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*Largest Selection of Commodore Software in the U S A . ! Leaderboard Golf .......................... $9.

After seven years in business, nobody in the Commodore Castle Wolfenstien Bundle ..............$9.97
market is more committed to your Commodore than we are. Nord & Bert ............................... $1297
We have well over 200,000 pleces of hard to get software in Zork 1-2-3 Bundle ...................... $9.97
stock to service your every need. If you've heard of a product, Trump Castle Casino ................. $9.97
odds are that we can locate it for you. And, we stock most Bureaucracy 128 ..........................$12.97
major Commodore titles that are still in production. Defender of the Crown .......... $9.97
* Hardware & Peripherals.
Although we can't get keyboards and disk drives any longer,
Beyond Zork 128 ...................... $12.97
Three Stooges ................................ $9.97
we can offer disks, modems, cables, interfaces, and much Honeymooners $9.97
Adventure Creator ....................... $7.97
* Un-Advertised Specials.
Our regular customers enjoy VIP service and great bargains
Wheel Fortune 1-2-3 Bundle ............$9.97

that are hard to pass up. EDUCATIONAL

* Expert
Technical Support.
a regular Software Support customer, you have access to
Dinosaurs .......................................... $9.97
Stickybear Math ............................ $9.97
European Nations & Locations .............9.97
the most knowledgeable Commodore technical departments Typing Tutor 4 ..........................$14.97
in the country. Of this, we're darn proud.
Word Attack ...........................$9.97
* Friendly &Courteous Order Takers.
You'll havea hard time finding order takersasanxious to help
Reader Rabbit .........................$9.97
Sky Travel ..................................... $19.97
you as Sandy, Mike, Katy, and Dyann. Lovejoy Prep For SAT ..........$12.97
* Fast Order Processing.
Thanks to our automated computer system, huge inventory
Word Spinner ......................... $9.97

and efficient shipping staff, most orders are processed the


* Walk In Sales Department.

We welcome visitors to our warehouse outlet. The same great
--? Super 1750 Clone .............. $99.95

deals are available and best of all, no shipping charges. Certificate Maker ................. $14.97
* Worldwide Distributor Of M i o r Products.
Ever hear of Maverick, Super Snapshot, Super 1750 Clone,
Geos 64 v2 .......................... $39.97
Fast Load Cart ...................$19.97
and the 1581 Toolkit? We've been actively involved in the Paperclip I11 64/128 ......... $24.97
ground up production and world-wide distribution of these Printmaster Plus .................. $19.97
and many other fine Commodore products.
* Purchase From Us With Confidence.
We werevery pleased when the Better BusinessBureaucame
Superbase 64 or 128............. $24.9

to us and told us that our outstanding reputation qualified us

as members in their organization. We're here to stay, not a fly
by night, here today and gone tomorrow outfit.
* Extensive Catalog.
Our contacts at other mail
order companies have told
us that producing a catalog
such as ours is too time
consuming and worst of all
- tooexpensive. We say it's
the least we can do for our Software Support hit,
customers, and wouldn't 2700 N.E. Andresell Rd,
C 0 N T E T S
ISSUE 2 VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 June 6,1994

C O M M O DO R E Features

18 Commodore Trivia byjim Brain
How well do you bum' your Commodorefuels?

19 Special Report: Commodore in Liquidation by Tim hw.j,

Get up-to-date on this unfolding Commodore story

22 Internet: Today's Information Superhighway? m- Craig

A look nt ilu' Internet and the upcoming informalion revolution

26 Hard Tips i>\ Mark Fetums

Some things to try when your computer slurts acting illogical
General Manager
Charles R. Christiansen Reviews

30 I PAW by Skeny Freedtine
Editor Our staff reviewer checks out this powerful C-128 Interlaced drawing program
Doul; Cotton
31 I POCT by Sherry l-wdlinc
♦ Find out all about this C-12X graphics conversion utility
Technical Editor
Mark Fellows
32 SMARTfiOUSE bySteve VanderArk
A first k/ok at the new input device from CUD

33 MINlVlEWS by Sherry Freedline
Advertising Saies
Our new mini-review section with a look tit some CM names
Charles A. Christiansen
413-525-0023 Columns

Graphic Acts
16 Just For Starters by sieve vander Ark
Why our computers don't always understand in
Doug Cotton
20 Foreign Exchange tn-Joseph &««//
Quick peeks <n a couple ofEuropean programs for RAMUnk users

34 Graphic Interpretation bySteveVmderArk

Steve gets sidetracked on his way to writing this issue's column on GEQS
On The Cover
Maurice Randall's 36 GEO PROG RAM II 1ST by Maurice Randall
ARCA Chrysler LeBaron Coupe. Create your first (1EOS program

38 Basic Instincts by Gene Barker

Imsi issue 'j BIG GUNS becomes the new STAKSHIP CONQUEST

Co mm oa 3:e World is in no way atlihated wilh Commodore AA Advanced Techniques by Doug coim
i?ji ■■-. -.-. r.^iTF; -ip'j inc. Commodore World is published bi-
Applying relocatable machine language to create 'common code' 64/128 programs
quarterly by Creative Micro Designs, fnc . IS Benlon Drive.
Easl Longmeadoiv MA 01088-06-16 Second-Class Postage
Paid ai Easl Lcngmeadav; MA Application to mall al
46 Peripheral Vision by Doug Cotton
Second-Class postage rales is pending al East Longmeadaw. An introduction lo SCSI devices and commands
MA. Annual subscnplion rale is USSZ9.95 for U.S. addresses.
USS35 95 foi Canadian addresses. All subscription payments
must be provided in U.S. Dollars. Mail subscriptions to CW
50 Carrier Detect by /,«■ sonHa
Subscriptions, c/o Creative Micro Designs, inc., P.O Sox 646 Commodore Guru Jim Buiterfiehl makes a guest appearance on GEnie
East Longmeadow MA 01026-0646
54 OVER THE EDGE byChartesA. Christiansen
Enlim content* S 1394 by Craatlv* Micro
□ailgnt, Inc. No part ol this publication may be printed or
What Commodore \i liquidation means to fi-bit users
otherwise reproduced by any means wilhoul prior written
consent Irom the publisher. All programs published in this
pu&lrcation are'orthe personal use oHheTeadar. and may nol Departments
Micro Designs, Inc., assumes no responsibility lor errors oi 2 From the Editor 12 User Group Connection See Our New
omissions in editorial, program listings or advertising content.
4 Baottalk 14 Top Tips
Creative Mrcro Designs. Inc.. does not assume any riahilily Tor CHK-LIST
advertisers' claims. 6 Just Asking 51 On-line News Nibbles
6 On The Horizon 52 BBS Spotlight Utility
POSTMASTER Send address changes lo CW Addross
Changes, co Creolive Micro Designs, inc .P.O Boi 646. Eost 10 The Connection 56 Advertiser's Index On Page 49
Longmeadow MA 01028- 064 6
From The Editor...
Seems like a lot has happened since Issue 1 ofCommodore World headed out the doorjust afew
short weeks ago. About a week later, on April 29th. Commodore announced their plans to
liquidate. We hadalready been watching the situation at Commodore closely, andhad plannedto
bring you any updates. With this news, however, we decided we should expand on those plans, so
you 'I! see quite a bit about this turn ofevents as you read this current issue. Tim Walsh covers a bit
ofthis territory in SPECIAL REPORT; you 'I!find some ofthe press releases that have been floating
around about this in ON Till- H0R1/X )N;Je[jJones mulls it over in the LoadStar section of THE
CONNECTION; and Charles Chrislianson give Commodore a little flogging in OVER THE
EDGE. Quite a bit of attention, but it '.v obviously an important topic.
You '11 no doubt notice that this issue has afew more pages than the last; we 've added a couple of
feature articles to the mix this time around. We 've also expanded our IN REVIEW section, and
added a MINI VIEWS for some smaller reviews. With all the additional review space, we needed to
get someone on-hoard to help handle these; we're happy to announce that much ofthis willfall into
the hip ofSherry Ereedline. Sherr)' has a lot ofexperience with Commodore programs since she
handles most ofthefile librarian chores on GEnie, and we 're happy to welcome her to our pages.
We also welcome another new regular to ourpages this month; Les Songa has taken over the
CARRIER DETECT area, and has converted that into a column. ON-LINE NEWS NIBBLES,
another new department handled by Les, will bring you those little news tidbits that were previously
found in CARRIER DETECT. BBS SPOTLIGHT, which will continue to grace our pages, is now
considered to be a separate department.
Another reason for adding some pages to this issue is Gene Barker's BASIC INSTINCTS. Gene
started things out real simple last issue with BIG GUNS, but has stepped up the pace considerably
with STARSHIP CONQUEST. This is a game that Gene will continue to expand on over the next
few issues, and ifthefirst installment is any indication, we 're infor a BIG one! To help everyone
avoid all those typing errors that pop up when entering programs, we've created CHK-LIST. Don't
enter without it!
Finally, you 'II notice some other changes this issue—new paper, new printing process, second
class mailing; we 're experimenting, and trying to do what we can to continue to bringyou the best
in information on the Commodore computiugfront. He sure to write us. and let us know what you
like and dislike (so far we haven't heard much in the latter category, as you 'I! note in our new
BACKTALK section). We're always looking for better ways to do things—after all, we're
Commodore users!

Doug Cotton
Commodore Work! Editor

Volume 1. Number2 Commodore World

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Tass Times in Tone Town 9.00 A501 512KRAM 2900 day Wairan!». Wilh Keyboard &
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CD-32 $]9995 $119.95 avalliole. International orders ire

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1764 RAM Elp. - /■ I ■ 256K to CM "
A1200 Call Dnmesiic outers are shipped UPS.
64C. w/Heavy Duty Power Supply ■ A4O0O/O30/12OMW4Mb 1699.00 •All orders are sub/eel fo credit card
563.95 A4O00/04O'120Mb/6Mh 2399 OO verification •
1700 RAM Eipanilon - Adds 128K In Call for other configurations and •All prices suo/ecr lo ctiange ■
C12Srjr 1JBD ■ $4995 lor the latest Amiga S CD-32
■ 64 Power Supply-132 95
16J0 Modem - Hem, unboxed 517.95 software.
■64 or 64C Keyboard (Specify) El 9.00 VISA
1010 Modem - New, bcied witu all pans •CiaeD Keyboard - S!2 00
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Big Blue deader 4 S35 00

MICIO USD Printer InllrTlu - fur lien
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Dome Home Accounting 64.95 ■ Micro RID C64 Rep'abls P.S. J]6 95
5J3 9J GE0S64V2.D 42.95 ■ C12aMc-iherboard-I95.O0
1200 Commodore Printer - Complete GEOS 128 u2O J5 00 ■C12BDMothBihoard-$99 95 Supplies are limited and on a lirsl-come
with all Cabling and Manual. 1!0cps Geo File 64 or Geo Calc 64 (Specify) 45 00 lust-serve oasis. We accept Visa, Master
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S 129.95 Geo Programmer Call The Bug 33 M accepting Casn. CertitieQ Check, or
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1350 Mouta - New. imwjMtf -S29.95 shipping is S6 00 Hardware shipping Is
Master Type a 00 Ergo Stick 1800
5 or S oin Composite Cicle S3 95 Hyper SIai Joystick SG 00 tor small Herns. Call lor larger
Merlin 128 45.00 24 00
C12BtoMignavoW1O84(Sp«tly) 1495 Hems lie. Computers). CDD add E5.00.
NewsMaker 128 10.00 Kraft Triple Trackoali 4000
Minimum COD ofiler is $50 00 Canadian.
Cor:ipultr.'D.',k Drrve Cable - 6 tl. 12.95 Maverick i orTacJ (Suecity) 14 00
PrmtShop 3695 APO, 4 International orders are welcome.
Obsk Noicher 4 9S Python 1 or Apache 1 {Specify) 13 00
S-fftCilc (64) 22 95 We will bill only lor actual shipping
Surge Protector w;EMI (6 Outlet) 1400 Siik Silk 9 00
Super 81 utilities 64-128 (Specify) u.OO charges & Insurance at time ol order.
10S4S Monitor Call Supwbase W »3 01 2695 Speed King TuiCoEne 22 00 15% re-siockino fee on all returns nm
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Inc AJ! I

Volume 1, Number2 Commodore World


What ;i terrific effort!! This promises to be o I just got Commodore World today - folks - I do I've never been one to recommend subscribing
landmark publication fur the Commodore think we have a VVINNUR! Saw a number ofneal to a magazine just to make sure it stayed in
computertst. IhavebeenCammodorecomputing articles by authors I have read & enjoyed. I really business. I always felt any product should be able
for only a few years and have seen several think CMD took a really astronomical chance to develop its criticalmass based on the qualityof
publications devoted to this platform conic and with this venture - But I really think that these its product or service. I think this one is going to
go. Please, Long life to c nmmodore World. guys have really got a feel - For where IT IS ! dojust that, based on the promise of the premier

■ Edward Rohan, Anaheim, CA - lion BohstmmuU, CUM Conference, Hdenet issue and the people already writing for them.
Thisone isa must-have. Ifyou haven't subscribed
Congrats on your new Commotion- World [just got the premier issue of Commodore World already, you are definitely missing out.
Magazine. Like the majority of us I had a magazine from CMD, and lit had! a VERY nice 1 personally hope that they evolve into
subscription to fltWmagazine for years and was review of QWKRR 128 V4.2 in it... VERY Bomethingmorealongthe lines ofthe Transactor.
quite upset at it's demise. (The publisher still well-done magazine by the way, but what ELSE At this stage of the game, there are a lot more
doesn't understand why 1 do not want to renew would we expect from CMD? experienced users now than new users... and I
the PC World subscription he has been sending The magazine is high quality... and has articles raits the Tl Nice work... I really am expecting big
me as a substitute.) of interest for everyone from beginners to the things from you all at CMDI
- Benjamin Dorsey, Tequesta, hi "pocket protector" crowd. I particularly like the - Ed Hell. CBM Conference, Fidonel
feeling of camaraderie when referring to the
Just received my premier issue of Commodore "competition*. I personally feel the competition [got my issue ofCommodore HWi/last week and
World. Congratulations tor a top-notch is healthy, and FrngladHOTtosee any attitudeof have already read it cover to cover twice. I think
publication; 1 look forward to following issues. bashing the competition, but an attitude of it's going bea great mag. The reviews and articles
- A. Herbig, Derwood, MO cooperation. Each ofthe several publications have were excellent. Since I'm a CMI) user (RAMLink
their niche in the market, and there should be and Swiftlink) it's great to see articles covering
Just a note to say thankyou forthe new magazine... room lor everybody. these subjects. I hope that you will cover CMIVs
I received the first issue ofCommodore World and From the review ofcoining issues, I can hardly product line in deptli with hints and advanced
was very impressed. The articles were very wail for the NEXT copy, which promises a tutorial uses for them. I would especially like articles
interesting and they were easy enough lor on using SCSI commands with the HD. along the line of the old Transactor magazines.
ofus who aren't familiar with computer terms to I would certainly encourage everyone here to Short routines and programs that I can adapt to
understand. I am excited now because 1 know Subscribe so we can continue to see llie great use in my own programs. Keep up the good work.
then1 are others out there who still have a support CMI) lias and is providing. I'm a bit of a ■ Charles Lawson, CommodoreS.T, Clink
Commodore, I know there is hardware and skeptic also on new publications, but afterseeing
software avaUable, and more importantly i know this issue, 1 immediately called and subscribed. At long last, 1 do believe us people out west are
how to get my hands on it. By th e way, Commod ore Coun try o n ly go 16 issu e s, finally getting our Commodore World magazines.
- Dark Smith and they were gone in minutes! 1 got mine today and leafed through it and was
■ Phil Ilebmr. CBM Conference, Fidonet VERY, VERY impressed. And 1 haven't even read
WOWI It's beautifullljust received my first copy it yell Once again, Kudos goes to the people at
at Commodore World...-TUA^K YOU. THANK [just got my copy ofCemmodoreWorld yesterday. CMI). You will have my support for as long as my
YOU, THANK YOU! I'vejust about read it all, and it is very nicely done. Commodore is alive.
■ John Movefile, Manteca, CA I think the biggest thing that surprised me, and I know that most oftheS-bitters left are getting
pleased me the most, was the number of on in years (heck, in my user'sgroup I am the2nd
Just read your Premier issue anil Wanted l<> let advertisers. That used to be the tiling 1 enjoyed youngest at 29). I am doing my best to letsomeol
you know what I thought about it. At first, I most about the old Commodore magazines. the younger guys know that theC-64/128 world
thought it looked ratherthin, but aftercompleting It is a very professional looking publication, is still active, productive, entertaining, as well as
it, 1was rather pleased. I feel thatyou compliment though I would have expected no less from CMI). affordable. With CMD coming up with new
didhmi very well and found everything to be The article on printers and interfaces was products and excellent support, it is helping us
what 1 am looking for. Excellent! extremely useful 1 wish I had that kind of revitalize a dying group.
- Dan Knlcski, I'm. LU.C.K.Y. information when I started buying primers. - /. McKtnney, Commodore RT, GEnk

Volume 7, Number 2 Commodore World

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Here's what you'll get with your subscription to dieHard.

Tips on all major ca- Our annual public domain <st Type-in programs and
commodore software and issue reviews the available more type-in programs!
hardware like GEOS, Super software in the public
Snapshot, Laser Printing, domain and passes the best us- Information on
Fleet System, and more! on to you!
•music on your commodore
kt Programming tutorials — us- Our annual Rarities issue •printing
Our Basic BASIC column is lists all sources of •memory management
introducing many readers commodore equipment so ... AND MORE!!!
for the first time to BASIC you can find that program or
programming! piece of hardware that
you've been looking for!

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Volume 1. Number2 Commodore World

Just Asking

Q The CMD Hard Drive is great. No

Q Great first issue! ... My problem is
more thousands of disks stacked around my thai I have to:shut down whenever the TV comes

1 «mJ
computer. However, I find myself intimidated by on as theC-64 causes herringbone lines in the TV
'multimedia'upgrades and 16 bit sound cards. Is picture. I have tried several'Mickey Mouse' (liters
there any hope for Commodore sound and and nothing seems to work. Do you have any
multimedia capabilities in the future. suggestions that I could try?
■ Don Bostic, Dallas. TX
4 - T 1
- Doug fHanchard, Grapevicw, WA
; I Y'W- ■'■■■'■ I' Mil
Let's not lose sight of the fact that Unfortunately. RF interference has
not too long ago, the C-64 was considered to be for modem electronics parallel the comfort zone long been a weakness forCommodore equipment.
on the cutting edge of sound and graphics. Its for most people: temperatures between 40 and Before you assume that it is the computer itself,
capabilities as a 8 bit computer can still amaze 16- 75 degrees Fahrenheit are most favorable and air you should disconnect everything from It-
arul 32-bit computer users. Although there are quality should be good to excellent which means making sure that all other peripherals are turned
rjotruernuldmediatypeapplications at thispoint, that there is minimal dust and smoke. Therefore, oil'. Then, systematically begin adding back one
much of the necessary hardware technology if environmental conditions are favorable, it is peripheral ata time until the interference appears.
already exists. What is required for'multimedia1? better to leave the device on rather than turning Once the interference appears, try switching the
Mass-storage, lots of RAM, stereo sound and it on and oil'frequently. connecting cables {i.e. if its the disk drive, try a
high quality video all ofwhich are available at the If your applications only require 512KofRAM, new serial cable; monitor, new monitor cable
current time. All that is needed is software which there would be no benefit to having additional etc.) If that does not work, try plugging in all of
Utilizes these hardware devices properly and capacity. Besides, there arc very few programs the power supplies for you computer equipment
multimedia could come to the C-64 and C-128, that c;ui use an expanded REU. into a different wall outlet (Make sure that the
Now. I can't predict what is going to be released It is noi possible nor is it practical to link new outlet is not part of the same circuit as the
in the future but I would not be surprised to see REU's. All of the 17xx series REU's control TV.). Sometimes, the electrical wiring itself can
some multimedia software. registers occupy the same memory locations. act as a giant antenna and by plugging in your
Therefore, ifyou chain them together, there will system into a different electrical circuit you can
be a conflict when the computer sends the same route the interference away from the affected

Q Which is the bigger strain on my

commands to both RliU'sat the same lime.
RAM Expansion units such as GiiORAM and
device, which in your case is the TV.
If none of these suggestions work, you should
128-D: leaving it on all the time (except monitor HUGKAM are limited becauseofihe fad thai they open up the device that iscausingihe interference
and drives) or turning it on and off several times do not have a Direct Memory Access Controller and inspect the interference shields that cover
a day? Also, If I only use my 1750 REU to store a (DMA Controller). The DMA controller is a the board(s).Theseshields are usually screwedor
dictionary and occasionally other purposes not custom chip that Commodore developed to soldered to the board. It is important that these
requiring more than S12K, is there an advantage enhance the speed of 17xx REU's by performing shields be securely attached to the board and
in having a 1 or 2 MB REU7 Why are RAM units memory transfers in hardware between the REU makinggoodcontact in order loelleetively absorb
like GiiORAM and BBSRAM limited to GEOS? and tin.1 computer. The DMA controller has a ! he III-' signals. And. if all else fails, try cableTV; it
- R.B., San Jose, CA specific .set of commands which arc utilized by is not usually effected by KK noise.
software to control the REU. Conversely.
GKOKAM an.! BBGRAM do not have a DMA
The most strain that is pul on
electronic devices is during thepowerup sequence
controller which means thai software must be
written differently so that all memory transfers
Q How can I verify which partition I'm
when the surge of current begins to How through between the computer and RAM expansion are in on 111), I'D. and Rl. units via software? Is an
the components. Once powered up. components processed by the computer Instead ol internally annotated listing ofliASlC-8 code available? Has
stabilize and operate effortlessly. The only within the RBU. The end result i,s that access to a anyone come out with a compiler that compiles
exception to this is if environ mental conditions 17xx REU is approximately 'Ml times faster than HASIC-8 commands in addition to RASTC-7.0?
are unfavorable. Favorable operating conditions thatofaGEORAM, ■ lim Doney, Tcquesta, FL

Volume 1, Number2 Commodore World

and commitments to CMD. Therefore, we have

Verifying your current partition an

Q Whuisoftwarcdoyou use to produce
di'iided to use the Macintosh system, as did our
predecessors with RUN, to help us produce the
;i CMD device is quite simple. You should iry Commodore World? magazine and con tinueourunparalleled support
using the Get Partition Info (G-P) command ■ Darin Smith ofC-64 and C-12K computer.

which is covered in detail on pages: 71 ill the

RAMI.inkinanuaUl-15mthellardDrivemanu;il A
and page 45 in the FD-2000/4000 manual. At the risk of being buried in mail. I
am going to answer your question truthfully.
As for BASIC-8, I have not had much luck.
If you're having trouble getting your
Current information on this product is sketchy at Commodore World is produced on a Macintosh
system to do what you want it to, or
best,so ifthereare readers out there that can shed Quadra 1550 with 16 MB HAM, Internal 500 MB
think you've got something wrong with
some light on BASIC-8 related questions, we're drive, external 245 MB drive and fllROM; Mac
your hardware, Just Asking may be
all ears. However. I am quite sure that an Ilwi[h,SMBRAM.intenia]245MBdrive,external able to help find a solution, or get you
annotated listing of source code was never 290 MB drive: 88 MB Syquest. CMS 60 MB Tape pointed in the right direction. Send
released. Companies with commercial software Backup, MicrolckScaninaker IIS1124-bit (iOlkipi your questions to:
rarely release documented source code for their color scanner; and an Apple LaserWriter Select
software. While researching the answers for thi.s 36'f!. We use a variety ofsoflware packages: Aldus CIV Just Asking
PageMaker4.2,5.0;Microsoft Word5.0; Adobe do Creative Micro Designs, Inc.
question, 1 ran across someone who recalled
speaking to Lou Wallace about BASIC-8 Photosliop2.51, Aldus Freehand-1. O.Adobe Type
East LongmeadoK, MA 01028-0646
compatibility with ihe Abacus C-12K compiler— Manager, and Hroderbund Typestyler.
although we were unsure if such a version was Although we believe that it is possible- to
Please try to keep your questions short
ever released. We will continue lo investigate produce a professional looking publication on and to the point. Doing so will increase
HA.S1C-8 and will print our lintiings. Once again, tile Commodore, we do not feel that we could your chances of being published.
if you know something about UASIC-8 please let produce this type of publication in a timely
us know. manner and maintain our current obligations

Zip from the fishes

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Volume 1. Number 2 Commodore World

^ ano Corvii»u'ri:R Indusihy -:vvs

Commodore Announces Liquidation Bronx. Itsextension to the adding machine business paved the way for it to
After the close ofbusiness on Friday. AprlI29,1994, Commodore made an make calculators and I hen personal computers by the mid-1970s.
announcement. Here arc the stories as received from around the globe: Commodore competed with Uadio Shack for the first computers sold lo
homes and co-louuderJaekTramiel became a highly-regarded figure in the
lledglingl'C industry.
COMMODORE INTERNATIONAL LIMITED TO By the early 1 980s, it was overshadowed in the 1'C business by Apple
LIQUIDATE Computer Inc. and IBM. Software manufacturers didn'l create as much
NF.WY0ltK..\pril29/PRNewswire/—Commodore International] imited software for Commodore's Amiga line as it did for Apple ami 1BM-
(NYSE: CBU) announced today that its Hoard OfDirectors has authorized compatihle machines.
the transfer ofils assets lo trustees for the benefit of its creditors and has In recent years, most of Commodore's business was in Europe.
placed itsrnajorsubsidiary, Comrnodore Electronics Limited, into voluntary NeuTek Inc. ol Topeka, Kan., created a product called Video Toaster
liquidation. This is the initial phase of an orderly liquidation of both that converted Commodore's Amiga ton video-edit ing system. The $2,500
companies, which are incorporated in the Bahamas, by the Bahamas product was popular wiih small advertising agencies and home hobbyists.
Supreme Court. The company's phones were busy Friday night.
CONTACT: Hock Tan, CFO of Commodore International Limited,
COMMODORE FOLDS MEW YORK, April 29 (lleuter) - Commodore International Ltd. said it
Siy DINAH WISENBERG WIN'Awciatai Press Writer authorized the transfer of its' assets to trustees for the benefit of its creditors
WEST CHESTER, PA. (AP)—Commodore International Ltd., aploneer in andpiamiilsmajor subsidiary, Commodore lilerl ionics Ltd. into voluntary
the personal computer industry, said late Pridayil is going out ofbusiness. liquidation. The company said this is the initial phase ol an orderly
The company plans to transfer its assets to unidentified trustees "for the liquidation ol both companies, which are incorporated in the Bahamas, by
benefit of its creditors" and has placed its major subsidiary, Commodore the Bahamas Supreme Court. —New York Newsdesk 212-603-3310.
Electronics Ltd., into voluntary liquidation.
"This is the initial phase of an orderly voluntary liquidation of both
companies," Commodore said in a briefstatement. COMMODORE COMPUTER GOES BANKRUPT.
Company executives could not immediately be reached Friday evening. FRANKFURT UNIT SAYS
The company last month reported an $8.2 million loss for the quarter FRANKFURT {MAY 5) DPA - Commodore International Ltd., ihc home
ending Dec. 31 on sales of $70J million. A year earlier. Commodore lost personal computer company, faces bankruptcy and has filed for liquidation
$77.2 million on sales of $237.7 million in the same period. which will see its units around the work! closed or sold o(f, Commodore of
In the latest report, Commodore said financial limits had thwarted its Germany said Thursday.
ability to supply products, leading to weakened sales. One of its new A spokeswoman for Commodore Bueromaschinen GmbH in Frankfurt
products, the Amiga CD32 video game, had sold poorly in Europe, where said that the Nassau, Bahamas-based parent company hoped to continue
the company did most ofils business. operations on a smaller scale, while still keeping the "Commodore" and
The company's net worth turned negative in the fiscal year ended last "Amiga" hade names, with the help of an Asian investor,
June 30. "Only five people here know the name oftheinvestor,*"saidspokeswomari
Us stock, which had traded at around $3 per share before i lit quarterly Karola Bode.
results were announced last month, closed unchanged at 87 1/2 cents per She said that some of the 35 Commodore units worldwide had already
share on the New York Stock Exchange Friday. been liquidated. Others stand to be closed while those which were siill
"This is a company that briefly captured the attention of the American profitable-indudingcompanies in Scandinavia, Italy. Canadaand Germany
market and didn't go where the market was going," said David Coursey. - would probably continue operations.
editor ol the newsletter I'.C. letter In San Mates, Calif. "They just never Inthe 1992-93 year which ended last June^O, Commodore International
managed to change with the marketplace." lost 356 million dollars, on turnover of591 million. At the lime il had some
While grabbing some market share and attention in the late l!17Us, 1.500 employees.
Commodore's products were something between PCs and game machines Commodore made its reputation by establishing the personal computer
"and never quite became either." Coursey said. as a home product. After 1982. some Iti lo 17 million of the 64-kllobyte
Commodore started 40years ago as a typewriter repair company in the "peoples computer" CM were sold worldwide.

