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Complexometric indicator

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A complexometric indicator is an ionochromic dye that undergoes a definite color change in presence of specific metal ions.[1] It forms a weak complex with the ions present in the solution, which has a significantly different color from the form existing outside the complex. Complexometric indicators are also known as pM indicators.[2]

1 Complexometric titration 2 Examples 3 Redox indicators

4 References



In analytical chemistry, complexometric indicators are used in complexometric titration to indicate the exact moment when all the metal ions in the solution are sequestered by a chelating agent (most usually EDTA). Such indicators are also called metallochromic indicators. The indicator may be present in another liquid phase in equilibrium with the titrated phase, the indicator is described as extraction indicator. Some complexometric indicators are sensitive to air and are destroyed. When such solution loses color during titration, a drop or two of fresh indicator may have to be added.
[edit]Examples This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate.Editing help is available. (March 2011)

Complexometric indicators are water-soluble organic molecules. Some examples are:

Eriochrome Black T for calcium, magnesium and aluminium Xylenol orange for gallium, indium and scandium Methyl calcein blue Murexide

Fast Sulphon Black Eriochrome Red B Calcein Calcon Eriochrome blue-black B Eriochrome blue SE Hydroxynaphthol blue Methylthymol blue Phthalein purple Pyrogallol red 3,3'-dimethylnaphthidine Chromazurol S Hematoxylin for copper Naphthol green B 1-(2-pyridilazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) Calmagite 2-Cresolphthalexon

Hard water
1.1 What is hard water? When water is referred to as 'hard' this simply means, that it contains more minerals than ordinary water. These are especially the minerals calcium and magnesium. The degree of hardness of the water increases, when more calcium and magnesium dissolves. Magnesium and calcium are positively charged ions. Because of their presence, other positively charged ions will dissolve less easily in hard water than in water that does not contain calcium and magnesium. This is the cause of the fact that soap doesn't really dissolve in hard water. 1.2 Which industries attach value to hardness of water? In many industrial applications, such as the drinking water preparation, in breweries and in sodas, but also for cooling- and boiler feed water the hardness of the water is very important.

2. Water softening
2.1 What is water softening? When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening.

The best way to soften water is to use a water softener unit and connect it directly to the water supply. 2.2 What is a water softener? A water softener is a unit that is used to soften water, by removing the minerals that cause the water to be hard. 2.3 Why is water softening applied? Water softening is an important process, because the hardness of water in households and companies is reduced during this process. When water is hard, it can clog pipes and soap will dissolve in it less easily. Water softening can prevent these negative effects. Hard water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in household water systems. Due to this lime scale build-up, pipes are blocked and the efficiency of hot boilers and tanks is reduced. This increases the cost of domestic water heating by about fifteen to twenty percent. Another negative effect of lime scale is that it has damaging effects on household machinery, such as laundry machines. Water softening means expanding the life span of household machine, such as laundry machines, and the life span of pipelines. It also contributes to the improved working, and longer lifespan of solar heating systems, air conditioning units and many other water-based applications. 2.4 What does a water softener do? Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to remove ions, which are positively charged. Softeners mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as 'hardness minerals'. Softeners are sometimes even applied to remove iron. The softening devices are able to remove up to five milligrams per litre (5 mg/L) of dissolved iron. Softeners can operate automatic, semi-automatic, or manual. Each type is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. A water softener collects hardness minerals within its conditioning tank and from time to time flushes them away to drain. Ion exchangers are often used for water softening. When an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and KCl). 2.5 How long does a water softener last? A good water softener will last many years. Softeners that were supplied in the 1980's may still work, and many need little maintenance, besides filling them with salt occasionally.

3. Softening salts
3.1 Which types of salt are sold for application in a water softener? For water softening, three types of salt are generally sold: - Rock salt - Solar salt - Evaporated salt Rock salt as a mineral occurs naturally in the ground. It is obtained from underground salt deposits by traditional mining methods. It contains between ninety-eight and ninety-nine percent sodium chloride. It has a water insolubility level of about 0.5-1.5%, being mainly calcium sulphate. Its most important component is calcium sulphate. Solar salt as a natural product is obtained mainly through evaporation of seawater. It contains 85% sodium chloride. It has a water insolubility level of less than 0.03%. It is usually sold in crystal form. Sometimes it is also sold in pellets. Evaporated salt is obtained through mining underground salt deposits of dissolving salt. The moisture is then evaporated, using energy from natural gas or coal. Evaporated salt contains between 99.6 and 99.99% sodium chloride. 3.2 Should we use rock salt, evaporated salt or solar salt in a water softener? Rock salt contains a lot of matter that is not water-soluble. As a result, the softening reservoirs have to be cleaned

much more regularly, when rock salt is used. Rock salt is cheaper than evaporated salt and solar salt, but reservoir cleaning may take up a lot of your time and energy. Solar salt contains a bit more water-insoluble matter than evaporated salt. When one makes a decision about which salt to use, consideration should be given to how much salt is used, how often the softener needs cleanout, and the softener design. If salt usage is low, the products could be used alternately. If salt usage is high, insoluble salts will build up faster when using solar salt. Additionally, the reservoir will need more frequent cleaning. In that case evaporated salt is recommended. 3.3 Is it harmful to mix different kinds of salt in a water softener? It is generally not harmful to mix salts in a water softener, but there are types of softeners that are designed for specific water softening products. When using alternative products, these softeners will not function well. Mixing evaporated salt with rock salt is not recommended, as this could clog the softening reservoir. It is recommended that you allow your unit to go empty of one type of salt before adding another to avoid the occurrence of any problems. 3.4 How often should one add salt to a softener? Salt is usually added to the reservoir during regeneration of the softener. The more often a softener is regenerated, the more often salt needs to be added. Usually water softeners are checked once a month. To guarantee a satisfactory production of soft water, the salt level should be kept at least half-full at all times. 3.5 How come water sometimes does not become softer when salt is added? Before salt starts working in a water softener it needs a little residence time within the reservoir, since the salt is dissolving slowly. When one immediately starts regeneration after adding salt to the reservoir, the water softener may not work according to standards. When the water softening does not take place it could also indicate softener malfunction, or a problem with the salt that is applied.

