recorded in the survey formats. Distribution of road users willing to pay toll rates Toll opinion of auto rickshaws and scooters/motor-cycle are not considered for analysis due to the fact that their travel behaviors were limited to short distance with origin / destination from / to Ahmedabad. Heavy goods vehicle users and private car users were more inclined towards paying toll and they were found eager for smooth journey and travel. Bus drivers were reluctant to disclose their opinion and most of the buses interviewed were hired or government owned. However they were ready to pay toll. Classifying the road users into different toll rate groups carried out the analysis of the toll rate survey. The distribution of road users willing to pay toll for all the four links is given at annexure T-13. The combined survey of willingness to pay toll when seen as percentage, the result shown below in form of bar chart gives clear picture that people are willing to pay toll if rendered with good urban infrastructure roads. But than strategy has to be evolved that at least the link most urgently required may be developed through BOT basis.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Truck

MAV

Total

LCV

Bus

Car

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Not willing to pay or no response Above 30 26-30 21-25 16-20 15-Nov 10-Jun 0-5

Nos. Responded in %

Chart showing % of people willing to pay toll in Rs. Per vehicle From the above survey, the probability of getting toll tax and time period within which the project if taken on B-O-T basis can recover the cost may be assessed as below Average PCU on each link: 20000 Average toll rate: Rs. 10/- per PCU Increase in PCU every five year: 20000 So Toll collection per year for first five year shall be: 20000*365*10/- = Rs.7.30 crores Total collection in five year: Rs. 36.50 crores Total collection in second five year plan: Rs. 73.00 crores As the total cost of ring road is estimated to be Rs. 320 crores except land cost it shall need 15-20 years to recover the cost of each link on BOT basis considering rate of return as above.

Traffic Anticipated development

based

on

existing

&

projected

The development of Ahmedabad city has been concentric type development due to more of its similar terrain and topography on all sides. If we see the pattern of road development, we find it to have a ring road and radials and the ring is repeated after every required interval of distance. Right from ring around wall city joining ancient gates of the city followed by 120 university ring followed by 132 ring road and then the proposed 60.0 Mt. ring road under
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

reference. It may here be noted that one more ring of 90.0 Mt. is proposed in the development Plan of AUDA that may come after 20 years or so. It is a well known fact that city is like a child which shall go on growing even in inorganic way if planning is not done in advance. So it is always safe to plan for the future needs of the city from the population projection expected and also traffic and transportation that is expected to increase consequently. The present ring road of city namely 132 ring road was planned before the independence in master plan of the city. The same was proposed in the principal development plan of the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation sanctioned in 1965. But the ring was fully developed recently only looking from the present need. Similarly the proposed 60 Mt. of ring road in revised development plan of AUDA is necessary as development plan is prepared for next 20 years. But developing it immediately may have to be reviewed from the traffic it is going to serve, generated from the area it is to cater. The primary survey for traffic at various important junctions of inner rings and radials was done to get an idea of traffic diverting from the radials to rings and vice versa. Based on this and depending upon the area and density envisaged in development plan and ultimately the population residing or going to reside in the area, traffic expected to come on ring road is assessed. The traffic anticipated to use the various links of ring road shown before is based on mainly outside traffic calculated from origin-destination survey and traffic count done on radials from Ahmedabad to outside the city. Thus that traffic is more of regional traffic and as the development of road is to be done through town planning scheme, it seems more necessary to see the utility for city traffic. As if the road is not going to have enough of PCU due to under development compared to the development that has taken place between SarkhejGandhinagar highway and inner rings then the construction of ring road may need reconsideration. There cannot be any doubt in proposal but the immediate development and construction should definitely be justifiable.

5.4.1 Net Density Achievable in different Zones of Residential type


For the above needed projections, we may look into the development control regulations in each kind of residential zones as case study on the western belt of the city from university 120 ring road to proposed 60 Mt. ring road area. The area included here has three types of residential zones namely type I, II and III. Each zone is having different norms for development and densities proposed. We may calculate the density achievable in these zones as below. Explanation: For a plot admeasuring 1 Ha. i. e. 10,000 Sq. Mtrs. Net Density may be as below. 82

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 5.4.1. Net Density achievable in Residential Zones


Sr. No. Zone and primary G.D.C.R. Total Ground Coverage in Sq. Mtr. Total F.S.I. Sq. Mt Assumed Requirement of one family No. of families may be accomodated Net Density at 4 to 5 Persons per family

Resi. I with 40 % ground coverage and 1.0 F.S.I. (as per old G.D.C.R.) Resi. I with 45 % ground coverage and 1.8 F.S.I. (as per new G.D.C.R.) Resi. II with 45 % ground coverage and 1.2 F.S.I. and Ground + Two floors

4000

4500

4500

Resi. III with 10 % ground coverage and 0.2 F.S.I.

1000

10000 50 Sq. Mt. of 80 320 to built up or 125 400 Sq.Mt. of F.S.I. or ground holding. 18000 50 Sq. Mt. of 90 360 to ground 450 coverage or 200 Sq.Mt. of F.S.I. or 125 Sq. Mt. ground holding. 12000 100 Sq. Mt. of 45 180 to ground built Individu 320 up for al individual Houses house and to 150 Sq.Mt. of 80 F.S.I. or 125 Flats. Sq. Mtr. of ground holding for flat type. 2000 100 Sq. Mt. of 10 40 to ground 50 coverage or 200 Sq. Mt. of F.S.I. or 1000 Sq. Mtr. of ground holding.

Note: Population of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation in 2001 A.D. is 3515361. Area of A.M.C. is 19084 Ha.
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Considering 65 % area to be Residential area i. e. 12404 Ha. Net density of residential zone in A.M.C. comes 283 Persons Per Hectare.

5.4.2 Gross Density Achievable in different Zones of Residential type


Deduction in Residential type II zone and type I zone is done 40 % & in Residential type III is 30 % for making town planning schemes as principally accepted by authority. Therefore in a town planning scheme plots available for Residential type development in a scheme of 40 % deduction shall be approximately 70 % of scheme area including plots for sale for residence and plots for socially and economically weaker section housing which shall be about 10 to 15 % of total scheme area. Hence the gross density may be 30 % less than net density means the gross density ranges from 126 to 224 PPH in Residential type II and between 224 to 280 PPH in residential type I Zone. Table 5.4.2.a Sr. No. 1 2 3 Gross Density achievable in Residential Zones Zone Ground F.S.I./ Net Gross coverage Storey Density Density Resi. I Resi. II Resi. III 45 % 45 % 10 % 1.8 (G+10) 1.2 (G + 1) 0.2 (G + 1) 320 to 400 PPH 180 to 320 PPH 25 to 40 PPH 224 to 280 PPH 126 to 224 PPH 20 to 32 PPH Assumed Gross Density 250 PPH 175 PPH 40 PPH

This gross density assumed all three types of residential zones can be taken as base for the population it can accommodate per unit area. For the sake of getting an idea of traffic projection on proposed 60.0 mt ring road, the western belt which seems to be very potential and developing area has been selected for sample as the development of ring road on this sides may be in need of earliest phase in comparison to other links for city traffic. Sectors formed by the inner ring roads of 120 university road, 132 ring road, Sarkhej- Gandhinagar National Highway NH 8C and 60mt. ring road and then radials going from center towards Gota, Sola / Bhadaj / Thaltej, Ambli, Vejalpur and Vasna have been numbered from 1 to 20 depending upon the zone. Each such sector is then with its assumed density of relevant zone, is assigned the maximum population it shall cater. The plan of Ahmedabad city showing the development mainly on western side is given below for reference, while the plan showing the sectors done as explained above is given at Annexure P-12. The sectors shown in the plan as numbered are then with its location and area can totally accommodate 84

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

16,03,878 persons as stated in the Table No 5.4.2.b which includes population of 11,95,450 in Residential TypeI, population of 2,95,364 in Residential TypeII and population of 1,13,064 in Residential Type-III zone. The twenty residential sectors include mainly the wards / area of Paldi, Vasna, Gandhinagar, Navrangpura , Sardar Patel Stadium, Naranpura, Ghatlodiya, Nirnaynagar, Memnagar, Thaltej, Vastrapur, Bodakdev,Vejalpur, Makarba and Jodhpur. The present population as per census2001 is 8,76,098 as stated in the table no. 5.4.2.c.

Development of Ahmedabad

Source: SETU map

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 5.4.2.b
Population Accommodated in Sectors between Main Ring and Radial Roads. Sr. Location Area Zone Density Population no. in Sq. assumed Km. 1 Naranpura 4.487 Resi. I 25000 112175 2 Ghatlodia, Gota 10.63 Resi. I 25000 265750 3 Sola, Bhadaj, Oganaj 5.561 Resi. II 17500 97317 4 Sola, Bhadaj, Oganaj 7.622 Resi. III 4000 30488 5 Navarangpura 0.979 Resi. I 25000 24475 6 Thaltej, Memnagar 4.836 Resi. I 25000 120900 7 Thaltej, Bodakdev 4.701 Resi. II 17500 82250 8 Thaltej, Hebatpur 6.236 Resi. III 4000 24944 9 Vastrapur,Uni.campus 3.037 Resi. I 25000 75925 10 Vastrapur,Bodakdev 6.294 Resi. I 25000 157350 11 Ambli, Bodakdev 4.683 Resi. II 17500 81952 12 Thaltej, Ambli, Bodak. 4.395 Resi. III 4000 17580 13 Manekbag Soc. 1.051 Resi. I 25000 26250 14 Jodhpur,Prahladnagar 4.057 Resi. I 25000 101425 15 Vejalpur, Makarba 1.934 Resi. II 17500 33845 16 Makarba 3.531 Resi. III 4000 14124 17 Vasna, 3.271 Resi. I 25000 81775 18 Shreyas, Juhapura 9.177 Resi. I 25000 229425 19 Sakhej 1.303 Resi. III 4000 5212 20 Makarba, Sarkhej 5.179 Resi. III 4000 20716 21 Sarkhej 1.286 Com. I Total 92.96 1603878 Residential Type I : 1195450 Residential Type II : 295364 Residential Type III : 113064 Total : 1603878

Table 5.4.2.c Population as per 2001 census in above area:


Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ward/Location Paldi Vasna Gandhigram Navarangpura Sardar patel stadium Naranpura Ghatlodia,Nirnaynagar Memnagar,Vastrapur,Thaltej ,Bodakdev Vejalpur,Makarba,Jodhpur Population in ward/village 74822 103526 65800 59987 72880 83331 112136 125203 178413 Population in sectors formed approx. 60000 90000 40000 40000 70000 75000 100000 125203 150000

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Total

876098

740023

Population as per census includes the population residing in whole of the ward but as we have for our convenience in traffic study have divided the areas as per roads and so some of the areas towards Ashram road from 120 ring University road are not included in these population. Thus roughly the area, which is opened up for residential in revised development plan of AUDA including existing area for above locations, can accommodate 16.0 lakhs population which is approximately double the 2001 census population of 8.0 lakhs in between above stated ring roads. This clearly shows that more 8.0 lakhs of population when accommodated, the area shall get fully developed and then only such big roads may be utilized in optimum way. But the population of 8.00 lakhs means 100% increase is quite high then general growth rate observed from demographic profile that is 30 to 40% in a decade. So even if we take very optimistic projection of population the area shall need at least a decade or more than one decade to get fully developed.

5.4.3 Traffic Volume Count from Primary Survey


The feasibility of road project is firstly dependent on the traffic and transportation apart from other feasibility criteria like financial, social and environmental. The proposed ring road is a new road in the concentric pattern of existing ring roads of the city like 120 university road and 132 ring road. For the assessment of traffic it is to cater from the city or developed areas there is no other better option than to look at the existing traffic on the existing rings coming from ring and radials and areas it is catering. For the anticipated traffic from city development and residential area the road is going to serve, traffic volume counts at all the major junctions formed by ring and radials in the western belt were done. The passenger car unit (PCU) as per survey done for three days including one holiday for two hours off beak and two hours peak gives an idea of traffic pattern followed here. The below table gives traffic volume count for three consecutive junction on drive in road namely Vijay Char Rasta, 132 Ring road junction and Thaltej chokdi, Similarly it was done for all but the data for three junctions is given below for ready reference while the chart marked as C 1 after the tables is showing traffic at the junctions on all ring and radials in percentage getting diverted from each side to each ring & radials. The chart also shows the population residing in the areas of residence between 120 university ring road to Sarkhej-Gandhinagar national highway and projected population beyond National Highway and 60 Mt. Ring road. The next chart C 2 shows the actual traffic flow in PCU to and fro from radials for two main roads from which the growth is forecasted for proposed ring in relation to population & traffic existing.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 5.4.3.a
Average Traffic volume count per 15 minutes at Vijay Char Rasta Time 10.30 to 12.00 A.M. & 4.00 to 5.30 P.M. Navarangpura University Gurukal Naranpura to to to to Navarangpura Navarangpura Navarangpura Sr. No. Type of Vehicle Equi. PCU

Naranpura

Naranpura

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Bus Truck Car 3-Wheeler 2-Wheeler Cycle Cycle rickshaw Camel cart

3 3 3 1 1 0.5 0.5 2 8

10 2 0 38 26 140 20 2 0

0 1 2 0 1 1 38 22 11 34 10 3 142 46 38 25 8 8 1 0 0 0 0 0

2 0 1 0 0 0 87 22 12 39 5 1 258 30 27 47 6 4 4 1 0 1 0 0

11 12 13 14 15 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 23 55 18 9 8 9 41 11 4 26 31 187 45 24 13 9 51 7 5 3 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 0

Table 5.4.3.b
Average Traffic volume count in PCU per hour at Vijay char rasta PCU per Hour i.e. Volume*4*Eq. PCU Naranpura NavarangUniversity to Gurukal to to pura to Navarangpura Navarangpura Sr. No. Type of Vehicle Navarangpura

Equivalent PCU

Naranpura

Naranpura

Naranpura

University

University

University

4*Eq.PCU

Gurukul

Gurukul

Gurukul

1 1 2 3 4 5 6

2 3 Bus 3 Truck 3 Car 1 3-Wheeler 1 2-Wheeler 0.5 Cycle 0.5 Cycle 7 rickshaw 2 Camel 8 cart 8 Total PCU from PCU to

4 12 12 4 4 2 2 8 32

5 0 0 152 136 284 50 8

6 7 12 24 12 12 88 44 40 12 92 76 16 16 0 0

8 9 10 24 0 12 0 0 0 348 88 48 156 20 4 516 60 54 94 12 8 32 0 0

11 12 13 24 0 0 0 0 0 152 48 92 104 32 36 280 52 62 40 26 18 16 24 8

14 15 16 17 36 24 0 156 0 0 0 24 220 72 36 1388 164 44 16 764 374 90 48 1988 102 14 10 406 0 8 0 96