Volume 1, Number 2 Commodore World

Bui tlu1 company ran into problems toward the end of the 1980s in
finding a successor to the C64, at die same lime thai the competition was Santa Clara, (A 95051:800- 752-0900.

developing and marketing increasingly sophisticated PCs at lower prices.

market analysis say. Titus Reaffirms Commodore Product Line
A farther mistake may have been Commodore moving too sluggishly Titus Software, producers of noted games including Crazy Cars and The
and too late in entering the markei ofIBM-compatible computers. Blues Brothers, recently contacted Commodore dealers concerning their
pint- titles for the C-64/128. Commodore World contacted Cindy Hitz,
RIO Relocates Marketing Director for Titus, who stated that they receive many calls from
Rio Computer, U.S. distributors of the Skantronix Handy Scanner and Commodore users looking for software, and confirmed that several lilies
other European products, lias recently relocated. Their new address and were still available. Look to future issues of Commodore World for reviews

phone number are; of these programs. Titus Software Corporation. 20432 Carisco Street,
Chutsworth. CA 91311:818-709-11537.
Rio Computer
572 Tarn O'Shanter Loadstar Celebrates 10th Anniversary
Las Vegas, NV 89109 Congratulaiions go to LoadSiar and its staff who celebrated their 10th
Phone: 702-369-2633 Anniversary of producing their high-quality disk-based magazine for the
Commodore 64. Not only are we happy to see them celebrate this milestone,
Rio has also recently discontinued distribution ofthe once popular Action but we anxiously look forward to the next 10 years of LoadStar,
Replay cartridge, manufactured by Date!, Ltd., a British-based company.
Xetec Printer Interfaces
Hewlett-Packard Releases New Lasers Xelec, a long-time supplier of hardware products for the Commodore 64,
Hewlett-Packard, a Santa Clara based manufacturer of computer Commodore 128. Amiga, and Atari STcomputers recently announced that
peripherals, has recently released updated versions of their popular HP it would no longer be producing the Super Graphics and Super GraphicsJr.
LaserJet A and IIP LaserJet 4ML laser printers. The new models, the IIP prinler interlaces for the Commodore 64 and 128. Supplies of these
LaserJet -1 Plus ($1839) and HP LaserJet ■JML Plus ($2479), offer higher interfaces were rapidly depleted from most dealers, leaving the Micro R&D
speed printing using less memory than the earlier versions. The company M\V-;i50 printer in! erf ace as the last remaining product still being produced
also claims ihat these new (iOO dpi, 12 page per minute printers use less in this category. This marks the end of the last Commodore (i4/I28
toner and consume less powerthan their predecessors, Both printers offer products offered by Xetec, who once dominated the Commodore printer
PCL5 interpreters, while ihe 4ML version also offers Adobe Postscript interface market and also produced the Lt. Kernel hard drive.

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or one 3.5" disk. Imagine getting features N'ame; . Check disk format:
like these on every issue: Address: _ LJ 3 5" J 5 25
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•LItilities •Puzzles 'Games Country:. Zip/Mail Code:.
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Volume i, Number2 Commodore World

News from Commodore-i N/eendors and Publishers

when thai was the rage only two we'll say it again: We not only love
years ago. I'd really hate to buy programming and editing our two-

486DX or Pentium MS-DOS disk magazine, but it's profitable!
computer, and then find out that We implore all Commodore
Windo2e version "Next Friday" will enthusiasts noi to fall by the
run too slowly on it. Maybe in a wayside. Don't give all your
couple of years the market will favorite Commodore vendors the
stabilize, and I'll buy in—but! still preemptive heave-ho because you
Everyone's talking about Iton the still pales. That's because when you love myC-64/128 and Amiga. I have feel that they're about to drop you.
nets. There is no end to the supc' up the Amiga, you have the a28616 MHz (remember when thai Call or write the vendor. Ask them
downloads of Commodore jabber Video Toaster, which dazzles you was supposed to be blazing fasl?) their plans for the future. How's the
these days. Commodore Business every week on Babylon 5, SeaQucst computer that I literally NEVER market? LOADSTAR is extremely
Machines, once THE personal and otiier television shows, if you EVER use. successful. We'd be complete and
computer giant, holh here and want a PC or a MAC to do Babylon !r.very day I marvel at how much I utter fools to drop our loyal
abroad, has finally shut its doors. 5-lype effects, you'd need gobs more love my C-64's screen editor. There's subscribers, and move on the PC.
No power on earth could stop it, HAM, and thousands of more nothing like it in the world. Since For one thing, we already have <i PC.

and if anyone was praying for buckS—and that's just for the I'm currently on a fat-reduced diet, MAC and Apple II magazine. As

Commodore, the prayers bounced software, not the hardware. Indeed, I have to calculale calories and fat we've always said, as long as our
off the stratosphere. the last lime 1 saw a Mac system every day. It's the easiest thing in readers keep subscribing, we'll keep

I Hi reminded of a biblical similar to the Toaster, the software the world for me to type one line in coming up with new programs,
proverb, "don't pray for the dead..."; alone cost over $8000—about the immediate mode: graphics, tutorials, utilities, and
yel around the world, hundreds ol $4000 more than a decent Toaster music. Commodore's death means

thousands (if noi millions) of system. Let's hope il 's been reduced little to us. Commodore has never
Commodore enth us lasts, from 8-bit for the masses since then. <RETURN> helped us. Even when we've
C-G4 users to 32-bit MOOT users. Commodore has always been communicated with them, they
are hoping and praying tor some shunned by themarket. I remember The line above represents the werccondescending. and cared very
reprieve. Would some larger 1984, when C-64's could still be calories of various foods I've eaten little about our market. The people
company purchase Commodore's found in every PC store, Kmart, and today. There's no easier way for me whoare really hurt by ihisare Amiga

technology and revive some of the even newly Sprouting video rental to do il. Can't do il on a spreadsheet third parly developers. They'll

products? Noi likely. Oh, the stores. There was probably no better this easily. Calculators don't let you probably have a tougher time

technology is for sale, and it will be selling I'C, yet the word has been go back and edit or plan ahead for allocating money for Rfid). What of
snatched up. hut it will probably go steady for 10 straight years: "Drop the rest of the day. You can't do that Commodore's custom chips?

to make other I'C platforms more the C-64. It's dead." Actually the on an IBM or Amiga without Where will they come from? In the
powerful. I know this is an 8-bit feeling was more like: "Drop the booting up a C-64 emulator. In fact long run, this will mean little. We're
magazine, and probably no C-64 before you find yourself the I've done that. For me, the C-64's all pioneers. The personal computer

computer is more hated by this only person in the world usingonc.' command lineinlerfacv (immediate world is a decade young, livery

I always asked myself, what do I mode) is a wonderful way to use a computer in the world isa Model-T,
readership than the Amiga, but
Commodore had a good thing care ifeveryone else is using a MAC computer. It is NOT the best way to even the Pentiums ami PowerPCs.
going. Just like- the C-64, the Amiga or a I'C—unless I waul to pirate and launch programs. Ten years from now, we'll all wonder
was better than everything else, copy and borrow? Instead what has I truly love my C-64, Actually 1 how we got along at 1-100 MHz,
more efficient, faster, and easier to happened? A steady succession of love Ihe 154 mode since I only touch one processor, and no voice

use. To approach the multimedia obsolete MS-DOS computers. Try C-128's as of hue. I enjoy recognition.

power ofCommodore's Amiga, the to sell someone a 386SX, and they'll programming the machine. -hffJunes

I'C must be supe'il up, and it really call il a piece of junk. I remember LOADSTAR has said it before, and AssociateEditor, LtiulSlar

Volume 7. Number2 10 Commodore World


know that you can use an AM radio a variety of sources. This issue has
in your computer room as a almost 300 disk blocks ofuseful bits
"lightning detector", as it will report ofinformation.
lightningflieardascracklesor static) I can't walk into Jack Vander
long before the skies in your While's office (lie's CEE-64 Alivel's
neighborhood become dark with publisher), as I live in the Midwest
slorm clouds? while he's in Sacramento, California,
Other goodies in CEE-64 Alive! However, I imagine it'squite a sight,
We litre at CF.F.-64 Alive! have been Co our line up is "Skyhigh", a column Vol. 3, Issue #2 include a review of as jack lias been putting together
very busy supporting the CEE-64, byJan Siren about using Sky Travel, Digimaster. a new digitized sound collections ofsoftware packages for
128 aild PLUS/4 computers. As using current astronomical events program; a review of TopPesk. CF.E-64 Alive! to offer at reasonable
reported in the last issue of to explore the world ofthe heavens. Germany's GEOS DeskTop prices, including GEO5. 128,
CommodareWorld, CEE-64Alhrelhad Who said the PLUS/4 is an orphan? replacement: plus several programs PLUS/4, Fun Graphics MachineCUp
a special interest group (SIG) on Please don't It'll Akin Conrow this, from Australia for just about ever)1 Art. Australian games, and Ham
Delphi. We regrel that due to as thirty-two of his articles on the interest, including dieting (it is that Radio collections. I'm sure I left a
unforeseen circumstances we've had PLUS/4 appear in this issue. I have time of year, after all), genealogy, category or twoout, but I'msureyou
to discontinue this SIG. to admit to being a bit of newblfi invoicing, or designing circuits with get the idea...
Volumes Issue#2hasbeenmailed with the PLUS/4, but I certainly a CAD program. Meanwhile, it's lime for me to
to our subscribers, and it's another learned a "real deal from these Regular Features, such as slart on our next issue.
huge issue this time around with not articles, and not just about the "tidbits", which is far from little. - GatlymMomnec
ane, not two, but THREE disks! New PLUS/4, either. Forinstance, didyou includes lidbilsofinformation from litlilur. CEE-64 Alive!

and Quirks. Some you may have can continue the game until

encountered, some you may wanl to everybody has a Bingo!
avoid. This, our second issue on
1'RG is loaded! Checkout our new newsstands, is our First Annual
text readers, Text to Screen & Text Rarities issuel We've gone through
to Primer by Ernest Barkman, our listings, updated them, added
complete with word wrap and a more and here they are! The largest
paper saver option. These puppies lisl of commodore supporters we've
This month our CP/M guy. Mike commodore, and YOU. Get your run on any commodore 8-bit ever published. Plus Scot Derrer's
Gordillo, is back! Explore this modem and term program running machine! lames T, Jones' Label own Rarities column and a special
powerful mode on your C128 with soyou can logon to the internet and Printer makes quick labels a snap! Rarity!! You won't want to miss it!
us. This is a whole new world that seejustwhatR.),a.k.a. On this month 's Spinner we have diel lard, tlieflyer for commodore
your commodore can open up for the Cyberspace Cowboy, is talking Ted Meyer's Bingo] This is a full Sbitters is now available at many l(.
you. frontier lime! about! featured Bingo program that can Dalton, llookslar, and Other Barnes
Mike Kglestone is back in class Sometimes it's nol your fault! even keeptrack ofeverybody'scardsl and Noble book stores.
with his Telecommunications, Your Check out Mike Gilsdorfs DOS Hugs it will even tell you who won and you - Brian I.. (roslhwaiie. Editor

"s" on month's, I found myselfdoing beginning:

the unthinkable. I started to read Place your BACKUP COPY of
FUN GRAPHICS the MANUAL (when all else fails, FGM in your drive and enter:
read the instructions, is my motto).

After a few pages the light came on. LOAD*" <RETURN>

This program will do ANYTHING RUN <RETURN>

my printer can handle. Now I knew

why to bother getting started with ll'you are usingJiflyDO5 it will load
FGM.Myaddicliougrew.aslusedit fast, a bit slower with fast load
for evetythfog. ca rt ridges. A MENU will soon appear
Getting started with the FUN to jump. So why bother. RIGHT? Lets kick some of the hurdles. I asking you to select a section. The
GRAPHICS MACHINE (FGM) is WronglThatswliatl thought al first. will assume you've been letting FGM
without question the hardest hurdle Month's later, and 1 emphasize the collect dusl as I did. From I tie (continued on next page)

Volume 1, Number 2 11 Commodore World

Connection User Group Connection
Fun Graphics Machine
(contlttaedfiom previouspage)
Alabama Iowa
selection bar defaults to CREATOR. Press the
Birmingham Commodore 0ub Commo-Hawk Commodore User's Group
<RETURN> key. Next you are asked ifyou want
PO Box 59564 PO Box 2724
to use FCM's fastload. Do not use FGM'sfast load
Birmingham, AL 35259-9564 Cedar Rapids, IA 52406-2724
ifyouareusingJlflyDOS, a cartridge, oranydilw
bill a 1541.
California Michigan
C-128 West User's Group Michigan Commodore User's Group
showing. The highlight bar defaults to option
17047 Devanah Si. 800 Lloyd
Covina, CA 91722 Madison Heights, Ml 48071-1915
Press the number <4> key or the <RETURN>
key. What's this! A hunch oftrash is showing on The Fresno Sixty-Fourum
the screen. This Is correct, FGM looks forHi-Res PO Box 16098 Missouri
Fresno, CA 93755
screens left behind byotherprograms. Nowpress Commodore User's Group of Kansas City
and hold down the following three keys: PO Box 36034
<SHIFTxCTRLxE>. A prompt will show Colorado Kansas City, MO 64111
'ERASE'; press the <Y> key and the screen will Western Slope Commodore User Group
clear. Say what! No way; I've go! a goofy looking P.O. Box 81 Pennsylvania
dog. The dog is your cursor. You can move it Mack, CO 81525 Lehigh Valley C.U.G.
around with the cursor keys like any other cursor. c/o 931 Lawrence Drive
Try it. This cursor happens to also be your Florida Emmaus, PA 18049
till APH1C BCI'F^K no.3. You havesixGRAPHIC Commodore Computer Club ofJacksonville
BUFFERS to choose from in CREATOR. Press 141 MangoCourt South Dakota
the <2> key (n see a cat. Now the cat is your Middieburg, FL 32068 Sioux Empire Commodore Club
cursor. Press< 3 > again to sect lie dog. By pressing
Port Orange Commodore User's Group 1932S.MenloAve.
<1> through <G> you will see six different 52 Windward Crt. Sioux Falls, SD 57105-2717
graphics. You can load your own graphics in
Port Orange, FL 32127
buffers I through 5. To place the cursor Texas
(GRAP1IIQ on ihe screen, press the <P> key to Hawaii
PASTE it to Ihe Hi-Res screen. The dog should
Commodore Houston User's Group
Commodore Hawaii User's Group PO Box 441252
havefiidcered and a faint ding sounded to lei you
c/o M.N.Daniels Houston, TX 77244-1252
knowit was paMed. Press the cursor keys again to
46-329 Kumoo Loop
see two dogs. One is your cursor, while the oilier
Kaneohe.Hl 96744-3532 Correspondence Groups
is part of the Hi-Res screen.
Lelsaikl Mime lexlloour screen. Press the <T> Last issue we incorrectly listed the group
Illinois below as an Illinois group; it is in fact a
key. You are now in TEXT MODE. Your text
cursor is now a small square box 8 pixels by 8 Champaign-Urbana C.U.G. correspondence group made up of users
pixels. Use the cursor keys to see it move around. 2010 W. William that keep in touch via mail. There has also
For fan type your name on the screen. You have Champaign, IL 61821 been a change in their address.
five TEXT UUrTERS to choose from while In the Meeting 64/128 Users Thru the Mail
CREATOR SECTION ofFGM. Press and hold the Indiana c/o Francis Redmond
<CTRL> key and press the < L> key. Now type Midwest Computer Users Group Route 7, Box 7614
something. Therextis different. Usefhe<CTRL:> P.O. Ilox9311 Palestine, TX 75801
keyalongwithtliekeysfortbenumbersl through Highland, IN 46322
5 to select any of the five TEXT BUFFERS.
To escape from any MODE, press the Attention User Groups!
<RETURN> key. Il will track back to the MAIN Send us your groups name, contact person's name and phone number, when and where you
MENU. meet, number of users, and an address where users can write to you. Send your info to:
Next month I will explain TEXT and CW UG Connection
GRAPHICS MODES in more detaU. And how to c/o Creative Micro Designs, Inc.
ioad your own graphics and text into FGM. P.O. Box646
■JenyFreadman East longmeadow, MA 01028-064/i

Volume 1, Numbers 12
Commodore World


INTRODUCING the first vector drawn, postscript compatible

aspect corrected, object oriented image collection available for
use in the GEOS environment.'

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Volume 1, Number 2 13 Commodore World

Top Tips

24-Pin Printing RUN Paint Mouse Fix

In our Premier issue of Commodore World, our A few weeks ago we got a call from a user asking
feature article on Printers & Interfaces bad a slion if the new CMD SmartMome would have the
program that helped adBptnewer24pin printers same problem that the Japanese version ol the
to sane olderC-64/128software. This suggestion 1351 had with RUN PainL While we loo had
prompted a letter from Mr. Arthur Herbig of experienced mouse problems with RUN I'niiil,
Denvood, Maryland who attempted to use the we had no ideawhat this had to do with aJapanese
program with Printshop and his Panasonic version of the mouse. The caller directed us to a
KXP-1123 24-pin printer, in his letter, he stales tip published in the November 1989 issue of
that our program didn't work, and his document RUN, in the Mail Run column. Sure enough, here
continued to prim elongated. I lowever, another they staled thai it was a "Japanese-made version
program which %v;is offered in loadstar «J05 of the 1351 mouse" that caused the RUN Pain!
worked fine for him. The two programs are listed pointer to jump around on the screen.
below; the first is ours, thesecondtefiamLoadslor. After looking into this problem, we discovered
that the problem had nothing at all to do with the
Program 1: Wells, the renowned printer expert who gave us version of the mouse; the true problem lies in
OPEN4,4 the tip, we will probably shed some more light on RUN Pain! itself, which fails to provide a proper
PHINT#4,CHRS(27);CHR$<65);CHR$(8I the subject. So in the mean time, try both delay after switching the internal POT registers
PRINT#4,CHRS(27);CHR$(50); programs and use the one thai best suits your to read joystick port 2. The program below will
CLOSE4 particular application. correct the problem without affecting any other
functions oftheprogram. Run this patch program
Program 2: Laser PrintShop on a (i4 using a backup copy of RUN Paint.
OPEN4,4 Here is a tip from Robert Keeves of Windier. CA,
PHINT#4,CHR$(27} t" 3 " -fCHRS (21 ) ; for those of you who might be using an Epson 452A 10 A=A+1:IFA=1THENLOAD"O
B. RP",8,1
CLOSE4 Action Laser printer. It you are trying to print
1AE7 20 POKE5830, 146
signs in Printshop and are having trouble with D006 30 OPEN15,8, 15,"SO: OB.RP
Okay, so why does one program work with the sign getting split into two pages, Robert " ; CLOSE15

Printshop on a 24-pin primer while the other suggests using 8.5"xl<l" (legal) size paper and 4BC7 40 POKE45,PEEK(174) :POKE
46 ,PEEK(175) :POKE4 3 ,0:PO
program does notJThere are a couple ofpossible change the paper size to legal on the printer.
KE44,17:SAVE 'OB.RP" .a
reasons, l-irst. there is the difference in the way Also, if you are using Paperclip III with this D21S 50 POKS43,1; POKE44, 8: NEW
that the two programs try to accomplish the task. printer, change the page length from fifi to 62.
The Commodore World program uses an Escape
"A" followed by an Escape "2" to set the line
Spacing to Hn ofan inch. The Loadstar program TOP TIPS Needs Your Input!
uses an Escape "3" to adjust line spacing w2Vik
ofan inch. Each issue we'll print the very best tips we receive from our readers. One of these will also be
It is our understanding that there have been a chosen as the top tip of the issue, and the contributor will receive a special bonus from
couple of different revisions of the Printshop Commodore World. Sendusyourtipson using and programming your Commodore 64 or 128,
printer drivers, which may explain why one and you may just be the one to get honored as the contributor ofCommodore World's Top Tip!
adjustment works but the other does not. We feel Send your tips to:
that both drivers ore going to be useful with
different programs. One will probably work with CWTopTips
certain programs while the otherwfflwoEk with a c/o Creative Micro Designs, Inc.
different set of programs. P.O. Box 646
We plan on looking into this issue further, and East Longmeadow, MA 01028-0646
as soon as we gel a chance to speak with George

Volume 1, Number 2 14 Commodore World

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Volume f, Number2 15 Commodore World

Just For Starters
by Steve Va*id&i Ank


Last issue I started offthis column by saying thai you that the computer doesn't understand what
my computer talks ;i lot. But then I proceeded Eo you just told it to do.
spend most of my allotted word count talking I think it's fairly safe to assume that you won't
about how von, the user, talks to the computer. usually be trying to type commands like
I diil ihai on purpose, since talking to the "QWERTY" Intoyour computer. So why does the
computer by means oftyping on the keyboardis operating system need such an error message'/
one ofthe very &st things you'll do once you gel Youll understand thatwell enough the more you
everything plugged in and powered tip. ('lake;i type commands; the most common reason for a
look at the sidebar accompanying ihK column "SYNTAX ERROR" is a typing mistake, like
for more Information aboutgetting the cables all entering LOAF instead ol LOAD. Then, instead
hooked up correctly.) of cheerfully loading your program as you would
But now that you've started typing commands expect, your computer will just sit there. That's
into the computer using thai built-in computer when my third graders will come looking lor me.
language tailed basic,you'll need to knowmore That's when you can look al the screen and see
about how the computer talks back to you. As I that your computer is telling you with an error
mentioned last month, the Commodore tells you You. of course, won't be able to use the same message what the trouble is.
riaht off the bai that it's ready to gel started by strategy thai my third graders use; you won 1 be You might wonder why the computer can't
saying "READY" and Hashing its cursor. That's a able lo "go gel Mr. Vander Ark." You can, just say "I'm sorry, I didn't understand thai last
handy thing lo know, virtually: if w Marled thi' however, learn lor yourself how lo understand message."Asa matter of fact, there's no particular
computer and it didn't say "READY", we'd have what the computer says when it isn't acting the reason why it can't. The phrases the computer
to figure out what was keeping it so busy thai it way you expect. uses are stored verbatim somewhere inside in its
couldn't stop to talk to us. The folks who designed the Commodore 64 memory and ifyouknowhow to programyou can
Now I teach a class of third graders for whom and 128 knew that you and i would often need actually change them to say whatever you want.)
computers are as natural as recycling bills and information about what was going on with our can only suppose that the original designers used
roller blades. But when one of our computers machines, so they included a set of "error fancy, technical terms like SYNTAX ERROR to
starts doinj; something ihey don't expect, like no! messages" into the operating system (that's the save memory space, since every character of the
saying it's "READY* whenitshouldornotloading built-in set of routines and commands that run message has to be stored. The trend nowadays,
a program, they get frustrated. All of a sudden, theshow.asyou might recall). Error messages are however, is to make error messages a lot more
that familiar old machine in the corner has one ofthemost obvious ways the computerhas to informative and helpful, since most computers
become a blithering Idiot. Some of them will try tell you what's happening To see an example, try have a lot more memory to play with than the (S4
one or two quick fixes [hey have seen me use typing "QWERTY" at the cursor and hitting and 128 have.
before, butusually theyjust stand back andfrown RETURN. After a brief moment, you'll see the There are other error messages you mighi
and holler, "Ciogel Mr. Vander Ark!" They know. words "SYNTAX HRROR" on the screen. That is encounter as you work with your computer.
you see, that I understand what the computer is your computer's way of telling you that it has no Another one you will see is "OUT OP DATA
saying and that I know how to tell il to gel back to idea what "QWliRTY" means. The words ERROR," which sounds pretty alarming. Chances
work. "SYNTAX ERROR" are an error message, telling are, that means lhal you've just accidentally

Volume 1, Number2 IT, Commodore World

Ie we started the computer and
it didn't say "READY

w D

hax/ee to figure out what was

keeping it so busy that it

couldn't stop to talk to us."

Making All the Right Connections

What's the first thing anyone does cables. Plug in each of these that there are two identical ports
oils to
with a computer? You got it; they plug components (with the power off to the makes no difference which
it in. Now that can be a daunting task power strip) and arrange things so that one you use; the other can be used to
for a first-time computer user, you can reach everything easily. If you run another cable on to another disk
especially if they bought the computer want to be able to turn the whole system drive if you have one. Commodore
used, without a manual. So here's a on at once with a switch on the power printers aiso can be connected to your
quick run through of what you need to strip, make sure that switch is going to system this way, into the extra port on
do to get your Commodore computer be accessible as well. the back of the last disk drive in the line.
plugged in and ready to run: At this point, you have a whole bunch Running drives linked together like this
First of all, you'll want to make sure of separate pieces with no way for them is called "daisy-chaining."
that the place you've selected for your totaiktoeach other. Let's hook them up If you don't have a Commodore or
computer has enough grounded outlets one at a time, starting with the monitor. Commodore-ready printer, you will need
(the ones with three holes). A very IfyouhaveaCommodore monitor, there some kind of an interface to connect
handy way to take care of this are several ways that you might need to your computer to it. For a discussion of
requirement is to use a power strip with hook it up, depending on the screen printers and connection options, check
a built-in surge protector. Using a power modesof which your system is capable. out the article in last month's issue of
strip is more than just convenient, On the back of your computer you'li find Commodore World.
however. It'scommon sense. That surge several places, often called ports, where Otherdevices, such as modems, RAM
protector will can prevent a lot of you can plug in different sizes and devices, cartridges, and so on also need
problems and repairs down the road. shapes of cables. The small round one to be attached to your system before
Since Commodore equipment is scarce will let you connect your 64 or 128 to a you power up. Check the documentation
and knowledgeable repair personnel monitor or to a television set by way of for each device to find out how it should
scarcer still, the surge protector can a TV/COMPUTER switch box. There be installed.
mean the life or death of your system. aretwo larger round ports, one of which There has been a friendly debate
You'll also want to find a place well is for a video cable and the other for running for years in the Commodore
ventilated and relatively free of dust. A your disk drive. Make sure you don't community about the bestorder in which
phone line is essential if you plan to do force a cable into one of these ports; to start up your system's various
anything on line (with a modem, that is, that cable might actually be intended components. Some people are
like on the Internet or GEnie). for the other port. The 128 also includes convinced that the drives and monitor
Once you have a place selected, you a vaguely rectangular port which hooks should beturned on before the computer
can begin hooking things up. The the computer up to an 80-column itself; others are just as certain that it's
computer unit itself has a power pack, monitor. the other way around. I personally just
one end of which plugs into the wall and Once you've determined how to hook hit the switch on my power strip and kick
the other into your computer. It's a good up the monitor, the rest is easy. Your everything on at once. One thing to
idea to keep this power pack away from disk drive connects to the computer remember: never switch on a 64 and
the rest of your equipment, since it using the other round port and that 1541 with a disk in the drive.
could damage disks and cause rather thick cable with the large round -SVA
interference in the monitor. The monitor, plug on either end. You'll notice when
disk drives, and printer also have power you look at the back of the disk drive

17 Commodore World
Volume 1, Number2
moved the cursor over the word READY before you try to load a program. The manual defines ift hat fails,you'lljust have to switchthe computer
you hit RETURN. The cursor is under your this as follows: "The required I/O device was not off and back on again to clear things up.
control, you .see. using the arrow keys, and ifyou available for an OPEN, CLOSE, CMD. PRINT*, As longas the disk drive's error light is blinking,
move il onto 8 word that's already on the screen INPUT*, or GET#". That may be true, of course, though, an error message is being saved in a
and press KliTLIRN, tin' computer will assume but whal il really means for you is that you special spot in ihe drive's memory for you to
youjust entered that word asacomrnand. That's probably didn't turn on your disk drive and so check if you want. With ihe BASIC thai comes
very helpful if you waul to, say, give the same the computercan'tfindit...thedevice you wanted, built into a 128. this is a fairly simple task: you
command twice orifyoujust received a SYNTAX the disk drive, is apparently not present. type PRINT DSS and the message shows up on
ERROR and you want to fix your typing. Hut if ft would begreat ifthere were an error message your screen. On the (>4, thought, things are a lot
you hit RETURN when the cursor is on the same on the screen every lime something went wrong, tougher. Here's the sequence you need to lype in:
line as some other word, the computer will but unfortunately this isn't the way il works. A lot
probably not knowwhatyoumean; the resultwill of the errors you'll encounter as you try to load I0OPEN 15,H.l.r><RETUKN>

be a SYNTAX ERROR. An exception is READY, and run programs will actually nol be compulcr 2M INl'I T *15,EN,EMlSr,ES <11K I'IJRN>
and here's why: the word READ is actually a problems but diskdriveproblems. The diskdrive M PRINT |:N,!-:MS,ET.ES<KE'nJRN>

command in BASIC, so the computer tries to has its own set of error messages, but they don't 40 CLOSE 15 <IfKTURN>

READ when you tell it to, and since the READ is appear on the screen automatically. Instead.
followed by tries to "HEADY". It can't do it there's a little light on the drive thatjust blinks on Remember, this is in the computer's language,
and if tries to tell you so by saying that it's out of and offas away ofsaying, "Hey, something went so you have to obeyall the rules and type things in
data. wrong!" Then il's up toyou to type a command to exactly as you see it here. When you have typed
There is a list in the manual that Game with ask the drive what the problem is. Sometimes. this all in, type RUN and press <R1TIT!RN> to
your computer of all the error messages the though, a drive problem willmake yourcomputer execute all the commands in order. 'Ihe result
Commodore uses. That list gives some sort of freeze up, which means you won't see a will be a lisiiug of all the error information on the
explanations for what the errors mean as well, so cursor to type in anything. II you don't see a screen.

it's handy to have around. Unfortunately, the cursor, your computer is stuck trying to talk to The disk drive is one of the most important
writers of the manual aren't always very good at your disk drive but the drive is not answering. devices that you attach to your 64 or 128, so next
putting things into plain language, which is You can manually tell your computer to give up month we'll continue this discussion from here,
probably why most people don't read manuals if the attempt by pressing Ihe RUN/STOP key; if talking about various types ofdrives and how you
they can help it. For example, you might see the that doesn't work, you can press RUN/STOP and use them. In the meantime, have fun with your
error message "DEVICE NOT PRESENT" when RESTORE attliesametimeto reset the computer. Commodore!

