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# Energy Conversion and Energy

Foundation Degree in
Energy
Module Title ME1F0
Issue Date 14
th
Submission Date 16
th
Instruction to candidates

1. Normal Aston University regulation apply
2. The marks for sections
3. The maximum mark for this assignment is
4. Show all working and explain your

Module Leader
Name: Dr. M. Al
Date: 1
Signature M. Al M. Al M. Al M. Al
Issue 1

Internal Moderators
Names: Dr I Farhan Mr
Date: 1
Signatures I. Farhan I. Farhan I. Farhan I. Farhan

and Energy Transfer Assignment
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Foundation Degree in Power Engineering

First Year

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer
Assignment

ME1F03 : Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer
th
March 2012
th
April 2012

Answer ALL Questions

Instruction to candidates
Normal Aston University regulation apply
sections are shown in brackets
The maximum mark for this assignment is 100
Show all working and explain your method at all times

Dr. M. Al-Asadi
14
th
March 2012
M. Al M. Al M. Al M. Al- -- -Asadi Asadi Asadi Asadi
1

Dr I Farhan Mr Joe Hayes
14
th
March 2012
I. Farhan I. Farhan I. Farhan I. Farhan J. Hayes J. Hayes J. Hayes J. Hayes
Assignment - 2011-2012

Transfer

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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Section 1: Magnetic Systems and Coupled Circuits

Q1: (20 marks)

A coil has a resistance of 25 ohms and an inductance of 20 mH. This coil is
mutually coupled to a similar coil with a coefficient of coupling of 0.6.

(a) Calculate the voltage input to the first coil to develop a power of 1.6W
at a frequency of 1 kHz. with a load of 55<-40
0
connected to the
second coil.

(b) Calculate the power developed in the load by referring the secondary
resistance to the primary.

Q2: (20 marks)

(a) A coil having 500 turns is wound around a non magnetic toroid. The toroid
has a cross sectional area of 3.75 cm
2
and a mean circumference of 0.75m. If
the coil carries a steady state current of 4A, calculate:
(i) The reluctance
(ii) The circuit inductance
(iii) The energy stored in the magnetic field

(b) A steel toroid has a mean length of 20cm and a cross sectional area of
0.8cm
2
. It has a radial slot 4mm wide cut through the steel

(i) Determine the value of current required in a 400 turn coil wound on the
toroid to set up a flux of 72Wb in the steel and the air gap.

(ii) The radial slot is now increased to 6mm width and half the length of the
steel toroid is reduced in cross sectional area to 0.4mm
2
. How many
turns would now be required in order that the same current produces
the same flux in the toroid

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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Section 2: Thermal Systems
Q1: (20 marks)
a. For the ideal Rankine cycle shown in the Figure below determine the mass
flow rate of steam and the cycle efficiency.

b. Define briefly and clearly

i. Enthalpy and explain clearly the difference between enthalpy
and internal energy.
ii. Efficiency of thermal electrical power plant and explain how to
improve the efficiency of the plant
iii. Entropy

c. A mass of 1.5 kg of air initially at 6 MPa and 120 C undergoes a cycle
consisting of the following:

i. Constant-pressure expansion until the volume is doubled.
ii. Constant-volume cooling
iii. Reversible adiabatic compression to the initial state.
Calculate the pressure and temperature after the constant-volume cooling
process and the net work done in the cycle.

1 2

3

Q
b

WT=25 MW
Q
C

10 kPa
6 MPa
600 C
Boiler
Condenser
Pump
W
P

3
1
2
4
Turbine
P
v
Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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Section 3: The Transformer Equivalent Circuit

(40 marks)

1. Introduction
In electrical engineering, it is often useful to use an equivalent circuit model to
describe the non-ideal operation of a device such as a transformer. While an
ideal model may be well suited for rough approximations, the non-ideal
parameters are needed for careful transformer circuit designs. Knowing the
non-ideal parameters allows the engineer to optimize a design using
equations rather than inefficiently spending time testing physical
implementations in the lab.
If all dimensions and material properties of a transformer are known, the non-
ideal parameters can be directly calculated. However, this is usually not the
case, and a simple technique for obtaining the parameters can be used. A
method for determining the parameters of the equivalent circuit model using
two simple tests is described. Expressions for calculating the parameters are
derived in terms of laboratory measurements. The procedure is performed in
the lab for a transformer. As an example of the usefulness of the non-ideal
equivalent circuit, the parameters found in the lab are used to calculate an
important transformer characteristic; the maximum transformer efficiency.

2. Transformer Model Analysis
The equivalent circuit model for the non-ideal transformer is shown in Figure
1. An ideal transformer with resistors and inductors in parallel and series
replaces the non-ideal transformer. This model is called the high side
equivalent circuit model because all parameters have been moved to the
primary side of the ideal transformer. The series resistance, R
eq
, is the
resistance of the copper winding. The series inductance, X
eq
, accounts for the
flux leakage. That is, a small amount of flux travels through the air outside the
magnetic core path. The parallel resistance, R
M
, represents the core loss of
the magnetic core material due to hysteresis. The parallel inductance, X
M
,
called the magnetizing inductance, accounts for the finite permeability of the
magnetic core.
Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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Figure 1 High side (Primary side) transformer equivalent circuit model.

