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www.mbr-network.eu Peter A. Vanrolleghem Introduction to Process Modelling Biological Process Modelling (Part I) Summer

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Peter A. Vanrolleghem
Peter A. Vanrolleghem

Introduction to Process Modelling Biological Process Modelling (Part I)

Summer school on modelling MBR processes July 15-17, 2008, Ghent - Belgium

Biological Process Modelling (Part I) Summer school on modelling MBR processes July 15-17, 2008, Ghent -
The model building exercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data

The model building exercise

purpose

prior knowledge

The model building exercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data
The model building exercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data
The model building exercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data

Framework DefinitionThe model building exercise purpose prior knowledge Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model

Model Selectionexercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model

prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model
prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model

Parameter estimationexercise purpose prior knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection data ValidationValidation Model www.mbr-network.eu

knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model www.mbr-network.eu
knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model www.mbr-network.eu
data
data
ValidationValidation
ValidationValidation
knowledge Framework Definition Model Selection Parameter estimation data ValidationValidation Model www.mbr-network.eu

Model

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The model building exercise Biology Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics prior knowledge Parameter

The model building exercise

Biology Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics
Biology
Chemistry
Economy
Karplus’ arc
Physics
Politics

prior knowledge

Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics prior knowledge Parameter estimation data www.mbr-network.eu

Parameter estimation

Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics prior knowledge Parameter estimation data www.mbr-network.eu

data

Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics prior knowledge Parameter estimation data www.mbr-network.eu
Chemistry Economy Karplus’ arc Physics Politics prior knowledge Parameter estimation data www.mbr-network.eu

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The model building exercise observations input data real world model (Thomas Hug) system boundary (x,

The model building exercise

The model building exercise observations input data real world model (Thomas Hug) system boundary (x, t)

observations

input data

real world

model building exercise observations input data real world model (Thomas Hug) system boundary (x, t) observations
model
model

(Thomas Hug)

system

boundary

(x, t) observations

output data

observations input data real world model (Thomas Hug) system boundary (x, t) observations output data www.mbr-network.eu

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Use of Models input model ? input ? output input model output … predict …

Use of Models

input model ? input ? output input model output
input
model
?
input
?
output
input
model
output

… predict

… understand

… communicate

input model ? input ? output input model output … predict … understand … communicate www.mbr-network.eu

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Modelled processes in WWT model www.mbr-network.eu

Modelled processes in WWT

model
model

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Modelled processes in WWT Add a mixing model model MP A (R1) MP B (R2)

Modelled processes in WWT

Add a mixing model model MP A (R1) MP B (R2) 20 15 Br R1
Add a
mixing model
model
MP A (R1)
MP B (R2)
20
15
Br
R1 sim
Br
A mess
Br B sim
Br B mess
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Versuchszeit [d]
Versuchszeit [d]
MP C (R3)
MP E
10
8
Br C sim
Br C mess
Br E sim
Br E mess
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
Versuchszeit [d]
Versuchszeit [d]
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Br [g/m-3]
Br [g/m-3]
Br [g/m-3]
Br [g/m-3]
Modelled processes in WWT Add Add an a mixing aeration model model model Add an

Modelled processes in WWT

Add Add an a mixing aeration model model model Add an Add aeration an influent
Add Add an a
mixing aeration model
model
model
Add an
Add aeration an
influent model model
in WWT Add Add an a mixing aeration model model model Add an Add aeration an

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Modelled processes in WWT Add a mixing model model 0 0.05 Add a Add an

Modelled processes in WWT

Add a mixing model model 0 0.05 Add a Add an Add an 0.1 aeration
Add a
mixing model
model
0
0.05
Add a
Add an
Add an
0.1
aeration
0.15
settler
model
influent
model
0.2
model
0.25
4000 mg/l
0.3
1600 mg/l
0.35
2800 mg/l
1200 mg/l
0.4
800 mg/l
0.45
0.5
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
time (d)
SBH (m)
0.45 0.5 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 time (d) SBH

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Modelled processes in WWT Add a mixing model model 0 0.05 Add a Add an

Modelled processes in WWT

Add a mixing model model 0 0.05 Add a Add an Add an 0.1 aeration
Add a
mixing model
model
0
0.05
Add a
Add an
Add an
0.1
aeration
0.15
settler
model
influent
model
0.2
model
Mimick installed
0.25
4000 mg/l
0.3
control
system
1600 mg/l
0.35
2800 mg/l
1200 mg/l
0.4
800 mg/l
0.45
0.5
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
time (d)
SBH (m)
0.45 0.5 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 time (d) SBH

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Modelled processes in WWT Add a mixing model model Add sludge 0 Add an 0.05