Commodore Trivia
Reprintedfrom Commodore Triv si an Ihe Interne!, courtesy ofJim Brain, Brain Innovations.

Souo Commodore started out into computing $002 How much BASIC free memory does a $006 What was the model number of the
wiih the PET scries of computers. What VIC-20 have (unexpanded?? printer used with the VIC-20?
did the letters P.E.T. stand for? $003 What early fill's Commodore software $007 Whal was the mode! number of the lfi K
$(i()l Commodoreplanned to manufacture two company had a Lighl Hull) as a company RAM expander used with the VIC-20?
successors to the popular Commodore logo? $0118 Commodore introduced 3 printers that
64 home compuler, and boih were $004 What was the model number of the disk used the same printer mechanism. What
intended to be business machines. What drive used with the VIC-20? are ilic model numbers?
were these twoniachinesoriginally called,
$00fi What was the mode! number of Ihe $01)9 What is the difference between the
and what were ihe differences between
cassette device used with the VIC-20? printers in question $0087
the two?


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pua p3]iiE|ddns A|i|3!nb SBAl jo]uud DlS'Vi!J0.ll'\IVU!os'1'i^tltHSK!'l'Ll XA^'li 600$'

Volume 1, Number 2 18 Commodore World

What Lies Ahead for

Viewers who tuned into CNN on llie evening of company, and still maintained a positivesttitude previous years. CD32. their Segti/NI-S weapon,
April 29, L994, or the Suiiclay Morning edition of about Commodore. She offered her candid was not going lo lie ready in time for the '93
NliC's Today show two days later saw and heard opinion of Commodore—describing it as a Christmas season. Worse yet, the board of
the news about Commodore. A brief, tersely wonderful place to work, with unabashed love directors ceased all communications with
worded announcement to the Associated Press for her job. outsiders and no contingency plans were
after the dose of the Mock market on April 29th There's nothing particularly unique about her announced outlining a road lo recovery.
bore the bad news: Commodore was liquidating, statement, as most former Commodore Commodore's $350 million faux pas barely
In Dickens' era, [Debtor's I'rison would have employees echo similar sentiments. Nearly every won them a couple of paragraphs in the Wall
stepped in long before Commodore's financial former employee agrees that it was the best job Street Journal. Apple easily overshadowed them
whlzs accumulated their enormous $350 million they ever held, and continue to maintain close with one billion dollar losses, and IBM's $8 billion
debt, especially with quarterly earnings of only contract with their lormer fellow employees—a in severance and restructuring costs over 18
$70-odd million to offset the heavy loss. true rarity in the computer industry. The talent monlhs made Commodore's $350 million debt
At long lust, thai samecompany that designed, pool at Co m m odore wa s s u rely s o m e t h i i i g spec ia 1. hardly newsworthy by comparison.
engineered and built your beloved C-tvl/C-128
publicly announced it's on the verge of going What Went Wrong? A Look Ahead...
belly-up. Not that it matters a whole lot—alter Surely, those of us close to the source saw this There is a silver lining to all lliis bad news. Tor
all, they all but totally ceased to recognize their coming long before it arrived. Foraran-down of starters, don't worry about the Commodore
record-breaking 8-bit product line when Reagan events, I'll go back a few years to the early '90's. machines going away. Too many third-party
was still President. Thank the third-party when my calendar was always filled with marks developers are interested in the technology to let
developers instead for keeping those 8-bitS alive denotingCommodorc events. There were always it die. A Commodore Shareholders' Movement
long after Commodore gave them the lieave-ho. the exciting CES (Consumer Electronic Shows), could still have an impact. There's no reason not
That sense of abandonment so familiar to the World ofCommodore &i\d Ami-Expo shows in to expect multiple, non-exclusive licensing of the
Commodore R-billers is but one of the reasons Chicago, New York, Pasadena, Toronto, ami the technology. In layman's terms, this means you
they re theCommodore enthusiastsleast affected occasional forays lo San Francisco and L.A. We may see everything from C-(M clones lo Amigas
by the liquidation announcement. were always making plans, attending special on a card in the near future. Which isn't to imply
events, talking to with numerous Commodore your C-(i4s and C-128s aren't in good shape
A Look Back... executives. The company was going places fast, anyway, thanks efforts by ibird-parties.
The primary reason for Commodore's downfall with the strong leadership of computer Other good news is that Commodore isn't
isclearly their poor marketing uYtisions, or, more management whiz i larry Coppennan, followed liquidating in its entirety. Viewed as valuable
accurately, a lackofunderstanding the dynamics by Jim Dionne—long-time CUM President and assets in the liquidation process,
ofmarketing.Theboardofdirectorshiddenaway General Manager—the future looked bright. income-producing Commodore divisions in
in New York City and theBahamas should not be Commodore rapidly developed some of the Canada, the UK, and Germany look like they'll
confused with Commodore Business Machines greatest technology of its time. Thai was clearly continue as on-going concerns. Ceiling parts for
in West Chester, Pennsylvania, which performed evident at the Chicago CES in 1991. With one of your Commodore computer may actually become a company isasumofits employees, the largest booths on ihe floor, Commodore easier in the future.
Commodore was perhaps one of the best packed their display with multiple third-parly The constraints of professional etiquette
computer companies anywhere, one that developers o( CDTV titles. Those developers, forbids me from disclosingparticulars, but suffice
managed to attract anil fill its hallowed halls with under the guidance and finances ofCommodore, to say Commodore's best technical innovations
some of the brightest, most talented people any created educational and game lilies thai are still were never released. There was no element of
company could hope to find. timely three years later! surprise for my colleagues and 1 when in recent
To reaffirm that Statement, a few days ago 1 Riding the crest of the good years, changes weeks a number of llie world's largest foreign
received a call from a younglady whoonce served were made in lop management, and the surge of electronics giants expressed more than just a
as one of Commodore Magaziiie'i; (remember thai technology and profits hit a series of internal casual interest in bidding on Commodore's
publication?) staffmembers. She later went on to political roadblocks. Marketing and advertising technology. Wait and see—you haven't heard
work in CliM's marketing division. Laid off by all but ceased, and in June of li]93, Commodore the last of Commodore!
Commodore long ago. she managed to land a Business Machines announced a massive S35(i
good job nl another West Chester. 1'A-based million loss, with earnings f>(l% lower than the

Volume 1, Number 2 19 Commodore World

Foreign Exchan
Bft- SadepJt Qaudi


All right now, what's thefirat thing that pops into for the C-128. it boasts a loader and new screen
your mind when you hear the name Austria?Julie fonts which were written in assembly language.
Andrews waltzing through mountain fields? After configuring your RAMLink for use with
Edelweiss? Downhill sluing? Mozart? Yodeling? RAMLink Commander and starting the program,
Wei], with the exception ofjulie it's all here, but you'll befaced with the commander screen. From
there's also something special for Commodore this screen you can start up to 18 functions or
Users: C-64/128 programmers! As I mentioned programs; view dale and time; and perform
in the \as\Foreiffi Exchange, we will be introducing diverse drive access usingJifTyHOS commands.
you from time to time to some of the European to be defined by the user. In each of the eighteen available function or
Commodore kinsmen. In this article, Alexander Alex's File Manager is written in machine program options,sub menuscanbeprogrammed
Ffisi and Rudi Sanda from Vienna, together with language; ifyou know your way around MI., you into the option. If. for example, the option
their programs for take center stage. can alter this program as well. If not, you'll find RL/1'D/IID-Jobs is chosen, a sub menu appears
Alex isa chemist with the Austrian Mineral Oil the program to be useluljust the way it is. offering partition, directory, sub-directory and
Company who enjoys writing programs in his File Manager is started either automatically Other choices. If one of these Options from the sub
spare lime for himself and his friends. After from RAMLink when the computer is turned on menu is chosen, another sub menu appears
purchasing a RAMLink two years ago, lie set out in 40-column mode or from RAMLink Manager offering additional options! The program is
to write programs which support the features in 80-colurrm mode. The opening menu has five extremely powerful and versatile.
found in RAMLink His efforts resulted in two options: BASIC. Programs. Parameters,.Manager Programmers can alter the program or insert
programs, a BASIC program catted RAMLink and Info. Tile options are started by pressing the command lines to suite their taste and needs. A
Manager for the C-128 and a Machine I .anguage Corresponding number key. The Parameters complete printout of the program's code is
program called Fik Manager for the C-84, option allows you to change screen colors, supplied with this shareware program, so it's
RAMLink Manager C3I\ be easily adjusted to ill redefine the Function keys, insert text and easy to follow the program's logic and make your
your personal needs—it's basically a framework programs, and to save the parameters. This own alterations.
onto which you may build. By inserting BASIC option, along with the Manager option, are the Both Alex's and Rudi's programs come with a
commands in the program the color of the text heart ofthe program. Here you can play with the German handbook. Depending on the response
can he altered, other programs or games can be different features and customize the program to from Commodore users in the U.S., an English
loaded from any active device or CMI) partition, your own liking. program description maybe released in the future.
the date and time can be displayed to (he screen, Ifyou're searching the market for a ivell thought The shareware fee for either program is $10.00
and more. RAMLink Manager oilers ten different out and uncomplicated autostart program for plus postage, and they are available from their
time-saving functions. By pressing <f-l> you your C-(i4/128. write to Alex for his shareware respective authors, listed below.
switch to the C-128, 80-column mode; <F2> masterpiece.
switches back to 64 mode. <F5> is entitled Austriims are proud of their contributions to Alex Fiisi
"Programs", and pressing it starts FileManager in the arts. Rudi Sanda, another Viennese, can lie Anton Denver Gasse 22/5
fi'l mode. From File Manager's menus you can proud ol his piece ol art: RAMLink Commander, A-12I0, Vienna, Austria
select the program you would like to launch. Rudi is a post office official who lias a passion for
Programs may be loaded from any active devices details! This passion is evident in his Rudi Sanda
and/or CMI") partitions. The remaining seven programming, RAMLink Commander is a Otto ppobststmsss 3/68/n
functions within Manager are available beautifullywritten autostartprogram (BASIC7.0) A-1100, Vienna. Austria

Volume 1. Number2 Commodore World


Superbase 64/128
For years, Superbase has been the most powerful database
Disk Soft warn

system available for Commodore 8-bit computers. Why?

Because not only can you access its commands from
menus, butyou can also create your own custom Superbase
Version applications using the built-in programming language.

The Programmable Database for yoor

Superbase can also import and export data using standard
sequential files for easy portability with other applications.
Commodore"! 28
O*W TtVf ow/i recu/tf 'afeuti ttQin pn th
Additionally, the C-128 version will load with, and pass
AfttuS ■rnJ ftcfa »tplunauonS gwOt yaw ml vefy Hep
Macro commands to, the Superscript word processor to
Smcitf re*/' awn irpof toiinwtt create a completely automated office system.
LP*'fttrui'"rSS ttt'ttfa$ttm"<"'Q •vtf'i dntmnsafpowwtiif
Comb/it ttn'iX'l from •tiftinnl f'l*s uifiti urogftnr tofua
With its built-in programming language, Superbase is ideal
for custom applications such as invoicing, inventory,
Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable or just about any
task you can think of. Superbase version 3.01 is available
on 5.25" or 3.5" disk formats, making it ideal for use with
CMD's FD-2000, FD-4000 and Commodore 1581 3.5" disk
drives, CMD Hard Drives and RAMLink.

So if you've been looking for a powerful, easy-to-use,

programmable database ■ look no further! Superbase is
back and ready to tackle the toughest job of all—keeping
you organized!

Superbase: The Book Superscript 64/128

The final word on Superbase programming Superscript has everything your looking for in a
techniques from getting started through advanced professional word processor. Its menu driven
programming techniques. This book is filled with a command structure is easy-to-use and eliminates
plethora of hints, tips and practical examples. the need for complicated commands. Superscript
Superbase: TheBook'is required reading foranyone includes professional style editing, spell checking,
already using Superbase as well as those who are calculator, row and column arithmetic and full mail
contemplating using this powerful program in the merge facilities. The phrase glossary allows you to
future. This book is a rare find and quantities are store entire passages of text or Macro commands
limited, so get your copy today! and recall them with a key stroke.

Available trom
Creative Micro Designs, Inc. Software Hut, Inc. Software Support International
P.O. Box 646 313 Henderson Dr. 2700 WE Andresen St., A-10
E. Longmeadow, MA 01028 Sharon Hills. PA 19079 Vancouver, WA 98661

Volumo 1, Number 2 21 Commodore World

Today's Information

"It's been obvious for a long lime that we must have an willdifler from another's. Many companies that offer access
information-superhighway network that is as accessible and to the Internet claim thai the Internet i.s the Information
asopenand as democratic and as u biquitousastbe telephone Super! [Ighway, Right now, however, no one knows how
network that will carry vast quantities of data quickly..." the Information SuperHighwaywill come about—they
- Vice President At Gun: just know that it is coming.
Why the uncertainty'/The U.S. Government is
What is the Internet? What does Information taking the position of encouraging businesses—
SuperHighway mean? How will these affect me? through special incentives—to create the data
Arc there any benefits to Commodore 8-bit users? highway. I fence the bureaucracy is out of the
Read on for answers. Superl [ighway creation business, yet there is
still a lot of uncertainty present. Many
What is the Information companies are seeking alliances to
SuperHighway? promote their own ideas for the
There's been a lot of discussion over Su peril ighway. Oilier companies are
exactly what the Information using the term fnformation
SuperHighway is, yetmany companies Super-Highway as a buzz-word for
are saying they're already on the eommerdallzario!)—yet many of
Informal ion SuperHighway. They these companies are doing very
are and they aren't. One person's little to help promote the actual
definition ofthe SuperHighway spread of information.

Volume 1, Number 2 22 Commodore World

Visions of the Information Super-Highway Internet as it currently exists would be unable to
abound, bui what ilie highway is certain to hold
is the foil owing:
handle the strain.
Cable has also been speculated onasthe means
Definitions of some of the
of being the information carrier. Because ol'the
- On demand movies (you watch, rent when terms you'll see used while
wide availabilityand the enormous band-range it
exploring the Internet
you wan! to watch). offers, cable is an attractive choice, liut because
- Expanded research queries (easily ask cable doesn't have the capability of receiving
BBS - Standing for "Bulletin Board
whether rain was falling on a certain date in information from consumers in most areas of the
a certain place, etc.) U.S.. cable companies arc scrambling to develop
System" this indicates a network or
service which can be accessed via
- Easily pull up databases from various the methods and protocols to do this.
governmental andeommereialsiteswith the Another possible (though less likely) carrier
use of a modem and a terminal program
on your computer.
touch ofa key. lor the information is that of the telephone
companies. The unlikelihood of this Stems from Commercial Service Providers
Since the Information Superhighway will be built the fuel that current phone lines are prone to - These systems are what might be
because of businesses, it's likely that electronic suffer from static, and lack the bandwidth considered to be "commercial BBS's."
shopping—for everything from computer necessary to carry full-time video and audio They offer message bases and file
software to home appliances—will become an realistically while performing oilier tasks. libraries covering a wide range of
integral part of the pathway. I'iber-optics could help, but that technology is subjects and interests. In addition, they
currently used only between long-distance offer more specialized services, such
How's it going to be done? locations—not between local subscribers. as access toon-line stock information,
There are a few possible scenarios currently Replacing all the lines will be prohibitively and airline reservations. A vast number
envisioned as to how the Information expensive, and would take a lot of time. of users may access these services at
SuperHighwiiy will be created. How quickly the the same time.
information can be transmitted, ease of access to What will probably happen E-Mail - Stands for "Electronic Mail"
the highway, and cost are all important factors. Although the Internet is very strong, il is lacking and indicates messages that are left
In fact, speed and cost of;information transfer in numerous areas—the primary one being the on a computer system foranother user
will no doubt govern how the Information ever-incrcasingslowdown as new users are added to later read.
Superhighway is created. In my view, cable television companies will be [lie FTP - Stands for "File Transfer
The. Internet (described i u detail below) already information carriers, as they already have the Protocol" - This is a method whereby
offers a lor of services that the Information existing bandwidth, wiring, and need to make Machine Acan log in to Machine B and
SuperHighway is probably going to offer. changes only at specific line points instead of "get" certain files.
Currently available through on-line services or everywhere like the telephone companies. Due to
Gopher - Is a menued information
through educational or commercial organizations the available bandwidth it's entirely likely thai
system that also supports obtaining
itprovides a wide arrayofservices. It has, however, telephones themselves las they exist today] will
files, sounds, text, and graphics; sort
suffered recently from the large influx of gradually fade 10 non-existence, with
of a multimedia retrieval system.
individuals beginning to just use it. Within the communicationsbeing shunted through thewires
Modem - Standing for "MOdulator
scope of the Information SuperHighway, the of the Information Superhighway instead of the
DEModulator" it allows a computer to
communicate to another computer
Commercial On-line Services with Internet Access
over normal telephone lines.
There are numerous providers of access to the Internet. I've also listed to what News groups - Areas where
degree they support the Internet. Depending on your needs you may be messages pertaining to aspecific topic
satisfied with just Internet mail. Remember, some of these On-iine Services can be read from or written to. These
offer their own menus, programs and message areas. Take a look at the are generally accessible by a large
definitions box to see what the terms such as Gopher, Usenet News, etc., are. group of people.
Before you sign up for one ask yourself what your needs are and then look at
Telnet - A method that allows an
the services offered by each.
individual to gain access to another
America Online: 1-800-827-6364 ext GEnie:1-800-638-9636;$8.95 monthly computer for the purposes of getting
8856; $9.95 monthly, $3.50 hourly. No with 4 hrs free, $3 - $12.50 hourly. No orsending information. Internet BBS's,
Telnet, FTP access. Does have telnet access. Supports FTP via shell, Games, and other services usually
Gopher, Usenet News. internet mail access. work via Telnet.
CompuServe: 1-800-848-8199, $8.95 Prodigy: 1-800-776-3349; $14.95 Telecommunications - The
monthly for unlimitied basic services. monthly, $3.60 hourly. FTP, mail process of exchanging computer data
$8 to $16/hr depending on speed. access. over the telephone lines.
Internet mail only. The WELL: 1-415-332-4335; $15 Usenet News - Represents the vast
Delphi: 1 -800-695-4005; S10 monthly, monthly, $2 hourly. Full Internet access. array of newsgroups available through
$4.00 hourly. Full Internet access. the Internet. Currently over 3000.

Volume t, Number 2 23 Commodore World


regular phones. For those of you without cable, Imagine one computer. Now, take that rnailinglists,andnews^roupsoaan evergrowing

like myself, consider gelling it soon. computer and hook il to anolher. And ihen number of topics. Many systems also support
another, arui another ami another and another whal is known as FIT or GOPIIER. which allow
On To The Internet untilyou'reoutofbreath repeating'and another." you to access their site lo obtain programs.
Getting back to the Internet, tefs take a look ai After you've Imagined all those computers linked For those of you already involved with
what it's currently capable of. (ind what it may together toform one huge network, imagine it on telecommunicationsandBBS'ing, the Internet is
offer to you. a global scale- from Antarctica to the U.S. to New similar to one large gigantic ItliS with unlimited
Defining the Internet isn't quite as easy as Zealand to Austria to Switzerland to Russia to lime, numerous message areas and free
explaining howit works, though phrases such as Mexico to llie Netherlands. This is the Internet. downloading.
'controlled anarchy' come to mind in trying to With a netwodtofthis size there are numerous Originally implemented in the early 70s by the
ihink i]]) something to describe this global services for practically any hobby or Interest. Department of Defense lo implement a system
network. There arc people to answer your questions; that could transmit messages across thenation in
a nat ional emergency, the Internet has grown by
leaps and bounds. Universities worked with the
Accessing The Internet: A Sample Session
Department of Defense on the project and they
The following is a sample FTP session showing how easy it is to get files. I've included comments have since used ihe Internet to provide a vast
in parenthesis beside each of llie commands I've made to better explain what I'm doing. array of educational resources. More recently,
commercial companies have placed themselves
cci)ga.uwaterloo.cn_ (This is what 1 lyped and how I connected:)
on 11) <_■ Internet.

220 ccnga FTP server (Version 5.2 Thu Mar 31 16:31:53 EST 1994) ready. Because of the educational aspect of the
Connected to CCHGA.UWATERLOO.CA. internet, and because it's governed by no single
items (CCnga. UWATERLOO.CA:duck) : _anonymous_ (Now it wants me to enter a name.) body but by "organized chaos" (which works
(Anonymous is fine on most systems)
surprisingly well), there existsseveral interesting
331 Guest login ok, send ident as password.
Password: (Here I gave il my email address) and unique areas on the Internet where items
230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply. such a.s a list of smiley faces can be found.
ftp> _Cd pub_ (I want to go into the PUBUc directory)
Smiley faces are a group of characters lhat
250 CWD comrr.and successful.
ftp> _dir_ (Let's see what's available) need lo be looked at side-ways to see what they
200 PORT command successful. are. Some common ones are:
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/Is.
total 5
;-) (Grin)
drw/.r-jct-x 22 184 0 512 Apr 25 20:59 cim
drwxrwsrwt 2 0 0 1024 Apr 28 21:31 incoming :-) (Smile)
drwxr-xr-x 4 67 0 512 Jan 11 14:43 jpblack :-( (Frown)
drwxr-xr-x 2 200 0 512 Mai: 30 16:00 rcgood 8-0 (Shocked)
drwxr-xr-x 5 106 o 512 Mar 1 12:56 wireless

226 Transfer complete. In addition to smiley laces (there's a large list of

321 bytes received in 00:00:00.25 seconds them available) there's a "cow list" (similar to
FTP> _cd cbm_ (1 Immm, the CBM directory looks good) smiley faces except for cows—yes, the Internet is
250 CWD command successful.
FTP> _dlr_ (Let's do another directory to see what's available) unique at times).
200 PORT conimand successful. Mail on the Internet is called E-Mail, which
150 Opening fiSCII mode data connection for /bin/Is. stands for Electronic Mail. Regular U.S. Mail is
total 97
often referred lo as "Snail Mail" or "S-Mail",
-rw-r-r- 1 184 0 5331 Apr 25 20:58 00README
drwxrwxrwx 23 184 0 512 Apr 25 20:59 INCOMING
becauseofthelengthofiimeil takes compared to
i. ■ - ) E-Mail. Typically a message from California lo
drwxr-xr-x 3 134 0 I02'l Mar 27 06:44 utiU23 Virginia .should only take 10 minutes at most—
drwxr-xr-x i 184 0 1024 Apr 25 21:18 Util64
often times it arrives almost instantaneously. I've
drwxr-xr-x 2 184 0 102-1 Mar 2 02:28 vic-20
had messages from someone in Australia in my
226 Transfer complete. mail box only f) seconds after being scnll With
1403 bytes received in 00:00:01.37 seconds mail you can communicate with people in other

(continued in sidebar on page25) states and countries; and the smiley faces above,
plus other expressions such as "hugs* in asierisks

Volume 1, Number 2 24 Commodore World


help to give the conversation a more "human" FTP stands for File Transfer Protocols and is a eventually through this process of narrowing
feel, creating a form of personality punctuation. method of obtainlngprograrns that are stored on things down you'll find a list of his speeches.
Also available are what are known as News another system's computers. Thereare numerous
Croups. These are areas where discussions FTP sites out there in Internet land. One of I he Accessing Internet
concerning a wide range of social, political, best currently available for the Commodore Sounds great you say, bul howdoIjoinup?There
science, computer and educational topics can be computers i.s operated by Craig Bruce at are a number of ways. Some colleges and
carried on. Two groups for Commodore 04/128 There are literally millions universities offer free Internet access to their
users are comp.sys.cbm and comp.sys .binaries. of files available for downloading via FTP. studentsand faculty, or charge a (hopefully small)
Comp.sys.cbm is the primary news group for Gopher is a fairly new method of obtaining computingfee.Manycommercialon-lineservices
the Commodore 8-bitters and discussions cover information on the Internet. It allows an providesomeformof Internet access. Local BBS's
such topics as help in diagnosing repairproblems, individual to follow'a seriesofmenus to reach the may also hookup tot he Internet—thisis typically
programming, individuals selling related items, appropriate file (orgroupsoffiks) forthe subjects done for access !o news groups and E-Mail.
the latest newsand rumors, and ;i whole lot more. links information from Some of the commercial on-line services
Comp.binaries.cbm is a newsgroup that posts many different computers together ina somewhat providers are listed in a sidebar along with some
programs and files ofinterest to the Commodore ordered method. If you wish to find something of the Internet services they provide. Which one
8-bit community. These are tirst converted to on say, the latest speech by President Clinton, is best for you depends on what you want to use
text from their binary equivalent through a then you'd probably look under government tile Internet lor. Regardless of iiow you do it. I
process called uumco&ing, so that they can easily agencies, then look under press releases and highly recommend getting on the Internet!
be posted just like a message. Thus, a user can
'capture'this text and save it, then convert it bade
Accessing The Internet: A Sample Session
into a binary program through uudecodhlg.
(continued from page 24)
With over 3000 topics to choose from in
addition to these two, it's very easy loget hooked
FTP> _cd (Ah, it listed a lot. Let's look in UTIU28)
on using the news-groups. 250 CWD command successful.
Another way of getting information is from FTP> _dir_ (And again a dir to see what's available)
E-MaJ] servers, which are special programs that 200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/Is.
will send files and/or messages to you
total 511
automatically. From Email .servers you may -rw-r-r— 1 184 0 57 Mar 2 03:35 OOREnOME
request certain files: catalogs oi programs that irwxr-xr-x 2 184 0 512 May 5 1993 DISK

are available for request: send messages to be -rw-r—r— 2 184 0 420 May 24 1992 cre32a
-rw-r-r- 2 184 0 1203 May 24 1992 crc32a.doc
distributed to other individuals, and subscribe
-rw-r-r- 2 184 0 3219 May 24 1992 crc32a.s
to mailing lists for news ilems. -rw-r-r- 1 184 0 3072 Mar 23 1993 filetype.l2B
The only E-mail Server specifically designed -rw-r-r- 1 184 0 25309 Mor 9 18:42 lri-200.a5m
1 184 0 25463 Mar 9 18:39 lrr200.doc
for the Commodore computers is one run by the -rw-r-r-

-rw-r—r— 1 184 0 2B917 Mar 14 17:31 lrr200.3fx

author. Its majortntent Is that ofdistributing the -rw-r—r- 1 164 0 16S79 Mar 9 18:41 Irr200.uua
free Commodore Hacking magazine as well as r
I . . -

programs thatarebi the magazine. To get helpon -rw-r-r— 1 184 0 22000 Jim i 1993 zed-128-077.six
-rw-r-r— 1 184 0 3B193 Feb IB 1993 zedOTT.uua
how to use it. send a message to the author in the
following format: 226 Transfer complete.
2222 bytes received in 00:00:02.39 seconds
To: FTP> _binary_ Cfhe LKR looks interesting. Let's tell it we
want it in BINARY instead of ascii. Otherwise
it would mess up the transfer)
Bodyol message: HELP 200 Type set to I.
FTP? _get lrr200.sfx_ (Nowwe"get" the file)
This specific mailserver is operated twice a day, 200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for lrr200.afx 128917 bytes).
so you should receive a reply within approximately
226 Transfer complete.
12 hours. Please be sure to have a subject line of local: LRR200.SFX remote: lrr200.sfx
"MAILSERV". Ifanyoneknows ofanyotherEmail 28917 bytes received in 00:00:10.66 seconds

Servers existing for the Commodore computers ftp> _exit_ (And tetl the computer we're finished).
221 Goodbye.
please let this author know (I'm interested!).