It is easy to see how each parameter of the equivalent circuit model could be
adjusted by changing the transformer design. For example, increasing the
diameter of the wire in the windings decreases the series resistance.
Therefore, the equivalent circuit model parameters can be used as a way to
evaluate a transformer, or compare transformers.

The parameters can be found in the same way that Thevenin equivalent
circuit parameters are found: open circuit and short circuit tests. The parallel
parameter values are found with no load connected to the secondary (open
circuit) and the series parameter values are found with the secondary
terminals shorted (short circuit). It is possible, for convenience in the lab, to
make the tests on either the primary or the secondary. Figure 2 shows the
equivalents circuits for the two tests. For the open circuit test, the series
parameters are neglected for convenience. This is reasonable since the
voltage drops are across R
eq
and X
eq
are normally small.

Figure 2 Equivalent circuits for tests. (a) Open circuit. (b) Short circuit.

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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Expressions for the non-ideal transformer parameters are derived from the
equivalent circuits shown in Figure 2. The results are Equations (1), (2), (3),
and (4). All parameters are expressed in terms of quantities measured in the
open circuit and short circuit tests.

M
=
v
cc
2
P
cc
(1)

X
M
=
1
_
I
cc
v
cc

2
-
1
R
M
2
(2)

cq
=
P
sc
I
sc
2
(3)

X
cq
=
_

v
sc
I
sc

2

cq
2
(4)

The values for R
eq
and R
M
can be calculated and used to find the minimum
current, I
F
, and the maximum current, I
M
.
I
P
=
v
cc
R
M
(5)
I
M
=
v
cc
R
cq
(6)

The maximum (peak) efficiency can then be calculated as:
p
mux
% =
_1-_
I
F
I
M
]
2
1-
I
F
I
M
1uu% (7)

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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3. Experiment

3.1 Description of the experiment and setup

a. Open circuit test:

A single phase (230V/115V) transformer is to be tested in the lab to determine
its non-ideal parameter values. The rated secondary current is 0.43A. Figure 3
shows the wiring diagram used to make the open circuit test. With the
secondary open, the primary voltage was increased from zero to the rated
voltage, where the rated voltage is the name plate stamp. A digital multimeter
is used as an ammeter to measure the open circuit current. A wattmeter is
used to measure the open circuit power. The power measured was the power
dissipated in R
M
, the core losses and a digital meter is used to measure the
open circuit voltage at the primary side. To make sure that the rated open
circuit voltage at the secondary side is not exceeded, a voltmeter can be used
to measure the secondary open circuit voltage.

Figure 3 Wiring diagram for open circuit test.

Magnetisation curve:
To obtain the magnetisation curve of the transformer under test, the primary
open circuit current is measured at the open circuit primary voltage stated in
table 1. These values should be used to obtain the relation between Io and Vo
(magnetisation curve).

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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OCT results

Vo (V) Io (mA) Vs(V) Po (W)
0
40
80
120
160
180
200

Table 1

Note: Recording the secondary open circuit voltage is necessary to determine
the practical transformation ratio.

b. Short circuit test:
The short circuit wiring diagram is shown in Figure 4. With the secondary
terminals shorted, increase the primary voltage from zero until the primary
rated current is reached in the primary (secondary sort circuit current must
not exceed the secondary rated current). At this point, measure the primary
voltage which should be much less than rated voltage. Again, measure the
power and the primary and secondary currents. These values on the primary
side are the short circuit values needed for the calculations.

Figure 4 Wiring diagram for short circuit test.

Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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SCT results
Prim. Vsc (V) Prim. Isc (mA) Psc (W) Sec Isc(mA)

Table 2

c. Load test:
For the following combinations of loads measure the primary and secondary
currents and voltages and the primary power of the transformer:
1. Resistive load of 150k
2. Complex load of R=2, C=2F

Load Vp (V) Ip (mA) Pp (W) Vs(V) Is(mA)
R only
R & C
Table 3

3.2 Presentation of the measured data

Using the parameters of the non-ideal transformer equivalent circuit model,
determine:
a. The equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the primary side.
b. The maximum efficiency of the transformer
c. Using the open circuit measurements, draw the magnetization curve.
Discuss the resulted curve in term of linear part and saturation part.
d. Determine the analytical values of the loaded transformer and compare
these with the measured values. Compare the two set of data and
discuss reasons for any differences

4. RESULTS AND COMPARISON
The experimental results obtained from the open circuit and short circuit tests
were not evaluated. It would be possible to test the maximum efficiency of the
transformer by setting the load so that the transformer is operating at
maximum efficiency. The actual efficiency of the transformer could be found
by dividing the power out by the power in. This value should be close to the
value found in the above Equation (7).
Energy Conversion and Energy Transfer Assignment - 2011-2012
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To determine the efficiency of the practical transformer tested in the lab,
calculate the transformer power efficiency from the load test results. Neglect
any losses in the connections. Calculate the transformer efficiency and
compare this with the efficiency obtained in 3.2(b).
Discuss your results and findings
Discuss in details the benefits of the open circuit and short circuit tests
of the transformer in understanding transformers behaviour and
improving overall power system efficiency.

5. CONCLUSIONS
The procedure used to find the parameter values of the non-ideal transformer
equivalent circuit model allows the engineer to more efficiently design
transformer circuits. Modelling and simulation are more accurate when the
non-ideal parameters are used. This means that designs can be optimized
prior to implementation. Discuss this conclusion in details.

END OF ASSIGNMENT