4. Softening costs
4.1 How much does a water softener cost? Some softeners are more efficient than others and as a result the prizes may differ. There are time operated softeners and water meter-controlled softeners available. The water meter-controlled units produce the softest water per pound of salt. Some softeners work on electricity, but some more recent water softeners use waterpower. Costs of a water softener greatly depend upon the type of water softener and the type of energy that is used, but also upon the hardness of the water that needs softening and the water use. When the water is very hard and it is used heavily, the costs of softening will rise. Generally the costs of a water softener can vary between 0,20 and 0,40 a day. The costs of water softeners are usually far outweighed by the benefits and cost savings obtained, through using softened water. 4.2 How much does a water softener cost during operation? The running cost is merely the cost of salt. This is likely to be around 1,95 per person in the household in a month.

5. Softening drinking water

5.1 Do water-producing companies always produce softened water? Although water-producing companies do have the opportunity to produce softened water, they will not always do so. A water producing company only has to add a water softener in its water purification system, to produce softened water cheaply. But than consumers would not be able to have the choice to drink un-softened water. Hard water problems are most likely to occur when water is heated. As a result, hard water causes few problems to the water supplying companies, especially when only cold water runs through their pipes.

5.2 Is softened water safe to drink? Softened water still contains all the natural minerals that we need. It is only deprived off its calcium and magnesium contents, and some sodium is added during the softening process. That is why in most cases, softened water is perfectly safe to drink. It is advisable that softened water contains only up to 300mg/L of sodium. In areas with very high hardness the softened water must not be used for the preparation of baby-milk, due to the high sodium contant after the softening process has been carried out. 5.3 Can salt from softening installations enter drinking water? Salt does not have the opportunity to enter drinking water through softening installations. The only purpose of salt in a water softener is to regenerate the resin beads that take the hardness out of water. 5.4 How much sodium does one absorb from softened water? The sodium uptake through softened water depends on the hardness of the water. Averagely, less than 3% sodium uptake comes from drinking softened water. Estimates say that a person consumes about two to three teaspoons of salt a day, from various sources. Assuming a daily intake of five grams of sodium through food and the consumption of three quarts of water, the contribution of sodium (Na+) in the water from the home water softening process, is minimal compared to the total daily intake of many sodium-rich foods. 5.5 Will softening drinking water deprive it of essential minerals? Softening will not deprive water of its essential minerals. Softening only deprives drinking water of minerals that cause the water to be hard, such as calcium, magnesium and iron.

6. Softeners maintenance
6.1 When does a softener resin need replacement? When the water does not become soft enough, one should first consider problems with the salt that is used, or mechanical malfunctions of softener components. When these elements are not the cause of the unsatisfactory water softening, it may be time to replace the softener resin, or perhaps even the entire softener. Through experience we know that most softener resins and ion exchanger resins last about twenty to twenty-five years. 6.2 Does a softener brine tank need cleaning? Usually it is not necessary to clean out a brine tank, unless the salt product being used is high in water-insoluble matter, or there is a serious malfunction of some sort. If there is a build-up of insoluble matter in the resin, the reservoir should be cleaned out to prevent softener malfunction. 6.3 What is 'mushing' and why should we avoid it? When loosely compacted salt pellets or cube-style salt is used in a resin, it may form tiny crystals of evaporated salt, which are similar to table salt. These crystals may bond, creating a thick mass in the brine tank. This phenomenon, commonly known as 'mushing', may interrupt brine production. Brine production is the most important element for refreshing of the resin beads in a water softener. Without brine production, a water softener is not able produce soft water.

7. Softener operational questions

7.1 Can brine from softeners damage a septic tank? The Water Quality Association has performed studies on this subject. These studies have indicated that a properly placed septic tank that works adequately cannot be damaged by brine that is discharged from a water softener. And softened water can sometimes even help reduce the amount of detergents discharged into a septic tank. 7.2 Can a water softener be used with lead pipes?

Lead pipe systems have to be replaced, before softened water can flow through them. Although lead pipe systems in hard water areas may not cause a problem, it is advisable to replace them anyway. When naturally or artificially softened water ends up in these lead pipe systems, it may cause the pickup of lead. 7.2 Can one measure water hardness inline? Yes, although the measurement system is mainly applied in industrial water softeners. The Testomat inline water hardness instrument

8. Softening in households
8.1 Can a water softener be taken along during moving? With modern water softeners, it is very possible to take them along during moving. Installation techniques involve quick fitting connections, similar to those used for laundry machines. All that has to be done is closing off the inlet and outlet valves of the softener and open up the bypass valve, allowing hard water to flow to the storage tank and household taps. After that the softener can be disconnected, moved to its new location and placed there. 8.2 Can waste from a water softener be discharged directly in the garden? As brine alters the osmotic pressure that plants rely upon to regulate water needs, direct discharge of either sodium or potassium chloride brine should be avoided. 8.3 Is softened water any help for dry skin conditions? There are cases to be noted, in which people with dry skin conditions have benefited from water softening, because soft water is kinder to the hair and skin.

Hard water
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with heavy water.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with water softening. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011.

A tap showing calcification left by the use of hard water.

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.


o o o o o o

1 Sources of hardness 1.1 Temporary hardness 1.2 Permanent hardness 2 Effects of hard water 2.1 Softening 2.2 Health considerations 3 Measurement 3.1 Hard/soft classification 3.2 Indices

o o o o

3.2.1 Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) 3.2.2 Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) 3.2.3 Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI) 3.2.4 Other indices

4 Regional information 4.1 Hard water in Australia 4.2 Hard water in Canada 4.3 Hard water in England and Wales 4.4 Hard water in the United States 5 See also 6 References

7 External links


of hardness

Water's hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations are cations (positively charged metal complexes) with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions enter a water supply by leaching from minerals within an aquifer. Common calcium-containing minerals are calcite and gypsum. A common magnesium mineral is dolomite (which also contains calcium). Rainwater and distilled water are soft, because they also contain few ions.[1] The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving/formation of calcium carbonate scales:

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O 2+ + 2HCO3Ca Calcium and magnesium ions can sometimes be removed by water softeners.[2]


Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved carbonate minerals (calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate). When dissolved, these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the process of lime softening.[3] Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling.


Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulphates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, the hardness of the water can be easily removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column.

of hard water

With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather. This effect arises because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ (C17H35COO)2Ca Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums. Main article: Fouling Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2), and calcium sulfate(CaSO4).

Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the surfaces of

pipes and the surfaces of heat exchangers. This precipitation (formation of an insoluble solid) is principally caused by thermal decomposition of bi-carbonate ions but also happens to some extent even in the absence of such ions. The resulting build-up of scale restricts the flow of water in pipes. In

boilers, the deposits impair the flow of heat into water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the metal boiler components to overheat. In a pressurized system, this overheating can lead to failure of the boiler.[4] The damage caused by calcium carbonate deposits varies depending on the crystalline form, for example, calcite or aragonite.[5] The presence of ions in an electrolyte, in this case, hard water, can also lead to galvanic corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of metal, when both are in contact with an electrolyte. The softening of hard water by ion exchange does not increase its corrosivity per se. Similarly, where lead plumbing is in use, softened water does not substantially increase plumbo-solvency. [6]

Main article: water softening For the reasons discussed above, it is often desirable to soften hard water. Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. For this reason, water softening is often unnecessary. Where softening is practiced, it is often recommended to soften only the water sent to domestic hot water systems so as to prevent or delay inefficiencies and damage due to scale formation in water heaters. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by twice the number of monocations such assodium or potassium ions.


The World Health Organization says that "there does not appear to be any convincing evidence that water hardness causes adverse health effects in humans."[7] Some studies have shown a weak inverse relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease in men, up to a level of 170 mg calcium carbonate per litre of water. The World Health Organization has reviewed the evidence and concluded the data were inadequate to allow for a recommendation for a level of hardness.[7] Recommendations have been made for the maximum and minimum levels of calcium (40-80 ppm) and magnesium (20-30 ppm) in drinking water, and a total hardness expressed as the sum of the calcium and magnesium concentrations of 2-4 mmol/L.[8] Other studies have shown weak correlations between cardiovascular health and water hardness.[9][10]

Some studies correlate domestic hard water usage with increased eczema in children.[12][13][14]

The Softened-Water Eczema Trial (SWET), a multicenter randomized controlled trial of ion-exchange softeners for treating childhood eczema, was undertaken in 2008. However, no meaningful difference in symptom relief was found between children with access to a home water softener and those without.[15]

Hardness can be quantified by instrumental analysis. The total water hardness is the sum of the molar concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+, in mol/L or mmol/L units. Although water hardness usually measures only the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent divalent metal ions), iron, aluminium, and manganese can also be present at elevated levels in some locations. The presence of iron characteristically confers a brownish (rust-like) colour to the calcification, instead of white (the color of most of the other compounds). Water hardness is often not expressed as a molar concentration, but rather in various units, such as degrees of general hardness (dGH), German degrees (dH), parts per million (ppm, mg/L, or American degrees), grains per gallon (gpg), English degrees (e, e, or Clark), or French degrees (f). The table below shows conversion factors between the various units.
Hardness unit conversion.

mmol/ L

ppm, mg/L

dGH, dH


e, Clark

mmol/L 1

0.009991 0.1783 0.171 0.1424

0.0999 1

ppm, mg/L

100.1 1


17.12 14.25


dGH, dH

5.608 0.05603 1

0.959 0.7986 0.5603 1


5.847 0.05842 1.043

0.8327 0.5842

e, 7.022 0.07016 1.252 Clark

1.201 1


10.01 0.1


1.712 1.425

For example: 1 mmol/L = 100.1 ppm and 1 ppm = 0.056 dGH.

The various alternative units represent an equivalent mass of calcium oxide (CaO) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) that, when dissolved in a unit volume of pure water, would result in the same total molar concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+. The different conversion factors arise from the fact that equivalent masses of calcium oxide and calcium carbonates differ, and that different mass and volume units are used. The units are as follows:

Parts per million (ppm) is usually defined as 1 mg/L CaCO3 (the definition used below).[16] It
is equivalent to mg/L without chemical compound specified, and to American degree.

Grains per Gallon (gpg) is defined as 1 grain (64.8 mg) of calcium carbonate per U.S.
gallon (3.79 litres), or 17.118 ppm.

a mmol/L is equivalent to 100.09 mg/L CaCO3 or 40.08 mg/L Ca2+. A degree of General Hardness (dGH or German degree (dH, deutsche Hrte) is defined
as 10 mg/L CaO or 17.848 ppm.

A Clark degree (Clark) or English degrees (e or e) is defined as one grain (64.8 mg) of
CaCO3 per Imperial gallon (4.55 litres) of water, equivalent to 14.254 ppm.

A French degree (F or f) is defined as 10 mg/L CaCO3, equivalent to 10 ppm. The

lowercase f is often used to prevent confusion with degrees Fahrenheit.


Because it is the precise mixture of minerals dissolved in the water, together with the water's pH and temperature, that determines the behavior of the hardness, a single-number scale does not adequately describe hardness. However, the United States Geological Survey uses the following classification into hard and soft water, [17]
Classificatio hardness in n mg/L hardness in mmol/L hardness in dGH/dH














Very hard [edit]Indices




Several indices are used to describe the behaviour of calcium carbonate in water, oil, or gas mixtures.

[edit]Langelier Saturation Index (LSI)

The Langelier Saturation Index (sometimes Langelier Stability Index) is a calculated number used to predict the calcium carbonate stability of water. It indicates whether the water will precipitate, dissolve, or be in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. In 1936, Wilfred Langelier developed a method for predicting the pH at which water is saturated in calcium carbonate (called pHs). The LSI is expressed as the difference between the actual system pH and the saturation pH: LSI = pH (measured) - pHs

For LSI > 0, water is super saturated and tends to precipitate a scale layer of CaCO3. For LSI = 0, water is saturated (in equilibrium) with CaCO3. A scale layer of CaCO3 is

neither precipitated nor dissolved.

For LSI < 0, water is under saturated and tends to dissolve solid CaCO3.