0 0 0 32 32 0 0 0 0 64 0 0 128 630 260 184 1202 212 126 616 182 216 960 252 110 4950 1074 1540 1014 1322 4950 994 1568 952 1436 4950

Table 5.4.3.c
R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Total

Naranpura

University

University

University

Gurukul

Gurukul

Gurukul

88

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Traffic volume count in vehicles per 30 minutes at 132' Ring road & Drive-in Road junction Time 10.30 to 12.00 A.M. & 4.00 to 5.30 P.M. Vastrapur Gurukal Navarangpura Sola to to to to Navarangpura Navarangpura Sr. No. Type of Vehicle Navarangpura

Equivalent PCU

Vastrapur

Vastrapur

Vastrapur 14 0 0 30 10 84 11 0 0

Gurukul

Gurukul

Gurukul

Sola

Sola

1 1 2 3 4 5 6

2 Bus Truck Car 3-Wheeler 2-Wheeler Cycle Cycle 7 rickshaw Camel 8 cart

4 3 0 3 6 1 59 1 47 0.5 280 0.5 48 2 8 8 0

6 1 0 0 1 19 43 10 5 148 53 10 9 0 1 0 1

7 8 4 240 116 649 89 23 4

9 10 11 12 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 29 27 55 13 32 20 4 37 7 5 87 130 252 65 78 25 19 59 13 13 0 1 0 1 10 0 1 0 0 2

13 6 6 239 128 714 97 11 5

15 0 1 11 5 61 20 1 0

Table 5.4.3.d
Traffic volume count in vehicles per 30 minutes at 132' Ring road & Drive-in Road junction Average Traffic Volume count in PCU per Hour i.e. Volume*2*Eq. PCU Navarangpura Vastrapur to Gurukal to Sola to to Navarangpura Navarangpura Equivalent PCU Vastrapur Vastrapur Vastrapur Sr. No. Type of Vehicle Navarangpura

Gurukul

Gurukul

Gurukul

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bus 3 0 6 0 48 12 Truck 3 36 0 6 24 0 Car 1 118 38 86 480 58 3-Wheeler 1 94 20 10 232 40 2-Wheeler 0.5 280 148 53 649 87 Cycle 0.5 48 10 9 89 25 Cycle rickshaw 2 32 0 0 92 0 Camel cart 8 0 16 16 64 16 Total 608 238 180 1678 238 PCU from 1026 2143 PCU to 1003 2176

9 0 0 54 8 130 19

10 6 60 110 74 252 59

11 0 0 26 14 65 13 4

12 13 14 15 0 36 0 0 0 36 0 6 64 478 60 22 10 256 20 10 78 714 84 61 13 97 11 20 0 44 0 4

16 108 168 1594 788 2601 413 216 240 6128 6128 6128

0 40

16 0 0 32 80 0 0 227 601 122 197 1741 175 123 92 2039 969 1980

Table 5.4.3.e
Average Traffic volume count in vehicles per 30 minutes at Sarkhej- Gandhinagar highway

Total

Sola

Sola

Sola

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Sola

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Time 10.30 to 12.00 A.M. & 4.00 to 5.30 P.M. Sarkhej to Thaltej to Gandhinagar to Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Equivalent PCU Sr. No. Type of Vehicle

Drive - in to Gandhinagar 0 0 0 0 Total 0 48

Drive-in

Drive-in

Drive-in

Sarkhej

Sarkhej

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Bus Truck Car 3-Wheeler 2-Wheeler Cycle Cycle rickshaw Camel cart

4 5 3 5 2 3 117 3 1 98 8 1 33 3 0.5 82 9 0.5 7 6 2 8 0 0 0 0

6 1 6 48 11 66 4 0 0

7 4 1 27 28 65 13 0 2

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 0 4 0 0 5 2 0 4 1 125 3 2 1 1 3 16 3 102 3 23 10 43 26 5 3 46 2 2 5 4 3 3 12 124 7 25 28 66 16 2 4 4 2 3 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 5.4.3.f
Average Traffic volume count in PCU per hour at Sarkhej- Gandhinagar highway PCU per Hour i.e. Volume*2*Eq. PCU Sarkhej to Thaltej to Gandhinagar to Drive - in to Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Equivalent PCU Sr. No. Type of Vehicle Gandhinagar 0 0

2*Eq.PCU

Drive-in

Drive-in

Drive-in

Sarkhej

Sarkhej

Bus Truck Car 3-Wheeler 2-Wheeler Cycle Cycle 7 rickshaw Camel 8 cart Total Total PCU from Total PCU to

1 1 2 3 4 5 6

3 3 3 1 1 0.5 0.5 2

4 6 6 2 2 1 1 4

5 30 702 196 66 82 7 0 0

6 7 8 9 10 12 6 24 0 0 18 36 6 24 6 16 96 54 32 6 6 22 56 10 6 9 66 65 3 12 6 4 13 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 24 750 204 92 124 4 0 0

12 0 18 6 4 7 2 0 0

13 0 12 46 4 25 3 0 0

14 15 30 12 6 6 20 86 10 8 28 66 1 2 0 0 0 0

Sarkhej

Thaltej

Thaltej

Thaltej

16 17 0 138 18 1602 52 814 6 290 16 503 0 48

8 16

32 16

1083 67 230 250 87 34 1380 371 1412 252

1198 37 90 95 180 92 3443 1325 367 3443 1262 517 3443

Figures given in between junctions in the chart shows the existing population in the sector surrounding these junction upto Sarkhej Gandhinagar Highway and population that can be accommodated in sectors beyond N.H. 8C and 60.0 Mt. ring road. There being very less residential II or III zone (upto 200 mts only) on other side of ring road, the population expected to reside on other 90

R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

Sarkhej

Thaltej

Thaltej

Thaltej

Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

side is negligible. Hence whatever population is going to reside between N.H. 8C and proposed ring road may use this 60 Mt. ring road. The chart if looked into detail shows that main traffic on first two rings of 120 and 132 ring are the from PCU plying on rings only accounting 70 to 80% of total traffic. Similarly on radials 70 to 80% traffic is moving straight on radials itself only and only rest 20 to 30% is diverted roughly equally on ring. Hence the rings, which exist, are main ring of city and even then it gets less traffic from radial. The scenario changes at third ring of N.H. 8C where more than 50 to even upto 70% goes from radial to ring road. But presently N.H. 8C is joining mainly Gandhinagar and North Gujarat to Saurashtra the traffic getting diverted to this ring is of outside traffic going out as in from city. But this pattern cannot be expected to observe in next ring. Rather the traffic pattern being observed at inner two rings can be expected similarly in 60.0 mt. ring. Again if we see the population from Vasna to Gota between SrkhejGandhinagar highway and proposed 60.0 Mt. Ring Road in each sector which is roughly same or sometime less than the inner sectors is of @ 25,000, 50,000, 1,00,000, 1,07,000 and 1, 27,000 approximate. That means the ring is not going to cater the same population as the present 132ring road is catering. Also PCU observed if for an example at 132ring road and Memnagar road PCU of 2000 on radial & 1000 on ring approximate is also very less than optimum ring road of 132 could cater. Hence the PCU from city or area it is to cater shall be very less and cannot reach at maximum utilization even if area is fully developed and maximum achievable density as per proposed GDCR is attained.

5.5 Final Implications of Traffic Movement


From traffic flow estimated by AUDA Comparing the traffic flow on all the sections of ring road, the Ranasan Vaishnodevi link has highest traffic. This link will serve as direct connecting link for the traffic coming to Ahmedabad from northern part of the State and to traffic traveling from Saurashtra region to northern part of Gujarat. The other sections are catering the higher number of goods vehicles indicate the importance of the link for goods vehicles bypassing the city areas. The base year traffic movement of traffic on the proposed link justifies a fourlanes carriageway in the initial years. Provision for four lanes divided carriageway would be required due to heavy traffic movement on the links and fast development and growth of economy of the state in coming years. It can be seen from the traffic data given at annexure T-1 onwards done by AUDA that the link is loaded requiring four lanes divided carriageway in the base year itself. The number of private vehicles and substantial number of goods vehicles are major users of the ring road. Following the Indian Road Congress (IRC) guidelines, the base year traffic on the proposed links justifies 91

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

a two-lane divided carriageway in the initial years as maximum average daily traffic anticipated in base year of 2000 is about 25000 PCU and the road which shall be a major arterial of 2 lane (two way) can accommodate 1500 PCU per hour totaling quite more than the need anticipated for day. Provision of four-lane road would be required due to heavy traffic movement on the links and fast development to widen and strengthen to six lanes divided carriageway in next few years. But in nutshell the ring road shall be catering the regional traffic more and hence the development of it through town planning scheme needs to be reviewed. Also financing the project by state government or central government should be thought of. From traffic flow estimated by primary survey It is very clear that 60.0 mt. ring road shall be utilized in its partial form by the residents of sectors near by when it gets developed which shall taken at least a decade or even more. And so the construction of ring road from point of view of traffic and transportation of city level is not at all feasible. It may cater regional traffic but then for regional traffic, road can be developed by State or Central Govt. and National / State highway being the responsibility of highway authority and not authority like AUDA. So the construction of ring road seems to be early at least through town planning scheme mechanic.

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 6.0 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CASE STUDY


The objective of Initial Environmental assessment would be to identify any serious environmental issues expected to encounter due to implementation of the project. The results of initial environmental impact assessment indicates that the long-term positive benefits like reduction air pollution and noise level due diversification of traffic will be more than that-of short term negative benefits due to implementation of the project. As there is acquisition of land and few structures involved for implementation of the project there will be some adverse impact on surrounding social activity initially. However, improvement in living standards due to development of commercial activities will overcome the negative impact on surrounding social environment. The proposed ring road will act as a part of an efficient rapid transit system for Ahmedabad and will enable residents from various areas to commute to work places from their residences in a more convenient and speedy manner. The construction of the ring road will boost up the development of surrounding areas. The proposed ring road will also reduce traffic pressure on the central core of Ahmedabad city.The proposed ring road segment aims at traffic diversion from National Highway 8 from Mumbai Baroda Ahmedabad to NationalHighway 8, Ahmedabad Himatnagar Udaipur Delhi and Vice-Versa and facilities uninterrupted movement, it would also result 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Reduced operating costs Reduced congestion of traffic through the city Saving in passenger travel time. Saving in freight consignment cost. Reducing air pollution in the city due to vehicles operating at less than the design speed when approaching and passing through Ahmedabad. Prevention of probable accident rates within the town when vehicles are passing through busy streets of the city. Improvement of riding quality. Capacity augmentation to cater to present and projected traffic in future.

The proposed ring road segment can act as an effective mechanism for reducing economic and environmental costs of the congested traffic in the city and acts as a catalyst to the economic development of AUDA and surrounding villages.

6.1 Objectives of Preliminary Environmental Screening


The objectives of the preliminary Environmental Impact Screening are to determine the magnitude of actual and potential impact and to ensure that
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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

environmental consideration are given adequate weight in the selection of subsequent design of proposed road projects. The results of the preliminary screening will enable us to identify: a) Those stretches of the road with major environmental issues or impacts which would require detailed EA in order to determine appropriate mitigation measures and b) Those stretch with little to no potential impact and hence would require a limited environmental analysis.

6.2 Objectives of Preliminary Social Impact Screening


Early Screening and Social Impact Assessment is the first phase of the assignment. It was undertaken to determine the significant social issues, which have direct bearing on effective implementation of the project. The Early Screening and Social Impact Assessment is undertaken with the following objectives: a) To identify the reroute settlements which are likely to be affected by the project. b) To identify the structures, groups and infrastructure facilities, commercial establishments and institutions etc. which are likely to be affected by implementation of the project. c) To provide an overview of the enroute community with special reference to low income communities, areas of ROW, Encroachments and other socially sensitive areas. d) To delineate the segments of population, which would be benefited, and those adversely affected. The negative impact in this context refers to physical relocation, loss of land or other physical assets, or loss of livelihood. e) To explore the methods of minimizing negative social impacts through selection process and by providing inputs and guidance to the engineering designs and to maximize benefits to the local population, particularly for the poor and other vulnerable groups. Action checklist for Environmental Assessment Study and Areas of enquiry for Social and Environmental Impact Screening for any road project necessary for getting financial assistance now a days can be identified as given below:

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

Table 6.1 Action Checklist for Environmental Assessment study.


Environmental Components Impact on Soils Baseline Conditions Collect data on soil type, soil drainage, foundation stability, slope, vegetation and landuse Considerations for selection of Alternatives Avoid areas with high risk of erosion or areas with higher water table, swamps, mangrove with poor drainage, slope, instability or rich in vegetative cover i.e. forests, marshes, fields, orchards Minimise water crossing minimize sensitive areas whenever possible. Coordinate planning and design of water crossing with local aquatic condition such as flow regime, human use. Considering no of alternative predict future air quality conditions for both no-project and project completion scenario

Water resources

Air Quality

Flora and Fauna Impact on communities and their economic activity

Impact arising from land acquisition and resettlement Impact on cultural heritage

Impacts on aesthetics and landscape Impact on noise environment Impact on human health and safety

Data on sensitivity of study zone wrt drainage basin, nature and frequency of flooding, water quality, water use, fauna species and habitat Existing air quality levels Identify contributors to air quality degradation Describe the sensitive VECs and most applicable indicators of emission impacts Baseline data on flora, fauna, Comparative analysis of options in terms of bio-diversity its rarity and their consequence on natural environment to vulnerability, wildlife corridor avoid sensitive areas and VECs Data on landuse, demography, Alternative should include socio economic as economic activities traffic count, well as bio-physical environmental impact travel pattern with possible secondary effects on life style travel pattern and landuse. Where community impacts are significant the final choice of alternative may depend not on technical criteria but also on the priorities and perceptions of affected Project affected persons Cost each alternatives, valuation of each Impacts to be categorized in impact recognize the full cost. terms of types of person, land and activities affected and whether effect temporary or permanent Identification and prioritization Options for avoidance of sensitive areas of historical and archaeological should be considered seriously sites. Pinpoint highly sensitive areas and archaeological sites Critical features such as Alternatives which is aesthetically good and vegetation, buildings major which blends with the landscape. Avoid geographic areas. alignment in area with inherent scenic quality Road noise levels, sensitive Analysis of alternatives from noise levels point zones, highlight currently quiet of view. locations likely to experience a large change in noise levels. Accident data and geographic Consider using accident black spot remedial distribution of communicable measures disease.

