Sie sind auf Seite 1von 41

BY K MEGHASHYAM ECE DEPT. shyam7692@gmail.

com Ph:9000463554

TRANSFORMATION OF RAW MATERIALS INTO

FINISHED GOODS HENCE THE PRODUCTION IS ACHIEVED PRODUCTION IS ANY PROCESS OR PROCEDURE DEVELOPED TO TRANSFORM A SET OF INPUT ELEMENTS LIKE MEN, MATERIAL, CAPITAL, INFORMATION AND ENERGY INTO A SPECIFIED SET OF OUTPUT ELEMENTS LIKE FINISHED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IN PROPER QUANTITY AND QUALITY THIS ACHIEVES THE OBJECTIVES OF ENTERPRISE

LOOKS AHEAD ANTICIPATES POSSIBLE DIFFICULTIES DECIDES IN ADVANCE AS HOW THE

PRODUCTION, BEST, BE CARRIED OUT? WHATEVER TASK YOU TAKE UP IN LIFE YOU TEND TO PLAN BY DEFAULT. HERE THE SCENARIO IS ABOUT PRODUCTION WHERE WE NEED EACH OTHERS HELP WE PLAN IT WITH OTHERS.

THIS MAKES SURE THAT THE PROGRAMMED

PRODUCTION IS CONSTANTLY MAINTAINED. WE CANNOT JUST FORGET ONCE WE SUCCEED. WE NEED TO BE PERSISTANT. YOU CONTROL EVERYTHING BECAUSE YOU WANT EVERYTHING TO BE RIGHT AND IN POSITION.

Some prior to arrival of raw materials Others during the transformation of the raw materials

PLANNING PHASE Production planning and Control ACTION PHASE CONTROL PHASE

FORECASTING

PRIOR PLANNING

ORDER WRITING PRODUCT DESIGN

PLANNING PHASE

PROCESS PLANNING AND ROUTING MATERIAL CONTROL TOOL CONTROL

ACTIVE PLANNING

LOADING

SCHEDULING

ACTION PHASE

DISPATCHING

PROGRESS REPORTING

DATA PROCESSING

CONTROL PHASE
CORRECTIVE ACTION

EXPEDITING

REPLANNING

CONTINUOUS
INVOLVES CONTINUOUS OR

INTERMITTENT
INTERRUPTED FLOW OF

ALMOST CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL FLOW OF MATERIALS. PRODUCES STANDARDISED ITEMS IN LARGE QUANTITIES. EXAMPLES TWO CATEGORIES
A. MASS AND FLOW LINE

MATERIALS INTO THE PLANT PURPOSE MACHINES AND PRODUCES COMPONENTS DIFFERENT IN NATURE AND IN SMALL QUANTITIES.

MAKES USE OF GENERAL

EXAMPLES TWO CLASSIFICATIONS

PRODUCTION B. CONTINUOUS OR PROCESS PRODUCTION

BATCH PRODUCTION B. JOB PRODUCTION


A.

PRODUCTION OF ITEMS ON LARGE SCALE. EMPLOYING SPECIALIZED MACHINERY AND

PROCESSES. SCOPE FOR LABOUR DIVISION. MACHINERY LAID AS PER SEQUENCE. MATERIAL HANDLING IS REDUCED. TIME FOR RESETING MACHINES IS LESS. FLOW OF WORK BALANCED. WORK CYCLES: SHORT& REPETITIVE. PREFERRED IN CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION. LOWEST PRODUCTION COST PER UNIT

PRODUCT CONSUMPTION WILL BE FAST. EXAMPLES ? MATERIAL HANDLING IS AUTOMATIC. BOTH SEMI-SKILLED AND SKILLED ARE

EMPLOYED. REGULATION AND MEASUREMENT OF OUTPUTS AND INPUTS IS SOPHISTICATED. GOOD PLANT CONTROL AND QUALITY CONTROL ARE ESSENTIAL

MANUFACTURE IS AS PER SPECIFIC ORDER AND

PROCURE. DRUGS, CLOTHES, PAINTS, FORGERY MACHINES. DIVISION OF LABOUR IS SIMPLE. FLOW OF MATERIAL IS INTERMITTENT. EXPEDITING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION ARE VERY MUCH NECESSARY. GOOD PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM MUST BE DEVELOPED.

