CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND By the turn of the 21st century, with the empowerment and widespread of information

, communication and technology, and the evolution of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT), “The Cloud” came to our world. Cloud Computing is a service that disrupts the conventional data center, where you keep acquiring servers, personal computers and software licenses as your business grows. Running application services on a cloud platform moves CapEx (capital expense) to OpEx (operational expense), because business can develop, deploy and use more application services as they require them, without needing huge initial capital investments (and ensuing operational costs) for dedicated infrastructure that may never be needed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a central role in a country‟s economy. They are a major source of entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment for they are 95% of the economy (World Bank, 2006). Countries in the world are moving from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy in which economic growth is dependent on a country‟s ability to create, accumulate and disseminate knowledge. Computers and the Internet helped the growth of the knowledge economy by allowing people to acquire knowledge digitally easily transmitted from anywhere around the world.


SME usage of ICT ranges from basic technology such as radio and fixed lines to more advanced technology such as email, e-commerce, and information processing systems. The use of Email, Internet browsing, intranet, file sharing, creating websites, e-commerce, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) falls into the category of e-business, including the use of Cloud Computing. An SME will definitely have a significant advancement in the delivery services, and an advantage in speed, agility and efficiency. By providing on demand access to a shared pool of computing resources in a self-service, dynamically scaled and metered manner. However, is Cloud Computing really suitable for SME‟s? Statement of the Problem With the increasing rate of development in Information and

Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the increasing complexities of demands from clients, SMEs from other countries have began adopting advance ICT products and services to increase efficiency and productivity while reducing operational cost. However, Kotelnikov, stated that the Asia-Pacific region is lagging behind the others because of “the fact that many SMEs are not aware of the benefits and the direct financial gains to be attained by adopting ICT” (2007). The researchers decided to adapt this statement in the local context and to specifically focus on cloud computing as an emerging technology in the country. Thus, the research paper will focus on the benefits and the direct financial gains of SMEs in the Philippines attained by adopting cloud computing .


Moreover, the study will attempt to answer the following questions: 1. What are the perceived benefits of cloud computing to SMEs ? 2. What programs or regulations regarding the advocacy of ICTs in the Philiipines currently exist? 3. Which government or private entities would bring significant assistance to the proliferation of advocacy and use of cloud computing technology amongst SMEs? Hypotheses Based on the reports and articles gathered by the researchers, they have come to formulate that if the government implements a more aggressive ICT awareness and assistance campaign then SMEs would be more knowledgeable about the benefits of implementing cloud computing.

Significance of the Study “The global business economy operates year-round without regard in time, location, geographic boundaries, language or culture. For any business to

succeed, it must create a technology platform and infrastructure that operates in the same way” (Haag et al, 2007). Thus being said, conducting a study to

further improve a business is a pursuit that will always be welcomed in any community. Business as a whole does not only generate livelihood and jobs for


people, it also fosters the improvement of technology and innovation due to the complexity of demands that from consumers and clients (Reynolds, 2010). The majority of the business sector comes from SMEs thus, this sector proves to be a great driving force in any country. The Department of Trade and Industry recognizes the significant contributions of the SME sector; moreover, this group “tends to be more innovative in developing indegenous or appropriate technology, which may be grown later into pioneering technological

breakthrough” (2009). This sector is more than willing to adopt new technologies to increase the rate of improvement within the core of their organization; therefore, it is advantegous for this group to stumble upon a study that may contribute to their improvement and development. Within the business and IT industry around the world, Cloud computing can be considered one of the most controversial trends in IT as of today. Conducting a study within the local context of the Philippines may serve as a supplement to the further examination of the appropriation of this technology in the SME sector. To the Country The researchers believe that the ICT advancement of SMEs in the Philippines can help develop the country‟s economy dramatically, for SMEs are 97% of the Philippines economy. Cloud computing will help SMEs grow and become more efficient, which will soon require more people to work which will definitely improve the country‟s economy.

This study may also help in the improvement of ICT technologies in developing countries such as the Philippines. This study may be a medium where students will have the basic knowledge on Cloud computing and the benefit it brings to an individual or an enterprise. The promise of simplifying business transactions in shorter periods of time through commonly used devices is now more viable. Awareness of emerging technologies may also inspire them to be more innovative. as projected by IT practitioners it can transform the means and ways that business can operate. super SMEs. The increase of a business‟ productivity affects not only their clients but their employees as well. thanks to Cloud Computing. however. The success of a business in a local district may mean more employment jobs for the members of the community. To the Students Cloud computing may still be in the early stages. To Future Researchers Future researchers may find this study valuable for it contains accurate and reliable data to be studied or developed. Students might as well be informed about the emergence of this innovation.To the Community The community can benefit from the great and quick service they get from ICT equipped. 5 .