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Table 6.2 Areas of inquiry for Social and Environmental Impact Screening
BROAD SOCIAL/ENV. PARAMETER CULTURAL VALUE FOREST Within 10kms. le g al st at us ty p es AREAS OF ENQUIRY Conservation areas Archaeological Building if INFORMATION SOURCES

any, From Archaeological survey of India/discussion with local community Conservation of forest area, Dept. of Forest/Conservation of conservation endangering of animal & Forest, any other species including migration Discussion with local routes Community and local Forest Chaui.

density SETTLEMENTS a) on the Ring Road ROW b) within 100m from Ring Road DRAINAGE/ FLOODING

Settlements & its population along the Population censes 1971, 1981, stretch. Its location & numbers. 1990. Topographic sheet for location. Existing drainage map and flooding level including its extent of water spread Identification of drainage channel and its catchments area around the road Identification of soil type its stability potentiality for soil erosion Type of crops/its/production intensity and yields changes in crop pattern Existing traffic characteristics speed of the traffic movement in the stages Existing noise level Identification of water bodies/canal/drainage channels where the run off surface water will flow-due to erosion and also due to spillage oil and other hazardous materials Existing movements of hazard materials. Identification of existing tree species is and its location. Its intensity Existing Traffic Volume Further Traffic forecast Direction of slope Farm land/Crop intensity and output. Grazing Land. Toposheet/hydrology study/River control authority in the state. Data from hydrological survey. Local people experience about flood level to be obtained at field visit. Geotechnical group identifying potential of erosion on the basis of soil characteristics. Agriculture Dept. Field survey and discussion with local people and local expert. Traffic data,State Pollution Control Board. Fields testing Traffic data / conducting field test. Topography sheets/field study Hydrological data from the Survey. Water quality test

SOIL & GEOLOGY AGRICULTURE/FARM PRODUCTION AIR POLLUTION NOISE LEVEL WATER (QUALITY SURFACE & UG)

TREES AND VEGETATION COVER TRAFFIC VOLUME SLOPES AGRICULTURE

Forest Dept. and field survey NHA1 past data on this stretch.

TREES ON THE ROW

Contour Survey Field Survey Topographic Sheet, Agriculture Dept. State and at local level Discussion with community. Location, number, types spread, grith Field Survey etc. Local name, value of the treets Topo sheet, Discussion with

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LAND COVER LANDSCAPE

AND

Landscape elements

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6.3

List of Valued Eco-system Components


Following is a list of important ecosystem components that are identified as the valued eco-system. Forest Areas (Protected & Reserved Forest): Disturbance of flora and fauna Accessibility to Protected and Reserved Forest Forest Tranquility Agriculture Land: Consumption of valuable agricultural land Loss of top soil Settlements Houses likely to be affected Business (Commercial) Wild Life Habitat Restriction of animal route Trees on the Right of Way (ROW) Matured trees Socially and culturally valuable trees Water Water quality River/stream/canal Community pond Irrigation small pond/reservoir Drainage Flooding and distribution drainage systems Distributed drainage system Religious Building Temples and mosques Cultural Building and Places Archaeological sites Places of Pilgrimage and Tourism Truck parking, repairing (Truck Adda) and Dhabas Weekly Bazar places Landscape and the natural scenic beauty of the place. 98

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6.4

Ecological Resources
Flora and Fauna Conservation of nature is concerned with maintaining available population of countrys characteristic flora and fauna and the communities they comprise. Maintenance of the diversity and character of the countryside including its wild life communities and important geological and physical features. Maintenance of viable populations of wild life species throughout their traditional range and improvement of the status of rare and vulnerable species. Flora At present in the 76 km of section of ring road alignment area there are no reserved or protected forests and the alignment passes through mostly cultivated area or fallow area. Along the route more than 200 trees are coming and will have to be cut after taking necessary permission and following the official procedure. Suitable compensatory reforestation in the form of roadside plantation shall have to be taken immediately after construction. The construction of ring road section does not have any other impact on any plant species. Fauna & Wild Life There are no major wild life or natural habitats or bird nesting grounds in this project area. Natural Habitation Sanctuaries and National Parks There are no such sanctuaries or national park in the project area and does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks, Sanctuaries Reserve Forests. Environmental Resources The scooping exercise is undertaken for the potential impact, which is significant for the project. Table provides an Action checklist as an insight into kind of data required, and aspects to be considered while evaluating alternatives from viewpoint of various Biophysical and Socio-economic environment impacts.

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Natural water bodies /Lakes/Ponds The ring road of 76.31 Kms. crosses the Sabarmati River twice near the village Bhat and Kamod. The alignment of bridge proposed was coming skew in the original alignment and so has been altered near Kamod. The alignment is also affecting thirteen lakes/ponds in eleven villages namely Ambli, Makarba, Lambha, Odhav, Muthiya, Zundal, Khodiyar, Chandkheda, Bhadaj, Hebatpur and Shilaj. The two ponds of Chandkheda and Ambli are just touching the ring road and land from the ponds is not going in it while from the remaining eleven ponds of total area 1,88,385 Sq. Mt. approximately an area admeasuring 47,691 sq. Mt. is going in the road alignment for which measures shall have to be taken, The detail list of ponds with total area and the area affected due to ring road is given below. Table 6.4.a Water Bodies Affected By The Ring Road Total area Area affected in Name of Village R. S. No. in Sq. Mt. Sq. Mt. Passes through Ambli 315 6323 corner edge only Shilaj 284 16162 3135 Khodiyar Zundal Chandkheda Muthia Odhav Lambha Lambha Makarba Bakrol Bhadaj+Hebatpur Bhadaj 79 353 62 294 46 293 Vermino Talav 405 206 428+147 204 Total 36895 6932 15337 3762 15782 12211 14086 2450 6450 21060 30935 188385 3140 1369 Passes through corner edge only 3200 6807 2848 6915 1646 2708 10403 5520 47691

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Thus about thirteen ponds are affected by the proposal of ring road in which also 5 Ha. of area out of total area of about 18.8 Ha. is going in the ring road. Some measures including changing of alignment shall have to be taken to protect the ponds or if it is unavoidable to change the alignment then some alternate may be thought so that ecology and environment is not affected. 100

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Critical Locations on the Ring Road Alignment On the basis of environmental and social considerations there were some critical points in the original alignment proposed in the Development Plan of AUDA which were considered and minor variations in the alignment where done. The statement showing the critical location on the original alignment on project road is as below: Table 6.4.b Statement Showing Critical Location on the Original Alignment of the Project Road
Ch. Of Brief Description of Critical AlignLocation ment 1 2 3 Sanathal to Aslali Link: 1. 2/970 Original alignment falling over fuel filling section Sr. No. Elimination & Avoiding of Critical Location 4 The alignment is shifted 80 m towards. Bagodara side. So as to eliminate of obstacles as shown in column no.3 Apex is also eliminated & Intersection with N.H. way No. 8A is made at right angle. To overcome curve on intersectional point alignment is shifted meter towards Sanathal side. To overcome all the obstacles, shown in column 3, the site is shifted 500 m towards D/S of the River. Skew avoided No problem of water stagnancy. Defined high bank available Narrow gourge available The alignment is shifted to 50 meter towards Vadodara side & kept such away that structures will not be influenced with alignment. The alignment is shifted to 150M towards Nadiad side, so as to avoid obstacle of Loco Shed To avoid this alignment is changed to 100 M towards Nadiad site. To overcome this difficulties is shifted 250 M towards Nadiad Side. Effect in Length 5 2520 M

2 3

6/670 10/970

Apex point coming on intersection with N.H. Original Road Alignment crossing Sarkhej-Dholka Road was lying on curve Original Bridge alignment crossing with River Sabarmati was of Skew pattern Water stragnency near by Defined Bank not available River gourge was broad

800 M 8400 M

The end of original alignment was passing over Telco Show Room and other heavy structures Aslali to Ranasan Link : 5 21/350 Original Alignment was to passing over the loco-shed 21/800 having two storeyed structures 6 23/200 Near Village Vinzol Residential quarters for Ayojan of Housing Board coming under alignment 7 24/400 At the intersection where the alignment crosses Ahmedabad-Nadiad SH way have much growth and development of Industries of GIDC etc. and as such the same required to be shifted. 8 29/900 Alignment passing over Jivdaya Building under Panjrapole where cattles are
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2000 M

4300 M 2000 M

2200 M

To avoid this alignment is shifted to 40 M towards Nadiad Side

800 M

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sheltered At the intersection near Ranasan, 66 KV power supply of GEB was coming under alignment Ranasan-Vaishnavdevi Link : 10 44.947 The apex point (skew) aligning to on the River 45.494 High tension line passing 11 47.023 The structure of ADI Institute to coming on the alignment 48.398 The structure of Arjun Farm House on Modhera-Sughad Road coming under alignment 12 52.035 Where the alignment of AUDA Ring Road crosses SH-41, Ahmedabad-Mehsana, temple of Mahadevi coming under alignment. Vaishnodevi-Asalali Link: 13 54/522 The originally alignment was to zigzag with two railway 55/722 crossings intersecting it near Chandkheda 14 55/722 The alignment was passing to through a pump house & tube 56/522 well was located. 15 56/522 Original Alignment was to passing through Jivdaya 57/022 Ashram Satparivar near Khodiyar where Pump House and Tube well was located. 16 58/400 Original alignment was to passing between Gota-Vadsar 60/800 Raod where two no.s of pump house and tube wells were located. 17 64/650 The alignment originally was to passing through Shilaj village, 67/650 where brick chimney, pump room & rube well were located. Total Length of ring effected 9 42 to 42/600

To avoid this alignment is shifted to 100 M towards Nadiad side

1200 M

The alignment shifted to 80m to 90m towards Gandhinagar side Alignment shifted to 50 m towards Gandhinagar side.

2500 M 3000 M

Alignment shifted to 50 m towards Gandhinagar side.

2000 M

It is necessary to straighten the alignment and hence the alignment is shifted (10 m 30m) towards Mehsana side. The alignment is shifted 30 m towards Sarkhej side. The alignment is shifted to 30 m towards Sarkhej side, so as to avoid destruction of pump house and tube well. The alignment is shifted to 50m towards Vadsar side, so as to avoid destruction of pump house and tube well. The alignment is shifted (30m 40m) towards Shilaj side to avoid destruction of the structures.

1200 M

800 M 500 M

2400 M

3000 M

39620 M

6.5 Existing Situation of Environment in Ring road area


The Project Corridor has been divided into four links for describing the alignment and its characteristics such as topography, land use, environmental sensitivity and soil characteristics are as below. Eastern Link (12-ROB 4- 13 - 14 - 15 - 16) This link of Ring Road starts from the junction with NH-8, to Himatnagar (junction - 12) and ends at the junction (16) with Ahmedabad-Vadodara
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Express Highway. The eastern link forms the intersections with State Highway to Modasa near village Muthia, State Highway to Kathwada and National Highway 59 to Kapadvanj. Topography: The terrain is almost flat, with a minimal slope, less than 1 percent. The direction of the slops is almost parallel to the flow of the river Sabarmati. Landuse: The alignment of this link is passing through the agricultural land and traverses nearby few villages. The existing little permanent structure is with in the ROW of Ring Road. The alignment also passes through the municipal limits of Ahmedabad at Odhav, one of the major industrial areas of the city. Soil Characteristics: The alignment of the corridor is passes through the area of fine loamy soil. Environmental Sensitive Areas: The alignment passes through fertile agricultural land. A few wells are located within the ROW of proposed Ring Road. The Khari Cut Canal, of 10 m. width, which carried industrial effluent, crosses, the proposed alignment between junctions 12 and 13. The Ring Road, between junction 13 and 14 passes through areas of low flood hazard of river Khari. The alignment passes near to the Odhav Industrial Estate. This is mainly a chemical industrial estate. Water bodies are located on either side of the proposed alignment, at the junction with the National Highway to Himatnagar. Southern Link (16-17-ROB 5-18-19-RB2-1) This link of Ring Road starts from the junction (16) of Vadodara Express Highway and ends at the junction (16) with the Highway to Dholka, SH 4, near village Bakrol. The other junctions are with the State Highway to Mehmedabad near Hathijan, National Highway 8 to Mumbai near Aslali and State Highway to Saroda and Dholka near Kamod. Topography: The terrain is almost flat, with slope, less than 1 percent. The slope is towards River Sabarmati. The alignment passes nearby the high flood hazard area in the junction 19. Landuse: The alignment, of this link, is through predominantly agricultural lands. There are few permanent structures within the proposed alignment. Soil Characteristics: The alignment of the corridor is passes through the area of fine loamy soil. Utilities: 103

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The ONGC pipeline is crossing the proposed Ring Road between intersections 19 and 1.The trapezoidal canal of 9m widths crosses the proposed Ring Road at two places, between intersection 17-18 and intersections 18-19. Environmental Sensitive Areas: The link passes through agricultural lands. The alignment passes through dense plantation of Eucalyptus planted by Kamod Gram Panchayat. At the junction 19, the alignment passes through areas of eroded soil. A flood hazard area, of River Sabarmati, is near the alignment between junction 1 and 19. The Kharicut canal crosses the alignment between junction 17 and 18. This canal carries the entire effluent of the industrial estates in Naroda,Odhav and Vatva. Western Link (1-2-ROB1-3-4-5-ROB2-6-7-8 ) This link of the Ring Road starts from the junction (1) with the State Highway 4 to Dholka and ends at junction (8) with NH8C. The western link intersects NH8A near village Sanathal, State Highway 17, road to Bopal near Ambali, road to Thaltej near Shilaj, road to Santej near Bhadaj and the Kalol road near village Oganaj. Topography: The terrain is almost flat, with a minimal slope, less than 1 percent. The direction of the slops is almost parallel to the flow of the river Sabarmati. Landuse: The alignment of this link is passing through the agricultural land and few residential plots and traverses nearby few villages. The area adjacent to the proposed highway has been earmarked as residential as per the AUDA Development Plan. There are a few existing permanent structures within the ROW of the proposed Ring Road. At these locations the detours would be required. Soil Characteristics: The alignment of the corridor is passes through the area of predominantly fine loamy soil. The alignment in between intersections 3 and 5 passes through the areas of coarse loamy soil. Utilities: An 18.0 m. wide trapezoidal canal crosses the Ring Road between the intersection 1 and 2. Environmental Sensitive Areas: The link passes through the fertile agricultural land. Two water bodies, near village Santhal, are located within the ROW proposed Ring Road. A few wells are located within the alignment of the proposed Ring Road. Brick kilns are located near the alignment between junctions 5-6-7. Northern Link (9-ROB3-9-10-11-RB1-12)
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This link of Ring Road starts from the junction (16) with National Highway 8C, to Gandhinagar and ends at junction (12) with National Highway 8, to Himatnagar. The Northern link intersects with the State Highway to Mahesana near Jhundall, State Highway 71 to Gandhinagar near Umiyapur and the Hansol-Gandhinagar highway near Bhat. Topography: The terrain is almost flat, with a minimal slope, less than 1 percent. The slope is towards east. Landuse: The alignment of this link is passing through the agricultural lands. Soil Characteristics: The alignment of the link passes through area of coarse loamy soil between intersections 9 to 12 and areas of fine loamy soil between intersections 8 & 9. Environmental Sensitive Areas: The alignment passes through fertile agricultural land. A few brick kilns are located within the ROW of the proposed Ring Road. The alignment, from junction 11 to 12, passes through high flood hazard area of River Sabarmati.