If the actual pH of the water is below the calculated saturation pH, the LSI is negative and the water has a very limited scaling potential. If the actual pH exceeds pHs, the LSI is positive, and being supersaturated with CaCO3, the water has a tendency to form scale. At increasing positive index values, the scaling potential increases. In practice, water with an LSI between -0.5 and +0.5 will not display enhanced mineral dissolving or scale forming properties. Water with an LSI below -0.5 tends to exhibit noticeably increased dissolving abilities while water with an LSI above +0.5 tends to exhibit noticeably increased scale forming properties. It is also worth noting that the LSI is temperature sensitive. The LSI becomes more positive as the water temperature increases. This has particular implications in situations where well water is used. The temperature of the water when it first exits the well is often significantly lower than the

temperature inside the building served by the well or at the laboratory where the LSI measurement is made. This increase in temperature can cause scaling, especially in cases such as hot water heaters. Conversely, systems that reduce water temperature will have less scaling.
[edit]Ryznar Stability Index (RSI)

The Ryznar stability index (RSI) uses a database of scale thickness measurements in municipal water systems to predict the effect of water chemistry. Ryznar saturation index (RSI) was developed from empirical observations of corrosion rates and film formation in steel mains. It is defined as: RSI = 2 pHs pH (measured)

For 6,5 < RSI < 7 water is considered to be approximately at saturation equilibrium
with calcium carbonate

For RSI > 8 water is under saturated and, therefore, would tend to dissolve any
existing solid CaCO3

For RSI < 6,5 water tends to be scale forming

[edit]Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI)

The Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI) uses slightly different parameters to quantify the relationship between the saturation state of the water and the amount of limescale deposited.
[edit]Other indices

Other indices include the Larson-Skold Index,[19] the Stiff-Davis Index,[20] and the OddoTomson Index.[21]
[edit]Regional [edit]Hard


water in Australia

Analysis of water hardness in major Australian cities by the Australian Water Association shows a range from very soft (Melbourne) to very hard (Adelaide). Total Hardness levels of Calcium Carbonate in ppm are: Canberra: 40;[22] Melbourne: 10 - 26;[23] Sydney: 39.4 60.1;

Perth: 29 226;[25] Brisbane: 100;[26] Adelaide: 134 148;[27] Hobart: 5.8 34.4;[28] Darwin:


water in Canada

Prairie provinces (mainly Saskatchewan and Manitoba) contain high quantities of calcium and magnesium, often as dolomite, which are readily soluble in the groundwater that

contains high concentrations of trapped carbon dioxide from the last glaciation. In these parts of Canada, the total hardness in ppm of calcium carbonate equivalent frequently exceed 200 ppm, if groundwater is the only source of potable water. The west coast, by contrast, has unusually soft water, derived mainly from mountain lakes fed by glaciers and snowmelt. Some typical values are: Montreal 116 ppm,[30] Calgary 165 ppm, Regina 202 ppm, Saskatoon < 140 ppm, Winnipeg 77 ppm,[31] Toronto 121 ppm,[32] Vancouver < 3 ppm,

Charlottetown PEI 140 150 ppm.[34]


water in England and Wales

Information from the British Drinking Water Inspectorate shows that drinking water in England is generally considered to be 'very hard', with most areas of England, particularly east of a line between the Severn and Tees estuaries, exhibiting above 200 ppm for the calcium carbonate equivalent. Wales, Devon, Cornwall and parts of North-West England are softer water areas, and range from 0 to 200 ppm. [35] In the brewing industry in England and Wales, water is often deliberately hardened with gypsum in the process of Burtonisation. Tap water in Manchester in England is soft because it comes from Thirlmere and Haweswater reservoirs in the Lake District, and in their headwaters there is no exposure to limestone or chalk. Similarly, tap water in Birmingham is also soft as it is sourced from the Elan Valley Reservoirs in Wales.

water in the United States

More than 85% of American homes have hard water. [36] The softest waters occur in parts of the New England, South Atlantic-Gulf, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaii regions. Moderately hard waters are common in many of the rivers of the Tennessee, Great Lakes, and Alaska regions. Hard and very hard waters are found in some of the streams in most of the regions throughout the country. The hardest waters (greater than 1,000 ppm) are in streams in Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Arizona, and southern California.[37]

Hard water and water softening

AquaScams home | More about water

Every household and every factory uses water, and none of it is pure. One class of impurity that is of special interest is

"hardness". This refers to the presence of dissolved ions, mainly of calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ which are acquired through contact with rocks and sediments in the environment. The positive electrical charges of these ions are balanced by the presence of anions (negative ions), of which bicarbonate HCO3 and carbonate CO32 are most important. These ions have their origins in limestone sediments and also from carbon dioxide which is present in all waters exposed to the atmosphere and especially in groundwaters.
Origin of water "hardness" Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid (1) which at ordinary environmental pH exists mostly as bicarbonate ion (2). Microscopic marine organisms take this up as carbonate (4)to form calcite skeletons which, over millions of years, have built up extensive limestone deposits. Groundwaters, made slightly acidic by CO2 (both that absorbed from the air and from the respiration of soil bacteria) dissolve the limestone (3), thereby acquiring calcium and bicarbonate ions and becoming "hard". If the HCO3 concentration is sufficiently great, the combination of processes (2) and (4) causes calcium carbonate ("lime scale") to precipitate out on surfaces such as the insides of pipes. (Calcium bicarbonate itself does not form a solid, but always precipitates as CaCO3.)

These "hardness ions" cause two major kinds of problems. First, the metal cations react with soaps, causing them to form an unsightly precipitate the familiar "bathtub ring". More seriously, the calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to precipitate out as adherent solids on the surfaces of pipes and especially on the hot heat exchanger surfaces of boilers. The resulting scale buildup can impede water flow in pipes. In boilers, the deposits act as thermal insulation that impedes the flow of heat into the water; this not only

reduces heating efficiency, but allows the metal to overheat, which in pressurized systems can lead to catastrophic failure.
Bad Hair Day? "Hard water hair" can be avoided by rinsing with a mildly acidic solution which will dissolve the carbonate deposits. Try adding some vinegar, lemon juice or citric acid to water. More info at HardWater Hair


of water hardness
Temporary hardness

This refers to hardness whose effects can be removed by boiling the water in an open container. Such waters have usually percolated though limestone formations and contain bicarbonate HCO3 along with small amounts of carbonate CO32 as the principal negative ions. Boiling the water promotes the reaction 2 HCO3 CO32 + CO2 by driving off the carbon dioxide gas. The CO32 reacts with Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions, to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonates which precipitate out. By tying up the metal ions in this way, the amounts available to form soap scum are greatly reduced.
Permanent hardness

Waters than contain other anions such as chloride or sulfate cannot be remediated by boiling, and are said to be "permanently" hard. The only practical treatment is to remove all the ions, normally by the method described below.
For more about the classification of hard waters, see this excellent Wikipedia article.

The following map from the USGS shows how mean water hardness varies in the U.S.