Programs and advocacies coming from the government and private sectors will also be studied for this paper. the Technology. Also.Scope and Delimitation Cloud computing is relatively new to the Philippines. theories on Adoption and Acceptance of Technology and Innovations will be utilized in this paper. Organization and 6 . the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) would provide the most probable reasons why a technological innovation is accepted within an organization. thus. The research will also be based on interviews from industry expert and random surveys from various SMEs coming from different industries aside from journals and articles in print and published online. the researchers based several aspects of the research from the answers of the industry experts they were able to contact for this paper. Due to the strained period of research. due to the latent stage of cloud computing and the lack of awareness. As a supplement to the former. the report does not focus on any specific industry or business . 2009). The researchers have opted to focus on SMEs based in Metro Manila due to the fact that majority of the businesses are based in the NCR (DTI. First. Theoretical Framework To further understand the how to promote the potential benefits of cloud computing to SMEs. The research offers an overview of the perceived benefits the cloud computing technology can offer to SMEs. knowledge and awareness of this technology is still in its latent stage.

such as Globe and PLDT. which has “strong behavioral elements”.Environment (TOE) Framework. TAM: Technology Acceptance Model (Davis. have started introducing cloud computing ventures to their clients (Reyes. one of the major barriers in acquiring technology is cost” 7 . This. Telecommunication companies. is an ideal situation and in reality there are factors such as time. TAM. will attempt to focus more on the factors that organizations consider before they adopt a new technology. 1989) This theory assumes that the perceived ease of use and usefulness of an innovation determines the intention of an individual to use a system. There will be no need to login the office computer to view reports and data needed by individuals. 2010). Orrock says that “For small and medium enterprises(SMEs). he will be free to act without restrictions. 1986). Entrepreneur magazine recently featured an article on cloud computing and how it benefits entrepreneurs. posits that when there is an intention to act from individual. Once an owner of a company approves of an application to be used within the organization. With the availability and the competitive prices of mobile services in the country. the dessimination of cloud computing applications would be easier to diffuse down the levels of an organization. however. organizational or environemental limits and limited ability that inhibits the “freedom to act” (Davis. the ease of accessing data online would be readily available to their members. Information will always be accessible and available to them.

as presented in the aforementioned example. and Environment Framework (Oliviera and Martins. 2011) This theory. The advantage of “reducing IT capital and ongoing support cost” with the added simplicity of accessing payroll systems or accounts through any device equipped with a web browser makes cloud computing an attractive venture to invest in (Orrock. The ease of using applications specifically tailored for the needs of an organization and the usefulness in reducing expenses is projected to influence the acceptance of cloud computing by SMEs. conceptualized by Tornatzky and Fleisher. Moreover. The advantages of cloud computing. Organization.(2011). This includes the current equipment and practices found internally inside a firm. scope and managerial structure. The last 8 . describes 3 aspects of an enterprise‟s context that influences the process by which it adopts and implements a technological innovation . 2011). External set of technologies are also factored in this context. The second aspect is the organizational context that is about the descriptive measures of the firm such as the size. can be assumed to attract more SMEs to look in to the utilization of cloud applications. TOE : Technology. the luxury of increasing productivity through applications that automate day-to-day processes used by biggers businesses can now be readily available to smaller enterprises. through cloud computing. The first aspect is the technological context which describes the relevant external and internal technologies used by an enterprise.

industry. 2011). Coming from different industries. Each industry has different needs and specifications when it comes to day-to-day processes.aspect of TOE is the environment context “arena” where a firm conducts its business – its competitors. an international cloud computing solutions company. (Oliviera and Martins. In the Philippines. 9 . 2011). Salesforce caters to various companies such as Avon. offers consultation to address the distinctive needs of a company. these companies have unique needs from each other and cloud computing is working to their advantage (Salesforce. and government dealings. Salesforce. Dermatologica and UST-a business solutions group.

10 . Tornatzky and Fleisher’s Technology. Technology Acceptance Model (Davis.Paradigm Perceived Usefulness Behavioral Intention to use Actual System Use Perceived Ease of Use Figure 1. 1989) Figure 2. 2011). Organization. and Environment framework (Oliviera and Martins.