6.6 Vehicular Environmental Pollution


Urbanisation has a strong bearing on the travel demands in the country. Higher incomes, mobility, expanding cities and proliferation of employment centers have increased the demand for motorized transport, resulting in a disproportionately high concentration of vehicles in cities. Irrational distance between home and workplace, greater incentives for private transport, has further aggravated the problem. Large numbers of private two vehicles are two wheelers, which are cheap and reliable but also high in emission. To a large extent the growing number of private vehicles in cities is related to lack of reliable public transport system. In turn, the low occupancy rate of private vehicles promotes an inefficient use of vehicles capacity and available road space and ultimately the vehicular pollution. Increased use of mass transit system can be one way to alleviate the pollution scenario- especially vehicular pollution. Furthermore, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has identified Air Pollution associated with transportation sector as a serious environmental problem particularly in large urban areas. These pollution levels are likely to deteriorate further owning to the growing numbers of vehicles and energy consumption. The causes and effect of vehicular air pollutants is given at annexure Env-1. It shows that most of the respiratory diseases are the consequences of vehicular pollution.

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In such circumstances, the proposal of ring road of 60 meter width can be a boon to the city if used properly for integrated public transport system and modern technology like sky metro.

6.6.1 Vehicular Population


Data of vehicular population within AMC area indicates that all the transport modes increased in terms of total number of registered units, but most notably two wheelers which has increased 39 times from 1970 to 1999 period. The registered vehicles population in Ahmedabad and the state is given at annexure Env-2. The total population of vehicles in the city registered with tax Department of Municipal Corporation till 2000-01 is 1134753, which is also very high because of lack of any integrated public transport system.

6.6.2 Vehicular Pollution


With growth of vehicular population arises the issue of vehicular pollution. Vehicular pollution load is said to contribute 60-70 % of total pollution load in cities. The major source of atmospheric pollution caused by motor vehicles is; Exhaust gases Evaporative losses from fuel task and carburetor Crank case losses Dust produced by the wearing away of tyres, braking and clutch plates. The primary pollutants present in vehicular emissions are the following; Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Sulphur Oxides (Sox) Hydro Carbon (HC) Lead (P6) Suspended Particulate Matters (SPM) The emissions causing concern are CO, Nox, unburnt hydrocarbons and particulates. Petrol driven vehicles are a major source of CO emissions contributing over 85% and diesel driven vehicles contributing over 90 % of emissions of Nitrogen Oxides. Auto rickshaws of more than 68 % exceed the limits of emission. This is further intensified by the fact that 45 % of auto rickshaws run using kerosene mix as a fuel. Also adulterated fuel leads to carbon monoxide generation instead of carbon dioxide. The other category of air pollutants is known, as secondary air pollutants which forms during chemical reaction between air pollutants and other atmospheric constitutes such as vapour.

6.6.3 Emissions in Transport sector


The vehicular pollution load data indicates that petrol and diesel vehicles contributed 209.143 tons per day in the year 1989. Two wheelers alone contributed 46 % of such daily loads. The table showing vehicular pollution load in the city of Ahmedabad in 1989 and 1999 is given at annexure Env-3.
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Key aspects of the vehicular pollution load data are Total pollution load is 430.47 Tonnes per day(1999). Decadal average pollution load growth (1989-99) is 106 % approximately 9 % each year. Two and Four wheeler contributes 74 % of the total vehicular emission load. HC and CO combined contributes 90 % of the total vehicular emission load. 65 % of two wheelers, 55 % of three wheelers and 70 % of four wheelers had emission above permissible standards for CO and Hydrocarbon. (Survey, CERC, 1993) Of 300 vehicles tested, it was found that 55 % two wheelers, 68 % three wheelers and 66 % of four wheelers were exceeding limit of CO. Two wheelers contribute to the largest proportions of most contaminant generated by the transport sector, most notably HC (63%) and CO (51%). Two wheelers produce 50 % of total pollution emissions from the transport sector followed by four wheelers (24%) and three wheelers (16%). It is the two wheelers emission, which needs to be addressed through emission control policies. Diesel driven vehicles also contributes to pollution problem, mainly on SO2 and Nox emissions, accounting for 59 % and 68 % of these pollutants load, respectively. The pollution load in the city is 316.58 tonnes per day in 1996, which is next to Delhi and Mumbai but higher than that in Bangalore, Pune, Chenani and Hyderabad. The table showing comparative statement of the city wise vehicular pollution load is given at annexure Env-4.

6.7

Health Indicators

Briefly the most important impacts identified are: Human Health Respiratory disease and premature mortality are the outcome of RPM and other pollutants. Human Welfare Aesthetics/visibility impacts, building and material impact, cultural monument impact, Land use impact As per the studies conducted earlier, it is noted that 90% of the AMC population is exposed to the Respiratory Particulate Matter i.e. 28 lacs. The restricted days account for 85,90,288 i.e. 10 days per capita annually, Workdays lost 44,16,991 i.e. 5 days per capita annually. It is also estimated that approximate 21% of the city population live in close proximity of major 107

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transport route. (30,150mt) And hence exposed to emission levels of most severe nature. Premature Death due to ambient air pollution levels exceeding WHO standards is 2979 in the city as compared to only 254 in Banglore, 863 in Madras. Annual Incidence of Hospital admission and required medical treatment is 12 lacs whereas the incidence of minor sickness is 721 lacs.
(Source : Brondon and Hommanu, Asian Environment Division, World Bank, 1995)

6.7.1Noise Impact
Noise in terms of assessing environmental considerations is defined as any undesired and or disagreeable sound. In the context of transportation projects the problems is one of mitigating the impact generated by sound emissions (noise pollution) to the communities that adjoin the transport routes. A sound starts to be annoying when it exceeds 60 dB, and as per the World Health Organisation, standards it is dangerous from 85-90 dB considered painful from 130 dB and above.

6.7.2 Noise Standards


Of late, noise has also recognized as a pollutant, which, until recently, was considered only as a nuisance. The CPCB has notified the ambient noise standards in1987 under Section 20 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. Details of such noise Standards are given below. Table 6.7.2. Noise Standards
Area Code A B C D
Note:

Category of area Industrial Commercial Residential Silence Zone

Limits in dB(A) Day-time Night-time (6 a.m. to 9 p.m.) (9 p.m. to 6 a.m.) 75 70 65 55 55 45 50 40

The silence zones are to be declared by the competent authority. Use of vehicular horns, loud speakers, and bursting of crackers are banned in these zones. Sources CPCB 1998. Pollution Control Acts, Rules, and Notifications issued there under. New Delhi. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, 501 pp.

6.7.3 Noise Emissions


The annoyance levels as traffic noise index (TNI) for certain roads available is given in the table. On Ashram, Relief and Gandhi road the noise levels exceed permissible limits (65 dB) for more than 90 % of the time, though it exceeds permissible limits for more than 50 % of time on all roads. Ashram road has the highest annoyance level of 126 TNI as compared to Relief and Gandhi roads.

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6.8 Air Pollution Control Measures


Five basic air pollution control measures commonly applied to curb down vehicle emission in cities are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Application of Vehicle emissions Vehicle Inspection programs Fuel targeted measures Transport management Air quality monitoring

6.8.1 Government Policy and initiatives to control pollution


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction of unleaded petrol Introduction of alternate fuel-CNG PUC certifications Phasing out of road vehicle Premixed fuel

6.9 Socio-Environmental Impact Analysis and Mitigation Measures


A number of general and site-specific environmental impacts could result from the construction and operation of road projects like National Highways carrying heavy traffic. However this is a National Highway ring road projection with 4 lanes of road and hence there would be much less number of environmental impacts expected. Table below summaries the relationship between project activities and their probable impacts on a short/long term basis. Table: 6.9 Activity Impact Check List for Social Impact
Sr. No. 1 Particulars Probable Impact in Brief/Proposed Action No No

Land Acquisition Is acquisition of forestland involved? Is acquisition of wet land/swampy?

Location of Ring Road Section Is the ring road section to traverse any unstable area, marsh etc. if so have necessary remedial measures been planned? Have geological maps been studied to avoid unstable strata? No Yes, unstable strata are not found in the region

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Alignment of Ring Road Section Does the alignment follow the ground level and avoid large-scale cutting? Is any section susceptible to damage/erosion by streams and torrents? If so, have protection measures been planned? Yes No but floor protection for culverts higher embedment depth for piers and abutments etc. have been planned. No, majority of route is at ground level or on low embankment. Does not arise Does not arise Does not arise Does not arise

Ring Road Cross Section Does the road cross section involve a lot of disturbance to the natural ground? For sections of cut, are the half cut and half fill type of cross section, which involves least disturbance to the natural ground being adopted? Are the proposed cut slopes stable for the strata? Are slope stabilizing structures like breast walls, pitching etc required and being proposed? Does the cut fill face require any special treatment to prevent slips? If so, are such measures being proposed?

Erosion Control Has erosion control been considered for the alignment? Are erosion control measures before start of work and between successive construction stages required? If so have these been worked out? Have location and alignment of culverts been chosen to avoid severe erosion at outlets and siltation at inlets? Have location and alignment of culverts been chosen to avoid severe erosion at outlets and siltation at inlets? Are necessary erosion control measures proposed at outfall of culverts? Does not arise Does not arise Does not arise Does not arise

Does not arise

Drainage Does the project provide for necessary cross drainage structures so as not to obstruct the natural drainage of the area? Does the project provide for necessary side drains, catchwater drains etc. for the safe disposal of surface water? Yes

Yes

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Will the road cause undue increase in the HFL and create ponding situation for long periods. 7 Vegetation Does the project provide for sod ding/grassing all embankment/cut slopes and other bared area?

Yes

Stone pitching is recommended for slopes of embankments near structures like culverts etc. Yes according to normal practice roadside arboriculture is proposed to carr out. Yes Yes it also reduces the time of travel Not affected Yes as may be necessary Does not arise as the road will be in low embankment Yes Yes Existing quarries will be used. No new quarries are proposed to open. It will not affect the inhabitants near by area. Sprinkling water.

Does the project provide for planting trees/plants on the roadside at the appropriate location?

Traffic Movement Does the road affect the traffic circulation in the area? If so, have necessary measures been taken to provide suitable access to crossing roads? Will the proposed road section improve traffic movement, in terms of speed, convenience and safety? Does the road affect school children, hospitals and other public utilities? If so are necessary traffic control measures taken into account? Are road user facilities like fuel-filling station, rest areas, truck parks etc planned along the highway?

Construction Has the proper disposal of surplus excavated material been thought of and provided for? Have the type of equipment of to be used for construction been identified? Will it be specified that this equipment be provided with pollution control devices? Have quarry/material sources/borrow areas been identified? Is opening of a new quarry/material source involved? If so will this affect the inhabitants in the nearby area? What measures have been planned to control dust from the construction site?

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10

Air Quality What is the estimated number of motorized vehicles expected on the highway in the design year? Will the ring road improve or deteriorate the air quality in the population centers enroute? Please Refer Table It will improve the air quality in the populated centers of the city.

11

Traffic Noise and Vibration What is the existing noise levels and noise level expected on completion of the project? What is the type of surfacing proposed for the highway? Are residential/institutional areas located within a distance of 100 m from the center ere line of the highway? If so, have noise abatement measures like noise screens/screen plantation etc been included in the project? Noise level expected to be within tolerance limits. Asphaltic concrete No Does not arise

12

Water Quality Is any pollution expected to affect water quality on completion of the project? No

6.9.1 Different Amenities Available in Villages


The table at annexure Env-5 shows the taluka wise distribution (for the taluka of project area) according to the availability of different amenities such as educational, medical, drinking water, post and telegraph, market/hat, communication, approach to village by pucca road and power supply. Most of the villages are having amenities though it shall be enhanced due to the proposed road.

6.9.2 Cultural, Religious and Historic Centres


The historic environment consist of closely inter related categories of archaeology, religious and historic buildings and historic landscape features. Lands of 51 villages are coming within the vicinity of this ring road section and 26 villages are situated more than 500 m and upto 3.0 km. None of the places of worship are affected by the construction of this section of ring road.

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6.10 Overall Assessment of the Proposal


The proposed ring road involves providing 4 lanes of road for traffic in the Rind Road section. As such it is not anticipated that there will be any major adverse environmental impacts resulting from this project. This proposed road improvement project would have more long-term positive benefits than negative. During construction there will be short term negative impacts as listed in the Activity Impact Matrix but these will be temporary only. The major impacts include. Increased fleet carrying capacity Reduction in number of accidents. Possible reduction in air pollution in the initial years. Possible improvement of air quality and traffic noise in city. Change in land use. Increase in local economy Increased employment potential Saving in time of travel and freight transport costs.

Mitigation measures to offset any potential negative impacts consist of Protection of embankment slopes by turfing with sods or by stone pitching as required. Maintaining adequate number of drains, channels, culverts for maintenance for unobstructed water flows and drainage. Compensatory afforestration by means of roadside arboriculture for increased vegetation density and road aesthetics. Suitable compensation as per the prevailing resettlement & rehabilitation norms of Government of Gujarat for the displaced villagers. Provision of adequate public health safety systems during construction. Environmental monitoring of some parameters at different stages of project. Noise reduction measures at the sensitive spots like quarries etc. Landuse controls for a controlled development of the corridor.