Conventional water softening Most conventional water-softening devices depend on a process known as ion-exchange in which "hardness" ions trade places with sodium and chloride ions that are loosely bound to an ion-exchange resin or a zeolite (many zeolite minerals occur in nature, but specialized ones are often made artificially.)

The illustration depicts a negatively-charged zeolite to which [positive] sodium ions are attached. Calcium or magnesium ions in the water displace sodium ions, which are released into the water. In a similar way, positively-charged zeolites bind negatively-charged chloride ions (Cl), which get displaced by bicarbonate ions in the water. As the zeolites become converted to their Ca2+ and HCO3 forms they gradually lose their effectiveness and must be regenerated. This is accomplished by passing a concentrated brine solution though them, causing the above reaction to be reversed. Herein lies one of the drawbacks of this process: most of the salt employed in the regeneration process gets flushed out of the system and and is usually released into the soil or drainage system something that can have damaging consequences to the environment, especially in arid regions. For this reason, many jurisdications prohibit such release, and require users to dispose of the spent brine at an approved site or to use a commercial service company.
Riverside County CA water softener restrictions

"Alternative" water softening methods The great economic importance of water softening has created a large and thriving industry that utilizes a number of proven methods based on well established scientific principles. It has also unfortunately attracted a variety of operators offering technologies that are purported to be better, less expensive, easier to install, or "chemical-free", but which have never been validated scientifically and whose principles of operation are largely unexplained by the known laws of chemistry. This does not mean that such schemes cannot work (after all, we can use theory to show that under idealized conditions, water can never boil and it can never rain!), but it should inspire a good degree of skepticism. Most of the statements supporting alternative water treatement methods come from those who have a commercial interest in these devices, they are not supported by credible and independently verifiable performance data, and the explanations they offer for how they work reveal such a weak understanding of basic chemistry on the part of their authors that it is difficult to have much confidence in them.

Some dubious water-treatment processes and products Magnetic water treatment and related pseudoscience "Catalytic" water treatment schemes

Against this, there is some anecdotal evidence that certain magnetic and electromagnetic devices can be effective in preventing scale formation in hard water systems. It is very difficult to judge such claims, which are almost never based on tests that are well enough described to allow others to evaluate them and to verify the results. While the lack of "scientific" evidence does not in itself invalidate a claim for the efficacy of a device, it should make one hesitate to accept it without some guarantee of performance. In 2002, an article was published in an applied physics journal that showed magnetic scale control to be effective under certain conditions, and which proposed a credible mechanism for this effect. See the MagScams page for more information. For a quick refresher on modern science's view of water, see my Gentle introduction to water and its structure . This Wikipedia page covers the basics of water treatment and disinfection. For a thorough treatment of the chemical principles relating to acidbase, carbonate, and solubility equilibria in natural waters, several text chapters from my aquatic environmental chemistry course are available in Acrobat format. Please note that these assume some knowledge of elementary Chemistry and that they do not deal directly with water treatment. Need advice on water treatment problems? I suggest that you contact a reputable plumbing contractor who is familiar with the water in your locality. The following links may also be useful:
Drinking Water Treatment Methods Hard water site at Wilkes University

Process water
Process water covers the wide range of boiler feed water, cooling water for heat exchangers or engine, chemicals dilution, etc... It should typically have a conductivity ranging from 0,1 to 50 uS/cm, with little to no hardness to avoid scaling in heating system. Oxygen and carbon dioxide should be removed to prevent corrosion Depending on your application, the water quality requirements can vary: Boiler feed water characteristic Cooling water quality Tap water or fresh groundwater are the most widely used source of water to produce process water. Our process water treatment plant can combine various technology, depending on the purity required: Source 500-2000 uS/cm Quality required 5-20 uS/cm < 5 uS/cm < 1 uS/cm < 500 uS/cm < 5 uS/cm < 1 uS/cm Technology applied Reverse Osmosis 2-pass reverse Osmosis 2-pass reverse Osmosis + Mixed bed Ion exchange Ion exchange + Mixed bed

Once demineralised, process water should be conditionned according to manufacturer's specification, usually up to pH 9 by adding caustic soda or ammonia. More information on demineralised water

Purified water
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid

Purified water is water from any source that is physically processed to remove impurities. Distilled water and deionized (DI) water have been the most common forms of purified water, but water can also be purified by other processes including reverse osmosis, carbon filtration, microfiltration, ultrafiltration,ultraviolet oxidation, or electrodialysis. In recent decades, a combination of the above processes have come into use to produce water of such high purity that its trace contaminants are measured in parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt). Purified water has many uses, largely in science and engineering laboratories and industries, and is produced in a range of purities. Purified water in colloquial English can also refer to water which has been treated ("rendered potable") to neutralize, but not necessarily remove contaminants considered harmful to humans or animals. Distilled water is produced by a process of distillation and has an electrical conductivity of not more than 10 S/cm and total dissolved solids of less than 10 mg/litre.[1] Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the vapour into a clean container, leaving solid contaminants behind. Distillation produces very pure water. A white or yellowish mineral scale is left in the distillation apparatus, which requires regular cleaning. Distillation alone does not guarantee the absence of bacteria in drinking water unless containers are also sterilized. For many applications, cheaper alternatives such as deionized water are used in place of distilled water.


o o o o

1 Purification methods 1.1 Double distillation 1.2 Deionization 1.3 Other processes 2 Uses 2.1 Laboratory use

2.1.1 Criticism 2.1.2 Electrical Conductivity 2.2 Non-laboratory uses

3 Health effects of drinking purified water 4 See also

5 References

[edit]Purification [edit]Double



Double-distilled water (abbreviated "ddH2O", "Bidest. water" or "DDW") is prepared by double distillation of water. Historically, it was the de facto standard for highly purified laboratory water forbiochemistry and trace analysis until combination methods of purification became widespread.

Deionized water, also known as demineralized water[2] (DI water, DIW or de-ionized water), is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper andanions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization. Deionization does not remove the hydroxide or hydronium ions from water. These are the products of the selfionization of water to equilibrium and therefore are impossible to remove.



Other processes are also used to purify water, including reverse osmosis, carbon filtration, microporous filtration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation, or electrodialysis. These are used in place of, or in addition to the processes listed above. Processes rendering water potable but not necessarily closer to being pure H2O / hydroxide + hydronium ions include use of dilute sodium hypochlorite, mixed-oxidants (electro-catalyzed H2O + NaCl), and iodine; See discussion regarding potable water treatments under "Health effects" below.