Commision on Information and Communication Technology. industrial buildings or equipment. and succeed and. CICT . flourish. 11 . These terms are as follows: 1. planning. ensuring consumer welfare. regulating. e-Commerce . CapEx . " 4.Definition of Terms Since the research will delve in technology and business topics. This commission is the primary policy. coordinating. and regulate integrated and strategic ICT systems and reliable cost-efficient communication facilities and services. develop. it would be best to define the commonly used terms that readers will find in this paper for them to better understand the ideas and concepts that are discussed here. 2. and administrative entity of the executive branch of the Government that will promote.Electronic commerce describes the process of of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.The Department of Trade and Industry is the primary government agency with the dual mission of facilitating the creation of a business environment wherein participants could compete. at the same time. implementing. DTI . 3.Capital Expenditure refers to the funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property.

Intranet – a company-specific network modeled after the Internet 10. This field includes hardware. PDA‟s. Internet – A worldwide public network of services for businesses and counsumers 8. 11. OpEx . store. Internet Protocol . IT hardware.Information Technology refers all the tools that capture. 6. 12 . and laptops. IT infrastructure – a defined set of software. 12. and networks in an organization.The method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. 7. NCR – is the center of Luzon and capital region of the Philippines 13.Operational Expense is the ongoing cost for running a business.5. IT . ICT . exchange. system or product . E-mail . servers.Electronic Mail is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients across the Internet or other computer networks. such as mainframe computers. 9. and use information. process.Information and Communications Technology is the use of information in order to meet human need or purpose including reference to the use of contemporary devices such as the Internet.

14.Small and Medium Enterprises refers to any business engaged in industry. agri-business/services.Voice over Internet Protocol is one of a family of internet technologies. or corporation whose total assets. and transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. The enterprise must have more than 9 but less than 200 hundred employees 15. cooperative. plant and equipment are situated. inclusive of those arising from loans but exclusive of the land on which the particular business entity's office. partnership. communication protocols. such as the Internet. 13 . activity/enterprise whether single proprietorship. VoIP . SMEs .

the advancement of technology. second. Simply put. and lastly. the economies have come to transform into an information society or a knowledge society. trend watcher John Naisbitt gave an emphasis on the “occurrence of an information explosion”.CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM As early as the 80‟s. With the transformation of economies into information societies. Instead of the usual brick and mortar systems. Marshall Mcluhan (1964) popularized the global village concept which in turn conceived the idea of global business communities. the rapid change in communication came with it. several trends were projected to appear in the business sector and the more notable trends related to the study are: First. the availability of computers to end users. the change to information society. third. He stated the fact that “we have been converted from an industrial society to an information society” and that economies will be built on production. As stated earlier. Information became a commodity in functioning and leveraging a business upward. fourth. management and the use of information (Senn. 1990). Also from Senn‟s book. the global business community. made communication with someone from the other side of the world 14 . specifically in the ICT sector. companies have adapted to the changing times and implemented new technology and innovations in their organizations. the improvement of productivity. the faster pace of business. Information Systems in Management.

From simple telephones and fax machines to the Internet and the advancement in mobile communication -. innovations and technologies. 2009). it does not come as a surprise to find out that as time passes by. specifically through the Internet. Buying online became as easy as buying in your local supermarket. 1995).faster as though he inhabits the same physical space such as. 15 . there is also an “increasing need for more detailed and accurate information” to make a business run smoothly and become more competitive (Senn. strengthened the global business community trend. even with people who live across the globe.these various mediums enhanced the ability of businesses to transact more efficiently and in a shorter period of time as compared to the tedious business processes a few years back. 1990).com. With their number and their openness to new trends. this sector proves to be a significant factor in the promulgation of cloud computing in any country (DTI. A concrete example of this is the leading e-commerce company. this company which is located in California. As countries and people miles apart become closer than ever through the continuous improvement of technology. brought people together from various countries because of the service they gave. The ease of conducting business online. people living in the same district or village (Symes. as a virtual market where people can buy and sell their products. ebay. The forefront sector that brings in competition in the business industry is SME sector.

final interview. the information is not stored in its central processing units hard drive but rather a server located away from the computer unit being used. 2011) (Catacutan. account specific assessments and job offer and requirements. as for the Business Process (BPO) and Knowledge Process (KPO) organizations. 2011. For the regular retail and logistics business. is the basis for the number of employees in the business (pcmag. All of these are done now as a one 16 . then processed for initial interview. all of these are encoded. From the time they submit their resumes. testing. not the manpower itself. However. this is considered as the acceptable number. 2011) these kinds of organizations or businesses have the potential for development and growth.) Cloud Computing Technology at a Glance These are programs that are on the Internet (Manansala. Unlike the ones from a personal computer. 2011). 2011).com.At a glance. Many argue about the manpower size to be considered as such. the number of work stations. One good example of this is the recruitment process in a leading call center. The file is shared with all the users and can be updated in real time (MIS online. specifically for the process and status of an applicant for a call center agent post. SMEs are to be defined as organizations that have less than a thousand but more than a hundred employees for medium enterprises and small ones do have less than one hundred employees (Entrepreneur Magazine.