FLOW OF RAW FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER

IN INTERMITTENT AND DISCONTINUOUS. MECHANISM AND DIVISION OF LABOUR IS NOT ECONOMICAL. PRODUCT DESIGN TAKES A LOT OF TIME. PRIOR PLANNING BECOMES DIFFICULT. EACH JOB HAS DIFFERENT FROM THE PREVIOUS IN TERMS OF TYPE, SPECIFICATION, QUALITY AND QUANTITY. SKILLED WORKERS AND SPECIAL MACHINERY. HIGH DEGREE OF CONTROL IS ESSENTIAL. NO. OF MANUFACTURE IS LESS, MAYBE EVEN ONE.

ITS A SMALL MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION WITH

INTERMITENT PRODUCTION. CONSISTS OF MANY NO OF MACHINE CENTRES.

ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE: PRODUCES VARIETY OF JOBS IN SMALL BATCHES. DIFFERENT JOBS WITH BASIC MACHINARY. RAW MATERIAL IN PROCESS FOLLOW DIFFERENT PROCESS IN DIFFERENT JOBS. JOB SHOPS ARE NOT OPEN TO ANYONE. CARS AND PARTS JOB SHOPS NORMALY EMPLOYED OVERTIME.

CLOSED JOB SHOP OPEN JOB SHOP

ONE LARGE PRODUCTS IS MANUFACTURED AT AT

TIME. DIFFERS FROM JOB SHOPS IN TERMS OF SIZE, SCOPE OF PRODUCTS TO BE MANUFACTURED. HERE THE MATERIALS AND OTHER MAJOR COMPONENTS REMAIN AT A FIXED PLACE WHERE WORKERS, TOOLS,ARE BOUGHT TO THAT PLACE AS PROJECT BEING BULKY. ALL ACTIVITIES ARE PLANNED ONE TIME. PROGRESS REPORTS OF DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES ARE CONROLLLED AND SCHEDULES ARE RECOMPUTED PERIODICALLY. EXAMPLE?

ESTIMATING TYPE, QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF

FUTURE WORK. SURVIVAL OF FIRM DEPENDS ON ITS ASSESSMENT. CRUCIAL ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS FOR FUTURE. THEY MAKE USE OF SALE TRENDS. IT DEPENDS ON SITUATIONS. WAR, FASHION, UNSEASONAL WEATHER, ETC SALE FORCAST DETERMINES THE COMMITMENT ON PART OF SALES DEPARTMENT. THEY ESTIMATE THE BUDGETS. SALE FORECAST: ACCURATE, SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND AND ECOONOMICAL.

DETERMINES VOLUME OF PRODUCTION AND

PRODUCTION RATE. FORMS BASIS FOR PRODUCTION BUDGET LIKE LABOUR AND MATERIAL BUDGET. SUGGEST THE NEED FOR PLANT EXPANSION. EMPHASIZE THE NEED FOR PRODUCT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT. NEED FOR CHANGE IN PRODUCTION METHODS ARE SUGGESTED. ESTABLISHING PRICE POLICIES. DECIDE THE EXTENT OF ADVERTISING, PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION.