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CHAPTER 7.0 ROAD DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


Financial analysis of the project covers Financial Internal Rate of Return, projected income statement based on proposed user fee levels and traffic growth projections, cash flow statement and balance sheets, amortization statement etc. The analysis also covers assessment of risks associated with the project and their mitigation measures, including situation arising out of cost and time over-turn, shortfall in projected traffic volume, exchange rate variation, interest rate volubility, political risks, force majors etc. The financial analysis is carried out separately for each segment of the road, and suitable recommendations is made in respect of BOT concession package(s) identifying the capital structure, government incentives, complementary public sector investments and contributions, if any, and other features needed to make the BOT concession financially viable and attractive to private sector. Supporting public sector investment needed to develop the entire corridor on a public-private partnership basis is also identified.

7.1 Financing Options


After estimating the project costs, the financial plan are discussed, as the FIRR depends on cost of different funds. The financing plan for private sector participation inter-alia involves: Co-financing arrangements; Ability of internal funds; Self-financing ratio; Equity contribution; Terms of loan; Raising funds through cess on land improvement; Sell of Plots available through Town Planning Schemes; Betterment Charge; Development Charge The various sources for financing the project and mix of finances from different funding agencies and through private sector investment on BOT basis is explored.
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7.1.1 Prioritization of segments of implementation


Priorities of detailed engineering and implementation are based on road segments, which does the most good and the least harm. This means the segments with the highest IRRs would produce the most good, and the segments with the least negative environmental effects would do the least harm. On the basis of this examination, it is recommended for a priority sequence of project road segments for detailed engineering and implementation.

7.2 BOQ and Cost Estimate


The bill of quantities is worked out on the basis of preliminary designs. The calculation of quantities is carried out under various heads like as site clearance; earthwork; base, sub-base and shoulder; bituminous courses; cross drainage works; intersection; road appurtenances; provisional sum etc. The rate analyses for the items of work are worked out on the basis of current material rates, machinery hire charges and labour rates, as per the SOR of Gujarat R & B D. The total estimated cost of the project including all items and charges is Rs. 78.14 crores giving an unit cost of Rs. 5.53 crores per km for Sanathal-Aslali link, Rs.104.44 crores at an unit cost of Rs. 4.10 crores per km. Length for Aslali-Ranasan link, Rs. 90.00 crores at an unit cost of Rs. 6.76 crores per km for Ranasan-Vaishnavdevi link and Rs. 60.00 crores at an unit cost of Rs. 4.00 crores per km for Vaishnavdevi-Sanathal link.

7.3 Economic Analysis


The EIRR obtained from economic analysis without and with time savings for different homogenous sections and for entire project stretch done by Ahmedabad Urban development Authority is given below. As cash flow technique is used to calculate the value of economic benefits in the VOC and the travel time achieved due to the initial and recurrent costs in terms of economic indicators such as the net present value (NPV) and economic internal rate of return (EIRR). These calculations are made for different situations with congestion effect and without congestion effect. Further, these were analyzed for the economic benefits with and without savings in travel time for both the situations. The detail calculations for all the scenarios and situations have been carried out for the entire project road. In addition to these calculations, impacts of the project implementation have also been analyzed in terms of the annual average vehicle speed and road user cost/vehicle-km.

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Table 7.3 Economic Analysis


Road Section Type of Improvement proposed Length (km) 18.50 18.50 25.513 25.513 13.728 With Time NPV* 1692.07 1910.67 1646.22 1511.16 1546.67 EIRR (%) Sanathal Aslali Constructon of link 2-lane bypass Sanathal Aslali Construction of link 4-lane bypass Aslali Ranasan Construction of Link 2-lane bypass Aslali Ranasan Construction of link 4-lane bypass Ranasan Vaishnavdevi link Ranasan Vaishnavdevi link Vaishnavdevi Sanathal link Vaishnavdevi Sanathal link Construction of 2-Lane bypass Construction 4lane bypass Construction of 2-lane bypass Construction of 4-lane bypass 32.25 1624.79 27.62 1891.81 23.68 1514.69 20.00 1382.51 Without Time NPV* EIRR (%) 26.59 21.86 21.45 17.47 33.31

32.93 1595.45

13.728

1478.65

26.3 3 24.93 22.02

1472.99

33.31

22.716 22.716

2095.43 2131.86

2114.69 2282.51

28.60 24.04

7.4 EIRR and Sensitivity Analysis


The economic analysis is carried out based on economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) using cost-benefit approach used for economic evaluation of public investment. The annual streams of project benefits and costs computed for 25 years used in the analysis. The model to determine economic viability was run for alternate toll rates and resultant traffic scenarios. The analysis is carried out by changing the cost and benefit streams independently as well as in combination. The viability is examined using appropriate financial indicators over 20 years and 30 years franchise period, considering various toll rate options. This study is carried out for the whole length of the project road as also for the various identified segments/packages. If the project does not appear to be viable based on toll alone, the Consultants have examined other alternatives for partial realization of investment costs, 116

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e.g., from road side facilities, betterment levy, surplus land development, advertising revenue etc. to make the project viable. The changes in EIRR values by doing sensitivity analysis are as presented below: The sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to study the viability of the project against the uncertainties in traffic forecasting and the possible variations of project cost due to unforeseen reasons. The sensitivity was performed with following situations. Reduction in benefits of 15% Increase in capital costs of 15% Reduction in benefits of 15% & increase in capital costs by 15% The results of sensitivity analysis are included in Table Table 7.4 Sensitivity Analysis (EIRR %)
Road Section Case-1 Sanathal-Aslali link (2-lane road) Sanathal-Aslali link (4-lane road) Asalali-Ranasan link (2-lane road) Asalali-Ranasan link (4-lane road) Ranasan-Vaishnavdevi link (2-lane road) Ranasan-Vaishnavdevi link (4-lane road) Vaishnavdevi-Sanathal link (2-lane road) Vaishnavdevi-Sanathal link (4-lane road) 20.51 20.72 19.23 23.37 23.59 22.04 24.50 24.75 22.96 29.57 25.25 22.45 18.70 30.93 With Congestion Case-2 29.94 25.58 22.62 18.89 31.21 Case-3 27.33 23.26 21.37 17.58 29.24

Case 1: Case 2: Case 3:

15% decrease in VOC savings 15% increase in cost 15% increase in cost & 15% decrease in VOC savings

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7.5 Analysis
The economic growth of the country is expected to be below 8%. Any investment that gives a higher return has to be adjudged to be economically viable. The EIRR value without time saving in the present project is 21.45% for alternative 1 and 17.47% for alternative 2. The sensitivity analysis also shows that even in the worst situation, the EIRR maintains the acceptable level. Therefore implementation of the project is recommended. From the Sensitivity analysis it was found that all the three sections of the project road having the EIRR higher than 12%, which is considered as the cutoff point of in developing countries as well as in India for similar projects. The minimum EIRR thus obtained from the sensitivity analysis is 17.47%. Hence the entire project road is economically viable for up gradation based on the economic indicators.

7.6 Financial capacity of AUDA


The implementation of the revised development plan proposals including the ring road proposal requires the deployment of large financial resources. The legal framework within which AUDA has to function provides only limited opportunities for raising these resources. As under the statutory powers of G.T.P.& U.D. Act, 1976 the authority can assemble the land resources through planning method like Town Planning Scheme and hence AUDA has mainly opted this tool for providing infrastructure including development of the ring road. In its report the authority has estimated about seven sq. km. of land to be available for sale generating a finance of about 1750 crores. Though there can be many other sources of income or finance which shall have to be explored as tool of Town Planning Scheme has its limitations and can not be straight way apply to develop any infrastructure. As per the revised budget of AUDA for the year 2001-02 and budget for the year 2002-03, land acquisition cost for the ring road is 10 crores while construction expenditure estimation is 50 crores. If the budget in detail is seen, estimate for 2002-03 for general purpose, drainage, EWS and water supply all is in deficit. While major income is from capital income or loan income. Out of total income of Rs. 223.72 crores estimated, 80.86 crores is to be from loans while 101.55 crores is mainly from sale of plots allotted in Town Planning Schemes or sale of lands in growth centers. Other major shares also include subsidies / grants. Thus very small share is from general income and is only 11 crores which is negligible. The income from sale of land is again possible only if plots are vested with the authority as per the act and this is not possible unless and until preliminary scheme is sanctioned & implemented. And if some loan is brought against these plots, interest may override its selling price. This shows that financially it is not only difficult but also not viable through only Town Planning Scheme, as AUDA does not have any taxation powers or other sources of income.
(Source: AUDA budget ) R. J. Rawal, URP-1701, School of Planning, CEPT.

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7.7 Land Acquisition Cost


The land in agricultural zone is to be acquired through land acquisition act, it may be noted that lands of villages Bakrol, Kamod, Fatehwadi, Aslali and Lambha is put for acquisition. Acquisition is necessary for public purpose and few people may have to be deprived of land but the alternative of it can be worked out. The valuations of land in the vicinity of ring road area done by town planning & valuation department given below may be referred for the cost of acquisition that have to be paid in case of the ring road to be developed through Land Acquisition Method. The valuation plan showing these valuations may be referred at annexure P-10. Table7.7.a Valuation of the lands in vicinity of ring road area
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Name of village Gota Chharodi " " " Shilaj Bopal Makarba Bhadaj Ambli Chharodi " " " " " " " " Gota " Chharodi Bhat " Zundal Sughad Sughad Jamiyatpura Chandkheda Dantali Chandkheda Chandkheda Bopal R. S. No. 114 120/p 140 141 146 1313,1315 616,617 831 78,79,80 323/p 112,113 127 149 161 162/p 168 244/p 147 245 44/p 464/p 52 35/p 114,116 etc 15/1 108/5 108/6 34 234/p 2/p 425/p 322 25/p Area in Sq. mtr. 8697 2058 14872 17907 4654 81745 2327 4681 10592 2500 1400 4553 1821 2833 6374 6475 2125 11837 10726 5000 12000 6580 9737 168348 6880 911 911 7428 2630 5868 5000 607 3500 Valuation in Rs. / Sq. mtr. 300/600/540/" " 330/1850/3000/200/550/762/540/425/" " " " 540/425/1600/1300/762/700/600 250/450/" 170/500/70/1100/870/70/Date of valuation Remarks

19/8/99 Link 4 27/3/99 " " " " " " 18/11/00 21/3/02 9/5/2002 " " " " " " " " " " " 12/11/2001 Link 3 " " " " 10/5/2001 7/8/2000 7/8/2000 19/11/99 6/7/1999 15/5/99 Link 4

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34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

Bopal Chharodi Jagatpur " " Tragad Vastral Aslali Kujad Badodara " Badodara Badodara Ambli " Bopal Shahwadi " " " Nikol Pipalaj Muthiya " Hanspura Aenasan Kamod Hathijan " Vastral Jetalpur Chosar Aslali Bareja Singarva Ambli Chandkheda " " Gota " " " " " Motera Sola

10/p 112/p,113 13 20 184 81 972/4/p 1764 707/P 149 150 157 152 83 84 276 267/1 253 255/2 301 146/p 168 51 83 12 152 21 314/p 301,351 665/p 2188/p 359 1257 1236 to 40 56 429 140/1/1/p 737,738/2 862/1 13 14 18/3 43/2 43/4 496 106/1,115/ 145,144

1200 26305 10119 19223 19425 5868 11853 809 1000 23068 4654 10623 19324 3035 9105 809 2631 5463 4654 14468 695 9611 19325 29317 1214 28024 11277 121410 82152 12140 1200 8499 42594 36018 3743 5969 16633 15975 4957 900 2001 1755 314 314 314 22878 1235

680/600/125/125/225/150/300/600/150/90/90/100/90/710/725/1400/260/225/225/200/850/ 300/250/200/220/200/60/200/125/140 330/200/60/35 1500/550/45/66/60/30/" " " " " 40/170/-

16/7/99 13/8/99 12/7/1999 " " 7/7/1999 10/7/2000 25/7/00 12/7/2000 " " " " 26/2/99 3/5/1999 " " " " " 16/7/99 1/7/1999 31/3/99 " 3/3/1999 5/2/1999 24/2/99 23/3/99 9/3/1999 23/8/99 27/8/99 23/8/99 20/10/99 15/2/00 10/2/1999 6/1/1998 21/10/99 3/1/2002 3/1/2002 24/5/99 " " " " " 2/6/1999 7/12/2000

Link 3

Link 2

Link 4

Link 1

Link 2 Link 1

Link 3 Link 1 Link 2

Link 4

Link 3

Link 4

Source: Town Planning & Valuation department.

From the above table the values of the Land in the vicinity of the ring road for all four links can be averaged as below:

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Table 7.7.b Land Values in the Vicinity of the Ring Road


Link Southern link Eastern link Northernlink Western link From - to Sanathal to Aslali Aslali to Ranasan Ranasan to Vaishnodevi Vaishnodevi to Sanathal Rate in Rs Per Sq. Mt. 150/- to 250/200/- to 400/250/- to 450/250/- to 500/-

The lands going in ring road from agricultural zone are to be acquired as stated earlier for which the notification under section 4 is already published in the official gazette of date 7-6-2001 on page no 90 to 98. Hence if we directly take the average value of lands, rough estimate of the land cost through acquisition can be as below for whole length of ring road. Table 7.7.c Estimated Cost of Acquisition
Link 1. 2. 3. 4. Length in Kms. 14.10 25.51 13.82 22.86 Rate in Rs. / Sq.meter 200/300/350/375/Total cost Cost for acquisition in Rs. in crores 16.92 45.92 29.02 51.44 143.30

Thus from above calculations if we take the acquisition cost, it comes out to be of large amount of Rs. 143.40 crores. But it has to be kept in mind that these valuations are of Government land or restricted tenure land, which are as high as ten times than acquisition rate when land is to be acquired by government agencies. From the detail values, it may be seen that the rate of acquisition shall not be more than 100 Rs. per square meter on an average, which shall come to the total amount of Rs. 50 crores only. Even if we take maximum value as shown above and lands sales in the area are studied and out of cost of Rs. 143.40 crores, the lands belonging to government and junctions, rivers etc. if excluded from the cost, it shall be about 125 crores maximum as per land acquisition act. And the value of land deducted in Town Planning Schemes comes in between Rs. 175/- to Rs.600/Per sq. mt. depending upon the potentiality and value of original plots derived from sales available as seen from comparative statements of T.P.S. marked as annexure T.P.S.-3, 4, 5 & 6. So the road developed through Town Planning Scheme is also not obtained without cost as generally believed. In nutshell both methods of town planning scheme or land acquisition for whole stretch shall face financial crisis. Also the people whose lands goes in ring road and if acquired through land acquisition may also prove to be legal battle 121

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if people starts moving to the courts as it happens normally for the compensation and persons shall be deprived of land throughout. This limitation of both existing tools makes it necessary to explore some other methods and evolve an appropriate strategy