First. 2009) Benefits would cover: lower initial cost. Some of the properties of cloud computing are: user-centric. intelligent and programmable. accessible. powerful. Instead of buying a set of software for each central processing unit. (Winnans. Since all the applications are over the Internet. 2009). you can work anywhere as long as there is access from the service provider. all the rest of the time in motion activities are shortened. only authorized users can gain access to the information while it can be dissimilated throughout a network of computers with just one click. making it more effective and efficient. overhead process and this would not be possible without the use of localized cloud computing processes in a form of an excel file that is shared and updated by each department as soon as the applicant is over with the steps on their end. Updating of the information can be updated in real time and the analysis for the date can be concise and be double checked in an intelligent manner. maximum mobility. The upgrading of system will only affect the server and not the individual units tagging along with it which results to savings instead of additional overhead expenses. since it is automated. The working and updating of files will be better than before as they are reachable via browser equipped devices. only one is needed and can be processed via the server. better collaboration and increased safety. Lastly. 17 . The best part of this is that this critical file is securely stored somewhere where viruses and other threats are reduced to zero because it‟s only viewed on the same place which is the server (Kitch. 2010) (Gartner.

Another trend that is already happening right now is the increase of availability of computers to end users. updates on between systems. a local express courier and money express service provider. Asian Development Bank‟s survey in the Philippines came out with the result that 7. Reduction of constant monitoring. These trends are currently found not only in big corporations but also in the SME sector. The availability of data is crucial to the foresight of the business and can determine the success or failure of such. 18 . hardware requirement spending and multiple applications setting are just of the few factors that would be an advantage. LBC started out as a brokerage and air cargo forwarding service provider and currently. 2007). A unifying key factor is that this planning may be used with different application modules to store organizational data. and as a counter measure for them to make sure the package goes to the right address.3 percent (per 100 people) in the country has access to a computer. Bottom line: redundancy and reliability are more likely to be seen with this trend. The adoption of computing technology in the country steadily increases year after year. The reach of personal computer use has spread out from the year 2000 until 2007 (ADB. they offer worldwide couriers services that offers online tracking for their customers who would want to view where their package is at a specific time. (Singh.Cloud computing can be applied to enterprises and be based on the concept of integrating information and methodologies into a program. 2010) A perfect example of this is the evolving system of Luzon Brokerage Corporation (LBC).

feeding channels with transformational initiatives” said Jubert Daniel Alberto. SMEs tend to be more innovative in developing indigenous or appropriate technologies (DTI. With their large number. 19 . therefore. standard procedures are not instituted. ICT investments made by SMEs would greatly differ from the ICT investments by large firms because “a smaller number of people have decision-making responsibility.6 percent of all the existing businesses. the market will see an even larger scale of competition. and there is more reliance on external IT experts in SMEs (Lester and Tran. long-term planning is limited. manager for IT spending research at IDC Philippines. 2009). 2008). In 2011. As a result. smart pricing models. compared to bigger corporations. SMEs are seen as a vital entity in diffusing new industries to the urban areas and stimulating lucrative employment. the implementation of advanced ICT in this sector would be more plausible in a few years time. and bringing them to the marketplace ahead of competition. Thus. As a whole. as well as the ever-evolving needs of SMBs and consumers‟ increased usage of ICT. service providers (SPs) and channels would need to focus on coming up with products and services that offer specific business value to clients. fueled by the increased complexity in ICT needs of enterprises.As mentioned earlier. more tactical partnerships with strategic players within the ICT ecosystem. they are relatively quicker in adopting and infusing new design trends. and. SMEs in the Philippines make up 99. ICT stakeholders such as vendors. developing contemporary products.