Purified water is suitable for many applications, including autoclaves, hand-pieces, laboratory testing, laser cutting, and automotive use.[3] Purification removes contaminants which may interfere with processes, or leave residues upon evaporation. Although water is generally considered to be a good electrical conductorfor example domestic electrical systems are considered particularly hazardous to people if they may be in contact with wet surfacespure water is a poor conductor. Conductivity of sea-water is typically 5 S/m,[4] drinking water is typically in the range of 5-50 mS/m, while highly purified water can be as low as 5.5 S/m, a ratio of about 1,000,000:1,000:1.


Technical standards on water quality have been established by a number of professional organizations, including the American Chemical Society (ACS), ASTM International, the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) which is now CLSI, and the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP). The ASTM, NCCLS, and ISO 3696 classify purified water into Grade 13 or Types IIV depending upon the level of purity. These organizations have similar, although not identical, parameters for highly purified water. Regardless of which organization's water quality norm is used, even Type I water may require further purification depending upon the specific laboratory application. For example, water that is being used for molecular-biology experiments needs to be DNase or RNase-free, which requires special additional treatment or functional testing. Water for microbiology experiments needs to be completely sterile, which is usually accomplished by autoclaving. Water used to analyze trace metals may require elimination of trace metals to a standard beyond that of the Type I water norm.
Maximum Contaminant Levels in Highly Purified Water[5]

ISO 3696 (1987)

ASTM (D1193-91)

NCCLS (1988)

Pharmacop oeia

Contaminan t


Grad Grad Grad Typ Typ Typ Typ Typ Type Type e 1 e 2 e 3 e I* e e



II** III*** e IV e I



(20 C)


Resistivity at 25 C/Mcm





0.25 0.2 >10 >1

>0.1 >0.23

>0.7 7

Conductivity at 25 C/Scm1




0.05 1.0 6


5.0 <0.1 <1

<10 <4.3


Acidity/Alkali pH at 25 C nity

5.0 7.5

5.0 8.0

5.0 8.0


Total Organic Content/p.p.b. (g/l)



200 -

<50 <200

<100 <500 0

<50 0

Total Solids







<50 0

<0.0 <0.1 <1 5




<100 0


<10 0


A member of the ASTM D19 (Water) Committee, Erich L. Gibbs, criticized ASTM Standard D1193, by saying "Type I water could be almost anything water that meets some or all of the limits, part or all of the time, at the same or different points in the production process."[6]
[edit]Electrical Conductivity

Electrical conductivity of ultra-pure water is 5.5 106 Sm1 (18 M cm in the reciprocal terms of Electrical Resistivity) and is due only to H+ and OH- ions produced in the water dissociation equilibrium.[7][8] This low conductivity is only achieved, however, in the presence of dissolved monoatomic gases. Completely de-gassed ultra-pure water has conductivity of 1.2 104 Sm1, whereas upon equilibration to the atmosphere it is 7.5 105 Sm1 due to dissolved CO2 in it.[7] The highest grades of ultrapure water should not be stored in glass or plastic containers because these container materials leach (release) contaminants at very low concentrations.

Storage vessels made of silica are used for less demanding applications and vessels of ultrapure tin are used for the highest purity applications. Examples of laboratory quality sources include Milli-Q, Elga Ultra, or Purite Neptune.


Distilled or deionized water is commonly used to top up lead-acid batteries used in cars and trucks and for other applications. The presence of foreign ions commonly found in tap water will drastically shorten the lifespan of a lead-acid battery. Distilled or deionized water is preferable to tap water for use in automotive cooling systems. Using deionised or distilled water in appliances which evaporate water, such as steam irons and humidifiers, can reduce the build-up of mineral scale, which shortens appliance life. Some appliance manufacturers say that deionised water is no longer necessary. [9][10] Purified water is used in freshwater and marine aquariums. Since it does not contain impurities such as copper and chlorine, it helps to keeps fish free from diseases, and avoids the build-up of algae on aquarium plants due to its lack of phosphate and silicate. Deionized water should be re-mineralized before use in aquaria, since it lacks many macro- and micro-nutrients needed by plants and fish. Water (sometimes mixed with methanol) has been used to extend the performance of aircraft engines. In piston engines it acts to delay the onset of engine knocking. In turbine engines it allows more fuel flow for a given turbine temperature limit, and increases mass flow. As an example, it was used on early Boeing 707 models.

Advanced materials and engineering have since rendered such systems obsolete for new designs, however

spray-cooling of incoming air-charge is still used to a limited extent with off-road turbo-charged engines (roadrace track cars). Deionized water is very often used as an "ingredient" in many cosmetics and pharmaceuticals where it is sometimes referred to as "aqua" on product ingredient labels; see International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients. Because of its high relative dielectric constant (~80), deionized water is also used (for short durations) as a high voltage dielectric in many pulsed power applications, such as the Sandia National Laboratories Z Machine. Distilled water can be used in PC watercooling systems and Laser Marking Systems. The lack of impurity in the water means that the system stays clean and prevents a build up of bacteria and algae. Also, the low conductance reduces risk of electrical damage in the event of a leak. When used as a rinse after washing cars, windows, and similar applications, purified water dries without leaving spots caused by dissolved solutes.

Deionized water is used in water-fog fire-extinguishing systems used in sensitive environments, such as where high-voltage electrical and sensitive electronic equipment is used. The 'sprinkler' nozzles use much finer spray jets than other systems, and operate at up 35 MPa (350 bar; 5000 psi) of pressure. The extremely fine mist produced takes the heat out of a fire rapidly, and the fine droplets of water are nonconducting (when deionized) and are less likely to damage sensitive equipment. Deionized water, however, is inherently acidic and contaminants (such as copper, dust, stainless and carbon steel, and many other common materials) rapidly supply ions, thus re-ionizing the water. It is not generally considered acceptable to spray water on electrical circuits that are powered, and it is generally considered undesirable to use water in electrical contexts.[12][13][14][15] Distilled or purified water is used in humidors to reduce cigars from collecting bacteria, mold, and contaminants. And to prevent residue from forming on the humidifier material.