7.8 Finance from Town Planning Scheme


The Financial base of the entire ring road of 76.313 kms is Town Planning Schemes. The plots for sale for residential / commercial or industrial allotted to authority are to be sold for generating the finance for project. Though in past authority used to get no plots or less plots for sale as well as less betterment charge but after an amendment in the act and Town Planning Schemes being prepared on more realistic way, authority shall get into better position from land bank and betterment in general. But from the point of developing a single large project which shall be more of use to regional traffic and less to local generated from planning schemes traffic. The figures of finance anticipated for development may also have to be seen. AUDA has recently done about twenty one town planning schemes of developing / proposed developing areas out of which few are of the areas through which ring road is passing. If we take the summary of all these twentyone schemes, it may be seen that AUDA shall be getting on an average 10% plots for sale. Though as per act, it could be 15% of total scheme area but due to unavailability of land / no deduction from few plots due to sanctioned layout or development occurred the land available for deduction on an average comes down. Again when development of big roads of development plan are done through town planning schemes, it consumes more area of up to 20% instead of 15% provided in act. Last but most important is maximum deduction that is available is also 40% up to which people give possession easily and beyond which litigations occur. So looking from all these aspects plots for sale cannot exceed10%. The tables put at annexure T.P.S.-2, 3, 4, & 5 for comparison of recently made 21 town planning schemes admeasuring 2033 Ha. may be referred that shows; i) Summary statement of F form of 21 schemes of approximately 100 Ha. each states average value of an original plot included in the scheme area is Rs. 339/per sq. mt. at which rate the compensation shall have to be given against land deducted. The final plot value being estimated at the rate of Rs. 834/- per sq. mt. makes the compensation per sq. mt. of final plot as Rs. 178/- and contribution to be charged to land owners at 50 % of enhanced value comes to be Rs. 243/- per sq. mt. of final plot area which ultimately leaves for the owners to pay Rs. 65/ per sq. mt. of final plot area as net demand. (Annexure T.P.S.-2) Comparative statement of cost of works abstract shows that cost of development per total scheme area (Original Plot area) works out to be Rs. 180 per sq.mt. for works of road, streetlight, drainage and water supply. The net cost to be borne by appropriate authority after settling all financial parts as per rules in G form works out to be Rs. 78/- per sq.mt. of original plot area. (Annexure T.P.S.-3 & 4) iii) Comparative statement of salient features shows that area for different final plots allotted for public purpose to authority 122

ii)

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is only 20.68% including garden /O.S./S & E. B.C. housing / infrastructure plots and plots for sale as area consumed in roads is 18%. (Annexure T.P.S.-5) From above summary it may be noted that AUDA shall have to put infrastructure cost of Rs.180 per sq.mt. of scheme area. For a scheme of 100 Ha. Rs. Approximately 18 crores shall be the infrastructure cost. If 10% plots which amounts to 10 Ha. are available for sale and if authority gets on an average Rs. 1500 per sq.mt. it comes out to be Rs. 15 crores or if an exaggerative side it is Rs. 2000 per sq.mt. it also amounts to only Rs. 20 crores. which just matches. But disparity is that for the development of ring road, if possession is taken in advance, people shall ask for infrastructure development even when full development has not taken place and plots of authority can be sold only after there is good development as people shall be tempted to buy land from open market than to go for authority due to various restrictions. And if authority gets loan in lieu of plots expected to be available with them, it shall have to pay interest hence just finance from preparing T.P.S. may not suffice, as it is an instrument for development and not financial exploration.

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CHAPTER 8.0 STRATEGY EVALUATION FOR THE CASE STUDY


As discussed in second chapter, there are many tools available for development and implementation of urban roads but all of them are not practiced in India so widely. Still many of the innovative tools and ideas practiced all over the world are not adopted in our country due to various reasons. The best of the alternative as public private partnership or build- operate transfer are some emerging tools but applied to very restricted areas and roads. In Gujarat at present tools applied for the development of urban roads are either Town Planning Scheme or land acquisition. It may be noted here that few strategy evolved may not be having legal backing of any act but that can be done if there is also a political will to do so. To develop and implement urban road projects of big size, combination of more than one strategy can also be adopted.

8.1 Limitations of proposed system of development and implementation through T.P.S.


It is proposed that the development and implementation of all ring, radial and arterial grid roads will be done through the T. P. Scheme process. The loss of land utilized for road right of way will be distributed proportionately amongst all landowners and no single landowner would entirely lose his land. The phasing of road network implementation would be based on the Town Planning Scheme sequencing. AUDA has prepared and published three Town Planning Schemes for ring road area in Chandkheda, Motera and Amiyapur in Residential- II zones and one in eastern Ahmedabad for Nikol area is in pipeline. The plans of draft Town Planning Schemes No. 44 (Chandkheda), 46 ( Amiyapur, Motera, Sughad)for ring road and No. 111( Nikol Kathwada) may be referred at annexure P-6, P-7, and P-8. No schemes for Residential III zone has been prepared till now but one scheme is prepared here as a case study for this zone where deduction is tried to be at 30 % which may be referred at annexure P-9. Though development through Town Planning Scheme seems to be democratic way of development as every owner is contributing in equal proportion of land or betterment but the limitations of the development and implementation through T.P.S. needs to be seen. Residential zone II is developing fast at few places and this area may be required to develop immediately but at places where there is no still development and lush green fields exist, the Town Planning Scheme can be planned at later stage. Other wise people shall have a tendency to move in the new area even when residential zones I may be vacant.

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There will be more of horizontal development and less of vertical development, which shall cost more on infrastructure. Though after earthquake people do prefer horizontal expansion but it also at the same time increases the cost of infrastructure and gives scattered development that was tried to rectify in revised development plan. Comparative statement of salient features of the 21 schemes prepared in recent past at annexure T.P.S.-5 shows that for the schemes through which ring road pass consume 20 % area for roads. Hence though act provides to have allotment to ten percent; or as near thereto as possible for the purpose of S.E.W.S. housing, Fifteen percent for roads, Five percent for parks, playgrounds, garden and open space, Five percent for social infrastructure such as schools, dispensary, etc. and Fifteen percent for sale for residential, commercial or industrial use, with the deduction rate of 40 % in general (and 30 % for the residential III area schemes as it has been principally decided) it is not possible to allot the land in prescribed rate. To bear the infrastructure cost, authority shall have to plan in such a way that it gets minimum 8 to 10 % of plots for sale and compromise shall have to be made with S. E. B. C. Housing, open spaces plots. The situation shall worsen in a scheme of 30 % deduction as all provisions of public purpose plots and sellable plots is to be adjusted in 10 % as rest shall be used for roads only. Thus the percentage for plots for sale shall be very less that shall make difficult for any infrastructure to be provided. Again it shall not be possible for AUDA to deduct more land in future even if the area is upgraded to residential zone type II or I or other such zones. The revised development plan of AUDA has three tier of Residential zones namely Residential type I, II and III along with other normal zones like industrial, commercial and agriculture. The categorization of residential zones is made on the assumption of different densities and height in that area. The R-I zone is the main residential zone proposed in the area that was residential in the sanctioned development plan of 1987. Here the built up allowed is 45 % at ground level with 1.8 floor space index (F.S.I.) and height of 40 meters is permissible depending upon the width of abutting road. The R-II zone with lesser density envisaged has same ground coverage of 45 % but less F.S.I. of 1.2 and height allowed is 10 meters or Ground plus two floors. The preparation of town planning scheme in both the zones with same pattern of same incremental contribution and betterment should be analysed. As otherwise owner getting more built up/ F.S.I. in R-I will also pay same as betterment and land as in R-II. This can be taken care by differentiating in percentage of collection of incremental contribution that can be anything within 0 % to 50 %. 125

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The third category of R-III was basically named special agricultural zone in the published development plan and is converted to residential type III in sanctioned plan where the ground coverage allowed is only 10 % with F.S.I. of 0.2 and height of 7.0 meters or ground plus one floor. The density presumed in this zone is 40 to 50 persons per hector. The basic idea behind such zoning was to achieve city profile of decreasing order in outside of city area and to have ample green space in the outskirts of the city to act as lungs and no infrastructure was to be given. Now to prepare the town planning schemes in R-III zones for the development of ring road will make it obligatory for authority to provide infrastructure. Also looking from the quantum of development allowable in R-III zone, people shall not be wiling to give even 30 % of the land for deduction and by less percentage deduction; the cost of infrastructure shall not be recovered as envisaged from town planning schemes. The past experience of Town Planning Schemes in context to time taken and deduction may also be needed to explore. The delay in preparation and implementation of Town Planning Schemes may be seen for the time factor. For the purpose of calculating an average time taken to complete a scheme, the present stages of different schemes may be studied. AUDA is in process of preparing, publishing and submitting the draft Town Planning Schemes to the Govt. for sanction under Section 48. Till end of June 2002, AUDA has submitted thirteen draft Town Planning Schemes to government which are pending for sanction with the govt. Though other nine draft Town Planning Schemes have been sanctioned and are with town planning officer for finalizing the same. The detailed statistics of Town Planning Schemes status of finalization is shown at annexure TPS-1 for draft schemes as on 27/11/02. Summary of various Town Planning Schemes at different stages is as below. Table 8.1.a Summary statement of Town Planning Schemes of AUDA
Category Description Final Town Planning Schemes sanctioned by the State Government And Implemented. Draft T.P.S. Schemes sanctioned by Government & Under Implementation. Draft T.P.S. sanctions by Govt. & Pending with T.P.O. for Finalization. Draft T.P.S Submitted to Government for sanction. Draft T.P.S. under Preparation. Draft T.P.S. proposed to be prepared on priority basis. Total Total Total Schemes Schemes Area. (Hect.) 14 4 9 17 15 30 89 1644.66 582.90 704.96 1907.71 1523.65 2960.00 9323.88

I II III IV V VI

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The above table shows that many schemes are pending at the Government level to sanction or town planning officer level for finalization. Again the time limit prescribed in the act for any scheme to be finalized is maximum 50 months as below. Table 8.1.b Time limit for preparation of scheme
Sr. No . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Procedure Time limit in months Minimum Extension

Making & publishing of draft scheme from 9 date of declaration of intention Extension of time limit for above procedure Submission of draft scheme to Govt. for 3 sanction Time limit for govt. to sanction draft scheme 3 Appointment of town planning officer 1 Making and publishing of preliminary & final 12 scheme Extension of time limit for above procedure Further extension of time limit for above procedure Time limit for govt. to sanction preliminary / 3 final scheme Total 31

9 6

18

It may be noted here that the above time limit is prescribed in the act but no scheme has been made and sanctioned in scheduled time limit. Though draft schemes are generally prepared and published in time limit because here there is a clause of appointing an officer and get the scheme completed and even then if it is not due to some reasons made, authority can not take up the scheme for that area for next three years. But in case of preliminary and final schemes case, there is nothing prescribed in the act that if it is not done in time frame than what is to be done? Again for sanction of draft, preliminary and final schemes, the time limit is set but clause in literary meaning of Government may sanction in 2/3 months is taken and very long time of up to 20 years is taken to finalize the scheme. The statistics shows that on an average time taken from date of declaration of intention to sanction of draft scheme, preliminary scheme and final scheme is as long as 17.70 years that may be analysed from the statement given below showing the schemes sanctioning AUDA area.

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Table 8.1.c Statement showing final scheme sanctioned in AUDA area


Sr Name Of The Date of No. T.P. Scheme declaration of intention Draft scheme sanctioned by State Govt. 4 10.6.70 Time taken for draft to sanction in Years 5 2 Preliminary Scheme prepared and announced 6 Preliminary Scheme sanctioned by State Govt. Time taken for preliminary to sanction in Years 8 9.6.81 11 Final Scheme Submitted to the Govt. for sanction 9 Final Time Scheme taken for Sanctioned final scheme to sanction 10 20.11.81 5

3 23.4.68

01. Naroda No.1

02. Naroda No.2 Rakhial No.1/ Nikol No.1

30.10.64. 19.8.76

12

25.9.86

25.9.86

10

03.

26.2.85

2.1.87

04. Odhav No.1

2.12.75

13.6.77

27.7.83

19.8.82

24.3.86

05. Odhav No.2

17.12.76 29.7.81

30.8.83

29.10.83

06. Odhav No.3 Khokhara/ Ghodasar Ghodasar No.1

17.12.76 24.7.81

07.

31.12.84 10.00.86

08.

31.12.84 24.1.86

21.7.83

09. Vejalpur No.1

10.12.76 30.7.81

21.7.83

22.5.84

10

10. Vejalpur No.2

10.12.76 31.7.81

20.3.84

31.1.86

11. Vejalpur No.3

10.12.76 31.7.81

31.1.86

12. Vejalpur NO.4

18.5.78

17

13. Vejalpur No.5

18.5.78

17

14. Vejalpur No.6 Vastrapur No.1 Bodakdev No.1/A Bodakdev No.1/B

18.5.78

17

15.

14.12.76

4.2.82

27.3.86

24.9.86

1.1.93

16.

18.5.78

4.2.82

22.8.83

10

17.

18.5.78

4.2.82

3.3.86

14.8.86

18. Thaltej No.1

20.12.76 29.7.81

9.12.82

1.2.83

1.1.93

10

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10

19. Thaltej No.2 Memnagar No.1

20.12.76 31.1.78

21.7.82

16.8.83

1.1.93

20.

29.1.76

31.1.78

14.2.80

5.8.82

30.5.83

21. Ghatlodia No.1 7.12.76

30.7.81

29.6.88

9.2.89

22. Ghatlodia No.2 7.12.76 Chandlodia No.1

30.7.81

25.4.86

1.12.86

23.