He emphasized that this service is an example of a cloud service because consumers don‟t normally concern themselves where electricity from Meralco comes from. cloud services have already existed in more ways than one in our society. 20 . especially in the Philippines. 2011).ICT plays a very important role because it can help SMEs create both business opportunities and combat pressures from competition. Cloud Computing In A Nutshell The researchers found that although cloud computing seems very new to the perception of many. an Information Security Analyst for Asian Development Bank. Appropriate ICT can help SMEs cut costs by improving their internal processes. He says that we have been subscribing to cloud service ever since we signed up for electricity distribution from Meralco. and better promoting and distributing their products through online presence (IDC. An interview with Dominique Catacutan. improving their product through faster communication with their customers. curtailed by various legal and corporate machinery that consumers don‟t need to know (Catacutan. 2010). the important elements consumers care about is how much to pay and the quality of service that Meralco delivers to them and every other backend element is thrown in the „cloud‟. described the most common way majority of Filipinos experience a certain kind of cloud service without their knowledge.

Management Information System (MIS) journal online defined cloud computing as a “general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet” (2010). As Dominique Catacutan said. Business owners and managers must be very stringent in examining vendors and the services they offer. 21 . Various studies and literature from academes and vendors are scattered online and on print talking about the revolution of the cloud computing technology. Technically speaking this „cloud‟ is a representation of the Internet in schematic diagrams. “cloud computing is another form of delivery of IT services (2011). Some writers tell their readers to be cautious of companies that ride on the increasing popularity of cloud computing. Research shows various version of the definition for cloud computing and these usually confuse rather than help in explaining to business owners what the cloud is and what cloud computing can do. cloud computing service providers assume the responsibility of keeping your data in their servers which a client can access through the Internet. instead of increasing the overhead expenses of a company through buying and maintaining their own servers.With this refreshing analogy in mind. the researchers have come to better understand that this technological innovation has been around for quite some time and is now being revolutionized to a more customizable delivery of service for the needs of different clients.

e. etc. and clear predefined operational processes). Consumers should see or need not involve themselves in the details of implementation (Lester and Tran. performance versus price. “The articulation of the service feature is based on service level and IT outcomes (availability. The service must be “ready to use” or “off the shelf” because the service offered by vendors must already be tailored according to the specific needs of consumers. Everything must be easy to use without an expert 22 .Consumers must be guided when choosing service providers and vendors of cloud computing services. messages. 2008). documents. User Centric: once connected a user is authorized to access anything that is stored there i. KEY PROPERTIES OF CLOUD COMPUTING 1. Simply put. the quality of service provided is the main focus of cloud computing rather than how the technologies are used to address issues and implement solutions. response time. rather than technology and its capabilities”. images. The next part of this study will talk about the important characteristics that must be present in any service that presents itself as a product of the cloud computing technology.

2009) 2. resources can be added or removed on demand (Gartner. 2010) (Brown and Winnans. The service can automatically scale the capacity up or down as the consumer demands. The result of such demands must be implemented in real time or in a very short period of time (which may be seconds for some services and hours for others). Scalable and Elastic: the system is intelligent. (Arunsharma. data mining and analysis are necessary to access that information in an intelligent manner” (Arunsharma. 2008). Scalability is an element associated with the underlying software platforms and infrastructure while Elasticity is a feature of shared pools of resources. 2010).knowledge in technology. “with all the various data stored on the computers in a cloud. The latter is also connected not only to scale but also “an economic model that resembles scaling in both directions in and automated fashion. 23 .

2010) (Gartner. 4. 2010). Payment plans may vary. subscriptions and even free plans. 2008) (MIS online. all running at the same time (Gartner. Services are tracked with the use of metrics thus enabling multiple payment models that may include pay-as-you-go plans. use-based attributes delivered or data transfer (MIS online. This concept produces maximum efficiency and enables unused resource to serve various needs for different consumers. Metered by Use: This model allows vendors to create different pricing plans and models according to the services needed by a client. fixed plans. Powerful: Cloud computing offers a service which is from the “wealth of computing power” (MIS online. 2008) 24 . 2010). terms may be in hours. The underlying software or platforms and infrastructure are shared among the consumers of the service.3. This concept bases the payment on the usage and not on the cost of equipment used.

Entrepreneur Philippines suggested 10 ways to save on costs and one of the tips they gave out was to “Think about leasing instead of buying. cloud computing services must be accessible through any device that can browse the Internet (Garner. 25 .. cost reduction. These issues are directly addressed by the cloud computing technology. 2009). and formats. accessibility of web services became easier. 2008) (Brown and Winnans. This characteristic must innately occur within a cloud computing service. and reliability. Cloud Computing Benefits For The Local SMEs Cloud computing offers many benefits such as accessibility. Uses Internet Technologies: The service is delivered using Internet protocols. such as URLs. security.” and to operate business through mobile or lease a virtual office (2011). HTTP. IP and representational state transfer Weboriented architecture and identifiers. elimination of maintenance and upgrading. Business owners or managers always try to find means to reduce overhead expenses. The benefits that can directly be of advantage for SMEs are as follows: 1. With the emergence of smart phones.5. Transparent Pricing: Instead of buying hardware and software or applications for business productivity. As aforementioned..