PRDICTING FUTURE EVENTS BY BEST POSSIBLE

MEANS TRENDS- LITTLE RELATIONSHIP TO MONTH-TOMONTH CHANGE. CYCLES EASONAL VARIATIONS. IRREGULAR VARIATIONS

MARKET SURVEY. HISTORIC EXTIMATE(WHAT HEPPENED IN PAST

HAPPENS IN FUTURE.) SALES FORCE ESTIMATE(PERSON IN CONTACT WITH MARKET KNOW BEST ABOUT FUTURE MARKET TRENDS). TREND LINE, BUT CONNECTS TO HISTORIC AGAIN. DELPHI(GROUP OF EXPERTS FOR SHORT PERIOD FORECASTS) PRIOR KNOWLEDGE(HELPFROM OTHER UNITS) FORECASTING BY PAST AVG. JUDGEMENTAL FORECAST(OPINIONS OF CUSTOMERS). TECHONLOGICAL FORECASTING.(ALARM CLOCKSANALOG)

PREPARATION OF WORK DETAIL PLAN. PLAN A PROCESS TO MANUFACTURE PRODUCT. DETERMINES THE MOST ECONOMICAL WAY. COMES ONLY AFTER DECIDING WHAT TO BE

MADE. DRAWINGS, DESIGN AND OTHER SPECIFICATIONS ARE DECIDED DEVELPOS A BROAD PLAN OF MANUFACTURE.

QUNTITY OF WORK WITH PRODUCT

SPECIFICATIONS. QUALITY OF WORK. AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENTS, TOOLS. SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS. NAMES OF EQUIPMENTS ON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED. STANDARD TIME FOR EACH OP. WHEN THE OPERATION IS PERFORMED.

SELECTION OF PROCESS CURRENT PRODUCT COMMITMENTS DELIVERY DATE QUANTITY PRODUCED QUALITY STANDARS SELECTION OF MATERIAL SELECTION OF JIGS, FIXTURES ETC SELECTION OF CUTTING TOOLS AND

INSPECTION GAUGES.

IF NO. OF COMPONETS PRODUCED ARE LARGE

THEY CANNOT BE MANUFACTURED IN ONE BATCH. HOW MANY PIECES IN ONE BATCH SO THAT ITS MOST ECONOMICAL. THIS BATCH SIZE IS CALLED ECONOMIC BATCH QUANTITY.

ASSIGNMENT OF WORK POWER WITHOUT

SPECIFYING TIME. LOADING RESULTS IN TABULATED LIST SHOWS PLANNED UTILIZATION OF MACHINES. OBJECIVE IS TO MAINTAIN AN UP-TO-DATE PICTURE OF AVAILABLE CAPACITY IN PLANT. STUDY OF RELATION BETWEEN LOAD AND CAPACITY WHERE WORK IS DONE. INFO FROM THIS LOADING IS USED TO ENSURE EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF PLANT, HELP IN SETTING THE RELIABLE DELIVERYAND ASSIST IN FORWARD PLANNING FOR A NEW PLANT.

WHEN AND IN WHAT SEQUENCE THE WORK

WILL BE DONE. TIME, DURATION IS DECIDED FOR EACH UNIT PRODUCTION. HENCE AIM TO SHEDULE. IT CAN ALSO BE SAID AS TIME PHASE OF LOADING. PRODUCTION SHEDULE IS RECORD OF ALL MACHINES AND THEIR WORK DURING A PARTICULAR TIME.

CUSTOMERS DEMAND AND DELIVERY DATE STOCK OF GOODS AVAILABLE WITH DEALER OR

RETAILER. STOCK OF FINISHED GOODS IN FIRM. AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, MATERIAL AND MAN POWER. ADITIONAL MANUFACTURING FACILITIES IF REQUIRED. FEASIBILITY OF ECONOMIC PRODUCTION RUNS.

DISPATCHING. AFTER DISPATCHING ITS THE CONTROL PHASE. CONTROL PHASE INCLUDES PROGRESS

REPORTING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION.

EXECUTES PLANNING FUNCTION. CONCERNED WITH GETTING THE WORK

STARTED. DISPATCH TRANSMITS ORDERS TO DIFFERENT SHOPS. IT DETERMINES- BY WHOM THE JOB SHALL BE DONE AND IT CO-OORDINATES PRODUCTION.