Volume 1, Number 2 25 Commodore World

Hard Tips

Almost everyone lias had ii happen at least once. The good news is that most of these problems device. In such cases, way to isolate the

Nearly everyone has had il disappear can be solved by the user if a few simple problem is to try your computer with another
mysteriously. H tends to reappearwhen you least troubleshooting procedures are applied. The power supply.
expect il. oral the worst possible time. Reminds causes and corrective procedures we give you in Note: C-64's and 64C's were not designed to
you of acne, doesn't it? Fortunately, your this article apply to all Cartridge Port devices, power Commodore REU's (1700, 1764, 1750)
computer isnotiikely to haveskin problems, but and should work regardless of the type of device without the help of a heavy-duty power supply.
it can come down with s number of minor that you have. whereastheC-12Handl2HDcauhaudlelheadded
'illnesses' that can he hard to diagnose and even Load ofthe REU without the needfsrabeefed-up
harder to repair. In this issue we'll concentrate on Causes and Corrective Actions supply.
the sometimes deceiving problems related to the I, Bent, loose or dirty Cartridge Port connector
Cartridge Port. contacts, Poor connections account lor nearly all 3. Faulty 'PLA' (or other chip) in computer. An
When a Cartridge Port device (RAM expander, Cartridge Port problems. The Cartridge Port otherwise healthy and properly functioning
utility or game cartridge, etc.) fails to work connections must make tight contact with the computer may have a faulty chip thai only affects
properly, the lirst instinct is to l)lame the device device to ensure proper operation. A single bent the operation of the Cartridge Port. The PI,A is
itself as being defective. If the device is covered contact in the connector is enough lo cause any almost always the culprit in these cases. Ifpossible,
under warranty, you will probably call the device lo either fail completely or operate try your Cartridge Port device on another
manufacturer and arrange lo have the 'defective' intermittently. In any case, it is always good computer to help isolate the problem.
unit replaced, [f the manufacturer does not uffer practice lo take a jewelers screwdriver and bend Note: Determining which particular chip is at
any troubleshooting advice and simply agrees to all contacts on the connector slightly so that they fault may require the help of an experienced
take the unit back, you are most likely in for a will make tighter contactwith the device. Refer to technician. Replacing the faulty chip can also be
surprise iuthe near future. What kind ofsurprise? the diagram below: difficult for the average user as it may involve
Well, if your 'defective' unit is like most others soldering.
you will probably receive notification that the
unit wasnot really delectiveal all! In this instance,
most companies will send the same unit back to
you, and some will charge you for the return
postage and/or their time to evaliiati1 tin; perfectly Insert screwdriver behind
contacls in order !o bend Ifiem
good device. In any case, you will most likely be back inlo the proper position
J C6*1ZB Cartridge Port Connector

right hack where you started - with a device that

does not work with your computer.
At CMD, we have found that over 90% of the The contacts in the computer's Cartridge Port 4. Dirtyorcorrikledcoinputerpowerswitch. A faulty
problems that users report with our Cartridge connector and in the device can (and should) be switch may not deliver adequate +5V power to
Port devices (RAMI.iuk, Swlftlink, SID) are cleaned using an electrical contact cleaner the Cartridge Port connector, thus affecting the
actually the fault of the computer and not the available at Radio Shack stores and other Cartridge Port device. Again, the besi way to Iry
device itself. Most computer-related problems electronic supply houses. An aerosol type is best to isolale the problem is to try the device on
will cause one or more oft he following symptoms for reaching the contacts inside the Cartridge another computer.
to appear: Port. Note: Determining whether or not the switch
is at fault may require some specialized
Typical Symptoms: Device plugged into the 2. Weakor intermittent computerpower supply.'Ww instruments. We recommendyoiiobtainthehelp
Cartridge Port does not work or works number two cause for all sorts ol unexplained ofa technician to !roul)leshoot at this level and to
iniennillenily; computer does not work with the computer problems. Occasionally, a faulty or old replace the soldered-in power switch il il is in fact
device plugged in; device causes computer to and 'tired' C-64/128 power supply will he at fault.
reset, lockup, or act strangely-general inggarbage adequate lo power thecomputerby itself but will
or incorrect characters on thescreen, and possibly not be able lo provide enough power to operate
corrupting disks or files. the additional circuitry ofa cartridge port plug-in

Volume 1, Number 2 26 Commodore World

Only NEW! Commodore «=s IBM MS-DOS

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Don'lhauea 1571. 1581. orFD-2000 drive? We can transfer most
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The FGm Connection, P.D.Box 2ZD6,Roseburg, OH. 97470 SOGWAP Software w (219)724-3900
115 Bellmonl Road; Decatur, Indiana 46733

LOADSTAR Specialty Disks!

\V GAME STAR H\ - Brand new! SONGSMITH - LOADSTAR'S own music-
of the best games from making program. With this deluxe music
LOADSTAR #70 - #100). The editor/player you can easily transcribe music I'rom
Tenement, Stack 'Em, The sheet music nr make up your own tunes.
Sherwood Open. Gems, Stealth Songsniilii comes with a slick 30-page manual and
Boniher, Eagle Fives, Mnnnraker and a jukebtut player with eighl tunes. $19.95
Circuitry. $9.95 (C-64/128) Horn 08082S (C-64/128) Hem #069525

CARD STAR H\ - Brand new! Eight of Maurice JUST FOR FUN - Eight original games. There
Jones' best card solitaire games. Klondike, DouMe or are arcade games, educational games, puzzle
Quits, Strategy, Captive Queens, Baroness, Gulf. names anil just game,*) that are just plain fun on this
Collins and Chameleon. $9.95 (C-64/128) Item disk. $9.95 (C-64/128) Item #07.1525
Visa/Mastercard Discover S Amex Accepted!
GEOPOWER TOOLS - 19 Geos utilities: Calendar Credit card orders:«1-800-831-2694
Printer, Fast Formal, Geo Fetch (grain any portion of a Questions: 1-318-221-8718
screen as a Photo Scrap), Phuenix (resurrect a Softdisk Publishing
trasheanned filet, Programmer's Calculator are just a P.O. Box 30008, Shreveport, LA 71130-0008
few of the handy tools. Side Two is filled with Clip Art Domestic shipping S4.50.
(in Photo Album format) and fonts. $19.95 (C-64/128) International Shipping S1O.OO.
Item #080525 All funds in US dollars.

Volume 1, Number 2 27 Commodore WorM

Orders: 800-638-3263 (9-5:30 EST) • Technical Support: 413-525-0023 (1-5 EST)
HO Ssrios SCSI Hard Disk Drives IRAMLink Power-Backed BAM Disk

HD-40, 42 MB (Limited Supply) S39S 00 RAMLmk wilh 0 MB RAMCanJ S18B95

HD-40.85 MB (Limited SuoDty) S495 00 RAMLink wlti 1 MBRAMCard S229.95
HD-100. 170 MB (Special Eoinon) SS95 00 RAMLink yntti 4 MB RAMCard SM9.95 Increase Speed Up to 1500% while
HO-200.245MG(SpocifllEdilKinJ $695 00 Reel-Timo-CIOCk (or RAMCaid ( S20.00 retaining 100% compatibility
HD-345/50071000 $795/£995/$1295 RAMLIiik BMBtiy Bask-up (Optional) SSfl 95
p up Loading, baving, Vorifying, Formatting and Reading/
Parallel Ciihlo (RAMLInk to HD) ... 51*95
FD Series 3.5" Floppy Diak Drives
Writing of Program. Sequential. User and Relative files unlike
FD- 2000 (800K end I 6MB) $17995 cartridges which only speed up Loading and Saving ol PRG files
FD-4000 (600K. 1 6 MB and 3.2 MB) S249.95 AooJol. . Si: ;.
FD Real-Time-Clock Option $20.00 Airborne Ranger sieoo
Built-in DOS Wedge plus 17 additional leatures including file
Bo<ol 10, Hign Density Disks (i GMB) $14.95 Alommo 517.00 copter, text dump, printer toggle, and rodcfinable function keys
Boiol 10, Enhanced Donsity Disks (3.2 MB).... $40.00 Ballistn SI300 make using your computer easier and more convenient
JiffyDOS S1200 ROM upgrade installs easily inlo most computers and diskdrives.
Brood Money S15 00 Supports C-64. 64C. SX-64, C-128. 128-D. 1541.1541C, 1541-
ISpaclty computrr and drl*» •«'!*■ fmml
Chompl $10.00
11,1571, 1581 and more.
JllyDO5C64.'SX-64 System $49 95
Ccnilicl In Vietnam $19.00
JiflyDOS CM2B/120-D Syslem , .$59.95
F-IS Strike Eagle

AdditionalDrive ROMs S24 95
F-19 Stealth Fighter . sjooo
Miscellaneous Hardware ■I Keith Van ErorVs Pro Soccer ..S15O0
SID Symphony Stereo Cartridge .$39.95 Lasar Squad S13O0 3.2 and 1.6 MB 3.5" Floppy Drives
GooCable Compatible Print Cable 529 00
Last NJFija II SIS 00
2*\ Cartridge Port Eipander .S45 0O The FD-2000andFD-4000 disk drives utilize
Mainframe .,LM. . SI3.00
MW- 350 Printer Interlace w/BK Buffer S60 0O $13 00
today's latest 3.5 inch disk drive technology.
MW-350 Prinler Inloriaco (OK) SJ9 00 S15 00 FD-2000's support 800K (1581 style) and
IEEE Flash! 64 IEEE Interface 530 00 Navy Seal siooo 1.6 MB (High Density) lormats, while the
Quicksilver 128 IEEE Interface S12000
Red Storm Rising . S16.00 FD-4000 also olfers support lor the 3.2 MB (Enhanced Density)
CMD'a C-1351 CompaliBlo SmartMouso . $49.95 Ringg Of Medusa . $16.00 disk format. Fast and reliable, they support 1541, 1571 and 1581
Mouse Pad ., ...12 95 RUNCI2SFunpak $1500 style partitions, Nativo Mode partiiioning and can actually read and
Samsung SP-2412 2-I-pin Epson-romp. Pnnlar $199 00 RUN C64 Gamepak . $1500 write 1581 disks. FD's feature built-in JiffyDOS, SWAP button and
1541-11 Disk Dnve(roturt>, no Powet Supply) . $39 00 SilOnr Service -S1600 optional Real Time Clock. High capacity, speed and compatibility
1541-11 Disk Drive (rafurb, wi'Poiver Supply $109.00 Skaleor Die . S13 00 make the FD right for every application, including GEOS.
C-64. C-S4C Power Supply (Repairable) . S39.00 The Amazing Spidcr-Mfln . S15 00
C-12B Power Supply (Repairable) , .$45.00 The President Is Missing! SIOOO
15B1/IS41-II Powor Supply ..$25.00 TheTl-ireo stooges . $10.00
Tie Break Tennrs . $1600

CMD Unities . 124.95 Total Echpso .. $10.00 Power-Backed Expandable REU

JiflyMON-64 (ML Mor.llor) S1995 Ultima III or V (Please SpocjfyJ ..$17.00
The fastest possible form ol storage,
Big Bluo Reader V4 lO(SQGWAP) $39 00 Wizardry V 524 00
RAMLink provides instanl access to files
The Compression Kit |Mad Man} .S39OO Productivity
and retains data while your computer is
HI Tax Perfect 64 S69.00
S79 0O
turned off. Easytouseand expandable up
CMDsC-1361 Compatible SmanMouse . W9.9S Ta. Purled 128
to !6 MB, RAMLink utilizes the same powerful operating system
GEOS S4 v2.0 544 00 Pockel Writer 2 (64| (Digital Sol.) .(65.00
found in CMD Hard Drives. Unlike Commodore REU's which are
GEOS 128 V2.0 $49.00 Pockol Writer 3 (64 or 128) (Digital Sol.) .srooo
compatible with less than 1% of commercial software, RAMLink
geoCaic 54 or gooFileM . $40 00 Pocket Planner 2 oi Pcckot Frier 2 S3S00
supports more than 80% of the commercial titles. RAMLink also
fleoCalc 12S or gooFila 128 ..$45.00 Superscript 64 (Prociaion} .....
SupeiScripi 1Z8(Pn>cislon] . S20.00 oilers buill-in JiffyDOS Kernal, SWAP feature, reset button, enablo/
aeoProgrammer -, . 54R.OO
540 00 Daia Managed (Tlmuworka) .Siooo disable switch, pass-thru port and RAM port for REU/GEORAM use.
. $29.00 Subeibase 64 Version 3 Ot (Precision) -S3S0O RAMLink offers maximum speed, expandability and compatibility
Desk Pack Plus S29.00 SuperBaso 128 Version 3 01 (Precision) .S35 00 with all types o( software and hardware including GEOS.
FONTPACK $25.00 PowerPlan 64 (Abacus) SI 6.00

International FONT PACK . $25.00 SwiftCale 64 (Timeivorks) ,. .. S1600

geoBASIC S20 00 CaOpak 64 (Abacus) -, S22.00

BockorBASIC . E20 00 CaOp.ik 128 (Abacus) S25 00

SCSI Hard Drive for the C-64/128
RUN GEOS Companion , S20 00 ChartpaV 64 (Abacus)
BUN GEOSPowoi PbK I or II (Specify) . S2000 Chnrtpak 128 (Abacus) S2SM HD Series Hard Drives are available in
u.atnWay/64 or 12fl (Spocily Version) .. £29.95 1 Paint v 1.5 (128, Bo-mi. imk VDC) (Unng Prool). .S39 00 capacities up to 1 GB, are fully partitionable,
Collolte Utilities (Handy Goos Utilities) 519.95 1 Port vi.5*1 (126.eo-cai.&iK VDC) (Living Prcol) .S25OO and can emulate 1541, 1571, 8 1581 disks
Perfect Print LO lor GEOS [laser-like ouipull $49.95 RUN Productivity PaV I. II, oi 111 (Specify) S16 00 while Native partitions utilize MSDOS-style
geoMakoBool (Make; Bootable copies) ..S12 9S HUH Supe' Starter Pak 1641 or 1581 subdirectories. HD's connect easily to the serial bus or parallel via
RUN Works $20.00
geoSnell V2.2 (CLI lor GEOS) ..S24.95 RAMLrnk. Includes built-in JiffyDOS, SWAP feature and RTC. HD's
Dweezils Greatest Hits (N&wTaolsz.sinmp,Lab i S30.00 Tele commun fc a tlon& offer superior compatibility with most commercial software including
Dialogue 128 S29 00 BBS, Productivity and GEOS. And with new pricing, HD Series drives
Superbase - The Book S1500 SpeeoTnrm(Abacus) . $25 00 offer the lowest cost par megabyle of any C64/128 storage device.
Anatomy of the 1541 . $12.00 Sivi'lLmk R5-232 Caitwlgo (Up lo 38 4K Baud) .. S39 95
C128 Computar Aidod Design .. $12.00 Swtfbnk Modem Cable (DBS-DB25) .. 19 95 Shipping and Handling Charges
Ccramodora 64 Trickn and Tips ... 112.00 Commodora 1660 Modem (300 baud) ..110.00
Uso iJio Churl bdow Id mritcfi your order subtotal wtlh your shipping zorrn nnO melhod.
Graphics Book lor Iho C-64 11200 BOCA 24 oo Baud Modem ..$69.00
Printer Book loi IhB C64 S12.00 BOCA 2400 n.'SwiflLink and Caole .S99.OO
■ L UPS ■, =- AK
Ideas for Use on Your C-64 ....512 00 BOCA 14 4KBaudMo0em 5!S9 00
GrourW D^ hi. pn Carrla

BOCA 14 4KvjiSwiftLinkaCable $219 00
SifH moo E12rX, 5500 115CO
Muaic/MIDI Softworo
BASIC 64 Compiler (Abacus) $17.00 J50TJ SlElOO SHOO £7Q0 120 CO

BASIC 128 Cornoilor (Abacus) $25.00 Dr r KC564 a MIDI Interface V30 CO-SW Vi »M Sirjoo S14C0 i , ,■ 525 CO
Btai64Corripilor(Sky!es) S30 00 Or T KCS128 8 MIDI interface S189 00
SflO(Vr-ll<9M <.'•<■ 51? CO ■ ■ ■■ jioni J-Uffl vwco
BhUt 128 Compiler (S*y(a«), W0.00 Dr T Algonttimic Composer S20 00
|1UD0'E?99n sium Sura IMM
Coool 64 (Abacus) S'7.00 Dr. T4-OPWIDI Ed/UB S20O0
3300 00 &&1 t<i HBrM S20CO sum S27.0TJ
Fortran 64 (Abacus) $17.00 Dr. T CZ-Rlder MIDI Ed/Lib $20 00
Pascal 64 (Abacus) S17.00 Dr T DX-7 MIDI EaVLio $20.00 i20 CO S25C0 MO CO U2CQ

Creative Micro Designs, Inc.

Payment and Delivery: CMD sccepis MC. Visa. Money Oraefs. COD and Personal
Checks PorsonaiChecksflrorieldloruploSwfleks Most items are sloch, coniact CMD
P.O. Box 646 Inlo: (113) 525-0023 lor currnnt dullveiy schedules. Returns lor murctiarttfiso credit only witlim 30 days with
East Longmeadow, MA 01028 Fax: (413)525-0147 prior authorizations. All prices and specificiilions are sub|ncl to change wilhoift noiice.

Volume 1, Number 2 28 Commodore World

CMD Releases Revolutionary New Mouse
Hickory-Dickory-Dock, SmartMouse has got a Clock!
Foryears. Commodore set the standard with the 1351 Mouse.NowCMDhassotanewstandard
with the SmariMouse. Guaranteed 100% 1351 compatible, tho SmartMouso docs everything
the C-1351 does and more! This highly-intelligent, three button mouse includes a built-in
battery-backed Real-Time Clock, and a doublg-click feature tor GEOS. Plus, it comes with a
complete set of utilities, including: Auto-exec for setting ihe GEOS clock, a utility for setting the
mouse clock from GEOS, and a easy-to-use utility to set the time and date from outside of
GEOS. In addition to new features, Ihe SmartMouse's ergonomic design makes it lighter,
smoother and smaller than its outdated counterpart. So, if your old mouse is losing the rat-race,
get out of that trap with SmartMouse1

What Makes the SmartMouse the BEST C-64/128 Mouse Ever...

Three buttons means convenience! II you're a GEOS user, the SmartMouse utilizes Ihe same advanced mouse technology
left button fs configured as single click, the right as a handy used in today's powerful 486and Pentium-based PC's, providing
double click and the center button is the TURBO button. When you with unparalleled accuracy and smoothness of operation.
depressed, It doubles the speed at which the mouse moves Built-in battery-backed Real-Time Clock automatically sets the
across the screen. Additionally, programmers can assign GEOScloch.displayslimeandcanbeused In your own programs.
their own functions to all three of the SmartMouse buttons.
SmartMouse is supplied with utilities disk and detailed manual
Unlike other third party mice, Ihe CMD SmartMouse uses the explaining the utilities and programming Information.
same custom gate array chip as the Commodore C-1351 Attention Lefties! You're going love the SmartMouse! With a
mouse. This guaranlees 100% compatibility with existing simple modification outlined in the manual, you can alter the
software and hardware. SmartMouse for left handed use. (Or for a small fee CMD will
Switches easily Into joystick emulation mode on power-up by customize your mouse for you).

holding down the right button. Built-in Configuration RAM allows for future enhancements.

CMD 2+1 Cartridge Port Expander

Previously produced by Skyles Electric Works and recently acquired by CMD, the 2+1 Cartridge Port
Expander provides two vertical and one horizontal expansion ports for the C64 and C128. Each port is
equipped with four individual switches to control the +5, GAME, EXROM and ROML signal lines for utmost
flexibility and compatibility. This tried and true system has been helping Commodore users get the most from
their computers lor years. For extra safety, the 2+1 is fuse protected and provides a convenient reset switch.
The 2+1 is great for using SwiftLink, SID Symphony, Super Snapshot, REU's. GEORAM or almost any other
cartridge that you may have. By using the 2+1, you eliminate wear and tear on your computer's cartridge
port caused by frequent use. Contact CMD for more information regarding compatibility and applications for
the 2+1 cartridge.

CMD Specials
CMP Power Packages FD -2000/4000 Specials
Best prices ever' Save up to SI25 FREE Copy of CMD Utilities

includes: CMD HD, RAMLink, RAMCard w/RTC, 1 or Buy an FD-200O or FD-4000 with RTC, mention
4 MB SIMM, M- Battery, Parallel Cable this ad, and get a copy of CMD Utilities
HD-40 w/RLI 5625 W/RL4 S745 absolutely FREE!
HD-8B w/RLl S700 W/RL4 S320

HO-170 w/RLl $800 W/RL4 $900 RAMLink Special

HD-245 w/RLI $875 W/RL4 $1000
FREE Rcal-Time-ClDcfc
HD-345 w/RLI $975 W/RL4 $1100

Buy a J MB or 4 MB RAMLink w/ Battery and

we'll give you the Real-Time Clock FREE!
Abacus Books
Great Prices on Great Reference Materials Hard Drive Special
Tricks and Tips for the C-64 SI 2.00 FREE Copy of CMD Utilities or JiffyDOS
Ideas for Use on your C-64 512.00
SI 2.00 Buy any HD Series Hard Drive and get a tree
Printer Book for the C-64
JiffyDOS Kernal ROM for your computer or a copy
The Graphics Book for the C-64 $12.00
SI 2.00 of CMD Utilities I
C-128 Computer Aided Design

29 Commodore World
Volume 1, Number2
I Paint
C-128 80-column interlacedgraphics drawingprogram

I Paint, version 1.5. by Kick Knur, Interlaced Graphics? example of the available color and
$39.95: Living Proof Ltd., P.O. Box In order lo comprehend the I Paint 3-D graphic possibilities. I Paint's refers to
8O714,Minneap0tis,MN554O8-S714 graphics program, you'll need to main screen appeared after the foreground
understand the term "interlaced completion of the loading colors as "INK", and to
Graphics capabilities play an graphics". A standard non process. Thescreen the background colors as
important role in the world of interlaced video image is comprised contains a "PAPER". Now remember that
computers, and software author of two fields. Each field contains strip interlaccdgraphicsmakeuseofboth
Kick Kane proves thai the horizontal scan lines, one Held of icons (a fields of scan lines. So. what this
containing data while the graphical menu) means to you is color for a
oilier Held remains above a large white block foreground (or background) can be
blank. which is your work area. You'll placed in both ol these fields
need toselect adrawinglool to begin resulting in a wide variety of colors!
This drawing. I Painl provides three The Text option was another
results in a different drawing tools—a pen. a lealure 1 enjoyed testing. The text
capabilities Df our much loved graphics display with a resolution of brush, and a spray can. .Selecting a oplion provides a selection of six
Commodore computers art' almost 640 X 200 pixels. However, in an drawing tool is as easy as pointing to lonls, plus the system font, plus a
endless. Imagine having access lo interlaced graphics video image, your choke and clicking a mouse loadable custom font. Selecting the
■l.OOO colors from a possible 65,536 both fields contain data. The scan button. Once you've chosen your .System Font grants the use of the
colors! Imagine a resolution of 640 lines ofone field appear between the preferences you'll be whisked into Commodore Uppercase and
X 400 pixels! And last, though scan lines of the second Held, 1 Faint's work area. Drawing is as Graphics character sets. I Paint
certainly not leasl. imagine being pmducinga combined resolution of easy as moving the transparent possesses some very potent text
able to use these capabilities with 640X400 pixels. arrow lo the red area and clicking possibilities. Text may flow in oneof
your very own, low cost. Alas, this additional resolution the "ON" button on your mouse. any four directions. You simply
Commodore computer] Living doesn't come without side effects— The arrow then disappears and you select the direction you wish for the
Proof, LTD., pre.senls I I'aint; a interlaced graphics produce a may begin drawing by moving your text to advance and type. It's as easy
graphic artist's dream come true! flickering effect on your screen. mouse. To lift your drawing tool as thai. The text may he re-sized by
I Paint requires a Commodore Flicker is a result of the first set of from the paper click the "OFF" pressing the "ON" button while in
12811 or a Commodore 128 scan lines fading out as the second button on your mouse. The arrow the drawing screen. Doing so
upgraded to fi4K of video RAM, a set areinterlaced. Fortunately, there reappears allowing movement to a generates a "sizing box" in the work
graphics printer (ifyau want to print are ways to lessen the effect. The newarea in the work space. A second area. The text is sized by dragging
your creation), a 1351-compatible 1 Painl manual suggests wearing a click on tlie "OFF" button retains ihis "sizing box" to the desired
mouse, a 1541 or 1571 compatible pair of sunglasses. However, ifyou you to the menu. dimensions. I Paint provides some
disk drive, and a RGB! color or 80 feel a bit silly doing this, the method pretty powerful priority options for
column monochrome monitor. I use is to work in monochrome Options use with text. Oneof these features,
Support is also provided for the mode until I actually n^<\ to work I Paint's options are loo numerous Ihe "WITH" option, allows text to
following peripherals: Commodore With the colors for my creation. to discuss at length here, so I will be superimposed on top of the
17xx series RFU's, 1581, CMD move on to a few of the more current image creating a 3-D effect.
RAMLink, CMD! ©and PD drives, Getting Started interesting options. I had fun A few oftheothertext options permit
and color printers such as ihe Star I Paint required approximately ■! experimenting with all of the text to he underlined, Hipped,
NX-1000 and NX-2400 color minutes to load on my 1571 disk availableculorsinthePaletteleature. reflected, rotated, unrelated,
primers and Okimate 10 and 20 drive, bu! it was certainly worth the A click on the Palette icon reveals a colored, and reversed. The function
printers. wail. The title screen gives a fine .submenu for selecting colors. I Painl kevs mav even be redefined as