This is one of the beauties of cloud computing services. edit. They lease the application or IT infrastructure they need and pay according to the approved metrics between the consumer and the provider. This arrangement releases the user from further obligations and responsibilities of upgrading. Business Continuity: Another advantage of adopting this technology is the ease of accessing data. users can customize and choose a payment plan that is appropriate to the scale of their business. With the complex demands coming from clients who want everything done as soon as possible. provider does all the implementation maintenance while the user focuses more on revenue generating activities which in turn aids in decreasing the overhead expense and capital expenditure of a company. save and delete their data online. Any device with an Internet browser can access.consumers can now avail of these IT necessities without paying for the services up front. maintaining and The and physically storing hardware and software. 2. this feature can be the 26 .

payroll. a cloud-based program or application must be able to deliver the same quality of service in a quick response 27 . which in turn keeps the data safe from being destroyed. The ability of data recovery must always be considered by businesses looking into investing in a cloud service.solution to that problem. Cloud computing providers utilize redundancy in data storage to make sure that in any unfortunate event. providers and businesses still need to continue operations. Affordable and reliable Internet connectivity remains unreliable in various parts of the country. occasional load bursts and cyclic peaks without any depreciation in service. In the event of a disaster such as earthquakes and terrorist attacks. accounts. spreadsheets and presentations can be edited and viewed by various users simultaneously without worrying about their physical location or the device that they use. 3. Reliability: Cloud infrastructure must be resilient enough to handle new demands. the data from their clients are scattered in various servers. Databases.

it has to be taken into consideration that every business is unique from each other.time. especially in businesses that deal with sensitive information. Configurable: Although some industries use the same applications. Data security is a big issue in the business community and it is best to be vigilant when it comes to infusing a certain system in an organization. online applications and programs and the personnel they have in their organization. 28 . The ability of a provider to configure an application specifically for a business while sharing resources makes a worthwhile investment for SMEs. even though there are constraints in the network. 4. Mandatory background checks for people and frequent vulnerability testing by experts must always be part of their responsibility. as promised by providers. 5. Security: Viewed as the most important feature to consider. Vendors must secure physical infrastructure. high levels of security must always be implemented by service providers.

29 . No technical knowledge is required from users in order for them to utilize these applications and programs. Vendors take the responsibility of developing the software and hardware used by a client.6. the operation costs are also shared among those who are leasing the infrastructure from the same service provider. Usability of Applications: Freedom from system maintenance and upgrading. 8. consumers can enjoy device and location independence of infrastructures used. Shared Resources: Multi-tenancy or sharing of resources and costs across a pool of users. thus. these features come with the services of cloud computing. These are already handled by the vendors. Since resources are shared. 7. consumers need only buy basic machines and devices that can access the application and programs from the Internet. This system of resource sharing shaves off a significant portion from the expenses of a business. Infrastructure and device independence: With cloud computing services.

2010) (PC World Philippines. And Policies That Advocate ICT In The Philippines For a developing country such as the Philippines. Aside from these. Since cloud computing technology makes use of resource sharing among consumers sustainability of resource is advocated even without conscious effort from clients. sometimes the existence of regulations and programs made for various sectors and industries remain ignored by a majority of the population since they tend to focus on the more explosive issues in their community. and hardware. the redundancy of systems used ensures that the data stored online will not be easy to lose or destroy. (Arunsharma. laws and regulations that are championed by the government‟s legislative law. 2010) and (Orrock. namely the Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT) that encourages the improvement and development of ICTs in the country. Sustainability: Through improved resource utilization.9. 2011) Overview Of Laws. Regulations. the carbon footprint of a company is greatly reduced due to the lessened use of writing implements. 30 . However. the researchers found out that there are policies.

otherwise known as Electronic Commerce Act (2000). back office.” (De Leon. Ramon Magsaysay Jr. local governments and community based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. “it is aimed to make domestic and international transactions better and easier through the use of the 31 . Section 12 asserts that “The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. if not support. the needs of the economic development of the country in various industries.The Philippine constitution covers a provision on the obligation of the government to advocate and help in the adoption of technologies and innovations that would improve the state of the nation as a whole. medical and legal transcription outfits. Article 14. business process outsourcing. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups. gaming and others that would be affected in the medium-term development plan. 2008) Included in the appendix are the complete texts of executive orders that would fulfill. it was passed to “make the country IT – oriented in various fields of business and commerce” moreover. One of the most popular regulations in the business sector is Republic Act 8792. Some of them would include knowledge process outsourcing. Authored by Sen. ASEAN‟s website feature on the Magna Carta for Small Enterprises (RA 6977) mentions the two most significant policies that give a general scope on the importance of ICT in the development of SMEs.