CENTRALISED
ORDERS DIRECTLY TO

DECENTRALISED
ORDERS ARE THROUGH

WORK STATION. BETTER OVERALL CONTROL BECAUSE OF URGENCY, CHANGE IN ORDERS IS RAPID WITHOUT UPSETTING ANYONE. EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF MAN POWER.

A SUPERVISOR FOR EACH SHOP. HE DISPATCHES THE ORDER AND MATERIALS TO EACH EQUIPMENT. COMMUNICATION GAP IS REDUCED. EASY TO SOLVE DAY-TODAY PROBLEMS. SHOP SUPERVISORS KNOW BEST ABOUT HIS WORK SO CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED EASILY

ITS THE FLOW OF WORK IN THE PLANT. IT DETERMINES WHAT WORK TO BE DONE,

WHERE AND HOW IT SHALL BE DONE. FROM RAW TO FINISHED PRODUCTS, ROUTING DECIDES THE SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS. THE PURPOSE IS TO OBTAIN AND ESTABLISH OPTIMUM SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS.

ONCE THE ACTUAL PRODUCTION HAS STARTED,

IT BECOMES ESSENTIAL TO KEEP AN EYE AT THE PROGRESS OF WORK SO THAT IF REQUIRED, CORRECTIVE ACTION CAN BE TAKEN. PROGRESS CONTROL MEANS TRYING TO ACHIEVE CERTAIN LEVEL OF STANDARDS AND EFFICIENCY. EXAMPLE???

SETTING UP A SYSTEM TO WATCH AND RECORD

THE OPERATING FACILITY. MAKE A REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS TRANSMISSION OF REPORT TO CONTROL GROUP FOR NECESSARY ACTION AND ACCOUNTING GROUP FOR RECORDING MATERIALS AND LABOUR EXPENDITURES. INTERPRETATION OF INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE REPORT BY CONTROL GROUP. TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTION.

EXTERNAL:CHANGE IN PRIORITY OF ORDERS

DUE TO NEW ARRIVALS OR CANCELLATION OF FEW. DELAY IN RECEIVING EQUIPMENTS AND RAW MATERIALS. UNEXPECTED RUSH ORDERS. INTERNAL:LABOUR TURN OVER AND MASS ABSENTEEISM(BUNK!!!) LACK OF NECESSARY INSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS. LATE STARTING OF WORKS, TEA BREAKS ETC

SCHEDULING FLEXIBILITY: FOR UNEXPECTED

EVENTS. CAPACITY MODIFICATION:CHANGING NO. OF WORKING HOURS BY EMPLOYING MORE WORKERS. REDUCING AMOUNT OF WORK BY SUBCONTRACTING WORK TO OTHERS. IF SITUATION IS OTHERWISE AND NONMANAGEABLE THEN ABOVE PLANS CAN BE MODIFIED TO SUIT NEW SET OF CONDITIONS.

IT REGULATES THE PROGRES SOF MATERIALS

AND COMPONENTS THROUGH THE REGULATION PROCESS FOLLOW UP ACTS AS CATALYTIC AGENT. IT IS CONCERNED WITH REPORTING OF PRODUCTION DATE AND INVESTIGATING OF ANY DEVIATION FROM PRE-DETERMINED PRODUCTION SHEDULES. THE EXPEDITING PRINCIPLE THE FATHERING PRINCIPLE.

THE SHEDULING GROUP EXPLORES THE JOB

BEHIND THE SHEDULE. THE EXPEDITING GROUP TAKES UP SUCH JOBS PROCURES THE NECESSARY MATERIALS SOLVES ALL THE PROBLEMS AND INTIMATES THE SHEDULING GROUP

FATHERING PRINCIPLE
EACH EXPEDITOR IS MADE RESPONSIBLE FOR A JOB OR A GROUP OF JOBS FOR WHICH HE ARRANGES THE TOOLS AND MATERIALS. WORKS BEST WITH LARGE PROJECTS

BY K MEGHASHYAM ECE DEPT. shyam7692@gmail.com Ph:9000463554