18.5.78

30.4.82

7.13.84

10.12.86

24. Ranip No.1

5.12.73

14.9.76

7.1.80

27.7.82

25.6.83

15.2.86

25. Ranip No.2

7.12.73

2.9.76

1.2.80

16.9.80

25.8.83

10

26. Ranip No.3

1.8.75

24.6.77

26.3.81

6.16.81

12

27. Ranip No.2/A

2.9.76

25.9.80

15.2.86

Average time taken for draft scheme Average time taken for preliminary scheme Average time for final scheme after preliminary scheme Total average duration

4.1 years 6.4 years 7.2 years 17.70 years

Though since last five years average time taken for a draft scheme is reduced considerably to 2 years but time taken after sanction of draft scheme has not been changed substantially due to various reasons. As per the amendment in act in 1999 and as per section 48-A, lands earmarked for 40(3) (c), (f) (g) and (h) i.e. for roads and other civic amenities vest with the appropriate authority immediately after sanction of draft scheme after following due procedure of law of giving notice etc. Thus the person has to give the possession of his land without compensation at the time of implementing road area but he will get his final plot in the lieu of the original plot in ring road after the preliminary scheme is sanctioned and implemented which can take time as above. Thus the person whose original plots lions share or full original plot is earmarked for road in the draft scheme has to give its possession to the authority immediately after draft scheme is sanctioned under section 48-A. There are many fields whose total area or more than 80 % of area goes in road so they will loose their land without compensation for the years taken to finalise the preliminary scheme. The list of fields whose lions share of an area more than an acre as mentioned goes in ring road is as below:

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Table 8.1.d Fields whose 80 % or more area goes in 60.0 mtr. Ring road. Sr. Name of 323,325,327 300,301,305,310,350,357,379, 394,400, 401,403,405,409, 454,455, 489, 501,502, 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ambli Makarba Sarkhej Sanathal Visalpur Oganaj 516,522,521,537,806,810 218,226,259,279,278,302,315,331,437,438 437,475,455,407,409,487,350 324,322,306,307,309,185,281,198 200,201,202,203,220,225,252,304,311 296,323 36, 45,46,48, 49,75, 81,82,83,90,91,112, 162,185,194,198, 229,232,236,237, 296,307,308,315,317,1181,1233,1264,1353, 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Khodiyar Khoraj Tragad Zundal Chandkheda Amiyapur Shahwadi Lambha Asalali Vastral 1418,1426,1621 62,67,93 513,518,526,528 149,154,157,196 183 83 34,33 272,266,270,213 23,24,25,33,36,230,229,296 1676,1688,1687 182,1265,1148,1132,1131,14 No. Village 1 Bhadaj 2 Shilaj R. S. No.

Total no. of fields :131 Again the land owner whose original plot does not go in road alignment or very little area is under proposed road of draft Town Planning Scheme can enjoy his original plot along with any benefit arising out of land till preliminary scheme is sanctioned and implemented. Also in any case where because of some development or sanctioned layout or some other reasons, deduction is less in compared to rest area, the net incremental contribution shall be very high leading to higher net demand to be paid by owners (sometimes may be the house owners 130

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instead of land owner who developed the land). But these owners shall have to pay the incremental contribution only after final scheme is sanctioned. In such cases authority shall get the contribution from the owner after a long time making an injustice to the persons who looses their land in roads at an early stage. As landowner is not paid the compensation for the produce from the field and preliminary scheme takes very long time it shall be difficult situation afterwards. Also as social interaction the land or displacement of persons from land socially is not considered in Town Planning Scheme mechanism and nor any environmental impact assessment is made in Town Planning Scheme, the project like ring road if developed solely through Town Planning Scheme can face a problem in this era of social and environmental concerns. Thus there are many problems and limitations in the existing system of development through Town Planning Schemes.

8.2

T.D.R. concept for ring road


If transfer of development rights are allowed from one zone of generation to other zone of receiving, strategy shall have to be developed based on the prevailing development control regulations and height and building bulk allowed along with looking the potentiality of both the areas. It can be firstly based on the area of eastern and western side so that T.D.R. in receiving is allowed only on same side of generating zone with reference to Sabarmati River because of total difference in the development pattern of both area and difference in land price also. Again T.D.R. from generating zone of agricultural zone may be allowed in agricultural zone only where as T.D.R. generated from other zones may be allowed to utilise in other zones as well as same zone. For our case study, an attempt is made to evolve the strategy of using the T.D.R. developed from lands of ring road but that can be applied for any urban road or other works. Table 8.2.a Uses permissible in receiving zones for utilization of T.D.R.
Sr. No 01. 02. Zone in which T.D.R. is Generated Residential- I,II Commercial Users permitted in Receiving Areas Only residential use and in residential zones only or commercial use in commercial zone at 75% TDR. Commercial (C-1) use if the plot is situated in C-1

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03. 04. 05.

(C-1) Commercial (C-2) Industrial Residential -III

06.

Agricultural

zone or residential use. Commercial (C-2) use if the plot is situated in C-2 zone or residential use. Residential only in residential zone I & II or industrial use in industrial zone. Residential only in residential zone or special uses related to express way activities like hotels, restaurants, petrol pump, showrooms etc. on plots adjoining the ring road. Residential only in residential zone II & III or special uses related to express way activities like hotels, restaurants, petrol pump, showrooms etc. on plots adjoining the ring road in any zone.

Table 8.2.b T.D.R. from generating zone to utilize in receiving zone


Sr. No. 01. 02. 03. Frontage of plot in Generating Zone. Plots fronting on Roads having width up to 15m. Plots fronting on Roads having width between 15m to 30m. Plots fronting on Roads width more than 30 m. Percentage of TDR permitted in Receiving Zone. 80% 90% 100%

Availability & utilization of T.D.R. Transfer of Development Rights can be available to the owner/Lessee of the land only in case of prospective development of Reservation, i.e. where development of Reservation has not been implement. Such Transfer of Development Right in the form of F.S.I. credit can be utilized/used by the Owners/Lessee of the land for his own use or he can transfer the said development rights to any persons/s.

Extent of utilization F.S.I. credit so available in the form of Development Rights Certificate (D.R.C.) may be allowed to be utilized on the Receiving plot, over and above its normal permissible F.S.I. Where T.D.R. can be utilized?

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F.S.I. Credit in the form of TDR shall be allowed to utilize within the peripheral area of the village of its origin and/or in western or eastern areas of the Sabarmati River only from where it has been generated as the case may be. The F.S.I. credit however shall not be allowed in 1 2 3 The gamtal & walled city area. Where permissible F.S.I. is more than 1.8 No Development Zones.

General terms and conditions for issue, utilization and transfer of DRC The Development right certificate to be issued only in the name of individuals, Limited Companies, Statutory Corporations, or institutions, Registered trusts and not in names of partnership firms, nominees, agents or any other such persons. The utilization of D.R.C. may be in multiplies of 500 sq.mts. only except the last reminder. The D.R.C. shall be valid for a period of 5 years, which may be revalidated for further period of 5 years however, shall lapse after expiry of 10 years period from the date of issue. That the intended transferee(s)/D.R.C. holder(s) intending to utilize the D.R.C. shall have to submit the proof showing that the plans on the land situated in a Receiving zone are approvable by the appropriate authority utilizing the entire permissible F.S.I., and additional development rights. Total floor space index, the owner was likely to get from the plot going in ring road as per generating zone of Residential I, II, Commercial or Industrial etc. or on the basis of assumed F.S.I. of 1 for residential III zone and 0.5 for agricultural zone shall be permitted to be used in receiving zone. Additional F.S.I. up to 0.25 shall be allowed in receiving zone on any plot abutting on roads of width 24.0 meter and less while additional F.S.I. up to 0.5 shall be allowed on the plots abutting on roads having more than 24.0 meter width. Special uses of hotels, parks, resorts, restaurants, tourism activities, hospitals, showroom, petrol pump, molls, service station etc. shall be allowed on plots abutting ring road by way of using T.D.R. only. Other terms in detail for administrative & legal purpose can be framed at later stage.

8.3 Criteria for Evaluation of Development Options


As discussed earlier and in this chapter particularly, the advantages and disadvantages of each development and implementation option available in different zones can be best used for evaluation criteria of any or more appropriate options that may be used for developing and implementation of particular stretch of the Ring Road. 133

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In each zone there can be one or more options available and suitable more or less equally. The parameters chosen for assigning values are based on merits and demerits of each option as given in the below table. Each parameter is assigned value from 0 to 3 from bad to best i.e. 0 as bad, 1 as satisfactory, 2 as good and 3 as best. The assignment of value has limitation in this matrix formulation as here we have three development options of Land Acquisition method, Town Planning Scheme and Transfer of Development Rights and implementation tool of Build Operate Transfer apart from regular course of self financing by Government and through development charge in town planning scheme. Again these options have to be individually seen for each kind of zones from Residential I, II & III, Mixed zones and agriculture zones. Also the tools are not directly comparable as all have different merits and demerits so firstly amongst the parameters of any tool, the highest score achieved is treated as best available option in present circumstances. Build Operate and Transfer and Transfer of Development Rights has not been tried for road projects in urban areas and hence the direct implications of it to development of urban roads remains unchecked so first of all it has to be tried on pilot basis of say ten percent stretch only. The Town Planning Schemes also in the present legal context have drawbacks mainly of delay and unjustification of taking possession of road lands immediately without making final plot available to the owner at the same time but if some modifications are done in the Act as suggested in second chapter or by any other variation deemed suitable, then the tool can help in development of roads in some zones in more better way. So the total weightage from all parameters for each option of development form Town Planning Scheme, Land Acquisition & Transfer of Development Rights and implementation tool of Build -Operate Transfer is calculated and preference for application of tool in particular zone is decided from highest score and first rank followed by zone getting second highest score and second rank and so on. Thus in all zones any development option may be applied to less or more extent but the best applicable may be decided from merits / demerits of amongst these tools.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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Table 8.3 Matrix showing Evaluation Criteria for development option is in separate file named Matrix from page No.133 to 139.

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8.4 When road passes through residential zone


Residential zone in development plan is proposed on the basis of population growth and rate of growth along with the potentiality. Due to the nature of development in context to our towns and cities many other uses than residential like commercial and mixed uses are allowed as per the general development control regulations. Again because of many uses allowed and to achieve city profile more than one kind of residential zone is proposed in development plan now a days as it has been proposed as Residential zone type I, II & III in the development plan of AUDA. The building bulk and height allowed in each type of these residential zone is different. Residential zone type I is of higher order and type II and III are of lower order respectively. The built up allowed in type III is 10 % only on ground floor and height allowed is ground plus one floor in comparison of 45 % built up and 1.2 to 1.8 F.S.I. in residential type I & II. Hence while planning these areas and developing urban roads passing through these different types of zones, different strategy has to be adopted. As above when more than one type of residential zone is proposed it is likely that the higher order of residential zone is one, which was a residential zone in the sanctioned development plan or where the development has already taken place and so the potentiality of these areas being more, shall require detail planned development. Thus Town Planning Scheme can be best tool to apply. Of course if the development has already taken place then there is not going to be chance of more deduction in Town Planning Scheme and more width roads may also be not carved out. Also it is possible to charge more betterment to provide infrastructure. Similarly for the residential type II, where some development might have started but there are possibility of open areas also then priority may be fixed up for the preparation of Town Planning Scheme. If potentiality permits than development through Town Planning Scheme can be one of the strategies. But transfer of development rights can also be used for big sized road. The land pooling of modified version practiced in other countries can also be applied. For the residential zones of very low order which are as good as agricultural zone where development potentiality is low in near future and also land prices are not so high as in other residential areas and where development as per control regulations is also very less, the strategy of Town Planning Scheme is to be discarded. We may go for either land acquisition or transfer of development rights. The TDR can be encouraged by making development in higher order zones compulsory with development rights only or can allow special types of development with TDR. Residential zone III is as good as agricultural zone only so here also method of land acquisition can be applied if other infrastructure is to be planned later on. Also if the road is developed through land acquisition or transfer of development rights then in future if authority is desirous of having town planning scheme when development potentiality is felt it can make a variation
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in the development plan or can revise the development plan and designating the area in regular residential zone can have more deduction and right planning at right time.

8.5 When road passes through commercial zone


In Gujarat generally due to lack of mass transportation and die to peoples tendency, solely commercial areas do not exist and so in the development plans also, very less commercial zones are proposed. Instead commercial development is allowed in residential zones as per road width. In such circumstances, if commercial zones outside the city limits are proposed as in the development plan of AUDA, then Town Planning Scheme or transfer of development rights can be applied.

8.6 When road passes through industrial zone


Road passing through industrial zone can best be developed through publicprivate partnership. In industrial area authority can in joint venture explore an idea of development of road by giving transfer of development rights that can be used by the same industry for the building of its office premises or residential colonies with higher F.S.I. It is nothing but selling of F.S.I. on other hand. Also Town Planning Scheme for industrial area can be prepared or only road scheme is prepared and infrastructure including implementation of roads is done through charging user charge from industries.

8.7 When road passes through agricultural zone


When the urban road is passing through agricultural zone, it can be said the area is of very low potential or primarily used for agricultural activities only. The development of roads in such areas may be easy through land acquisition only. Also because of the primary activity going in near are the prices of lands shall be low which makes it easy for implementing agency to give compensation. Again in agricultural area, the sizes of fields are quite big, as the plotting is not done so the landowner will not object to go into acquisition if he gets compensation and road is developed near his remaining field. But from the owners point of view, if it seem that people may not be that willing to go for acquisition than even an option can be given to go for acquisition or transfer of development rights. The TDR produced from this road may be given special favor of specialized development in agricultural zone only with these certificates. This will lead to payment by landowners who come on the road frontage without going into acquisition and gets external benefits. Those land owners who have got the benefit of road development without loosing land or paying anything can be strictly allowed no development of any kind what so ever it may be without development rights certificates.

8.8 When road passes through mixed zone


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As the name suggests of mixed zone, it is very difficult to evolve any specific strategy in mixed zone or development. Probably strategies shall also required mixing but if it is near residential zone than Town Planning Scheme can best be applied. Transfer of development rights may not be easy strategy as development of each plot shall bee different from other and it shall become difficult to identify developing zone and receiving zone. All above strategies are generally for the development of urban roads only. The implementation may be done through authority or government agency itself or by public private partnership in concession methods like BuildOperate-Transfer or other forms like BOO, BOOT, DBFO or such others. The implementation through BOT and such methods may not be possible for smaller urban roads but can be applied to only big urban road projects only as levy of tolls or collection of tolls shall be practically impossible in smaller urban roads. Though some user charge or fuel tax can be imposed with prior permission from the government.

8.9 Implications of evolved Strategy


The strategy to develop and implement an urban road passing through different zones thus evolved would be identical for each zone and implications of the evolved strategy once tested, the strategy can be applied in any city and developing any road in similar context. In our case study area if the aboveevolved strategy is to be applied, the strategy for developing and implementing ring road in each link can be different with one or combination of more than one strategy. To apply it rightly it is necessary to know the stretch of road passing through each zone. The strategy here may have to be altered from above evolved strategy also, as at many places the road passes through two different zones on both sides of road as below. Residential type III Or Industrial Zone R Residential type I O Or A Commercial Zone D

8.10 How does the evolved strategy apply to AUDA ring road?
The lengthwise detail of ring road passing through each zone is as below.