Modelled processes in WWT

Add a mixing model model Add sludge 0 Add an 0.05 Add a Add an
Add a
mixing model
model
Add
sludge
0
Add an
0.05
Add a
Add
an
line
0.1
aeration
0.15
settler
model
influent
model
0.2
model
Mimick installed
0.25
4000 mg/l
0.3
control
system
1600 mg/l
0.35
2800 mg/l
1200 mg/l
0.4
800 mg/l
0.45
0.5
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
time (d)
SBH (m)
0.45 0.5 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 time (d) SBH

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Sewage Treatment Different steps • Primary treatment - Mainly physical-chemical: grit, primary settling, sand trap,

Sewage Treatment

Sewage Treatment Different steps • Primary treatment - Mainly physical-chemical: grit, primary settling, sand trap,

Different steps

Primary treatment

- Mainly physical-chemical: grit, primary settling, sand trap, fat trap, flocculation

Secondary treatment

- Mainly biological (see further)

- Physical sludge-water separation: settling, membrane filtration

Tertiary treatment

- Further purification of effluent (polishing)

- Active sand filtration, activated carbon, membrane filtration

Sludge treatment

- Physical: thickening, dewatering

- Biological: sludge digestion

filtration • Sludge treatment - Physical: thickening, dewatering - Biological: sludge digestion www.mbr-network.eu
filtration • Sludge treatment - Physical: thickening, dewatering - Biological: sludge digestion www.mbr-network.eu

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Sewage Treatment A conventional activated sludge WWTP Primary Settling tanks Sludge digester Final settlers Aeration

Sewage Treatment

A conventional activated sludge WWTP

Primary Settling tanks Sludge digester Final settlers Aeration tanks
Primary Settling tanks
Sludge digester
Final
settlers
Aeration tanks

Grit/sand removal

Influent

Primary Settling tanks Sludge digester Final settlers Aeration tanks Grit/sand removal Influent www.mbr-network.eu

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Overall modelling principle: Mass balancing Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC (

Overall modelling principle: Mass balancing

Mass Balance for compound:

principle: Mass balancing Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC ( ) dt t

dM

dt

=

d VC

(

)

dt

Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC ( ) dt t r a n

transport

conversion

with

M:

Mass of compound in system (g)

C:

Concentration of compound (g/m 3 )

V:

Volume of system (m 3 )

Q:

Flow rate (m 3 /h)

r:

Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3 .h)

system (m 3 ) Q: Flow rate (m 3 /h) r: Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3
system (m 3 ) Q: Flow rate (m 3 /h) r: Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3

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Sewage treatment: a biological process A culture of collaborating organisms do the job www.mbr-network.eu

Sewage treatment: a biological process

Sewage treatment: a biological process A culture of collaborating organisms do the job www.mbr-network.eu
Sewage treatment: a biological process A culture of collaborating organisms do the job www.mbr-network.eu

A culture of collaborating organisms do the job

Sewage treatment: a biological process A culture of collaborating organisms do the job www.mbr-network.eu

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Sewage Treatment - Biological Treatment Principles • Biological growth and conversion processes • Influences on

Sewage Treatment - Biological

Treatment PrinciplesSewage Treatment - Biological • Biological growth and conversion processes • Influences on biological processes

Biological growth and conversion processes

Influences on biological processes

Treatment Processesconversion processes • Influences on biological processes • COD removal • Nitrification • Denitrification •

COD removal

Nitrification

Denitrification

Phosphate Removal (Biological / Chemical)

Anaerobic Digestion

• Denitrification • Phosphate Removal (Biological / Chemical) • Anaerobic Digestion www.mbr-network.eu
• Denitrification • Phosphate Removal (Biological / Chemical) • Anaerobic Digestion www.mbr-network.eu

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Biological growth Growth = multiplication of organisms Requirements for growth: • nutrients (biomass = C

Biological growth

Growth = multiplication of organismsBiological growth Requirements for growth: • nutrients (biomass = C 5 H 7 O 2 N,

Requirements for growth:Biological growth Growth = multiplication of organisms • nutrients (biomass = C 5 H 7 O

nutrients (biomass = C 5 H 7 O 2 N, + P, S,

favorable environmental conditions (pH, temperature)

)

Basic reaction :• favorable environmental conditions (pH, temperature) ) C-source + NH 4 + PO 4 + H

C-source + NH 4 + PO 4 + H + ==> Biomass

+ electron acceptor (O 2 , NO 3 )

+ electron donor (C-source)

acceptor (O 2 , NO 3 ) + electron donor (C-source) + byproducts (H 2 O,

+ byproducts (H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 , NO 3 )

2 , NO 3 ) + electron donor (C-source) + byproducts (H 2 O, CO 2

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Biological conversion Because biomass grows (or at least wants to), a number of compounds are

Biological conversion

Because biomass grows (or at least wants to), a number of compounds are converted, e.g. a number of compounds are converted, e.g.