effects of drinking purified water

Distillation removes all minerals from water, and the membrane methods of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration remove most, or virtually all, minerals. This results in demineralized water which is not an ideal replacement for drinking water. The World Health Organization investigated the health effects of demineralized water in 1980, and its experiments in humans found that demineralized water increased diuresis and the elimination of electrolytes, with decreased serum potassium concentration. Magnesium, calcium and other nutrients in water can help to protect against nutritional deficiency. Demineralized water may also increase the risk from toxic metals because it more readily absorbs them, and because the presence of calcium and magnesium in water can prevent absorption of lead and cadmium. Recommendations for magnesium have been put at a minimum of 10 mg/L with 2030 mg/L optimum; for calcium a 20 mg/L minimum and a 4080 mg/L optimum, and a total water hardness (adding magnesium and calcium) of 24 mmol/L. At water hardness above 5 mmol/L, higher incidence of gallstones, kidney stones, urinary stones, arthrosis, and arthropathies have been observed. For fluoride the concentration recommended for dental health is 0.51.0 mg/L, with a maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L to avoid dental fluorosis.[16] Water filtration devices are becoming increasingly common in households. Most of these devices do not distill water, though there continues to be an increase in consumer-oriented water distillers andreverse osmosis machines being sold and used. Municipal water supplies often add or have trace impurities at levels which are regulated to be safe for consumption. Much of these additional impurities, such as volatile organic compounds, fluoride, and an estimated 75,000+ other chemical compounds[17][18][19] are not removed through conventional filtration; however, distillation and reverse osmosis eliminate nearly all of these impurities. The drinking of purified water as a replacement of drinking water has been both advocated and discouraged for health reasons. Purified water lacks minerals and ions such as calcium that play key roles in biological functions such as in nervous system homeostasis, and are normally found in potable water. The lack of naturally-occurring minerals in distilled water has raised some concerns. The Journal of General Internal

Medicine[20] published a study on the mineral contents of different waters available in the US. The study found that "drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of calcium, magnesium, and sodium and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals". It encouraged people to "check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs". Since distilled water is devoid of minerals, supplemental mineral intake through diet is needed to maintain proper health. The consumption of "hard" water (water with minerals) is associated with beneficial cardiovascular effects. As noted in the American Journal of Epidemiology, consumption of hard drinking water is negatively correlated with atherosclerotic heart disease.[21] Since distilled water is free of minerals, it will not have these potential benefits. Where a public water supply contains significant fluoride, naturally or added by fluoridation, people who prefer to limit fluoride intake can install filters appropriate to reduce fluoride content, although this may harm dental health.[22]

Water hardness
Water hardness is the result of naturally occurring calcium and magnesium salts. Water containing small amounts of these salts is said to be soft, whilst hard water contains greater levels. For further information on the hardness of the water supply in your area, please use the postcode search function provided on this website.
What is water hardness? There are two types of hardness, temporary and permanent, which depend on the type of salts present.

Temporary hardness is usually result of dissolved calcium carbonate, which forms the familiar whitish Permanent hardness contains the sulphates of calcium and magnesium, which remain soluble even

coloured scale seen in kettles. when heated. Where does hardness come from? Around 50 per cent of the water used in the Anglian Water region is collected from underground sources. Some rocks have a high chalk content, which dissolves into the water as it seeps through, thus increasing the hardness. These underground sources yield valuable, high quality water because the chalk filters the water and removes any impurities. Water abstracted from rivers and via reservoirs is also generally hard due to this geology. Hardness varies across different parts of the country; a map of the hardness in the Anglian Water region is shown below:


PENGOLAHAN AIR BOILER/CHILLER/ COOLING TOWER KONVENSIONAL Dalam industri, uap panas digunakan untuk energi pemanasan, pengupasan, penghilangan lendir, peningkatan kelembaban dan pembersihan. Uap panas juga digunakan dalam proses blanching, exhausting dan sterilisasi. Uap

panas diproduksi dengan menggunakan boiler, yaitu tempat memanaskan air hingga air berubah menjadi uap. Dalam pengadaan air untuk produksi uap, sedapat mungkin dihindarkan penggunaan air yang banyak mengandung garamgaram kalsium dan magnesium (air sadah). Pengaruh penggunaan air sadah kurang baik karena dapat mempercepat timbulnya kerak pada bejana dan pipa sehingga mengurangi efisiensi kerja dan umur pakai alat. Demikian pula dengan tingkat keasaman air/alkalinitasnya. Jika air bersifat asam maka akan menyebabkan reaksi dan berakibat korosif terhadap logam, disamping akan berubah warna airnya juga umur pakai alat menjadi berkurang serta kekuatan terhadap tekanan akan semakin melemah karena menipisnya logam akibat korosif. Untuk itu air yang akan digunakan sebagai air baku boiler atau chill water diusahakan air dengan pH netral dan berupa air lunak. 2. Kesadahan air dan Cara Menghilangkannya Air sadah adalah air yang banyak mengandung garam kalsium dan magnesium. Dalam industri pengolahan hasil pertanian, air sadah mempunyai beberapa kelemahan/kerugian, yaitu: a.) Air sadah tidak efektif sebagai air pencuci, karena ion kalsium dan magnesium bereaksi dengan sabun, akibatnya menambah kebutuhan sabun dalam pencucian. Kesadahan juga meninggalkan endapan sebagai lapisan tipis pada permukaan benda yang dicuci. b.) Kesadahan menyebabkan timbulnya endapan/kerak pada bejana dan pipa. Akibatnya proses produksi akan terganggu, umur alat menjadi berkurang. c.) Tingginya kesadahan dapat juga menimbulkan rasa dan warna yang tidak dikehendaki. Usaha pengurangan/penghilangan kesadahan air disebut pelunakan air. Ada dua jenis kesadahan air, yaitu kesadahan sementara dan kesadahan tetap. Kesadahan sementara disebabkan oleh tingginya kandungan kalsium bikarbonat atau magnesium bikarbonat, dapat dihilangkan dengan cara pemanasan. Melalui pemanasan dapat menimbulkan endapan CaCO3 dan MgCO3 yang dapat dipisahkan dengan penyaringan. Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Mg(HCO3)2 (aq) MgCO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Jika air banyak mengandung garam kalsium atau magnesium selain bikarbonat, kesadahannya disebut kesadahan tetap karena tak bisa dihilangkan dengan pemanasan. Cara pelunakannya dengan mereaksikan garam-garam tersebut dengan soda abu (Na2CO3) sehingga kalsium dan magnesium mengendap sebagai CaCO3 dan MgCO3. Contoh reaksinya: CaSO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) CaCO3 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq) MgSO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) MgCO3 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) CaCO3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) MgCO3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) Cara lain untuk melunakkan air adalah dengan penggunaan zeolit atau resin ion(penukar ion). Zeolit (atau disebut natrium zeolit) adalah batuan mineral sebagai natrium silikat, dengan rumus (2 SiO2Al2O3Na2O). Ion natrium dalam zeolit dapat bereaksi untuk pertukaran ion. Prinsip pelunakan dengan proses zeolit adalah mengganti ion kalsium dan magnesium dalam air dengan ion natrium dari zeolit. Sebaliknya, senyawa natrium zeolit berubah menjadi kalsium zeolit dan magnesium zeolit. Reaksinya adalah sebagai berikut: CaSO4 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Ca-zeolit (s) + Na2SO4 (aq) MgSO4 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Mg-zeolit (s) + Na2SO4 (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Ca-zeolit (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Mg-zeolit (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Ca-zeolir (s) + 2 NaHCO3 (aq) Mg(HCO3)2 (aq) + Na2-zeolit (s) Mg-zeolit (s) + 2 NaHCO3 (aq) Setelah zeolit secara keseluruhan telah berubah dari natrium zeolit menjadi kalsium zeolit dan magnesium zeolit, maka zat itu tak dapat lagi digunakan untuk pelunakan. Oleh karena itu diperlukan regenerasi zeolit agar dapat digunakan lagi dalam proses yang sama. Regenerasi zeolit dilakukan dengan mereaksikan kalsium zeolit dan magnesium zeolit dengan garam NaCl sehingga terbentuk lagi natrium zeolit yang aktif. 2 NaCl (aq) + Ca-zeolit (s) Na2-zeolit (s) + CaCl2 (aq) 2 NaCl (aq) + Mg-zeolit (s) Na2-zeolit (s) + MgCl2 (aq)