Volume 1. Ntimber2
Commodore World
3 V_A_y


KOALA basic e

C-128graphics conversion utility

I Port, version 1.54. by Rick Kane: appropriate conversion module is you to adjust the
$29.95: Living Proof, Ltd., P.O. Box loaded once a graphics format has width and
80714, Minneapolis. MN'55408-8714 been selected. height of Amiga II
A graphics We must first be and GIF images.
Living Proof, Lid., compliments the opened before it may be imported After the imported
I Painl program with I Port, a into I Paint. By switching the file has been altered
graphics manager program which monitor to40 column mode, Doodle to satisfaction, it's
can be used to convert graphics files graphics files may be viewed as they easily transformed
for cross-platform compatibility or are loaded. A color table is provided into an I Paint file by selecting the converted into the
for editing, allowing the colors used by I Paint to Save I Paint option. Ones this has I Paint format and then to the
be compared to the colors used by been accomplished, it maybe loaded popular GIF format.
Port-Ability Doodle. Color tables are also into 1 Paint and modified the same All of the above listed features
I Por! is every bit as powerful as it's provided for use with GEOPAINT as any other I Paint file. creak*u powerful companion for the
counterpart as it grants the user the files. Amiga IFF and GIF colors are I Port's export option transforms I Paint program. I Port comes
ability to import Amiga IFF, KOALA, adjusted with 1 Port's powerful any I Paint picture into a GIF file. complete with documentation
GIF. MACPAINT. GBOPAINT. Palette Equalizer. The Palette Author Rick Kane has thoughtfully which can easily fit into the I Paint
BASIC 8. uncompressed DOODLE, Equalizer permits the redness and provided live levels of compression manual The addition of a few more
and PRINT SHOP graphic file brightness of colors to be adjusted forsaving GIF flies to disk, A value of examples and details pertaining to
formats; convert any of these to by entering numbers for degrees for one will produce the largest file but I Port's color editingfeatures would
I Paint format: and export I Paint grey, color, and bright color. Once will save the file in the .shortest help the novice user tremendously.
images ns GIF (Graphics Interchange the equalizer settings have been set amount ol time. On the other hand, Rut the manual is sufficient to allow
Format) files. they can even be saved to disk ior a value ol five creates the smallest users to be up and running with all
1 Port's main menu is very future use. file but requires a much longer of I Port's other features. 1 Port, in
straightforward. The menu lists trie A Cut and Paste feature may be conversion time. The GIF export combination with I Paint, present
eight avn ilnble import opt ions as weli used with Doodle pictures, allowing feature provides the user with Commodore 128 users with an
as the export option. A selection is any size portionsol the Doodle's 320 endless possibilities as files in the almost unlimited resource ol
made .simply by scrolling down the X 200 source screen to be cut and Amiga IFF, MAC, GEOPAINT, powerful graphic tools.
menu and highlighting a choice and carried over to I Port's 640 X 400 BASIC 8, KOALA, DOODLE, and ■ Sherry Freedliiw
hitting the return kev. The deslinationscreen.ll'ortalsoallows PRINT SI IOP formats may all be

I Paint (continuted) BASIC 8 and LACEMAKER files to. must. 1 Paint's printing features program, i Paint even provides for
be loaded into I Paint's work area, enable you lo specify a print density right and left handed mouse users.
suitable macros for those creations opening up a whole new world ol as well as a height specification, The Setup Menu allows the mouse
requiring repetitive lines of text. opportunities. Patterns and Clips though the ability to employ these to be customized to the user's liking.
can also be stored and loaded for leatures is dependent upon the The manual packaged with I Paint is
Packed with Power future use. With the SAVE feature, capabilities ol your printer. a very nice spiral bound booklet.
All of I Paint's options blend I Painl pictures can even be saved Rick Kane began the I Paint 'flu1 documental ion goes into great
together to form a very powerful in a Lacemaker format for use with project in the summer of 1988, and detail with all ol the many available
graphics program. But that's not all! "I.aceniaker 128 - The Interlace has continued to improve and options. I Paint is an asset to the
Author Rick Kane has included Utilities Workshop". support the program since its novice, as well as the skilled
several significant file features as Of course, after the picture has release. One can clearly see t hat a lot computer artist.
well. The LOAD feature permits been saved to disk, hard copy is a of thought has been placed into this • SherryFreedlim

Volume I. Number2 31 Commodore World

C-128 80-column interlacedgraphics drawingprogram

SmartMouse; $49.95; Creative Micro kindof review that CMD would want of the box. 1 was immediately
Designs, toe., i',0. Box 646, East me to write, anyway. impressed with the way it fell
Longmeadmv MA 01028. in my hand: solid and
Missing Mice... heavy, likeilwasbuiltto
You know, I've written a lot of That said, let's get on with it; let's last.Thelhree buttons
reviews over the last few years, for talk about the mouse for the depress with a firm
both RUN Magazine and for Commodore computer. As many o( click, adding to the
Compute. The first review [ ever you know, lately there hasn't been impression of quality
wrote was of Gateway, Creative anything to talk about in thai construction. This is
Micro Designs' file manager department There simply was no definitely not a cheap
software for GEOS. Since then, I've mouse available for the Commodore mouse.

reviewed a number of other CMD (i'l or 128, and that was that. The
products and written Severn] articles 1351 and the M3 were no longer Test Drive
about using CMD's RAM devices. I being made and all supplies were ! first tried the
may be no ace programmer and I'm soon depleted. Wouldn't you know SmartMouse with GliOS, using
certainly no technical wizard, but I it, my trusty 1351 went belly up on the 1351 input driver 1 already had.
feel like I'mpretty competentto write me shortly thereafter, leaving me The mouse worked beautifully, along with the (54 version on the
aboutyet anoilierof'Creative Micro's back in joystick mode. Fora GEOS gliding effortlessly around the utilities disk. Once I had done this,
products, tlie SmariMouse. aficionado like me, that was sheer mousepadJuseditingeoWriteand several additional functions were
But this review is different from misery. geoPaint and was very pleased with available to me as I cruised around
the others I've written. It's is being Now lot's face it, the Commodore the smooth motion and the CMOS. The right mouse button now
written not for KUN'or for Compute. market isn't exactly booming these comfortable feel. Again 1 realized "double-clicked" will: only one press
but for Commodore World, a days. When Tenex and others sold that this was definitely not a cheap of [lie hut ton. I discovered that 1 had
magazine put out by Creative Micro the lasl of their stock ofl351's and mouse. to make that one click just a little
Designs itself. In other words, I'm Mil's, most Commodore users Af Icr spending auenjoyable lime slower than usual for lliedoubleelkk
beingpald by CMD to write a review figured that spelled the end of the messing around in geoPaint and to happen, but once I got the hang of
ofoneoftheirownproducts. Sounds 64/128 mouse. They weren't then playing solitaire, 1 figured it it 1 started tofind lots ofuses for that
pretty fishy, doesn't it? Kind oflike a figuring on CMD. which stepped in was time toget serious: I opened the easy double-click besides just
conflict ofinterest, and saved the day. The SmartMouse manual. As is usually the case with opening tiles on the deskTop. Using
Bui no, I'm not planning to step has just been released, and for me, it CMD products, the documentation it on the brush tool in geoPaint, for
down, thank you very much. After came in the nick ol time. I was was very complete and easy to example, neatly brings up the brush
all, I need my paychecks, same as delighted when the package from understand. All the various features selection box.
anyone (maybe more). I also need CMD showed up on my doorstep. oft h e mou se are carefully described. The middle button, a first for any
the mouse, but more about that later. The box contained the three-button I discovered, lor example, that new Commodore mouse, has been
I did worry a little that readers might mouse, a disk of utilities (slightly and improved GF.OS mouse drivers programmed with those new GEOS
not take this review seriously under bent), and a manual. made specifically ior the drivers to activate something called
the circumstances. So what I am ■SiuartMousewereincluded.andthe "turbo mode." In "turbo mode" the
planning to do is give a good, solid Looking Smart documentation dearly explains how polnterzips across thescreenalmosl
review, pulling no punches and The SmartMouse is about two- to install them on a GEOS boot disk, Instantly, which is very handy when
telling it straight, even if that means thirds the sizeofmv old 1351, and is 1 followed the installation you need to, say, set margins first on
biting the hand that feeds me a little light gray in color (my 1351 is more instructions and snitched to using one side and then way across on the
bit. To be honest, that's the only of a light beige). When 1 took it out the new 128driver, which is included other side of a page in geoWrite.

Volume 1, Number2 32 Commodore World

SmartMouse (continued) and mouse but also the Koala Pad itself, but that's not the fault of the SmartMouse. Left-handed users can
As if that weren't enough to earn and light pen as well. Ifoundlhat the mouse. adjust the SmartMouse to work in
this mouse its name, ii also includes program worked just fine with llie Besides [he GliOS utilities on the reverse of the standard mode (the

a real-time, battery-backed clock. By SmartMouse. disk that comes with the mouse, right but ton becomes the left and so
iiichidiiij; 3 simple autoexec file on In order to use the Smart Mouse there are several other goodies. One on). This procedure is outlined very
your GBO5 boot disk, you can with other software packages, I had is RUN Paint, a full-featured pain! clearly in the manual along with a
automatical])' set your GHOS clock to switch the mouse into joystick program which nicely supports the picture.
everytimeyoubootup. The program mode by holding the right button mouse. This program gives a user All in all, the SmartMouse from
you need is included on the disk, of down while booting up the plenty of graphics power and it's Creative Micro Designs is an
course,and lull in.structionsfur using computer. In this mode, I used the included free on the disk. A simple excellent product. It is well
il are included in the manual. SmartMouse to draw in Doodle, but well-designed clock-setting constructed and performs very
which makes that program much utility is also included. smoothly. The documentation is
Compatibility more fun to use. in my opinion. I If you are the hacker type who very understandable and extensive.
The manual claims thai the also played a few events ol'Summe-r understands things like "command The utilities disk provides GliOS
S m a rt Mo use i s fully compatible with Games, but I discovered that for bytebit assignments, "you'reinluck. support, programmingsupport, and
any software that supported the games like that a joystick is actually The manual provides ail the even RUN Paint. Even if there were
1351 mouse. So I ieftGEOS to check a better choice. Then I broke out my information you need to access and more than one mouse around to
oul ihat claim. There aren't many stack of shareware disks and started command the inner workings of the choose from. 1 would still
programs besides GEOS which playing various games. Every single SmartMouse yourself. A number of recommend the SmartMouse.
support the mouse, hut there are a one worked perfectly with the mouse driver routines are included And, no, CMD isn't just making
lew. 1 dugout ray copy ofFlexiDraw, mouse. Some, like Summer Games, on the disk, ready to be used in your me say so.

which supports not only thejoystick were easier to play using the joystick own programs to support the 'Steve VanderArk

D m
GatHHtodone 1iJtvd& tl etu&u&i tyneeditite

Chomp! environment containing predators The Three Stooges through town working in various
(Cosmi) and prey of various sizes. You are (Cineniiiii\ire) off-the-wall positions including:
Great sharks alive—it's Chomp from now able to devour fish and insects The Cinemaware Corporation has boxing, pie throwing, cracker eating,
Cosmi! Chomp places you in the role along with worms. But keep in mind, done an outstandingjob ofbringing trivia, hospital racing, and slapping.
of a fish where you must master the you are also prey! For kicks you may the Three Stooges to life in a game My favorite event was a toss-up
art of survival in a world swarming want to venture to the top of your for the Commodore 64. The between guiding the Stooges
with voracious aquatic creatures. aquarium whereyou will be quickly Introduction to the game is truly a through a crowded hospital corridor
Life begins in a fish bowl scooped up by a giant cat paw. The spectacular graphics delight as you in midget race cars andpartidpating
environment free of predators. In screen will then change to allowyou are treated to a richly detailed frame in a pie tossing brawl at a very
the fish bow! you must feed on to watch as your life "flushes" before straight out ofone ofthe many Three eloquent dinner affair. If you're a
norms as they are disbursed from your very eyes. Bad) successive level Stoogesfilm shorts. Cinemaware has very skilled Stnogc-a-maniac you
the decorative castle. It's not as easy in Chomp takes you lo a new and topped the game oil with a fantastic may even earn enough money to
as It sounds asthewormswillprovide biggerwater world full ofeven bigger assortment ofdigitized speech and marry the Stooges off to Ma's lovely
you wiih a challenge by swimming opponents. sound effects including my all t ime daughters Mary, l.eona, ami
atodd angles, l.ackoffoodwillshrink Chomp requires a joystick for favorite "nyuk, nyuk, nyuk!" Cynthial
you down in size until you are too ga n l e p I ay. Y on r li s h svvi m s s in oo thly The opening screen reveals our TheThree Stooges Movie requi res
small to survive. Another key factor and responds rapidly to your beloved Stooges out for a stroll in the use ofa joystick. A little practice
to survival is to keep yourself in requests. Your adventure is Stoogeville. Upon heating a lime may be required to master
motion to provide yourself with an accompanied by a very fitting disturbing sound, they rush lo control ofthe joystick. The manual
adequate supply of oxygen. Lack of suspense-fill tune. You will find the investigate the origin. The trio packaged with the game provides a
oxygen will turn you blue and graphics quite captivating from discover Ma sobbing indespair over fascinating history of the Three
eventually result in death. viewing a bony blue fish to the ever the fact she must produce $5,000 in Stooges. Cinemaware did an
YouwiUeventuallyincreaseinsize unforgettable shark! thirty days to prevent foreclosure on excellent job offashioning the game
once you have consumed enough Chomp is one of those games for her orphanage by the evil banker. tn thestyle ofa typical Three Stooges
worms. Youarenow reaily to venture youngand old alike. Each successive Mr. I. [''leecem. The Stooges vow to film short, (iaehevtnl is heaped wilh
into the lank next door. To travel to level in Chomp lakes you to a new help Ma raise the funds and thegame laughs resulting from various
t lie adjacent aquarium makea quick and higger water world full of even beginslThegameresemblesa board digitized speech clips and sound
run for the lop ofyour tish bowl and bigger Opponents, You'll find it hard game as the threesome stroll along effects acquired directly from their
jump into the neighboring to tear yourself away from this Stoogeville's one-way street film shorts. This is one game Three
aquarium. Your new home will underwater world. accommodating 180 locations. Stooges fans coitainly cannot do
provide you with a larger Larry, Curly, and Moe wander without!

Volume 1, Number 2 33 Commodore World

Graphic Interpretation
SUoc Vani&i Ank


When the editor of this magazine asked me to feel like it, even when 1 should be writing this
write 6 column about GEOS, I'm sun1 he was column, which is what I'm really supposed to be
expecting something very solid and no-nonsense doing right now. But since I'm thinking ofit, 1just
from me—somethinguseful, ifyou will. After all, copied it over to my RAMLink so that I'll be able
GEOS Is with out a doubt the premierproductivity lo play a few hands if I need a break. And I also
package tor the Commodore 64 and 128 tested it a few times, just to make sure it's as cool
computers. Whatever type ol work you need to asl remembered. It is.

gel dune, there's probably a way to do ii easier There is another desk accessory game that I
with GEOS. And work is serious stuff like called .Skeet. which was originally a type-in
So in this column I'll be talking about things program in Compute'!, Gazelle and which they
like betterwaystogeoPubllsh a ndthe best add-on released on their GEOS Colleclion disk. Skeet is a
programs for geoWrite. I'll iry to give you ;< first (surprise) skeet shooting simulation. I copied it
gUmpse ofall the mostpowerful and efficient new over to my RAMLink too so that I'd have a few-
GEOS products thai come along (of which there choices of desk accessory games. 1 had a feeling
are a lot more than you might think]. In other lliat Skeet wouldn't be very easy to play now that
words. I'll make sure things stay solid and played it a few times (and since it's a two player my mouse is defunct and I'm back to doing
no-imnsense. This is GEOS, not TheMuppet Prim game only, each game was really sort of like two everything with a joystick; 1 was righl. 1 only
games, so it took a while) and then decided to played that one a couple of times.
Kit. for Pete's sake.
To get things «1T to a rousing start, I've been copy it to my RAMLink so 1 could play it some In that same pile, which is set aside for

poking around in my drawer full ofdisks which more later. I also uploaded a copy of the file to commercial disks (sec how organized 1 am?) I

hold all the hundreds of GF.OS programs I've GEnie, just in case anyone else lite Yahtzee too. found my copies of the RUN GEOS Power Puck
accumulated from Q-Link and 0£w over the It's tile number is 1-1783. disks and OliOS Companion (all available from

years. 1 know there are a lot of greal shareware On the same disk where 1 found Yahtzee, 1 CMD). I knew of several games on those disks,

ami public domain programs in there that make foundalittlegame called geoNIm.Ido remember including lireakout. but decided I shouldn't let
playing that game before and seem to remember myself start playing those or I'd never get this
working in the GEOS environmenl extremely
noi likingil particularly well. I couldn't remember column written. I settled for just a few practice
efficient and productive, I checked some disks I
haven't looked at for quite a while, and I was why, so 1 played it again a lew times. 1 was eight, rounds of my favorite I iEOS game, geoTiles. This
gratified to see plenty of interesting applications, I don't like ii very much; ildidn't seem lo he much jewel of a game is found on GEOS Power Pnck2,
of a challenge, although it was designed well and I think it's worth the price of the whole disk
desk accessories, and so on to choose from. I also
found, lucked away on a back page, something enough. But the game seems kind of pointless all by itself.
and the computer a pretty dumb opponent (or 1 had forgotten just how many GE05 games
called Yahtzee.
Ofcoutselrecognizedthai name; HoveYahtzee maybe I'm just really, really clever, I guess). there actually are. 1 haven't even mentioned

(the kind with real dice). 1 honestly couldn't There are lotsol heller games around. A good geoWar or (.'luster Wars or any of the card games
remember ifl'il ever played this GEOS version, so example Is Blackjack. I'm talking, ofcourse, about like Solo l'oker, all of which I haven't played in

I figured it wouldn't hurt to give it a try. After all. the Blackjack that comes on the DESKPACK Plus ages! I guess the serious work can wait until my
1 had plenty of lime to get down to business and disk(available through most GliOSdealers).Thai next column. Check back then and I'll talk about

Start working on lliis column. As it turned oul. version is especially nice because it's a desk something no-non.seuse and efficient. For now, I

this version of Yahtzee is really quite good. 1 accessory, which means I can play it whenever 1 think I'll play geoTiles a few more times.

Volume 1, Number2 34 Commodore World

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Volume 1. Number 2 35 Commodore World



Before getting too deep into GEOS programming, refer to various parts ofGEOS foruse in your own
I must emphasize the Importance of obtaining programming. The .symbol 'EnterDesktop' is
one or both of the following publications: The denned in this file.
Official CEOS Programmer's Reference A (anual Press <KETURN> a couple of times and add a
and The Hitchhiker's Guide To GBOS (both of label to your program code, perhaps ProgStarl,
these are available from CMD), Each ol these as il is in the actual SamSeq tile. Even a small
works contain information about tin* GEOS application needs to start out with a label—
system that is invaluable to the programmer, On geo Frog rammer doesn't seem to like it if you
a small scale, you can get by with just one or the leave this out. The .psect tells geoProgrammer

other; the serious programmer, however, should that the code following from this point is to be
have both. The manual that came with your copy assembled to run beginningwith the currentvalue
of GeoProerammer i.s quite thick, and even of the program counter. In other words, this is a
though it contains a good deal ol information, 'program section' of code. We will get into this a
the hulk of it is devoted to the actual use of the little later.
applications, geoAssemblcr, geol,inker, and At this point in the operation of your
get) Debugger. it simple and use these Tiles just as they are. application, it will he in control of the machine.
For the time being, open up your manual and What wemust do now Iscreatethesourcecode Tlie ideal situation is for your application to just
study chapters ii and -I. This will give you a basic for our 'program'. Instead ofcopying the SamSeq do what it needs todo and then put GEOS andtfae
understanding ol Ihiw to assemble and link a lik', we will refer lo it while we write our own userback in control. Ifyou have written programs

GEOS program. Now, let's dig right in and work version of it. So, on your work disk, use geoWrite for the native mode of your computer, you know
on a very simple application. to create a file called SamSeq. Get into the habit what happens when your program ends with an
Begin by copying the two tiles, SamSeqlldr of making your source code organized and easy 'rts'. Your program ends and control is returned
and SarnSeq. Ink. from your gool'mgranimer disk to read by set I ing up labs lo separate the elements lo the user. This is not the case with CEOS. Ifyou
to a work disk or your HAM disk. You always that make up each line instead ol using Spaces. want your program to end, you need to jump to a
need a *lldr Hie and a *.lnk (lie. The header I've found that on an 80 column display, tabs at I routine called TJnterDesktop'. Remember that
f "I Idr) file contains the information that, when inch, 2 inches, and 'S.7 inches work pretty good. we are working with a point and click
assembled, will make up the 256 byte block thai Fora 40 column display, something like .5 inches, environment. Built within the GEOS Kernal are
is considered the header block of a GEOS file. 1.5 inches, and '.i or i.2 inches is better. You'll many routines that have already been written ior
This is where the Desktop looks when you select want to avoid having to scroll side to side Ifyou us. There is a great deal of programming already
'info' from the file drop-down menu. The link can. done that we can avoid including in our own
(•.Ink) contains the Onthefirsi pageoftlnssource code, type in ihe programming.
info needed lo properly link your assembled following: Ifyou think you are ending your application
sourcecode into a usable application. Ifyou study with an 'rts', you are returning control to the user
the contents ofthese files, you will see parts that .include geosSym and to GEOS, but your application is still in use.
you may alter for your own purpose. In the'.Ink .psect At this point, the GEOS Kernal is watching for
file, you would change the filenames to match the some sort of user response, either from the
files that you arc working on. For now, let's keep The geosSym file contains many symbols that keyboard or the mouse. If the user performs an

Volume 1, Number2 36 Commodore World

happen, and responds accordingly.

It's a nice way to do things."

action of some sort, GF.O5 will respond by reentering your application. whatever values are contained in picW and picH will be in your symbols.
Tliis portion of GBOS that is running is railed 'MainLoop', Normally, You will find a reference to these symbols in the icon table. This is how you
outside ofGEOS, you would have lo have your own main loop and Include gel ihese values to show up in your icon table.
the needed programming to catch the user's input. Instead, all that is In this icon table, find the reference to Dolconl. This is the name of the
needed here are lookup tables lor MainLoop lo look nt when it gets a routine that GF.OS will jsr to when ihe user clicks on your icon. For our
response from theuser. Ifihcrearenolookup tables, then nothing happens. purpose, let's change this to EnterDesktop. This way, when the user clicks
GEOS ignores the user's actions and the user gels the leeling (hat the on your icon, your application will simply end.
computer hasjusl locked up. Let's go back lo page 1 and build a little bit of code at the Mart of our
If your application simply performs ajob and finishes, you can end It by application now. Later on. I will get into ihe use of macros with
jumping to linlerDesktop. But if'ymi need someu.ser input, such as clicking geoProgrammer. And you will find that you really can't live without them.
on icons or menus, you will need to tell GEOS where lofind the appropriate Il makes your coding so much easier. Eor right now, we will do without
lookup tables before you get to that first rts. [hem for demonstration purposes. Anyway, use your labs and type in the
When your program givesconlrol to MainLoop, ihe user might click the following code:
mouse. There is one thing you must keep in mind here. GEOS will look for
an icon table. If il does not find one. there will be problems, ll doesn't seem ProgStart:
to mind if there is no table for menus, but you need to at least provide an Ida #IlconTable
icon table even if your application Is not going to use icons. This only sta $02
applies if you return lo Mainl.oop with an rts. If you exit back to the Ida #IlconTable
Desktop instead of Mainl.oop, the user doesn't get conlrol of the mouse sta $02+1
anyway and likewise, MainLoop will neverget control whileyotir application jsr Dolcons
is running. It all depends on what your application is going lo accomplish. rts
Ifyou need user input, your icon table can define an icon that does not exist.
This way GEOS won't have a problem. I'll showyou how to do that ai a later That is ihe extent of our liltle application here. This along with the icon
date. table, the icon picture, and the header block, is all of the code that will be
In the SamSeq file supplied with geoProgrammer, you will find an icon assembled and linked. Load up geoAssembler and assemble SainSeqlldr
table. It will begin with a label called 'IconTable'. This particular table and your new SamSeq file. Then load geoLinker and link the resulting .re]
consists of9 lines. Copy this into the sample file that we are building here. files together by selecting the file called SamSeq.Ink. If everything goes
You might want to put il on page 2 to keep il out of the way. Create another good, you will have a finished application thai you can load and run from
label alter this table called Icon 1 Picture' just like in the SamSeq file. thedeskTop.
Following this will go a photo scrap of whatever icon you wish to use. So, What our code does here is to point the required zero page register to our
load up geoPaint and creale a graphic of some sort. Copy it into a photo icon table and call a GEOS Kernal routine known as Dolcons. This register
scrap and then paste that scrap into your source code after the label is usually referred to as r0, and after this we will always call il r0.1 will get
Tconl Picture'. One ihingyou must remember here is to always put a blank into this at a later date also. Dolcons will do a couple ofthings for US. It wBJ
line above and below any photo scrap you put in your source code, so do first set up a pointer within the GEOS Kernal so thai Mainl.oop knows
that now. This insures that geoAssembler knows the exact start and end of where tofind our icon table. Then il will perform thejnbofdrawingour icon
the graphic. Can you imagine having to code this graphic into your source on ihe screen, following this it returns to our application. In our case, we
code manually? This is pretty handy isn't it? just do an rts now and let MainLoop take over and give conlrol to the user.
Within the icon table, we need to tell GEOS how wide and how tall the The user now has full control of the mouse and ihe keyboard. There is
icon is. Here again, geoAssembler will figure this out for us. As soon as it really only one thing that GF.OS will let the user do althispoinl. VVe did not
processes the photo scrap it will place these values into two of it's own tell GEOS that we are looking for keyboard input and we did not inform it
internal variables, which are called picW and picl I. From within your ol any menus either. Rut we did define one icon. As soon as the user clicks
source code, you have access to these variables and can copy these values OH this icon. GEOS will close out OUT application and reload the deskfop.
into your own symbols. This is normally done in your source code Our icon could have just as easily told GEOS to access another routine
immediately following the pholo scrap. So, type in the same thing as in the within our application. This is how GEOS works, and is called 'event
SamSeq file, or cut it to a text scrap and then paste il in your own file. Since programming'. GEOS watches for an 'event' to happen, and responds
you are including [C0N1WIDTH =picW and ICON1HEIGHT =picH, accordingly. It's a nice way to do tilings.