Organic pollutants --> CO 2 + waste biomass

NH 4 --> NO 3

NO 3 --> N 2

PO 4 --> Poly-P stored in waste biomass

Organic pollutants --> biogas (CH 4 + CO 2 )

How much is converted ?Organic pollutants --> biogas (CH 4 + CO 2 ) • Rate of the conversion reaction

Rate of the conversion reaction

Ratio of conversions of the different compounds STOICHIOMETRY

KINETICS

the conversion reaction • Ratio of conversions of the different compounds STOICHIOMETRY KINETICS www.mbr-network.eu
the conversion reaction • Ratio of conversions of the different compounds STOICHIOMETRY KINETICS www.mbr-network.eu

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Reaction stoichiometry Suppose following reaction takes place: C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9

Reaction stoichiometry

Suppose following reaction takes place:

C 18 H 19 O 9 N + O 2 + H + --> C 5 H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O

for each “molecule” of pollutants degraded, a proportional amount of other products will be used (left of arrow) or produced (right of arrow)

We can therefore write:

a C 18 H 19 O 9 N + b O 2 + c H + --> d C 5 H 7 O 2 N + e CO 2 + f H 2 O

a,b,c,d,e,f are called yield or stoichiometric coefficients note that one of the coefficients can be chosen = 1

are called yield or stoichiometric coefficients note that one of the coefficients can be chosen =
are called yield or stoichiometric coefficients note that one of the coefficients can be chosen =

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Process kinetics A reaction will not occur (reaction rate = 0) when its sources (substrates)

Process kinetics

Process kinetics A reaction will not occur (reaction rate = 0) when its sources (substrates) are

A reaction will not occur (reaction rate = 0)

when its sources (substrates) are absent

rate = 0) when its sources (substrates) are absent compounds on the left of the reaction

compounds on the left of the reaction arrow

A reaction will have a maximum rate

- when all sources are in excess

- inhibition by sources/products may affect max. rate

Monod μ(S)= μ * (S).S/(K S +S) S
Monod
μ(S)= μ * (S).S/(K S +S)
S
may affect max. rate Monod μ(S)= μ * (S).S/(K S +S) S S Andrews μ (S)=

S

Andrews

μ(S)= μ * (S).S/(K S +S+S 2 /K I )

Monod μ(S)= μ * (S).S/(K S +S) S S Andrews μ (S)= μ * (S).S/(K S

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Conversion rates Take the conversion above a C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9

Conversion rates

Take the conversion above a C 18 H 19 O 9 N + b O 2 + c H +

Suppose the reaction kinetics:

ρ(S)=μ * .X.S/(K S +S)

the reaction kinetics: ρ (S)= μ * .X.S/(K S +S) 1 C 5 H 7 O

1 C 5 H 7 O 2 N + d CO 2 + e H 2 O

Monod kinetics in the substrate

first order in the biomass concentration

The conversion of each component is then:

C 18 H 19 O 9 N

O

2

H +

component is then: C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9 N O 2 H +

: - a. ρ(S) : - b. ρ(S) : - c. ρ(S)

C 5 H 7 O 2 N CO 2 H 2 O

: + 1. ρ(S) : + d. ρ(S) : + e. ρ(S)

(S) C 5 H 7 O 2 N CO 2 H 2 O : + 1

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Conversion rates (cont’d) Conversion rate of a compound consists of 3 parts: • sign (+/-)

Conversion rates (cont’d)

Conversion rate of a compound consists of 3 parts:Conversion rates (cont’d) • sign (+/-) dependent on whether it is used or produced • stoichiometric

sign (+/-) dependent on whether it is used or produced

stoichiometric coefficient in the reaction

rate of the reaction

What if parallel reactions with same compounds ?coefficient in the reaction • rate of the reaction a C 1 8 H 1 9

a C 18 H 19 O 9 N + b O 2 + c H +

f CO 2 + g O 2 + h NH 4 +

1 C 5 H 7 O 2 N + d CO 2 + e H 2 O

1 C 5 H 7 O 2 N + i NO 3 + j H 2 O + kH +

C 5 H 7 O 2 N, O 2 , CO 2 , H + C 5 H 7 O 2 N, O 2 , CO 2 , H + , H 2 O occur more than once

C 5 H 7 O 2 N CO 2

2 O occur more than once C 5 H 7 O 2 N CO 2 :

: + 1. ρ 1 + 1. ρ 2 : + d. ρ 1 - f. ρ 2

O

2

H +

: - b. ρ 1 - g. ρ 2 : - c. ρ 1 + k. ρ 2

+ d. ρ 1 - f. ρ 2 O 2 H + : - b. ρ

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General conversion model For the i-th compound, S i : r(S i ) = Σ