education public communications and other mediums that disperses information and or goods (ASEAN. This is not a simple measure to establish a name for formality but has a strong sense to promote the awareness of the public about information and communications technology. 4300. 2000). The Philippine government acknowledges the significance of country and economic needs when it comes to information technology. 269. a business-conducive environment. 32 . This plan also envisions a development-oriented information society that promotes sustainability and quality of life among others The Department of Information and Communication Technology (DICT) was only a proposal up until 5 august 2008 that turned into house bill no. 2011). services delivery. Another target of the project is to gain awareness and accessibility for the public to be able to disseminate information and updates to all those concerned. this guideline highlights what ICT prioritization can do to help launch economic communications technology” (Republic Act 8792. 2006). E-governance is a project based on the goal that all the agencies will be conglomerated as a unit easily accessible inter-agency. This law pioneered the foundations of necessary legal infrastructure and framework for the utilization of ICT as a tool in nation building (Camposano. The second legislative policy significant to this study is Executive Order No.

The government can only do so much as advertise and promote the technology but it is the vendors of these services and the business sector who should actively bring cloud computing in the country. cloud computing for small medium enterprises would not be an impossibility reminded of the fact that companies like such does not that that much manpower nor logistics needed to operate. Government and private entities that assist in the proliferation of advocacy and use of ICTs. to SMEs The utilization of ICTs in the local context. The E3 project of CICT alongside with Canadian Development Agency (CIDA) has a fiveyear time frame to strengthen its policy review. Other industries would include all ranges of enterprises and their goal is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the electronic governance. must be handled both by the government and the private sector.If the e-governance project of the government which has a lot of departments and sectors for it to move and function was able to successfully deploy it to their operations. capacity building amongst officials in the government and to put up in social services agencies policy project. 33 . with a special emphasis on the emerging and revolutionized cloud computing technology. specifically cloud computing technology.

implements research and development programs that address critical applications entrepreneurs. 3. development and regulation of integrated and strategy. executive branch for the promotion. and export development seeks to provide and environment that would attract investors in ICT and ICT-enabled service (ITES) industries. DOST: specifically. ICT systems and reliable and cost-efficient communication facilities.(Dept of Trade and Industry): through its agencies involved with investment promotion. DTI. Commission On Information And Communications Technology (CICT): primary policymaking and coordinating entity of the Phil. 2. 34 . 4. National Telecommunications Commission (NTC): a regulatory body that works hand in hand with the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC).Key Institutions and Organizations from the Government 1. the Philippine Council for Advanced Science and Technology Research and Development (PCASTRD) and the Advanced Science and Technology Institute (ASTI). areas and support ICT based entrepreneurship.

Aside from government agencies and commissions. 35 . private entities specifically vendors. should pave the way in making their services and products more accessible and affordable for SMEs. and the Philippine Export Development. the Philippines Economic Zone Authority (PEZA). The National Competitiveness Council and the Management Association of the Philippines (MAP) signed a memorandum of understanding to use all the running resources to guarantee the delivery systems for e-governance. 2008) These government entities collaborate with each other to bring forth science and technology research. Department of Social Welfare and Development and National Disaster Coordinating Council were also covered to improve their business process especially for client-based operations. which lists ICT and ITES as its priority export. Council. development and implementation to help businesses prosper with the utilization of ICTs. This project was first implemented with an initiative of electronic governance back in 2007 with Technical Education and Skill Development Authority (TESDA).Attached to DTI is the Board of Investments. the Department of Health. which oversees the development and management of the ICT Parks. which lists ICT and ITES in its investment priority list. A year after that. (IDRC.