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Table 8.10 Zone wise detail of Ring road


Sr. No. 1 Zone Residential type II on both sides of ring road
Khodiyar Oganaj Bhadaj Shilaj, Ambali Tragad Motera Bhat 600M 800M 800M 800M 800M 4500M 2000M

Total Length in Meters

Area in ring road in Ha.

11100 800 1500

66.6 4.80 9.00

14.55 1.05 1.97

2 3 4

Residential type I on outer side & Commercial type II on inner side


Sarkhej 800M

Residential type II on outer side & Residential type I on inner side


Vastral 1500M

Residential type I on both sides of ring road


Khoraj Hanspura, Nikol Vastral Vastral, Ramol Vatva 1500M 5000M 1200M 2700M 3800M

14200

85.20

18.62

Corporation limit Residential I & Gen. Industrial


Singarva Vinzol 1200M 2700M 800M 1000M 1700M 1400M

Industrial/o.s. & Residential I Commercial & Agricultural


Aslali

4700 4100

28.20 24.60

6.16 5.37

General industrial on both sides


Ramol Muthiya Nikol

Agricultural on both sides


Sughad 800M Chiloda 3200M Kamod, Aslali,Lambha,Bakrol 14600M

20100

120.60

26.33

Residential type III on both sides


Ognaj Bhadaj Shilaj Science City Thaltej Ambli, Makarba Sabathal 3100M 3200M 1200M 1800M 2200M 4200M 2000M

17700

106.20

23.19

Existing highways, roads, railways


State Highways 45 mt x 10 Nos. National Highways/ Expressways 60 mt x 6 Nos. Other Major roads 30mt x3Nos. Railways 60mt x 5 Nos. River 450M 390M 90M 300M 913M

Total

2113 76313

12.67 457.87

2.77 100.00

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R II on both sides

3% 23%

15% 1% 2% 19% 6% 5%

R I & Commercial II both sides R II & RI on both sides R I on both sides Corporation limit Gen.ind. on both sides Agri. on both sides R III on both sides Existing highways, roads, railways

26%

Chart showing area in % of ring road passing through various zones From the above table it is clear that ring road is mainly passing through agricultural zone to an extent of 26.33 % and from Residential - III zone to an extent of 23.19 % totaling @ 50 %. Approximately 40 % area is passing through Residential type I, II and corporation limit. Remaining 10 % of the area is from different zones on either side or existing roads/ railways etc. So strategy is needed to develop the ring looking to the very nature of zones and potentiality stretch wise.

8.11 Implementation strategy stretch wise


The strategy of development and implementation, phase wise or area wise can be as below. In residential type II area, the Town Planning Scheme method for the development of road can be adopted but in phase wise as per the development in area. The above area also can be divided into two parts in which only road scheme is prepared or cost of ring road is not included to go for further BOT basis. In Residential type III area, Town Planning Schemes may not be prepared right now and road may be developed through allowing transfer of development rights in residential II zone only.

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In agricultural zone, option may be given in between transfer of development rights and land acquisition where in a clause may be added in regulations to allow highway side activities and commercial activities like shopping molls, hospitals, petrol pump, service station in the plots abutting ring road to develop only if person uses TDR of ring road area. The road after wards may be developed through BOT basis or any other concessions methods like BOLT, DBOT etc. The road passing through other zones can be developed by combining adopting other reformed land pooling systems discussed in 2.1.4 chapter or if the potentiality is seen, now practiced tool of Town Planning Scheme or transfer of development rights can be adopted.

The106.20 Ha. area of residential type III zone can be developed through transfer of development rights that may be allowed to use in residential type II only. Total residential type II of 4018 Ha can easily accommodate the rights developed from displacement that is as low as 2.6 %. The Transfer of Development Rights can be utilized as discussed earlier.

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Table 8.11 Area wise development and implementation strategy recommended


Sr. No. 1 Zone Residential type II on both sides of ring road Length in Meter 11100 % of Strategy total For development area 14.55 Town Planning Scheme with an amendment in act or road scheme or transfer of development rights on pilot project. 1.05 Town Planning Scheme and transfer of development rights or other land pooling method 1.97 Town Planning Scheme With an amendment suggested in study 18.62 Town Planning Scheme With an amendment suggested in study 6.16 Town Planning (1.57) Scheme & public (3.54) private partnership Land acquisition & (1.05) Town Planning Scheme Land acquisition & transfer of development rights on pilot project 5.37 Public private partnership basis 26.33 Land acquisition or transfer of development rights 23.19 Transfer of development rights or Land Acquisitions 2.77 100.00 Strategy For implementation Through T. P. Scheme or through development charge Through T. P. Scheme or through development charge Through Town Planning Scheme

6 7 8 9

Residential type I on outer side & Commercial type II on inner side Residential type II on outer side & Residential type I on inner side Residential type I on both sides of ring road Corporation limit Residential I & Gen. Industrial Industrial/op en space & Residential I Commercial & Agricultural General industrial on both sides Agricultural on both sides Residential type III on both sides Highways, railways etc. Total

800

1500

14200

Through town planning and development charge T.P. scheme & User charge from industries Toll financing by BOT approach

4700 (120) (2700) (800)

4100 20100 17700 2113 76313

Build Operate -Transfer Build Operate -Transfer Build Operate -Transfer -

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

CHAPTER 9.0 STRATEGY SELECTION & RECOMMENDATIONS


Of all the parameters encountered in planning activities, land represents one of the most critical issues with which authorities, urban councils, planners, people, NGO's as well as the private sector, are confronted. To develop urban road projects also land becomes critical issue. It is very important to put the land for urban use only when it is of prime necessity. The development plans are prepared for the needs of next 20 years but are to be revised at least once in every ten years though minimal time to revise can be anything. Hence statutorily development plans are not static. While planning for the city more residential area is opened up due to many reasons including peoples demand in our democratic set up. But if all the areas start developing at one time, there is always going to be scattered development and pressure shall come on the authority to provide infrastructure. So it is very necessary to phase out the development at micro level of Town Planning Scheme. For the sake of any single urban road project, putting more land for urbanization shall be difficult to manage. Also it is important to assess the land market before opening up a large area of urbanization. One of the primary objectives of the land market assessment in cities is to answer the following questions: Is the supply of urban serviced land expanding to meet growing population and employment needs? Which land uses are growing the fastest and where? Where is urban land conversion taking place? Where is urban land conversion outstripping the supply of serviced land? Are land prices increasing faster than the overall rate of inflation? Where are lands prices the highest and where are they increasing the fastest? How much land is being provided with the minimum services needed for future urban development? Is there enough serviced land to accommodate urban growth for the next five years? Is the price and affordability of housing, commercial and industrial space changing more now than before and at what cost? Which segments of the population do not have access to housing from the formal private sector? Thus the answers to these questions may be taken as base for the development and phasing out of providing urban infrastructure. The laying of infrastructure facilities might have been planned through Town Planning Scheme, but looking from the phasing and need of development the schemes should be prepared. In nutshell town planning scheme tool is to be used as providing serviced land to the city and not as means of generation of finance for regional level infrastructure road project.

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Excessive Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl refers to development on urban peripheries characterized by scattered low-density development, incomplete infrastructure, excavated ground, and vacant lots. The extent of urban sprawl varies by city; it may range from a one to two kilometer wide crown around the city or constitute a large part of the built-up area and occupy a land as much as 10 or more kilometers wide. The problems associated with urban sprawl include inefficient use of land (that is, under-utilization of land or infrastructure); excessive energy consumption and air pollution due to greater use of motorized transport; and high costs for providing infrastructure, Critics of urban sprawl also cite is negative effect on aesthetic quality. The measures to discourage urban sprawl are the principal means for either avoiding the loss of prime agricultural land or promoting the orderly conversion of agricultural land to urban use. Additional restrictions are not recommended (there is no evidence that any country has successfully limited land conversion without creating serious inflationary pressure on land prices for other uses). In most cases, the loss of agricultural land can be compensated for increasing the productivity of remaining farms, investing in the cultivation of new agricultural areas, or increasing food imports.

9.1 The Ring road development of AUDA


The roads can be categorized in two parts (Ref. Implementation of partnering in road construction by Prof. Emile Horak, University of Pretoria, S. Africa) Economic roads , which are regarded as a strategic economic asset, vital to the countrys ability and which improves economic growth through industrial growth and exports, and Social roads, which are essential for the general social accessibility needs of the communities such as access to schools, clinics and work opportunities According to this the ring road of AUDA can be considered as an economic road and its development and implementation is also to be done in economically viable way. Road development at Town Planning Scheme level can be considered as social roads. So in urban areas, urban road projects can be bifurcated as city level roads that can be developed through Town Planning Scheme or even by authority as need of the city but very big urban road projects having regional vitality should be developed on commercial front only. From this study, it is clear that many unforeseen hurdles would have to be crossed in adopting the strategy of developing ring road only through Town Planning Schemes or even land acquisition. Following are some of the problems that would arise: For the purpose of implementing only one urban road project, it is not worthy to get into preparing Town Planning Scheme for green field and 150

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Development And Implementation Strategy for Urban Road Projects: Through Case Study of 60 M Wide AUDA Ring Road

keep the planned area ready with implementation for more than projected population of even next twenty years Town Planning Scheme is a land use based tool and should not be used for the predominantly agricultural land use. It is difficult to implement the Town Planning Scheme proposals in lands used predominantly for agricultural purposes. For the purpose of developing ring road, too many Town Planning Schemes in various zones are being prepared where it is principally decided and applied also that deduction in lands will be 40 % in ares except Residential III zone where rate of deduction shall be 30 %. The policy of deduction of land to different extent in different zones will lead to chaos in future as the areas where presently Town Planning Schemes at 30 % deductions are if made and when this area gets converted to higher order zone in future, it will not be possible to deduct more land or take more contribution. The feasibility of deducting 30 % land in Residential type III zone where built up allowed is 10 % with F.S.I. of 0.2 shall have to be checked. If we refer to the plan of Town Planning Scheme prepared for the case study at annexure P-9 with 30 % deduction, it is very clear that land up to 20 % goes in roads only and no point remains for Town Planning Scheme to get remaining 10 % land for all public purpose including sale plots to provide infrastructure. Zoning is different on both sides of ring road at many places so it shall be again difficult to divide the area for inclusion of it as both zones have separate set of regulations. Also the plots falling completely in ring road shall be given benefit of which zone will raise a question. This will invite litigations and planning complications. As per amended act, the lands earmarked for roads on draft Town Planning Scheme vests with the authority free from all encumbrances as draft scheme is sanctioned. But in very big road like this 60 meter ring road, there are many fields whose whole or more than 80 % area is going in roads only. Hence as per the act, he shall have to give possession of land but the person shall get his final plot only after preliminary scheme is sanctioned and so he will be deprived of his agriculture produce for the time he gets compensated in form of infrastructure facilities or final plot. So after some time landowner shall react unexpectedly if schemes are delayed more. Section 48 A which gives power to authority to take possession of lands in road has been challenged in the Hon. High Court in Town Planning Scheme no. 26 (Singanpore) in Surat vide Special Civil Application No. 2850 of 2002 where possession of land for infrastructure before giving a chance to the owner for representing for compensation to town planning officer has been challenged. The major roads in country and elsewhere in the world have been developed through acquisition and built operate transfer basis and by collecting toll tax.

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The application of BOT tool for the road development for the roads included in the Town Planning Scheme shall become difficult as the cost of the scheme include cost of construction of the road. It is also difficult to charge the toll for a road in T.P. Scheme. The persons who have contributed in the scheme in the form of land or incremental contribution if asked for toll for the construction cost of the road, which has been incorporated in cost of works in the scheme, shall duplicate the cost recovery format. The works proposed in the scheme are to be completed within five years of draft scheme is sanctioned and it becomes obligatory function of authority to provide all the infrastructure proposed in the scheme even when there is not still enough development. This will lead to unnecessary laying and providing of infrastructure facility before it is to be utilized properly and also when it shall have to be used, the works might have got deteriorated.

9.2 Strategy
Looking from above constrains that can come anywhere in similar context, the development and implementation strategy to develop urban road projects can be evolved by choosing the best alternative in each link or part of the link from many options as below depending upon the weightage it carries shown in the matrix earlier. The presently available tools of land acquisition or Town Planning Scheme can also be used with or without modifications. Though some policy level changes are required to make to put these strategies in place. Town Planning Scheme may be best suited option for the area of Residential type I having highest potentiality of development. Few schemes in fast developing area and potentially viable area may be taken on priority basis with Government and town planning officer level to preliminary sanction level so that lands for sale can be achieved earlier and same can be used for further expense. Amendment in town planning act to consider draft Town Planning Scheme as preliminary and final scheme and town planning officer is appointed at the time of declaration of intention so that draft is prepared after hearing all people and following the due procedures. This shall save tremendous time and energy. The town planning and urban development act may be amended as given in, suggested amendments in the second chapter to implement draft scheme only. The schemes prepared by authority can directly be implemented fully. For the draft scheme to implement fully. Only road is earmarked in the scheme for the purpose of deduction and reconstitution and nothing may be proposed over road and cost is not added in Town Planning Scheme. Also the incremental contribution may be calculated in appropriate way. This will lead to faster 152

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implementation of scheme as authority is relieved of compulsorily providing the services proposed in the scheme when there is no development. As such when there is no development or no likely development in near future the Town Planning Scheme should not be prepared but if decided by authority for preparing more schemes, this method may be worked out for part where in later period the infrastructure may be developed in participation of private sector. For the area falling in agricultural zone, person can be given an option of land acquisition or transfer of development rights. Transfer of development rights are given instead of going for acquisition or Town Planning Scheme for the area that are of lower order residential or having low potentiality of development in near future. It is made mandatory that the area of receiving zone can be developed through transfer of development rights only in such a way that no development shall be allowed in receiving zones without development rights certificates. Development control regulations can be modified to allow and encourage the use of development rights developed from the lands affected in roads. Special development like hospitals, resorts, petrol pump, shopping molls, way side restaurant, institutions and high ways related activities may be allowed in agricultural zone provided person uses development rights. The same development may not be entertained if one does not have the transfer of development rights certificate. Clause may be added that the zone if gets converted into higher order zone before stipulated period, person shall be charged for the 10 % of value of his land. Farmers may be allowed to use the land excepting 18-meter center verge solely for agricultural activities till full road is required to be developed. The lands through available option if is got in legally accepted form, the construction part can be done on build operate transfer basis or any other concession form as decided. Thus the development strategy for any urban infrastructure including road project like Ring Road of the city should be assessed from all aspects of planning like social, environmental and financial and evaluated from all the available options of land development within legal context of present and probability of making modifications in the act or legal tools to achieve sustainable development from all aspects.

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