3. Pelunakan air Pelunakan air bertujuan untuk mengurangi kandungan garam kalsium dan magnesium dalam air sadah, sehingga dapat diperoleh air lunak. Caranya yaitu dengan menambahkan bahan kimia, sehingga garam kalsium dan magnesium berubah menjadi senyawa mengendap sehingga dapat dipisahkan. Bahan pelunak yang baik adalah Natrium karbonat (soda abu) Untuk menghasilkan uap panas dalam proses produksi pengolahan digunakan boiler. Sebagai bahan baku boiler penghasil uap adalah air. Agar boiler dapat menghasilkan uap secara efektif, diperlukan air yang memenuhi persyaratan yaitu air dengan alkalinitas netral (pH 7) sehingga air tidak bersifat korosif. Air yang asam akan menimbulkan reaksi yang berakibat air berubah warna serta terjadi penipisan lapisan logam alat. Disamping pH air, kesadahan juga sangat mempengaruhi terhadap keselamatan dan efektifitas kerja boiler. Air sadah disamping dapat menimbulkan kerak pada permukaan alat yang semakin lama semakin menebal, yang pada akhirnya dapat menyebabkan penyumbatan pada pipa-pipa distribusi, jika tekanan uap sangat besar dapat membahayakan keselamatan, karena terjadi pemampatan dan dapat berakibat fatal dengan meledak/jebolnya pipa distribusi. Kerak yang terbentuk pada permukaan pipa boiler dapat mengurangi terjadinya transfer panas sehingga energi untuk mengubah air menjadi uap menjadi besar, karena adanya energi panas yang terserap oleh kerak. Oleh karena itu air baku boiler/chill water sebelum dialirkan kealat atau digunakan terlebih dahulu harus diketahui karakteristiknya, sehingga dapat diantisipasi jika air tidak memenuhi persyaratan.

How is hardness measured? To calculate the total hardness of the water, the quantity of calcium and magnesium salts present in the water is found using the following calculation: [mg/l calcium x (2.497) + mg/l magnesium x (4.188)] x 0.4

This calculation gives the total hardness of the water as calcium in milligrammes per litre, which can be seen on the Detailed Report for the supply zone as Total Hardness (as Ca). Total hardness can be expressed in a number of different units. Dishwasher manufacturers may use these different units in the instructions for setting salt levels. The table below provides the calculations used to convert Total Hardness (as Ca) to these different units. x 2.5 Total Hardness (as Ca) (mg/l) x 0.174 x 0.25 x 0.142 40 Is it dangerous? An adequate daily intake of calcium is essential for normal growth and health. Foods such as dairy products, beans, eggs, nuts, cauliflower and spinach contain calcium. The hardness of water has a small but beneficial effect on a healthy diet, and a number of studies have shown that drinking hard water reduces cardiovascular disease. Has the problem got worse in recent years? Levels of hardness have generally not increased, but the effects may be more noticeable due to new designs in kettles and the more common use of steam irons. Stainless steel and plastic kettles do not collect scale like old-style kettles and so the scale floats freely in the boiled water. This is part of the reason why scum may be noticed on hot drinks the freely floating scale reacts with the essential oils in tea and coffee.It is not harmful in any way. Here are some simple tips to help improve the appearance of your cup of tea: = Degrees Clarke (or Grains per gallon or English Degrees) = French Degrees = German Degrees = Millimoles as Ca (mmol/l) = calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mg/l

Always make your tea in a teapot and not a mug or cup. Use a kettle and a teapot with a spout at the bottom. Add the milk to your cup first. Dont let the tea stew as this results in more scum. Try using a tea strainer even if you use tea bags.

Do I need a domestic water softener? Anglian Water is responsible for supplying a reliable source of safe, clean, drinking water. Anglian Water does not interfere with the natural hardness of the regions water, it is left to the customer, either domestic or industrial, to decide whether artificial softening is the right choice for them. There are efficient softening devices available for domestic installation from reputable companies. Most work by altering the chemical composition of the water. The calcium and magnesium are substituted by sodium. Anglian Water strongly advises that customers keep at least one mains-fed tap in the property for drinking and cooking purposes. This is particularly important for bottle-fed infants and anyone on a sodium-restricted diet*. In addition, a number of studies show that drinking hard water reduces cardiovascular disease. * Many water softeners work by exchanging the calcium and magnesium in the water for sodium