This service includes cloud computing features for entrepreneurs (www. fast and affordable access to full-featured Microsoft development tools and server licenses for a nominal fee of USD$100 which will only be paid upon the successful completion of the program (CICT. 2009). One of the platforms offered by Microsoft is its cloud computing platform called Azure.BizSpark Program. which is a joint collaboration between Microsoft CICT. was conceived to implement assistance to SMEs and start up businesses. 36 . The Small Enterprise Technology Program (SETUP) through the aforementioned program offers SMEs 20110).microsoft.

these tools became a part of the daily operations and have embedded into the capital expenses of business groups. SMEs are seen as a means of uplifting economies because they provide jobs. Research shows that SMEs are a big sector in the business industry. Their inherit characteristics prove to be of importance in the diffusion of innovations. they become a significant tool in nation building.CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY Summary The past years have shown how ICTs have evolved in so many different ways in order to address the growing and complex demands from users. ICT plays a role in improving the work flow of company by making mundane processes automated and easier to implement and run. technology and competition. services and products that help in the everyday 37 . These changes in society also affect the changes that businesses have to adapt to. moreover. Businesses around the world have implemented some form of IT infrastructure in their organizations. Improvement in technology cannot be ignored due to the fact that economies worldwide have shifted or is currently shifting from the industrial society to the information society. from the most basic personal computer to the more advanced Cloud computing technologies. thus the implementation of ICT technologies.

The researchers also looked for government and private entities that can help in the awareness campaign of Cloud computing technology. in effect. thus the researchers decided to sought out two IT practitioners to gain further working knowledge about this emerging technological innovation. therefore. The researchers. The researchers found these facts significant in the promotion and implementation of Cloud computing amongst Philippine SMEs. providing more opportunities in return. business continuity. Literature regarding Cloud computing in the Philippines is still rare. These services offer mobility of data and applications. Adapting this study in the local context meant reviewing policies and regulations that advocate ICT use for the development and improvement of businesses. Globalization. Since the Philippines is categorized as a developing country. 38 . reliability. the awareness of such technology is still in its latent stage. and elasticity in systems among others. Cloud computing utilizes the Internet as another means of IT service delivery to consumers. The decentralized nature of Cloud computing technologies make it attractive to businesses that aim to scrimp on overhead expenses while improving their business systems. decided to do a study on the general feasibility of Cloud computing in the local SME context.operation of a country. Cloud computing services aim to address the different needs of businesses from various industries. connects countries through business transactions from SMEs thus.

the study focused on the Technology. Although there are several regulations and commissions from the legislative body of the government. Organization. like any other ICT service or IT infrastructure is a business decision.Theoretically speaking. Each business is unique from another thus. Conclusion In conclusion. private entities should also take part in the advocacy of the use of Cloud computing. the implementation of such technology depends on the decision making body of an organization. The private and 39 . The awareness of Cloud computing amongst SMEs cannot be solely handed to the government. might be better off with investing on their own IT infrastructure such as servers and programs to make them feel more secured and in control of the information they store and share amongst members of their organization. especially those that deal with sensitive technology. it can be posited that the adoption of Cloud computing technology. Although there are many perceived benefits seen. some businesses. and Environment framework (TOE) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to be able to see how Cloud computing technology can be assimilated by SMEs and what elements are considered before these innovations can be implemented in an organization.

Security is nonetheless also as important as files that have sensitive information could be at risk if one does not choose applications carefully. Also. and to encourage competition amongst these corporations. thus bringing down the cost of mobile. they have to make sure to choose carefully the services to be availed. the competition amongst service providers would be an advantage to SMEs because competition will bring in lower costs in cloud computing services. the terms of services used in the application are critical as to up to where one can extend the use of it. Recommendations Vendors should be more aggressive in promoting their services. It would be a complete nightmare if a company‟s files are to be accessed just by anybody else just because owners did not exercise proper safety procedures. Internet and telephone subscriptions. It is vital that SME owners should know what the limit of the application is if you are the end-user of the application. The government must also be more aggressive in deregulating Telecom companies to bring in more efficient Internet connection. Before any SME can start using any form Cloud computing application. Long-term use of the application means that business owners or managers should already know what results they need and what processes they would want to use.public sector must collaborate to enforce technologies that would greatly improve businesses in the Philippines. Trial and testing is 40 .

at the end of the day. (Arnold.the best way to see if files are still accessible with maximum protection against data meltdown and illegal access. the implementation of Cloud computing depends upon the needs of a company. 41 . the utilization of the tool is the most notable action that would bring in revenue and customer service satisfaction. The implementation of advance technologies does not automatically mean the success of a business. Ignorance to any form of technological advancement will also prove to be futile especially with the advent of globalization and the cut throat competition. It is best to be always aware of regulations and policies that will aid in the improvement of a business. 2008) Like any other business opportunity. There is no reason to jump on the bandwagon if the features of a service does not meet your expectations and address an organization‟s problems. Cloud computing is still new and like any other innovation. it is a neutral tool for consumers.

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