Volume 1, Number2 37 Commodore World

o*f Qeae

When Doug Cotton askedme to expand Big Guns ■ Design our text system (where and how we located (0-99|
into a large game that would span across the will output game text) SL%(SI 1,2) X Coordinate ofship's locaiion in
remaining five issues for tliis year, [ was a tittle ■ Setup the game's main loop the current sector [0-9]
skeptical. Afterall, Big Guns was a fictional game - Create ihe movement system for the ships SL%(S11.3) V Coordinate of ship's locaiion in
wepnr together to illustrate sound programming - Design a simple routine to guide the the current sector [0-9]
practices. In Fact Doug had to use some of that computer's ships SL%(S1I,4) Current number of movement
Editor-Columnist arm twisting in order lo poinls available [it]
convince me to create the new game. After Before we begin to type madly at the keyboard. SL%(SH,5) Amount of power remaining in
working on this forsome time, Ifinallyrecoj^itzed we must design Starship Combat on paper. In ihe Ihe ship's reserves [nj
the value ofcreating such a column. I mustadmit, long run this method will save us a great deal of
our editor here at Commodore World had a greal time. We wiUcreate the program Starship Combat The"%" following ihe array name tells BASIC
idea and 1 believe that through these columns we in three sieps: that all the values contained In the array are
are going to learn a great deal about integers. We'll use an integer array since integers
programming. Even belter, we're going to have (1) Outline main logic use less than half the memory of real numbers
fun doing il! Reiou you will find the results ofour (2) Design data structures (our variable lypes) (integers require two bytes per number and reals
efforts. (3) Write the program require five).
This is the first of five installments of the new In the outline we created above, we wrote that
game Starship Combat. Starship Combat is Outline Main Logic we must Initialize all the ships before the start of
written entirely in Commodore BASIC v2. We Let rs write oul how Starship Conibal will work in the game and we must initialize all the ships
will locus heavily on structured program a simple formal so that we will have some idea of movementpoints at the beginningofeach round.
development so that we can become better how to approach this project in BASIC. In this installment of Starship Combat we have
programmers. Although this column is designed four ship types (0-3). Each ship lype is defined by
for beginning It ASK" programmers, even thoseof Initialize all Union and Alliance ships its name, available movement points per round,
you who are experienced may want U> review While the Union ships are alive; and its default power supply. Since ihe name is a
some of the advanced techniques utilized by initialize the movement points forall ihe ships character string AND the movement points and
Starship Combat's subroutines. While ships still have movement points; [he power supply are integers, we must use two
process ship with most movement points separate arrays lo represent them. We will name
The Game End_Whilc the arraysTYS and TV% for ship TYpes. The first
Starship Combat has ihe ability for Uvo sets of End_While array will be just a lisl ofthe ship names: so it will
forces (the Union and the Alliance) to duke it out only require one dimension.
in space lisinfj, a variety of ships, weapons, and The outline above will help us keep focused as we
specialitems. The computer controls the Alliance develop Starship Combat's code. TY$(0) UN Scout
forces and the player controls the Union forces. TYS(l) UNL-Desl
The battlefield is a (10) by (10) grid of sectors for Design Data Structures TY$(2) AL Hunter
a totalof(100)sectors. Onlyonesecteffia displayed First and foremost, we need a way to represent all TYS(3) ALI.-Dest
on thescreen at any one time. Each seclor is a( 1(1) the ships in the game. The most convenient way
by (HI) grid of characters. Each ship has its own lo do tiiis in Commodore BASIC is lo use a two- The"$"followingiheaiTaynamelellsMS!Cthat
letter (A-Z) lo represent it in a sector: so we may dimensional array. We will call lliis array Sl,%for all ihe values contained in the array are slrings.
have up to (26) ships in the game at any one time. Ship List. The ;irray will contain a record for each Our second array will require more than one
Combat will be limited to the current seclor for ship. Each ship has a number SI I for SI lip which number for each ship; so it will require two
eacii ship; a ship may only attack other ships that will tell us where it is located in the array. A ship dimensions where:
are in llie same sector. A ship can be destroyed in record will contain the following Information:
two ways: when its superstructure fails or when TY%(X.O) Available movement poinls per
the ship runs out of power. The game is over SL%(Sfl,O) Ship type: round
when an entire side has been destroyed^ In ihis |0]-Union Seoul TY%(X, I) Default power supply level
installment of Slarship Combat we will HI- Union Light Destroyer
concentrate on the following: 12] -Alliance Hunter "X" is the ship lype (0-3). In the program listing
131 -Alliance Light Destroyer you will find that we reference thisarray using the
- Setup tlie game screen SI.%(SII,1) Sector number where ship is ship type entry in the SL% array. Eor example,

Volume 1. Number 2 3B Commodore World

ty%(sl%(SH,4).O) tells us the number of MAIN PROGRAM DESCRIPTION - Fills the options area with spaces
movement points that the ship SI 1 in the game - Sets cursor color and position for the options
has per round. Lines 100-1911 (setup main game loop) area

Ourlast data structure will addressour need to - Call the setup screen routine Lines 11400-1 i 699 (update status and map area
accept several different keyboard commands lor - Call the initialize game variables routine for current ship)
the players options in the main menu. We will Lines 200-2!!!) (main loop for the game) Given: Ml ■ the ship number; Ml1 ■ ship's current
createanoihcr one-dimensional arraynamed OPS - Follow structure of our outline using calls to number of movement points
for OPtions which will contain each of the subroutines - Lines 490-499 prints the ship's stats in the
command characters. - Lines 215 and 220 perform our lirst While by status area

cycling through all ships in the ship list SI.% - Lines 500-599 updates the sector in the map
OPS(O) @ Move ship Up until it finds a Union ship type area for the current ship
OP$(1) Move ship left ■ Line 225 calls the initialize all ships for next - Using screen memory which slartsat 1024. the
OP$(2) Move ship right round routine and frees up any unused strings formulas place the ships at theirproper location
OI'$(3) / Move ship down using the FRE function (this will help us avoid in the map area (through the use of the POKE
OP$(4) u Use an item a lengthy garbage collection delay caused by command)
OP$(5) r Effect repairs on ship our use of strings) Lines 11700-11799 (print integer)
OPS(H) w Wail one turn - Lines 230-250 finds the ship with the most Given: XN- the integer; XL -the maximum length
OP$(7) '1 CJuii the game movement points available of the integer in characters
OP${8) III} Ffre ship's phasers - I ines 255-260 calls either the process Union - This routine converts the integer to a siring.
OPS(9) [F3] Fire ship's torpedoes ship or process Alliance ship routine removes the leading space from that string,
Lines 400-460 (all union ships are destroyed) pads the remaining siring with spaces, ihen
Write The Program - Tellplaverail Union shipshave been destroyed prints the string (using the MJi)$ function)
Now that we have our outlineaQd datastructures - player if he/she wishes to play again Lines 11B00-11999 (kill ship)
designed let's hit the keyboard! Given: XK -theship number to kill
As yon type in the program make sure you ■ Informs player of ship's destruction
review each section's comments below. This will SUBROUTINE DESCRIPTIONS - Removes ship from ship list Sl.% and moves all
help you understand the How of the program. ships with higher numbers than XK down one
You will also find a couple of helpful notes and Lines 10000-10199 (setup screen) position in the ship list
insights which you might find useful in the future. - Set screen colors and select the lowercase Lines 20000-24999 (process union ship turn)
character set Given: SH - Union ship number; MP - ship's
- Print the main game screen movement points
IMPORTANT VARIABLES Lines J0200- 10299 (jiriul repeated ch string) - I ines (100-030 Updates status and map areas
Given: XS$ - the string: XS - the number of for tlie ship
NT Number of ship types available repetitions - Lines 035-070 Prints the main menu in the
UT Number of union ship types available - This routine prints the string XSS, XS times options area
(union ship types must be first in theTY Lines 10400-10699 (initialize game variables) - Lines 075-199 Gets the command character
arrays) - l.ines400-499setsup the ship type arrays TY$ from the keyboard and goes to its respective
Used to detect whether a ship is from the andTY% routine
Union or Alliance - Lines 50(1-570 sets uj) the main sliip list array - Lines 200-999 Execute the respective
TY$ Ship type name array Sl.% placing three Union ships in sector (22) commands
TY% Ship type statistics array (movement and four Alliance ships in sector (.13) Lines 25000-29999 (process alliance ship turn)
points and power supply) - Lines 575-600 creates the strings SAS, OAS, Given: SH - Alliance ship number; MP - ship's
NS Number of ships that are alive andNAS which point to top left hand corner of movement points
SI.% Tht ship list array containing the current the Status, Options, and Notes text area on the - Lines 000-030 Updates status and map areas
status of each ship game screen for the ship
OP Number of options available in main - 1 ines 605-630 sets up the command character - Lines 035-969 (lose in on the closest Union
menu array OPS for the main options menu ship
OP$ Array of possible command characters Lines 11000-11199 (initialize all ships for next
SA$ Initialization siring for status area round) (See ike program listing on thefollowingpages)
OAS Initialization string for options area - Cycles through all the ships in the ship list and
NA$ Initialization string for notes area resets their movement points A Note Concerning Program Entry
SI I Current ship Linus 11200-11299 (clear notes area and set the Large program listings appearing in
Ml1 Movement pointsavailableibrthecm rent cursor) Commodore World magazine are
ship - I-ifls the notes area with spaces accompanied by a list o!'checksum values lo
PW Power supply for the current ship - Sejfi cursor color and position for the noles the not enter these valuesas
part ofthe program The values can be verified
XX X coordinate lor current ship area
using the Commodore World CHK-LIST
XY Y coordinate lor current ship Lines 1130O-J1399 (clear options area and set
utility, located elsewhere in this issue.
X'/. Sector number for the current ship the cursor)

Volume 1, Number 2 39 Commodore World


5000 100 rem ■ 10110 print "{CESS RTXRVS ON) (YEL)Notos!

6DC2 105 rem commodore world magazine DGRY} r

C67C 110 rem basic instincts w/gene barker AF73 10115 xsS="{CMDR @}":gosubl0200:print
8589 115 rem starship combat part i 8E74 10120 print"{RVS ON)";:xs=6:xs$="(SPACE)
■,'■■.■ i 120 rem {CRSR DNHCRSR L)" :gosub!0200
1A27 125 rem (c|1994 creative micro designs 27C3 10125 print"{RVS OFF}";:xs=39:XS$="(CMDR
9 2 AD 130 rem t}":aosubl0200
131b 135 rem- 7588 10130 print"{RVS ON)-;:xs=6:xs$="{CRSR 0
5639 140 rem setup main game loop P)(CRSR L)(SPACE)":gosubl0200
C243 145 rem- 0031 10135 print"{HOME}{6 CRSR DN){CRSR RT}{L
E9DB 150 gosubl0000:clr GRY}" :xs=10:xs$=*{SHFT *}":gosubl0200:p
022B 155 gosubl0400 rint
C1CC 200 rem- A745 10140 print"{2 CRSR RT)(RVS 0N)MOve:"
F9C6 205 rem main loop A5B7 10145 print"{CRSR rt)(rve ON}Power:"
DA6B 210 rem- A214 10150 print-[2 CRSR RTHRVS ON)Shld:"
28AF 215 fori=0tons-l:ifsl%ti.0)<utthen225 2405 10155 print* [CRSR RTHRVS ON)Super:"
3806 220 next:goto400 9FAE 10160 print"!2 CRSR RT){RVS ONjTorp:"
314B 225 gosubl1000:i=Ere(0] CC31 10165 print"!CRSR RTHRVS ON) "; :gosubl02
7C1C 230 sh=999:mp=0 00;print
48E5 235 fori=0tons-l 6D7C 10170 print*(2 CRSR RTHRVS ONJSect:-
240 ifsl%(i,4)>mpthensh=i:mp=sl%(i,4 9602 10175 print" (3 CRSR RT}[RVS ON}POs:(SPAC

245 next 7EIC 10180 return

D1WB 250 ifsh=999then200 J 1 DA 10200
3D73 255 ifsl*(sh,0)<utthengosub20000rgoto2 CE67 10205 rem print repeat ch string
30 B2FD 10210 rem

CC78 260 gosub25000:goto230 1764 10215 rem xsS - ch string

83C7 400 rem- 0C1C 10220 rem xs - # of repeats
9C62 405 rem all union ships are destroyed BA56 10225 rem

83C7 410 rem- B4E9 10230 forxi^ltoxs;printxs$;:next:return

1F53 415 gosubll200 rem ■—■ - - -—

EF56 420 print'All Union ships have been dest 2DD3 10405 rem initialize game variables
royed." 1W" iw rem ~ ~~ ™■ ~ ■——

1A13A 425 gosubll300 1315 10415 rem-

430 print"Game over." F3A8 10420 rem setup ship definitions

■■ 2 435 printoa$"{2 CRSR DNJTry again?" C243 10425 rem-

C02 3 440 printoa$"{4 CRSR DN)(y)yes" 7673 10430 nt=4:ut=2

C518 445 printoa$"{5 CRSR DN)(n)no" 4B79 10435 dimtyS(nt-l),ty%(nt-l,2)
9B57 450 getxS:ifx$="n"thenend 2817 10440 forxi=0tont-l:readtyS(xi):forj=0to
6D6F 455 i £>:$<>*y"then450 l;readty%(xi,j):next:next
F25C 460 run 880F 10445 data "UN Scout",3,500
548B 10000 rem ADCA 10450 data "UN L-Dest",4,750
90EC 10005 rem setup screen 83DF 10455 data "AL Hunter",3,480
EC33 10010 rem C6F9 10460 data -AL L-Dest-,4,725
E4D6 10015 rem sets up screen for the game 5291 10500 rem-

1F71 10020 rem 0B12 10505 rem setup ship list

32L4 10025 rem- 5291 10510 rem-

71 OB 10030 rem set screen colors & ch set 8859 10515 ns=7:dimsl%(ns-l,5)
29B3 10035 rem- 6533 10520 forxi=0tons~l
A0BF 10045 poke53280,0:poke53281,0 4E09 10525 : forxj=0to3:reads1%(xi,xj):next
49A9 10050 printchr$(14l 1E8C 10530 : sl%(xi,5)=ty%(sl%(xi,0),1)
9679 10055 rem- D8C1 10535 next
83ED 10060 rem print the screen C4A5 10540 data 1,22,4,5
472F 10065 rem- 6647 10545 data 0,22,2,7
346E 10070 print" (CLR/HOMEHDGRY}"; :xs=39:xsS B426 105-30 data 0,22,6,7
-"{CMDR @}":gosubl0200:print FE02 10555 data 2,33,3,3
4745 10075 print"{RVS ON){SPACE}{WHTJCommodor 1767 10560 data 2,33,3,9
e World's SCarship combat[4 SPACESHnGRY C2bl 10'jh5 data 3,33,5,5
}{space}" CCFffl 10570 data 3,33,5,7
2DD3 10080 xs$="{CMDR t}":gosubl0200:print 4AB9 1057 5 rem-

CD96 10085 print*{CRSR RT){YEL){RVS ONlStatUS 4860 10580 rem setup string variables
"spc(5)"Map"5pc(8)"Options{DGRYJ" 9BEF 10585 rem-

A4DD 10090 xs$="{CMDR @)":gosubl0200:print B66A 10590 sa$=n{H0M[!}{5 CRSR DN}{CRSR RT} (RV
5E73 10095 xs=10:xs$="{RVS ON} {SPACEHLGRYH 1 S ON} {LGRY}"
0 SPACES} (DGRY) (SPACE) (WHT) {DG 25E6 10595 oaS=n(HOME)(5 CRSR DN){23 CRSR RT)
-+chrS<13) 256B 10600 naS="(HOME)(13 CRSR DN)(CRSR RTHR
1922 10100 gosubl0200 VS OFF}{WHT}"
B392 10105 xs=39:xs$=*{CMDR t)■:gosubl0200:pr 4AB9 10605 rem-

int 4E2A 10610 rern setup option ch's

Volume 1, Numbor2 40 Commodore World


bllE 10615 rem- F1 AC 1 1 11 e-j

J.J. " n

8 FDA 10620 op=10:dimopSlop-1):forxi=0toop-l:r 3 9A6 11730 printmid$(strS(xn)-t"(5 SPACES)-, 2,

eadopS(xi):next xl),-
A560 10625 data "S',":", ";","/","u", "r","w", " 0A4F 11735 return
g","{Fl>-,"<F3>" 0DCD 1 "1 fttflrt

AF75 10630 return DDES 11805 rem kill ship

1BF5 110C0 rem 9C61 11810 rem
33C5 11005 rem initialize all ships for 37C1 11815 rem xk - ship ft to kill
E750 11010 rem next round 4637 1 1 83(71

E794 11015 rem AE80 11825 xx=sl%(xk,2):xy=sl%(xk,3)

5FB7 11020 forxi=0tons-l 0CBE 11830 Xt=12 + 5M0i-xx + xy-40:poke55296+xt,2
6B4D 11025 : sl%(xi,4)=ty%(sl%(xi,0),0) :pokel024+xt,170
AC92 11030 next 6999 11835 gosubll200
07 E6 11035 return --y-'- 11840 print"Ship is destroyed!"
1E7B 11200 rem A149 11845 rem-
138B 11205 rem clear notes area and set 58C7 11850 rem update ship list
67AF 11210 rem the cursor A149 11855 rem-

8495 11215 rem 2BD9 11860 ifns=lthen400

F339 11220 print"(HOME){17 CRSR DNJ" 889B 11865 ns=na-l:ifxk=nsthenreturn
B7D1 11225 xs=6:xsS="{CRSR RT)(37 SPACES)"+ch 0CBE 11870 forxi=xk+ltons
r$(13):gosubl0200 70E5 11875 : Eorxj=0to5:slS(xi-l,xj)=sl%(xi,x
72DC 11230 printna$;ireturn j}:next
4637 11300 rem D169 11880 next
54BB 11305 rem clear options area and set 7A1D 11885 return
F17B 11310 rem the cursor 77T? t, VlWJtJJ<ifJ

8011 11315 rem 2970 20005 rem process union ship turn
DDC7 11320 print"{HOME}{5 CRSR DNJfRVS ON}{LG 797T A VsVf -1- 'J'

RY)11; D278 20015 rem-

0B97 11325 xs=10:xsS="{23 CRSR RTHRVS ON}{15 8FSD 20020 rem update status/map/options
SPACES}"+chrS(13):gosubl0200 032E 20025 rem-
B0D3 11330 printoaS;:return 200B 20030 gosub!1400
5105 11400 rem 4821 2003 5 gosubll300
C12E 11405 rem update status and map area FF57 20040 print"(@,:,;,/Jmove"
DF0C 11410 rem for current siiip 7587 20045 printoa$"{2 CRSR DN)(u)use item"
34F2 11415 rem 034 4 20050 printoa$"{3 CRSR DN)(r)repairs'
E9CD 11420 rem sh - ship ft 5518 20055 printoa$"{4 CRSR DN)(w)waif
C41D 11425 rem mp - movement points 033F 20057 printoa$"{5 CRSR DN}(q)quit game"
4637 11430 rem 83DA 20060 printoa$"{6 CRSR DN)(Fl]fire phase
0524 11435 rem- IT
4452 11440 rem update ship's status 7A10 20065 printoa$"H CRSR DN} [F3 ] Eire torp"
D472 1144 5 rem- DEF8 20070 printoaS"{9 CRSR DN}(A-Z)view ship
1A34 11450 printsaS;left$(tyS(sl%(sh,0) )-t--{8
SPACES)-,10) 7615 20075 rem-
2660 11455 print"{RVS ON}(CRSR DNJ"spc(7);:xn B3EF 20080 rem get option
=sl%(sh,4):xl=4:gosubll700 A743 20085 rem-
EA76 11460 print:print"(RVS ON}"spc(7);:xn=sl 4 6SA 20090 getxxS:i ExxS=""then20090
%(sh,5):gosubll700 DF19 20095 ifxx$>="A"andxx$<="Z"then20700
09CE 11465 print:print"(RVS ON}{4 CRSR DN}"sp C23E 20100 pw^sl%(sh,5)
c(7);:xn=sl%(sh,1):gosub!1700:xz=xn A8D6 20105 forxi=ltoop: i£xxS<>opS (xi-1) tihenne
9521 11470 printiprint"(RVS ON)"spc(7);:xn=sl xt:goto20090
%(sh,2):xl=l:gosubll700:xx=xn 165B 20110 onxigoto20200,20300,20400,20500,20
62BD 11475 prir.L"{CRSR rt}";:xn=sl%(sh,3] rgos 090,20090,20800,20600,20090,20090
Ubll700:xy=xn 00A1 20200 rem-
D7FD 11500 rem- B36C 20205 rem move ship up
06SE 11505 rem update map area 1B06 20210 reni-
CC5A 11510 rem- 8268 2S215 ifxy<>0therixy=xy-l :goto20230
6AE1 11515 print"(HOME)(5 CRSR DN}(WHT)";:xs= 4A07 20220 if(xz-10)<0then20230
10:xs$="{12 CRSR RT} {RVS ON) "+ D1D4 2022 5 xz=xz-10:xy=9
chrS(13):gosubl0200 93FC 20230 rem-
A4F0 11520 forxi=0cons-liifsl%(xi,l)oxzthenn 2023 5 rem do Che move
ext:gotoll530 42AA 20240 rem-
C536 11525 pokel024 + 5M0+12-tsl%(xi,3)*40+sl%{ 9716 20245 sl%(sh,l)=xz:slft(sh,2)=xx:sl%(sh,3
xi,2),xi+193:next )=xy
CC57 11530 xt=1024+5*40+12+xy*40+xx:pokext,pe 5A3D 20250 mp=mp-l:pw=pw-l
ek(xt)-128:return FEEF 20255 rem-
43B9 11700 rem 4 504 20260 rem update stats
7F14 11705 rem print integer 2FB9 20265 rem-
30F3 11710 rem E70D 20270 sl%(sh,4)=mp:sl%(sh,5)=pw
43FF 11715 rem xn - the integer 82BB 20275 gosubll400:i fpw=0thenxk=sh:gosubll
1D64 11720 rem xl - max length of integer 800
3B6A 202S0 gosub!1200:return

Volume 1. Number2 41 Commodore World


FD60 20300 rein- 25135 : ifxl>9thenxl=xl-10:yl=yl+l:goto2

EA37 20305 rem move ship left 5135
E6C7 20310 rem- 6A63 25140 : x2=sl%txi,l):y2=0
9F84 20315 ifxx<>0thenxx=xx-l:goto20230 8BA9 25145 : ifx2>9thenx2=x2-10:y2=y2+l:goto2

45C4 20320 ifrightS(str$<xz),lJ="0"then20230 5145

17 ED 20325 xz=xz-l:xx=9:goto20230 DE47 25150 : xl=abs(x2-xl):yl=abs(y2-yl)
4 2kA 20400 rem- B378 25155 : xt=xl+yl
475<3 20405 rem move ship right 4B6F 25160 : ifxt<xdthenxp=xi:xd=xt:x3=xl:y3=
■12AA 20410 rem- yl:xn=sl%(xi, 1)
9956 20415 ifxx<>9thenxx = xx+l.:gato20230 FB91 25165 next
861A 20420 ifright$(strS(xz),1)="9"then20230 D2E3 25170 ifxp=999then400
■ICE 4 20425 xz=xz+l:xx=0:goto20230 D5FB 25175 ifx3>y3then25190
20C8 20500 rem- B4D1 25180 : if(xz-xn)<0then2050S
7EB0 20505 rem move ship down 774E 25185 : goto20200
20C8 20510 rem- 4B86 25190 xl=xz:x2=xn
AECB 20515 ifxy<>9thenxy=xy+l:gotc20230 2DD7 25195 i£xl>9thenxl=xl-10:goto25195
EE58 20520 i £(xz+10)>99then20230 5139 25200 ifx2>9thenx2=x2-10:goto25200
25C2 20525 xz=xz+10:xy=0:goto20230 9560 25205 if(Xl-x2)<0then20400
84A5 20600 rem- 29C4 25210 goto20300
0ACE 20605 rem quit game 0D37 25300 rem-

F19E 20610 rem- 46AD 25305 rem close on closest union ship
4721 20615 gosufc>11300 0D37 25310 rem-

0D5C 20620 print"Quit game:" E74D 25315 xp=999:xd=999

2D30 20625 printoaS"{2 CRSR DNjAre you sure?" 13BF 25320 forxi=0tons-l
4663 20630 princoaS-{4 CKSR DN}(y)yes" AD72 25325 : if (sl%(xi,0)>=ut)or(sl%(xi,l)<>x
4358 20635 printoa$"{5 CRSK DN}(n)no" z)then25345
4 6B8 20640 getxx$:i Exx$="n"then20000 013B 25330 : yx=xx-sl%(xi,2):yy=xy-sl%(xi,3)
1A85 2064 5 ifxxS<>"yuhen20640 :■■,-■■ 25335 : xt=abs(yy):ifabs(yx)<xtthenxt=ab
.■ 20650 end s (yx)
4E54 20700 rem- D40B 25340 : i Ext<xdthenxp=xi:xd=xt:zx=yx:zy =
B092 20705 rem view ship yy

55F3 20710 rera- 09 CD 25345 next

1B1A 20715 sh=asc(xxS)-asc("A") B9D0 25350 ifabs(zx)>abs|zy)then25365

64 80 20720 i fsh>=nsthenreturn 9966 25355 : ifzy<0then20500
C4C0 20725 mp=sl%(sh,4I 15A4 25360 : goto20200
2F0B 20730 gosubll400 25AC 25365 ifzx<0then20400

SC45 20735 gosubl!300 6775 25370 goto20300

C9BA 20740 print"View ship:"
B2B2 20745 printoaS"{2 CRSR DN}(press a key)"
20750 getxxS:ifxx$=""then20750
20755 return
CW & RUN Back Issues
A832 20800 rem-
For years RUN Magazine provided Commodore Users
9BC2 20B05 rera wait one turn
A832 20810 rem-
with a great source of information and now CMD has
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20815 mp=mp-l:pw=pw-l:goCo20255 given you Commodore World. Don't let this valuable
5S0D 25000 rem information slip away, fill in the voids in your library now!
75CD 25005 rem process alliance ship turn
RMJAN92 January/February 1992
rem ■ ■
RUN Magazine RMMAR92 March/April 1992
222F 25015 rem-
RMJANB8 January 1988 RMMAY92 May/June 1992
3949 25020 rem update status/map/options
RMFEBBS February 1988 RMJUL92 July/August 1992
9DE5 25025 rem- Sep/October 1992
RMMAR8S March 1988 2US|P92
92C8 25030 gosubll400 RMNOV92 Nou/December 1992
RMAPR88 Apr,M988
3186 2 503 5 gosub!1300
97FF 25040 print"Alliance ship" RMMAY88 May 1988 Commodore World
RMJUN88 June19B8
204B 25045 printoaS"(CRSR DN}closes!" Volume 1, Number 1
RMJUL83 July 1988 CW1-1
921D 25050 pw=sl%(sh,5) CW1-2 Volume 1, Number 2
RMFEBB9 February 1989
4CB3 25055 rem-
May 1989
D5I3A 25060 rem move towards a union ship RMMAY89 Pricing
RMJUN89 June 1989
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AHA 2 5070 forxi=0tons-l:iExi=shthen25080
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A7D3 25075 : if(sl*(xi,0)<ul:Jand(sl%(xi,l)=xz
RMSEP89 September 1989 12 issues for $24.00.
RMOCT89 October 1989 Commodore World: $4.95 each
6033 25080 next
RMSP89 Special Issue 1989
'HO! 25100 rem- Shipping
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63AB 25110 rem- RMMAY90 May 1990 RUN: 3 or 6 issues - U.S. S3.00,
83CE 25115 Kp=999:xd=999 RMJUN90 June/July 1990 Canada S5.00. Foreign S15.00; 12
CEFF 25120 forxi=0tons~l RMDEC90 December 1990 issues U.S. $5.00; Canada $7.00;
RMJAN91 January/February 1991 Foreign $20.00.CW: U.S. and
12C0 25125 : ifsl%(xi,0)>=utthen25165
RMMAY91 May/June 1991 Canada $2.00 each; Foreign S5.00
F6A2 25130 : xl=xzsyl-0

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Volume 1, Number2 43 Commodore World


Last issue webeganlookingat methods ofmaking'commoncode'programs types of computers when writing the BASIC portion of our program.
lhat operate on both the C-64 andC-128.Wegeneratedasingle line BASIC There's one more part of this puzzle to solve, however. How do we know
program to'snoop around'and discoverour configuration, I alsopresented where our relocating routine is? This, loo, is fairly easy lo overcome. Both
a brief lisl of tilings to consider when writing code of tin's type. In this the (>4 and 128 have pointers in zero page memory to tell us where BASIC
installment, we'll lake a lookatsome specific ways to create these'common programs begin in memory. By using a BASIC routine lo follow the line
code'programs utilizing some of those considerations. links, we can quickly find the end ofthe current BASIC program. And, with
It bears repealing that this kind of programming will require input to be careful placement of our relocating routine, we'll know exactly where to
performed on a 128—a C-64 simply doesn't have the ability to recognize SYS to.
BASIC 7.0 commands which will be used from time to time. I might mention some other possible ways to utilize these methods.
In looking over our 'snooper' line from last issue, I did notice an error While 1 intentionally designed lliis scheme as a way to start big machine
that crept in when the program was converted to text; the CHR${127) at the language programs, I found il could also be applied to smarily written
beginning of that program line should have been a Cl IRS(147). To make mixed BASIC and machine language programs. Using a number of small
sure the-seerrors don't happen in ihe future, I'm writing a program thai will machine language subroutines for speeding up certain aspects of a BASIC
handle the conversions without human intervention. program issomethingmanyofus as programmers have often done, or wish
Here then is the corrected program line: to do more of. Writing your machine language subroutines in relocatable
code, and using the routines I'll be providing here, gives you the ability to
10 PRINTCHRSU47) ; : F=ABS ( PEEK ( 65533 ) =255) :M=0: IF edit your BASIC code without having to re-link the machine language
FTKENM=ABS<PEEK(215)>127):IFMTHENFAST:WINDOW20,ffl routines. Your program can be loaded as a single entity, edited, and saved
again—completely intact.
Bui enough about why I find this approach appealing; let's get inlo the
One of the main points I want to cover in this issue is dealing with a large
code itself Before we jump into the machine code portion, let's get the
machine language written to run on both the C-64 and C-128. Normally,
BASIC part set to do whal il needs to. Mere's our'snooper'program line
when a machine language program i.s written specifically for the C-64 or
with ihe additional code we need:
C-128, it is written to reside In a known location. Programmers often use a
separale loader program thai loads the machine language into that fixed 686B 10 PRINTCHR$(147) ; :F=ABSI PEEK(65533}= 255
location, or end up writing custom front-ends lor programs each time they
make a new program. I laving to keep separale files together in order to gel 20 X=PEEK[43)+PEEK(44)*2 56tIFFTHEHX=PEEK
a program lo work is not only annoying to a user, but it also brings other (45)+PEEK(46)'256
problems Into play—like how to handle device numbers, subdirectory EF66 30 NL=PEEK(X)+PEEK(X*1)*256:IFNL<>0THENX
paths, etc. Granted, we all managed to live with old programs that had
device 8 hard-coded in, and had lotsofUtUe modules for sprites, screen, and FA4D 41 POKE175,INT((X + 621/256):POKE174,(X + 62
portions of the code itself. Bui I'd certainly like to see programmers today )-(PEEK(175)'256):POKE251,PEEK(45>
155F 42 POKE252,PEEK<46):POKE253,PEEK(45):POK
step up and start making things easier to deal with for the end user.
E254,PEEK[46 J t20:SYS [X + 2)
1 can't count how many times in the past I've been close to completing a
C4B3 50 SYS(X+62+((1+-F)*5120))
program, only to realize that 1 still had the taskofwritingacustom relocator
or Ironl-ctul module ahead of me. It was out ofa desire to do away with 'the 1 iere's a quick breakdown ofwhal the BASIC portion does:
job alter the job' that I began to experiment with creating a 'one for all'
approach to this problem. The solution which I have been refining over Line 10 - As we discussed last issue. Clears the screen; sets Up variable F to
lime involves saniiwichinga relocatable machine language'mover' routine indicate a I for 128 mode, or a zero for <i4 mode; initializes variable M to
between a BASIC front end and the actual machine language program zero; checks toseeifwe're in 128 mode, anddrops out to line 20 ifweareu't;
itself. Because it is written in relocatable code, it doesn't matter where in sets variable M to 1 if we're in 80-eohimn mode, or zero if we're in
memory il is located. '10-column mode; puts the computer into 2 MHz fast mode if we're in 80-
The purpose ofthis routine is to move the machine language program up COlumn mode, or exits to line 20 if we're in 40-column mode; makes a
in memory if the computer it is being used on is a C-64. By moving it lo centered 40-column window on the 80-eolnmn screen.
where it would normally be located on a C-128, we can keep from having lo
write the entire machine language portion ofthe program In relocatable Line 20 - Sets variable X to the address holding the first BASIC line links
code. We can also keep our SYS command locations common for both according to the proper mode (ti4 or 128).

Volume 1, Number 2 44 Commodore World

Line 30 - Sets variable NI. lo the address holding the next BASIC line link; A 01D3B BEQ S1D60

If the address is nonzero, sets X to equal NL. then loops back to the A 01D3D LDA $FB

beginning ofthe line. The program will loop here until X holds the address .-. 01D3F SEC

of the final Hue link that holds two zero bytes at the end of I he BASIC A 01D40 SBC S22

program, at which point it will drop down to execute line 40. A 01D42 STA SFB
A 01D44 BCS S1D49

Line 40 - Checks to see ifthe computer is in 128 mode, and skips ahead to A 01D46 DEC SFC

line 50 If it is. A 01D48 SEC

A 01D49 LDA Sfd

line 4] - This linecalculates whereyourmachine language program should A 01D4B SBC S22

be located (at 62 bytes past the start of the last line link}, and places this A 01D4D STA SFD
address in pointers at 175 (SAE) and 176 (SAF). It also copies the low byte A 01D4F BCS S1D59

of the stari of BASIC variables inlo location 251 ($FB). A 01D51 DEC SFE
A 01D53 BCC S1D59

Line 42 -This line finishes setting up the pointers our 'mover' routine will A 01D55 LDA (SFB), Y

need by copying the high byte of the star! of BASIC variables to 252 ($J:C); A 01D57 STA (SFD), Y

locations 253 (SFD) and 254 ($FE) are set up with the lowaruihigh bytes of A 01D59 DEY

the target address, which is 5120 bytes above the current start ofBASIC A 01D5A BNE S1D55

variables area. After nil the variables are set. a SVS to the'mover'routine is A 01D5C LDA (SFB), Y

performed. This moves your machine code up 5120 bytes, lo where it A 01D5E STA (SFD), Y

would be on n 128. After this has executed, the program resumes ai line 50. A 01D60 DEC SFC


Line 50 ■ This line performs a SYS to your machine language program. If A 01D64 DEX

your machine language program ends with an KTS. it will return to this A 01D65 BNE S1DS9

BASIC program, but since there are no lurther BASIC lines lo execute, the A 01D67 RTS

program will end.

Once you have this entered, perform a save from the monitor using the
Now thai we've covered what the BASIC portion does, we can gel on with following command:
adding the machine language 'mover' routine. If you have not already
entered ihe BASIC code, do so now. Re sure to enter it in 128modeona 128, "UNI-LOAD' ;, 1C01, 1D68
and make sure that each line is exactly as shown. You may wish lo save a
temporary copy to disk after you have entered it. Also, since the program In order to test that the entire program is working, we'll have lo add a little
won't operate correctly without the 'mover' and some additional machine machine language program at the i-mi of the 'mover'. We'll want this to be
language to move, don't RUN it. Instead, enter the 128'sMONITOR mode, something thatwill give us a positive indication that everything is working,
and type the following command: so well just make a quick rouiine lo prinl a T lo the screen. Enter the
following in the monitor:
M 1D29
A 01D68 LDA tt$31

Ifyou correctly entered the BASIC portion oftheprogram, then the first line A 01D6A JSR SFFD2

that prints on the screen after you enter this command should start with: A 01D6D RTS

>01D29 00 00 00 Now save this with:

If llie first line does not start ihis way, you've entered something incorrect S "UNI-TEST",08,1C01,1D6E

somewhere along the way.Check your program against the original before
proceeding- Once everything is correct, enter the following assembly code To perform (lie testing, you must LOAD and RUN the program UN1-TEST;
into the monitor: you cannot simply RUN the version that is already in memory, since it
depends on certain pointers that will only be set by reloading theprogtam.
A 01D2C SEC Try it from both M and 128 modes. Ifil doesn't work, double-check your
A 01D2D LDA SFB code lor mistakes—they're easy to make.
A 01D2F SBC SAE As it stands, this version will work well for starling up machine language
A 011)31 STA S22 programs. To use it for mixed BASIC/MI, programs, we'll have to add a
A 01D33 TAY little hit ofcodelo the HASICparlofihe program: bin we'll leave that iorthe
A 01D34 LDA SFC next issue ofCommodore World, Meanwhile, play with this one a bit. You
A 01D36 SBC SAF might also take a look a! the BASIC code used in the CMK-I.IST utility.
A 01D38 TAX located elsewhere in this issue. It takes a different approach, using dala
A 01d39 I NX Statements to poke a machine language rouiine into different places in the
A 01D3A TYA 64 and 128; it works well for small programs with a few differences.

Volume I, Number2 45 Commodore World

Peripheral Vision


SCSI (Small Computer System Interface); A heal Commodore systems; we need only send a
I/Obus which can beoptrakd at various data rata command to the drive (along with any data
and which provides devke-indepmdence, easing required lo perform the task), and let the drive
addition of storage, communication mid other itself sweat the details.
expansion devices to the host computer system. You may have also heard of IDS drives, now
common on HIM AT type computers. These are
As if il were that .simple, eh? So what is SCSI, also considered to be 'smart' drives, and were
really? SCSI is a 'standard' that was Intended to designed to minimize controller interfacing
easeadding peripheral devices to computersftom requirements for hard drives on MM and 'clone'
different platforms, Whal I mean by ciifferenl computers. They fall short of SCSI drives for
platforms is this: regardless ofcomputer type— versatility, but do help lo cheapen the cost of a
be it IBM, Macintosh, Amiga, Atari, C-64/128, system by a small amount.
whatever—as long as Che computer has an SCSI
cantrailer, youmay add and use SCSI peripherals Hardware Issues
on any of them. The peripherals need not be Now that I've 'stepped in it' and declared SCSI to
designed specifically for one computer .system of the particular computer so thai it can be superior in versatility. I'll naturally have to
platform—indeed, they are designed simply to effective communicate to the SCSI peripheral. explain this a bit.
follow ilit' SCSI standards. Devices of the same type can often use a driver Expandability is a key issue for many users,
SCSI peripherals come in an assortment of interchangeably. But devices of differing types and SCSI clearly wins out over MFM, RLL, and
flavors; optical Manners, tape drives, floppy will undoubtedly require separate drivers. So IDE drive types in this category. Any hard drive,
drives, hard disk drives, optical drives and more. much for'standard', eh? no mailer what type il i.s. requires some kind of
And since the SCSI standard has claimed wide controller lo interface the computer's signals to
acceptance by the majority ol peripheral Smart Peripherals (lie hard drive's signals. Common MEM, RLE
manufacturers, nearly even' computer platform When it comes to hard drive mechanisms, you and IDE controllers are designed to manage only
that comes to mind lias available tor it some might wonder what it is that makes SCSI drives two hard drive mechanisms—whereas SCSI
means Of Utilizing SCSI peripherals. different than the other types of drives arourul, controllers are designed to handle up to seven
such MFM or 1(1.1, hard drive types, These latter SCSI devices.
Reality Check... two drive types were often found on IBM PC and This brings to light two important advantages:
Before we allow ourselves to be overcome with XT systems, and were considered to be 'dumb' SCSI allows for more devices lo be attached to a
visions of flatbed scanners or CD-ROM drives drives. Why so?This designation stems irom the singlecontroller; and ihese devices are not limited
tied into our C-64/128, therearesome important fact that the computer itself had to perform all lo being only hard disk drives. But wait—there's
aspects ofSCSl to consider. The SCSI 'standard' 'low level' reading and writing of data on these even more expandability with SCSI.
i.s. for tlie most part, a hardware interface drives. SCSI drives are considered lo be 'smart' The SCSI interface allows any SCSI device
Standard. In order to make a computer workwith because they have what is called an 'embedded attached to the controller to have up to H
any specific SCSI peripheral, some type of controller'—a processor of their own built righl individual'logical units' built-in.This means lliat.
software (or firmware) driver is requited. The into the drive circuitry. This makes SCSI drives in theory, the SCSI bus could support ,r>(i drives.
purpose of this driver is to adapt the operating very much like the floppy drives we use on In reality, however, multiple logical units in a

46 Commodore World
Volume 1, Number?
single SCSI device is practically unheard of. Siill. it's nice to know thai the these instructions, since it provides a DOS command for sending SCSI
capability is there for possible implementation in the future. Furthermore, commands directly lo SCSI devices attached lo it.
if you have an interest in direct SCSI device programming, you'll have to Every SCSI command is made up of several parameters which
deal with 'logical unit numbers'—even [hough the devices you'll lie Commodore programmers will probably find similar in formal lolhe burst
programming will probably have only a single drive or unit. command instructions used with the Commodore 1571.1581. and CMD
No discussion ofSCSI would be complete without bringing up the 'black devices. The first byte of each instruction is the Ol'HRATION CODE—the
magic1 aspects that many of have experienced. Indeed, while SCSI has command itself. The OPERATION' CODE byte is made up of two parts, as
serious advantages in expandability, these capabilities do noteomewidiout iHtBtratedbelaw:theGROUPCODE(bito5 through 7),andtheCOMMAND
some quirks. CODE (bits 0 through 4).
First ofali, il is important lo know thai SCSI devices attached lo the same
bus absolutely must be jumpered for different SCSI device numbers. The
7 6 5 4 3 2 10
location ofthesejumpers will vary from one deviceto the next, bul isalmost
■ Group Code Command Code
always performed with three sets ofjumperpins. Different combinations of
having jumper blocks attached to these pins yield a device number from ft
Since the GROUP CODE is made up of ,1 bits, there are 8 possible groups.
to 7. SCSI devices which are purchased pro-mounted in a case will often
These groups have been defined in the Standard in the following manner:
have a simple thumbwheel switch on the rear panel to facilitate setting the
SCSI device number.
Group I) Six-Byte Commands
Another consideration is setting of the device's parity enable. Some host
Group 1 Ten-Byte Commands
adaptors (SCSI controllers) may require parity to be enabled; such is the
Groups2 through 4 Reserved
case with the host adaptor in the CMDHD Series hard drives. Other host
Group 5 Twelve-Byte Commands
adaptors may require parity to be disabled, while others yet may not care
Groups ti and 7 Vendor-unique
how parity is set. Locating the parity jumper will generally require having
documentation on the specific SCSI device being used.
SCSI devices used in the CMD III) Series hard drives will accepl Group 0
Bus termination is also an important factor in making sure your .SCSI
(SOO-1F) and Group 1 (S2O-3F) commands, though the HD is capable of
peripherals operate correctly, it is also one of the strangest factors of
working with any of ihe command groups. The list below shows the
working with SCSI devices. According to the SCSI .specification, each end
common commands which you can find in these two groups:
ofthe SCSI 'chain' must be terminated: furthermore, devices located in the
middle of tlie chain must NOT lie terminated. Terminators generally
consist of SIP (Single In-line Package) resistor packs that plug directly into Operation Code (HEX) Description
sockets located on a SCSI device's embedded controller board near the 00 Test Unit Ready
SCSI connector. Pre-mounted external SCSI add-on devices generally are 01 Rezero Unit
not terminated When sold, though many come with a simple external 03 Request Sense
plug-in terminator that mounts easily in one ofthe ports on the back ofthe 04 Format Unit
case. You may also purchase this type of termination module separately 07 Reassign Blocks
from many computer supply stores. 08 Read
So what was all this about black magic'? Here's the scoop: incorrect OA Write
setting of SCSI device numbers, parity, or improperly terminated SCSI 0B Seek
chains can cause some very odd errors, or may cause your SCSI peripherals 12 Inquiry
to fail to operate completely. Worse yet, termination is fer from beinga true 15 Mode Select
science. Due lo signal loss and impedance shift caused by multiple 16 Reserve
connections and mismatched inlercounectingcables. I've seen SCSI chains 17 Release
that wouldn't work when both ends are terminated. I've seen others that 1A Mode Sense
simply wouldn't allow expanding beyond three or four devices—even 1B Start/Stop Unit
though seven (plus the host adaptor) should have been possible. Thus, 1D Send Diaqnostic
when expanding a SCSI chain, it is imperative to know the status of each of 25 Read Capacity
yourSCSI deviceswith reference to device number, parity and termination. 28 Read
And if everything is set as il.should be and tilings still do not work, it's time 2A Write
I o experiment. 2B Seek
2E Write and Verify
By Your Command... 2F Verify
Most SCSI peripherals fail into the 'common' category of being storage 37 Read Defect Data
devices, and for those that do. a set ofcommon instructions were devised. 3B Write Buffer
This helps lo keep a wide range of drive mechanisms compatible with 3C Read Buffer
drivers. Itisthisset ofcommands that we will fbcuson, though onceyou are 3E Read Long
familiar with how the SCSI command structure operates—and how to 3F Write Long
Implement it in your own code—you should easily be able to work with
other SCSI devices by obtaining documentation from the manufacturer. While there are a number ofother commands, someoftfaosenoi listed may
We'll also be using the CMD HD Series hard drive as our 'host adaptor' in well not be implemented on all drives. You can see from the list that some

Volume 1. Number2 47 Commodore World

Group l commands duplicate the Group <) Address is broken tip over more than one Byte. take a look at how we can make use of SCSI
commands. The difference is thai Group 1 Group 1 commands can address more storage commands with our Commodore computers.

commands have extended addressing, which will space than Group 0 commands, and have four
be explained later in a lilllc inure detail. Bytesareset asideror theLBA. Group Ocomtnands CMD's Send SCSI Command
The following Command Descriptor Blocks have 21 bits set aside for the LISA. The high order While we do know that the Xetcc Lt. Kernal hard
show the complete command structure ofGroup bits tor the LBA (identified with M5B)are located drive could be coaxed into performing custom
0 (Six-Byte) and Group 1 (Ten-Byre) commands. in Byte 1 of Group 0 commands, and in Byte 2 of SCSI command programming al a low level, to
Group I commands. The low order bits of the date, only the CMD HD Series hard drive
GROUP 0 COMMAND DESCRIPTOR BLOCK LBA {identified with LSB) are located in Byte 3 of controllers have been supplied with a high-level
Croup I) commands, and Byte 5 of Group 1 DOS command to makesuch programmingeaslei
7 Q 5 4 3 2 10
commands. Allhitsin-between flow'logically from for the less-experienced programmer. And
0 Operation CoOe
the MSB down to the LSB. because the HD has its own microprocessor and
1 LUN L8A(il required) (MSB)
For multiple-block operations, the LBA amplefree RAM. the programmer need only deal
2 Logical Block Addross (if required)

3 Logical Block AUdmss (^ mqulrGd) (LSBJ indicates the first, or starting Block tobeused by with the results of this programming, and thus
4 Translor Longlli (II required) the command. avoid having to handle data transfers directly.
5 Control Uyte
Bui before we can jump headlong into the
Transfer Length - The Transfer Length is used to actual SCSI commands and programming, we

GROUP 1 COMMAND DESCRIPTOR BLOCK indicate the number of Blocks to be transferred; need to understand how to issue these commands

7 6 5 4 3 2 i 0
in some commands it might also be used to to the SCSI device via theCMD HD host adaptor.
C Oparalion Code indicate a number of Bytes to be transferred As shown in the CMD HD User's Manual, ihe
1 . ■. Reserved RA (called a Parameter list Length) orto indicate the Send SCSI command has the following syntax:
: Logical Block Address (if required| (MSB) numberofbytes which are expected to be returned
3 Logical Block Afldiess (if required) by a command (called an Allocation length). PRINTtlf,"S-C'CHRS(de)CHRS(bl)

4 Logical Block Address Hif required) Group 0 commands use a single Byte for CHR$<bh)CHR$(cb)...

5 Logical Btock Address (if required) (LSB) Transfer Length, and can transfer a maximum of
6 Reserved 256 Blocks (1 through 255. or fl for 25fi). This where:
7 Translor Length (1 roqu reil) (MSB) value is given in Byle '.'• of Group 0 commands. If = the logical file number for the command
■■ Transfer Length (il required) (LSB) Group I commands have a two-Byte Transfer channel
B Conlrol Byle Length, and are capable of transferring up to de = the SCSI device number
65,535 Blocks. 'Hie high byte (MSB) is placed in bl = the low byte of the userdelined SCSI data
Let's take a look at the terms used to describe the Byte 7, and the Low Byte (LSB) is placed in ByteS. buffer in the HD'sRAM
contents of the (lilt's shown above. A Transfer Length of 0 in both Bytes ofa Group 1 bh -the high byle of the user defined SCSI
command means zero. data buffer In the HD'sRAM
Operation Cede ■ We've seen this already. This is cb= the command bytes ofthe SCSIcommand
comprised ofthe Group Code in the upper 3 bits, The Control Byte is mostly made up to be sent
and the Command Code in the lower 5 bits. ofunused and reserved bits. Only bits Oand 1 are
defined.and theseareusedl'or I.INKLL) command The logical file number for the command channel
LUN (Logical Unit Number) - This makes up the execution, which allows the device to process is the first parameter from the OPEN statement
upper three hits of Byte 1. and indicates which more than one command in succession. Bit 1 is used lo open the command channel to send this
logical unit the command is intended for. It'srare the Flag bit, and bit 0 is the Link bit. command. In this example, //equals 15:
for a device to have more than one logical unit, so If the Link bit is zero, then the Mag bit must
these bits will usually all be /.cm. also be zero. This state indicates that no linked OPEN 15,12,15
command execution is expected.
RA (Relaliv,-Address) -This is the low bit in Byte 1 If the Link bit is 1, then the flag bit determine The base drive built into the I ID is SCSI device 0.
on Group 1 (and Group 2) commands; however, the type of message returned by the device upon External devices will have other addresses
it is rarely implemented on SCSI devices and can completion of the linked command. Iftlie Hag is extending up (o through device 7.
safely be set at zero. zero, then the device returns INTERMEDIATE When you waul to send an SCSI command lo
status and sends the LINKED COMMAND the CMD HD, you must BtbI define an area of
LBA (Logical Slock Address) - SCSI devices have COMPLETE message. If the Hag bit is I. the RAM in the I ID lo use as ;i buffer. Many SCSI
Eheirstorage allocated In blocks. Theseblocks are device returns INTERMEDIATE status and sends commands will require this buffer space to
accessed by commands in logical sequence, the LINKED COMMAND COMPLETE (WITH Iransfer actual data, such as when reading and
starting at Block 0 and cstt-ncling up to the last FLAG) message. writing blocks of information. We'll be using (he
available block on the device. This kind of 8K of free RAM in the 1 ID starting at $300(1.
addressing takt-s the place of physical block Reserved or Unused- All Reserved and/or Unused The CDBdala which we discussed earlier make
addressing, which would require specifying a bils or Bytes must be set to zero. up tile remainder of the bytes senl with the
cylinder, platter Ndc), and sector. command.
Because SCSI devices can have a very large With the basics of the CDB's (Command
amount of storage space, the Logical Block Description Blocks) now behind us. il's time to TO BE CONTINUED IN ISSUE 3

48 Commodore World
Volume 1. Number2
How to Type In Program Listings Appearing in
Commodore World
While Commodore World currently doesn't make it a habit ofpublishing
type-in programs, a number of our columns do require entering sample TouseaiK-I.IS'r.loaditintoyourcompiitiTandtypeRUN.Makesiirethat
any program you are currently workingonii saved first, or start CI1K-UST
MUtlnes. For this purpose, we have created our CHK-LIST utility for the
before you begin typing in a new program. After you have CHK-11ST in
Commodore 64 and 128. Thisutility use a 16-bit CRC checksum method to
verify that you have correctly entered each program line, and thai each of memory and running, type NEW. You maynoweitherloadorbegintypiri"
the program you wish to have CHK-LIST check on. Whenever you wani to
the characters in the program lines are in the correct order.
check your program type in the appropriate SYS command given below;
You'll notice that program listings appear witha column iifvaluestothe
leftofthe program lines. These values are iheCHK-LIST values and are not C-64 or C-128 in 64 mode: SYS49152
10 be entered as part ofthe program. A similar set ofvalues are generated C-128 in 128 mode: SYS4864
by the CHK-LIST utility to allow you to verify that everything has been
entered correctly.
Note that when typing in listings, some special characters will appear in
EnW the Cl IK-I.IST program from BASIC. You can use either a C-64 or
a C-128 computer. Ifyou use a C-128, it can be in either 64 or 128 mode. He braces. Forrample, {CLR/HOME} means thatyou should enter the Clear
key, which is done by holding down the SHIFT key while you press the
sure to enter each line carefully toavoid mistakes—until you actually have
a IK-LIST working, finding errors in program entry won't be easy. After HOME key.Othertimesyou mayseeanumberaheadofthe key name, such
you have finished entering the program, be sure to SAVE a copy to disk as(.iSPACES)uri5CRSRU.Thisnieansyoii should press the key indica led
the numbcroftim»shown. Most special kev.sareeasy to identify, sincethc
beforcynu attempt toRUNit.just in case. Ifyou aren't feiniliar with how to
save a program to disk, you can use the following command:
text used will generally match the text on the key. Exceptions are the space
bar (SPACEJ, and cursor keys which include directions ({CRSR UP} (CRSR
SAViraiK-UST",8 DXl,[CRSRI.|and|CRSRRr]).Be.sure!ouSeihecorrectkeycomi,in;lli,ms
for color keys, such as <CTRL><2> for (Wl IT}.
CHK-LIST (ami.)
A454 10 F=ABS[PEEK(6553 3)=255):Ma49152- 49264 DATA
HM486d 192,-19,169,13,32,210,255,16b
6E2F ,253
E3 50 20 READD;iFD=-256THEM40 6
30 C=C+D:IFD<0ANDF=fflTHEN2C A6E 49280 DATA
3316 31 IFD<0THEND=0-D:M-M-1 193,-20,173,36,193,-20,201,20
tv ■'.-■■;' ,240,3
32 POKEM,D:H=M+1.:PRINT", •; :GOTO20 936E 49288 DATA
8C3? 49296 DATA
0679 50 PRINT"DONE.■iEND
8D92 60 :
EB74 49304 DATA
49152 DATA 165,43,-45,133,251,165,44,-46 228,255,201,13,208,249,32
609 5 49312 DATA
i J J J i A IJ A 228,255,208,251,76,8,192,-19,
B2AE 72
49160 DATA 169,0,141,36,193,-20,169,147, A001 4 9320 DATA
CD50 9, 104
49168 DATA 210,255,32,194,192,-19,160 0 FAA2 49328 DATA
140 32,180,192.-19,96,41,15,170,1
C9CD 89
49176 DATA 37,193,-20,177,251,133,253,20 EBFD 49336 DATA
o , 3
20,193,-20,32,210,255,96 0 0
2058 49344 DATA 0,0,169,0,141,190,192,-19 141
49184 DATA 238,37,193,-20,200,177,251,13 E8F.A 4 93 52 DATA
3,254 191,192,-19,169,33,141,192,19
EA9C 2,-19,169
49192 DATA 208,3,238.37,193,-20,173,37,1 A / D7 493 60 DATA
6C15 49200 DATA 201,2,208,1,96,200,177,251 6040 49368 DATA
D24B 49376 DATA
5795 49216 DATA 6,133,211,-236,169,61,32,210, 24,14,190,192,-19,46,191,192,
D52F 493 84 DATA
F80F 49224 DATA 169,32,32,210,255,160,?,177 18,173,192,192,-19,77,190,192
9735 -19,141
49232 DATA 251,32,213,192,-19,200,177,25 DCA6 49392 DATA
0734 ', 191,192,- 19
49240 DATA 213,192,-19,200,177,351,240,6 6032 9400 DATA
f 32
49248 DATA 213,192,-19,76,90,192 -19 173 37C5 9408 DATA
AC 30 9416 DATA 60,82,69,84,85,82,78,62
49256 DATA 32,167,192,-19,173,190 192 -1 AC 90 9424 DATA
9,32,167 13,13,13,0,48,49,50,51
FE71 9432 DATA 52,53,54,55,56,57,65,66
9440 DATA 67,68,69,70,0,0,-256,37944

Volume 1, Number 2
Commodore World
Carrier Detect


Many on-line services such as GEnle, languages Fortran and Cobol, but instead on a learn that the Guru docs indeed have a family;
CompuServe, and Delphi offer 'real-lime' real-timebeast that had to he worked in Machine "My wife regards computers as something of a
conferences—the electronic equivalentto having Language. When microcomputers started to harmless aberration; I suspect she considers it
a guest speaker come to a user group meeting. appear in 197ii, it was (forme) like a return to the less harmful and less costly than drinking. My
This gives callers a chance to meet with others of good old days. 1 restarted on a KIM-1 machine, live year old daughter is gelling (juite interested

similar interests and sometimes meet a special one of the first 6502 boards, IK of RAM, 2K of in computers (I'm not pushing) and may get her
gucsi they may never have the opportunity to ROM. and it could play chess. Because it was own soon."
meet in person. about the first factory-assembled system, it was Many questions were askedabout the future of
Recently, the Commodore Roundtable on also the starting point for a user community. our Commodore 8-bil machines, and what steps

CiEnie had Jim Butterfield over for a real lime Kim-1 UserNotes was a papular newsletter (for. we can take. Butterfield observed that "we are
conference, iiullerfu'ld's name is often followed its era), and later I collaborated on a hook called into computer'fashion'rather than questions of
Thfl'irtl Hook u/A7A /(a much-copied lillestyle). tcchnicalexccllencehcre.Justas.withVCKs.most
by "Commodore Ciuru". as he is well respected
forhis knowledge of our computers. Back before Now: Commodore acquired the manufacturer of people see BetaMax as technically superior to
the Commodore Pet. Butterfield was writing the KIM-1, and was persuaded to launch ihelirst VI IS, the tech arguments counted for little. The
programs, giving lectures, and writing articles personal computer, the PET." 8-blt computers will work tor a long lime, and
and books about computers. He has used. The Pel still used afi5O2 chip, which Bullerfield tvouldalways present a cost -effe c live way o flaking
programmed, and written stacks ofarticles about had programmed before, and was familiar with, on some kinds of work. But I fear they are out of
each new computer Commodore put out on the so he fell well qualified to assist others with their fashion, and we won't see too many new ones,

market, Many have driven thousands ofmiles to Pets, and has continued helpingothers with their ...llemgorphaued is makes
hear him speak, but this time users wishing to ask computers for the last fifteen years. obtaining ANYTHING harder. As I see it, the
him questions and hear his views could do so liutleriield listed the four computers he most serious thing would be that users could no

without leaving home. currently owns and uses regularly: a Commodore longer get the custom chips used by the 64 and
Just what is the Commodore C.uru doing these 128. "used for general programming and touting 128. Say, the PLA, the SID, and some similar.
days? Does Jim Butterfield still use a Commodore around, and for preparing the M/L articles that! There may be a second-source possibility; but
(i4 or 128V Has lie loo embraced MS-DOS do for the Gazette," An Amiga 2001), an Amiga Stockpiling older machines may also he a good
computers like olhers have? How does he feel 600, plus "a small and quite ancient MS-DOS move for the fi'1/128 community."
aboui the world ol computing today?These and machine." He has all four systems networked It seems only natural, with the sheer volume ol
together, so he can pass daia between them. In programs that Jim Butlerlield has written over
many Other questions were answered during the
his backup computer collection, ISutterfield has Ihe years to be askedabout what he considers the
conference. Jim uses a C-128. wriles articles for
Compute Gazelle on Machine Language an extra 64, a 11-128, a B-256. a PET 8032, and a best programs forthe C64andabouthisfavorites,
programming, and uses a variety of "oilier" couple of PET dual disks, "Just in case 1 come his own and ihose by others. He commented that
systems to do odd jobs, including, as he stated il, across somethinglhal needs melo look way hack. he's impressed by programs that "have both
"clumsv ones like the clones." Hard lo find room for more than three or four technical excellenceandaeslheticappeal," noting

When asked how his association with operating computers and their peripherals and that "Best" is a relative term. He went on to
Commodore computers began, Jim look us back screens. Gets cluttered." comment thai some of the most brilliantly
to 1963 when he became a programmer, "not on Asked if his family shares his interest in conceived and executed programs such as GEOS,
abusiness machine, with those uewlangled classy Commodore computers, it was interesting to and others like LITTl.K COMPUTER PEOPLE

50 Commodore World
Volume 1. Number2
and JUMPMAN are programs he seldom runs. "I mostly run my own staff oilier "clone" chips. It has a new colour screen capability, can be clocked at
That isn't even for reasons of excellence: it's jusi that I'm comfortable with a MUCH higher rate—and. yes, it does have bankswitching. There are 255
my own programs (And I try to targel my programs for DUMB users, which bank numbers, although I don't think you can really put that many in. And
is what I turn out to be Eater when I use them)." It's reassuring to know that the machine can be triggered to be a <>4 (as does the 128)."
even Gurus can run into problems with their own programs. Of his own The conference went on lo more detailed discussions. Including ML
programs, Butterfield said that about eight of the 144 or so he's written programming questions about Bank switching in the 128, and further
could be considered classics, and listed a few. such as: Super.Mon, Copy-All, details concerning the C-65. Many users were able to ask questions, and
and UniCopy, adding, "oddly, one ofthe programs I wasmost pleased with several commented to Jim on things they've learned from him over the
is I-'ileSort, which is almost unknown.! Il] grabs a "standard" type file, sorts years.

it, and writes the result. Understands about computer related stuff like This is what on-line conferences are all aboul: they give us the chance to
multiple fields, numeric/alpha, and ascending/descending. Ran perfectly meet fellow Commodore users, and ask some of the most respected
the first time 1 wrote il. Well, almost." programmers and writers questions in a 'real-time' formal. There's far
The conversation turned to another [Suilcrlield natural, unexplored more "personality" to on-line conferences than can be shown in a short
computer territory such as the C65 computers that Commodore moved magazine article, fie sure to check out the conferences on your favorite on
from their warehouses to mail order firms recently. Butterfield explained, line network!
"Commodore made a few dozens, prototypes, of the C65 and recently blew
them out ofthe back door. There are quite a few proud new G>5 owners
trying to find out how the insides of their machines work. And. being Information Services (GEnie). Fora complete transcript ofihe conversation with
prototypes, they are MOTall identical. TheCliShasanewcuslom processor Jim Butterfield, download file #14633, BUTTERFIELD.TXT, from the
chip with a LOT ofnew instructions that never existed before, not even in Commodore RToa GEnie (page 625;3).

On-line News Nibbles

Emulator Discussions out of COMP.SYS.CBM a shareware program. Registration allows use of all the features of the
Results from a vole conducted by a neutral third parly on Usenet have program. Registration fee is $15.00 U.S. or $20.00 Australian funds. For
resulted in ihe creation of several new newsgroups to cover the discussions mure information, or lo register, contact Rod (lasson. 90 Ililliers ltd,
ofemulatorprogratnsand hardware. Thecomp.sys.cbmnewsgroup. which Reynella SI 61. South Australia.
covers the range of Commodore 8-bit computers, has in the pasi been
inundated will) ankles and messages concerning IBM and olher platform Unzipping PKzip 1.02 on 128
computers emulating the CM and oilier Commodore computers, causing NZP128] I.SFX, a shareware utility by David Schmoll, gives 128 users the
tension and annoyanceaniongsltnieCommodore users. With newsgroups ability to unzip MS-DOS PKzip 1.02 files. QPE is a small ulilily program
designed specifically to discuss these emulators, (he coinp.sys.cbm which is used in conjunction with QWKRR128, giving an option to dissolve
newsgroup can remain strictly related to Commodore specific topics. The ARC'ed or Zll'ed mail packets and load the offline mail reader. Note thai
newly created newsgroups include: comp.emulators.announce, UNZI[)l28unzi])'sl1K7.ipl.02files.notl1Kzip2.04gfiles.Thcsharewarefee
comp.emulators.cbm.comp.emulators,appie2andcomp.emulators.misc. for this program is $10.00. Contact David Schmoll, 1703 I'agosa Way,
Aurora, CO. 80011.
DTJBBS Revision 940521
DTJBBS, a Commodore (il IS US program, has been revised. This IMS New Dialogue 128 Extension Available
supports 300 baud to 38.4K bps modems using the SWIR'l.iuk cartridge, Written by IlenrySopko. ISLANK-lT.iiXT, a very short extension program
and supports all Commodore 1541, 1571, 15H1 disk drives as well as for the Dialogue 128 term program, will blank the screen after a minute of
CMD's KAMLink and I lard drives. DTJISBS is available as shareware from inactivity from the computer keyboard. The screen is reactivated when a
Andrew Bernhardt, P.O. Box 669, Beatty, Nevada, 89803. The author key is pressed, without interrupting program activity such as during a file
requests a small (noi more than S3S) shareware fee. DTJBBS is available for transfer. The file is available in uuencoded form in the coinp.sys.cbm
downloading on lliesupport BBS, Second I lomeltlectronic Cottage. (702)- newsgroup on I lie Internet, or on Fidonet.
553-3869 (300-9600 bps V.32). The BBS can be can also be downloaded
from GEnie - tile numbers 14910,14911, 14912. and 14i)13. Commodore Central
Delphi's Commodore Central SIG now offers three different conference
QWKRR128 v4.3 Soon to be Released nights. New Members can learn about Delphi on Monday nights.
Rod Gasson's 128 off-line mail reader has been upgraded and is currently Wednesday night conferences center around using GEOS, while Friday
in the Beta testingslage. Enhancements include macros, which arc designed nights are open discussion nights. Each conference begins at 9pm EDT. The
tospeed typing, as well as offeruser possibilitiesIncluding message "Intro's" Commodore Cenleral SIti message forum has Commodore conversal ions
and "sign offs". Other new features include new character sets which allow ranging from inventive disk drive cleaning to Commodore magazines. The
uuencoded files to be saved in a format thai can be translated properly, the SIG also offers a gateway to read the COMP.SYS.CBM newsgroup, as well
ability to save text files in PFT or ASCII format, Centronics printer support, as a menued system to retrieve Commodore files from Interne! FTP sites.
and screen blanking. (iVVKRRl 28 V4.;! will be available on on-line services Delphi offers 5 hours free access for new users. To join Delphi, dial 1-800-
and bulletin boards under the following names: QWKRR43.TXT. 695-1002 by modem. Once connected, press the return key several times.
Q\VKUR43A.5I:X,QWKRR4.HR.SI'XandQ.WKHUUr.SFX.CiWKRR12Kis When prompted lor a password, type "FREE",

Volume 1, Number2 51 Commodore World



How did Omni 128 come about? handshaking lines for high speed operation is desirable, and some brands
Oinni 128 BBS had it's humble beginnings as a simple machine language do not support that—Supra and Practical Peripherals come to mind.
interrupt carrier detectroutineforaPUNTERtransferprotocolinafHend's SwiftUnk offers superior performance in all conditions, even at 2400 bps.
BBS program. Later in 1986,1 began to experiment with writing terminals All baud rates from 38,4110 bps on downwards are supported. Omni 128
that could handle the speed of a 2400 bps modem, and this eventually has the ability to use the full 38,400 bps bandwidth for all carrier rates,
evolved into a machine language operating system with a HASIC race nn without undesirable"over-runs"ofcaliersatlowerspeeds. a special feature
top. Omni is currently agroup oflarge programs which run on tap oi the unique to Omni and not found in any other UBS, even for 16/32 bit
ML operating system. computers.

I've noticed that the program is upgraded often. What's the current version? What kind ofdrive support does Omni 128 have, and are there any minimum
The main portion of the 1SBS is currently at version B.7VV, which has no requirements?
particular meaning—the "B" doesn't mean "Beta". But this, method allows The entire line of CMD drives and KAMLink based storage devices are
me to keep track of upgrades to the main. All modules are individually supported, as are standard Commodore DOS compatible disk drives, such
dated using a year/rnonth/day/letter system. as the 1581/1571/1541 series. Minimum requirement is either a CMD with 4 megabytes, or a CMD IID-Series hard drive. Xelec I.T.
And the cost? Kernal drives are not currently supported.
The ISI5S package is $fS5.00. and the completed manual will be $15.00.
Is there supportfor specialfeatures in any ofthe devicesyou mentioned?
And what does that include? Omni 128 has a unique and reliable system supporting the ilesible
Approximately 100 on-line modules and utilities come with the system, subdirectory arrangement that the CMD hard drives and RAMLink can
including a simple network lor communicating with other Omni 128 use. 1581 subdirectories are also supported. Kilher parallel or serial cables

systems, and also a .special mode allowing communication with Color 64 maybe used on the CMD ill). Omni 128 reads the real lime clock in CMD
Network compatible BBS's. There is no currentHnk toother networks such devices lo set llie BBS time and date, and also recognizes the time-and-date

as !■'] IK) or Internet, but plans are well developed for this to he implemented stamp in all file operations such as file copying, pattern searching of
soon. On-line game packages are available for downloading at various directories, etc.
systems and the home support board.
Terminal emulations seem to abound on Omni 128. Which ones are supported?
Are there additional items a SysOp might want that would cost extra? The remote caller is supported with Commodore C/G graphics, ASCII,
All ofthe system Tiles and extras are currently included with the BBS, but I IBM ANSI color, RH'scrip (remote imaging protocol), and SupeRes hires
also will program special applications, time permit ling—either for free, or graphics. AN'SI and Supelies modes are detected automatically on most
for a set fee. depending on the feasibility and complexity of the project. I terminals, and soon so will the Rll'scripinode. EUPscripallows mouseable
have yet to charge anything for the special modules written for other menus and other interactive features when calling from a Rll'scrip
SysQps, and they are available to all. supporting terminal

Couldyou tell us which modems are supported? / understand that Omni 128 has a very extensive message base capacity?
Modem types tested and supported include (in order of preference). U.S. Yes. There are twenty root message base areas, each with 9 additional
Robotics Sportster 14.4K modem, the Supra9{i/]4.4KFAXModem(digital automatically scanned bases, making up 191 automatically scanned areas.
readout versions), the Supra 2400. Packard Bell 2400, Avatex 2400. and Further, up to 990,001 separate message bases can be supported for SIG
Aprotek C-24 mini modem. Other modem types may or may not work groups, and they can he entered simply by typing their number. Each
without additional programming, dependlngonindividual characteristics. message base can handle up to 100 separate chains (threads) each with
I'm willing to test new modem types for compatibility/programming if unlimited responses, andresponsescan beautoma I i call} weeded. Standard
they are shipped tome for evaluation. I'm in the process of testing dillerent sequential files are used, which are .scanned at high speed.
models on a one-hy-oue basis, and with 28.ttK modems coming down
drastically in price. ($180 has been mentioned) these are on the lop of my How about the upload and download areas?
list to work on. The file Transfer section has the same generous limits as the message
Interfaces supported include CMD'aSwlftLink,theOmniTronixDeiuxe base—up to 191 automatically scanned areas, or 990,001 SIG transfer
RS-232 interface, or any other compatible user port interface. Hardware areas, each allowing up to 100 files. Fach area can have a unique device,

Volume 1, Number 2 52 Commodore World

path, and entry file. Files are shown using their
Isthenanythingwemisscdthatyou'dlikeourreaders Multiple Login Modules - The SysOp can
full filenames and corresponding numbers, or to know about?
arrange customize programs to execute before
the SysOp can elect to create a text file displaying Omni 128 has been in development for almost 7
the available files in any way they choose - which the caller reaches the main menu. These can be
years, and has pioneered and perfected many chained ifdesircd.
also displays at very high .speed. Tile descriptions things which have since appeared on other
arc unlimited as they are stored in separate files. Midnight Update ■ In addition to many
programs, plus many others which you won't
standard tasks the system performs at midnight.
find available anywhere else. customized applications can also be run and
Omni 12S seems to support a long list offile transfer Quite a few programmers have signed onto chained. 1'or instance, a .SysOp might want to
protocols as well. Can you give us a rundown on this project in the past year, and have an have a certain group of files copied from one
impressive array of program modules in location or device, to another, every night, or
For both uploading and downloading (if files, development and several finished. Omni's only on certain days, etc.
there is Punter, Multi-Punter, Xmodem operating veneer is in BASIC-7. and as such can
Checksum, andXmodemCRC. Fordownloading be modified by anyone familiar with BASIC,
only, there is also Xmodem IK CRC, Ymodem- though extensive mods to the "look" of the JSBS You may order Omni 128 by sending a letter
128 (batch-standard), Ymodem-1 K (batch), and are possible without programming. requesting registration k>:
Viiiodem- ] K/g (bill ch, streaming). l:or uploading My aim is to continue to upgrade the program
only, there is a Zmodem hatch receive system, in ways that best serve the 8. lfi. and .'12 bit Omm 128 BBS
with individual file confirmation after computing worlds. 4135N.36lh
completion. A "resume"rtinction is beingworfeed Gtherunique features ofinterest to the System Tncoma. WA UX-107
on. Operator or Caller...
Virtual Memory Editor - A .system text editor Detailed information is also available on the
Can you explain how Omni's networking options which can hold over 43.000 bytes of text is author's system. Omni-World 12K (see listings),
operate? available on-line for the SysOp. in message base El (b9 from main) and transfer
The current networking system is comparable to External Program Capability - In addition to area 1:1(113).
a direct bulletin and mail transfer facilitywith no running modules designed specifically for the
shared echoes. Hans to Implement a UUCP type system, Omni can automatically call off-line
lift work With QWK nit-lino reader support 8re In programs written in BASIC 7. either compiled Omni 128 BBS Systems
the works, in conjunction with another withBA.StC128orplainl5A.SlC. and evenCS-DOS
programmer who developed a very powerful auto-exec scripts. These programs run off-line. The&llowingis a partial list ofsystems operating
network for C-Net 128. and the 1SBS can be called automatically after Omni 128 BB.S. Some may not be running the
A special option allowing SysOps to exchange they are finished. This opens up a lol of latest version - check the author's system for the
files in batches is implemented The system also possibilities for beginning and advanced newest info.
has a mode which allows sending and receiving programmers alike, whowantspecial things done
public and private messages to Color <>4-type at midnight, for instance. Oil-line programs can 9600 and 14.4K bps Systems
network compatible systems. be run at anyrime ordate, determinedinadvance Omni World 128 (206) 536-9353
by the operator. No human intervention is Huggybear's Den (206) 582-8285
You indicated earlier that there isn't a completed required once this is set-up. Digital Illusions (216) 341-1414
operationmanualasyct.Whatkindofdocumentation Video Mode Control ■ Allows local screen Dead Poet's BBS (908) 288-8771
in provided with the system right now? printing to he disabled for maximum modem Dragon's Lair (915) 598*8442
Currently, a L2 page setup document is Included input/output speed. The Battleship (713) 957-3217
with thesysleni. In addition, text lilcsarcincliuii'd 40 Column RGB-Lets you select a very viwid 40 Negative CaSh Flow (813) 526-2971
containing approximately 150.0110 bytes of column display on the HO column screen. The Wizards' Workshop(713) 992-2526
detailed update instructions describing new Especially useful for creating and examining 40 Smart Modem (216) 543-1866
features and how to install them. These column color graphics. Cereal City BBS (616) 962-1390
dnnimentsandotherinformntinngatheredfrom Print Hie-Allows outpul that would have gone Reaper's Place (519) 472-0641
beta test SysOps over the last 6years will provide to the printer to be directed to a disk file on any Vic's BBS (618)234-6235
unused device. VERY useful! Tardis BBS (805) 987-9541
the basis for the completed system manual.
Separate Last Call Date/Times - The system Remote Control (316) 421 -0333
maintains three .separate 'last call date-time' The Twilight Zone/AZ (602) 827-2706
How do you handle technical supportfor registered
(l.CDT) for each caller. One records the last visit Cybernet 2000+ (813) 895-8915
Support for Omni 128 is available on the home to the system proper, another, the message base
visit, and the last, thetransferarea.Thecallerean 2400 bps Systems
IMS system ai (206) 536-9353, 24 hours a day,
andalsoviaU.S.MaU.Aseconddedicatedsupport edit both the message base und transfer LCDT The Ranch (206) 536-4689
while on-line, to make different numbers of Greenwood Manor (916) 865-7011
line should be installed this summer ("94). The Coffee Shop (206) 565-6306
messages or files appear as NEW. This is very
Upgrades are released at the end of each month Civic 64/128 (805)382-1125
useful when a caller has not been on in a long
on the home board, andean be mailed ifdesired.
period.and doesn't wishtoreadlargenumbersof Power User BBS (206) 427-1083
The many Omni SysOps are usually glad to answer
messages accumulated during the interval.
any questions a new SysOp may have.
Commodore; Wtiritl
Volume 1, Number2
Over The Edge


but that isn't what most large companies would

Although I have not been over burdened with
think, hi the computerindustry.lhere'sageneral
mail for this column, 1 have been answering a
consensus that there is only one type of
tremendous number of questions about the
computer—MS-DOS—and anything else is
current status of Commodore. As we all know.
inconsequential. This mentality is frustrating to
Commodore International. Ltd,hasputitsmajor
deal with, bul unfortunately it is one that most
subsidiary Commodore Electronics, Ltd. into
companies and financial institutions subscribe
voluntary liquidation to help satisfy some oi'iis
to in today's computer industry. Other ll>- and
obligation6tocredltois.Thi5 announcement was
32-bit technology takesabackseat. Furthermore,
made in an April 2lJ. 1994 press release which
stated that thecompany was rniauygoingtothrow
any 8-bit technology is considered so old and
obsolete by corporate types that anything having
in the towel niter posting substantial losses in
to do with it will be ignored.
consecutive quarters. Prom what 1 hear, the
So when it comes down to the 8-bit C-(i4 and
company is so cash poor that they simply cannot
C-128 computers, it's impossible to tell at this
afford to produce the products needed to fill
twoproducts'AVell. the Amiga 1260isan example point just what will happen with any rights or
orders. Sad. isn't it?
ofwhatCommodore hasaiways done well with— remaining inventory. Our attempts to contact
Now, this bit ofnews sent the rumor mill into
the CFOofCommodore regarding the liquidation
high, gear. So far, I have heard of no less than three an inexpensive computer with a fair amount oi
bang liti the buck. If<.CD-32 product, which only have been unsuccessful, ll is my hope that there
companies which have already purchased
Commodore, and of five others that are engaged recently appeared in the U.S. marketplace has will be more information regarding the C-64 and
in serious negotiations for the purchase. In terms thepotenliallobea real conlcuderiii the fledgling C-12K available by our next issue. You can bet I'll
effectual data, there isn't much. Kascdon what I CD same machine market. Again, this machine be slaying on lop of this situation.
have heard from reliable sources, who prefer to oilers a lot for its low price, and is aimed directly Another question everyone is asking is, how
remain nameless, then1 are two, maybe three at a market which will see substantial growth in does a company go from being a leader in their
major companies interested in buying all or part the next couple of years. industry to bankruptcy? Easyl Don't bother with
of Com mod ore, hut anyone who really knows .So, why do I so quickly discount the Other marketing your product. Go to great lengths to
what these companies actually want lor their product lines? Simple, The remaining Amiga alienate the loyal customers that put you on top
money isn't saying. product line is overpriced and underpowered (8 bit)! Spend outrageous amounts of money on
I very much doubt that any ofthese companies compared with today's less expensive and developing state of the art technology, but allow
are interested in resurrecting the entire product powerful DOS and Macintosh machines. Not to it to become outdated! Grossly overpay your
line: certainly not right away, anyhow. Indeed, mention the fad thai buyers in that price range executives and board of directors! And last but
chances a re thai one or more ofthese companies typically are looking for a business machine with not least, makeawholeslewofimserable business
are interested only in purchasing intellectual support froin major software vendors. A small decisions which result in your Inability lo pay
properly such as chip sets and/or patents. The number of Amiga .1000's will probably be viable your creditors] They have done such a great job.
fettofthematteristhatveryiittteofCommodore's for sale to the niche desktop video market, but ii 1 think they might want to consider a 'Mow To'
present product line is worth trying to salvage, won't amount to much. video on dissolving a major company.
with the exception of perhaps the Amiga 1200
I didn'l mention lhe64or 128, did I? Don't get Lei s take a closerlook at some ofCommodore's
:md tfieir new CD-32 game machine. Why these
me wrong; I think there Isvalue tothe 8-bitline— blunders, shall we? The Amiga is agood starting

Volume 1, Number2
Commodore World
point, since il marked Commodore's departure from the success they had It was al this pohll that Commodore linally did something right
experienced with their K-bil line. Unfortunately, they did it way too late. The release of the A-iSOO. A-12(10,
and A-4000 nli came within a few shorl months. New machines with
The Amiga 1000: The first Amiga was the AH100, which showed the updated technology, and two of these (the A-600 and A-1200) aimed
promise of the Amiga architecture, bul probably also caused a loi people squarely at the low-end market—and priced right. The A-1000, while
who may have been open to a new machine to turn and run. !t released expensive, did maintain the high-end tor ilie desktop video niche, while the
before it was truly ready—the operating system was prone to crashing, other two models could effectively sell to the market Commodore had
someone had bungled the motherboard layout, causing the connectors to owned in the past. In fact, many C-64 and C-128 ownerswerefinally buying
have pin assignments backwards on some of the 'standard' connections, their first Amiga.
expandability was poorly planned. About the only good thing I can say Yel, Commodore was already deep in financial trouble by the time tiiese
about the A1000 is that it didn't stick around long. products released, and were spreading their resources even thinner by
The Amiga 500: The most successful Amiga model to date released witli an trying to regain the interactive/game CD market with CD-32, successor to
Improved operating system which was even further refined over the life ol tlie failed CDTV. The really bad part of this was that Commodore was
the product Connections that were incorrect on tlie A1000 had been fixed, betting the farm on CD-32. Hadn't they learned from past experience?
andsomeimprovementshad been rnade on expanability. but thosewishing While CD-32 is indeed a sound product, they should have been well aware
to expand it too far found themselves faced with a myriad of items taking that they didn't have the money to market it successfully at this point. They
up more and more desk space. Alas the price was too high, especially since apparently felt that the 1993 Christmas selling season wasdoordieforthe
expansion was almost mandatory to operate product, and lhal in a year it would be loo
anything but a handful ol games. lale. They poured resources into gelling
The Amiga 2000: RnaUy. an Amiga that CD-32 ready for a pre-Christmas release in
actually looked more like a desktop PC, the the U.S.. hul failed to meet the deadline.
A-2000 offered true expandability phis Whether they had an adequate marketing
Only Amiga
newer and higher speed versions of the Makes It Happen
campaign ready lo meet this challenge,
(iHOxO family processor. Il also had built-in well probably never know. Certainly, it
hard disk drive options, and an extra drive never materialized. Meanwhile, so much
bay. But all this came at a price that was far had gone into ramping up production on
too high for most of tile market that CL1-32 lor the expected 'opening of ihe
Commodore was used to selling to. A base flood gales', that Commodore could no
model A-2000 really shouldn't have cost longerfiilftllordersfor A-1200 andA-4000
much more than an A-500; bul it cost quite machines. They had seriously
a bit more, and the A-iJOO continued lo underestimated the demand for their new
remain was also daring eomputermodels, while the failed planning
the life of the A-2000 that Mac's and PC's for CD-32 left them an abundance of this
began gaining some ground in the area ol product sitting in the warehouse.
graphics, an area where the Amiga had ruled Was Commodore management SO naive
uncontested. as to not recognize when they were making
The Amiga 3000: Commodore regained the same blunders, over and over?
some of the technological ground they had lost in the area of graphics. Apparently, to some degree, they were, Bul ihe final demise was probably
However, theA-300Qwas priced so high thai it could only be considered by struckmorebygreed thanany thing. Try inglo recapture their lost computer
thuscivho might beshoppinglura fully dei/keil-oul A-2000. Granted, some sales and at ihe same lime claim ihe lop position in Ihe interactive CD
of the cost was mandated by having a built-in SCSI controller and flicker- market was indeed far more than a company in their situation should have
fixer for working in interlaced graphics modes. While the enhancements been attempting. Indeed, it would seem to take a company blinded bygreed
nude the A-3000lookgoodlothe video market niche that Commodore had or desire for market dominance to take such a huge gamble.
carved out, incompatibilities delayed thai very market from buying the Now. what effect will all of this have on everyone who continues to use
A-3000 while waitingiorproduct upgrades. It was around this point In time and enjoy ihe C-64 and C-128? Quite honestly. 1 don't believe that it will
lhal Commodore decided to turn their marketing efforts (?) toward the haveanyefleclon I of uswho conliuue lo make use ohhese machines.
educational market—a plan doomed to failure with (he lack of any true Why? Because wehaven't had any real support from Commodore formany
educational software (not to mention the lack of any real marketing savvy). years. What about tlie availability of the Commodore computers, disk
With 'state-of-the-art' PC's selling for half the price ol an A-3000, it too was drives, mice, modems, and software? These items have been out of
doomed to a dismal siinival at best. Yet again, the A-500 continued to he production forsometime already, yet thereare still thousands ofcomputers
ihe leading seller for Commodore's Amiga line, but the price was still loo and disk drives available both through mail order companies as well as in
high. Commodore needed a cheap Amiga to capture the low-end market the pre-owncd market. N'ew hardware fromCMD. Rio, SSI and others, plus
lhal it had lost when they abandoned their 8-bit line. a large offering of programs slill available round out the supply picture.
Meanwhile, Commodore marketing had taken another seemingly 1 guess the questions you need lo ask yourself is; does my computer
no-brainer victory, and turned il into a complete loss.TheirCDTV, with an continue to perform ihe tasks for which I use it? Do 1 want lo spent a lew
utter lack of marketing, poor distribution, a price just out of the reach ol ihousand dollars to switch platforms and learn how to use a new computer
consumers, withered and died. Their PC clone line, once successtul. was and software? Most of the people I speak with answer the latter question
also dead. with a definite \()!! low about you?

Volume 1, Number 2 55 Commodore World

In the next issue of


CEE-64 Alive!
Centsible Software
W0 liL
Commodore World Inside Back Cover
Computer Bargain Store 35
Creative Micro Designs 28, 29
Creative Pixels
15, 43
Th O T
FGM Connection 27 What's still available? What's current and
Group M MultiMedia 13 what's new? We find the sources and make
Harvey & Associates 35 comparisons in our super-big summer gaming
Living Proof 43 issue!
Loadstar 9, 27
Mad Man Software 15
Micro Storm
Phoenix Network
lJlwemx Network
R & K Microtronics 35 Our on-line expert take a tour of this new

Sodak Electronics 43 service and let's us know what it has to offer

Software Hut 3 to Commodore 64/128 users.

Software Support Int Inside Front Cover

Tycom 15

Hardware hackers: Build your own sound

digitizer board for the C-64 with these plans
from the author of DigiMaster.
Commodore World
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Volume 1. Number 2 56 Commodore World




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