General conversion model

General conversion model For the i-th compound, S i : r(S i ) = Σ j

For the i-th compound, S i :

r(S i ) = Σ j sign(ji) v ji .ρ j

where ρ j = the rate of the j-th reaction in which S i participates v ji = the stoichiometric coefficient for S i in the j-th reaction sign(ji) = sign (+/-) indicating whether S i is substrate or product in the j-th reaction

sign(ji) = sign (+/-) indicating whether S i is substrate or product in the j-th reaction
sign(ji) = sign (+/-) indicating whether S i is substrate or product in the j-th reaction

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Temperature effect on conversion rate μ (T)= μ (20).e k ( T - 2 0

Temperature effect on conversion rate

Temperature effect on conversion rate μ (T)= μ (20).e k ( T - 2 0 )
Temperature effect on conversion rate μ (T)= μ (20).e k ( T - 2 0 )

μ(T)= μ(20).e k(T-20)

Rule of thumb: Doubling of reaction rate for temperature increase with 10 o C

k ( T - 2 0 ) Rule of thumb: Doubling of reaction rate for temperature

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Yearly temperature evolution Winter period is critical for process performance, especially for nitrification, since this

Yearly temperature evolution

Yearly temperature evolution Winter period is critical for process performance, especially for nitrification, since this

Winter period is critical for process performance, especially for nitrification, since this is the slowest

period is critical for process performance, especially for nitrification, since this is the slowest www.mbr-network.eu
period is critical for process performance, especially for nitrification, since this is the slowest www.mbr-network.eu

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pH effect on conversion rates μ (pH)= μ (pH o p t ).K p H

pH effect on conversion rates

μ(pH)= μ(pH opt ).K pH /(K pH -1+10 | pH-pHopt | )

/(K p H -1+10 | p H - p H o p t | ) Process

Process is changing the system pH by production of H + (e.g. nitrification, digestion) or OH - (denitrification)

the system pH by production of H + (e.g. nitrification, digestion) or OH - (denitrification) www.mbr-network.eu
the system pH by production of H + (e.g. nitrification, digestion) or OH - (denitrification) www.mbr-network.eu

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Treatment Processes (1) Aerobic organic substrate removal • in the presence of O 2 (aerobic)

Treatment Processes (1)

Treatment Processes (1) Aerobic organic substrate removal • in the presence of O 2 (aerobic) •

Aerobic organic substrate removal

in the presence of O 2 (aerobic)

heterotrophic organisms (i.e. C-source is organic)

C 18 H 19 O 9 N + O 2 (+ H + ) + NH 4 -->

C 5 H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O

high yield (1 g substrate-COD --> 0.4 g biomass-COD)

H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O • high yield (1
H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O • high yield (1

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Treatment Processes (2) Nitrification • in the presence of O 2 (aerobic) • autotrophic organisms

Treatment Processes (2)

Treatment Processes (2) Nitrification • in the presence of O 2 (aerobic) • autotrophic organisms (i.e.

Nitrification

in the presence of O 2 (aerobic)

autotrophic organisms (i.e. C-source is inorganic: CO 2 )

NH 4 + CO 2 + O 2 + -->

C 5 H 7 O 2 N + NO 3 + H 2 O + H +

low yield (0.24 g COD/g N oxidised)

slow growth rate

highly sensitive to lots of disturbances (pH, T, inhibitors)

in fact: two-step process (NH 4 -> NO 2 -> NO 3 )

(pH, T, inhibitors) • in fact: two-step process (NH 4 -> NO 2 -> NO 3
(pH, T, inhibitors) • in fact: two-step process (NH 4 -> NO 2 -> NO 3

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Denitrification Treatment Processes (3) • in the absence of O 2 (anoxic) • in the
Denitrification Treatment Processes (3) • in the absence of O 2 (anoxic) • in the

Denitrification

Treatment Processes (3)

in the absence of O 2 (anoxic)

in the presence of NO 3 and COD

heterotrophic organisms

C 18 H 19 O 9 N + NO 3 + H + + NH 4 --> C 5 H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O + N 2

relatively high yield (0.3 g biomass-COD/g COD)

performs both nitrogen and COD removal !

recuperates O 2 invested in nitrification !

COD) • performs both nitrogen and COD removal ! • recuperates O 2 invested in nitrification
COD) • performs both nitrogen and COD removal ! • recuperates O 2 invested in nitrification

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Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) www.mbr-network.eu

Treatment Processes (4)

Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) www.mbr-network.eu

Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR)

Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) www.mbr-network.eu
Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) www.mbr-network.eu

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Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) • requires a sequence of anaerobic (absence

Treatment Processes (4)

Treatment Processes (4) Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) • requires a sequence of anaerobic (absence of

Excess Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR)

requires a sequence of anaerobic (absence of O 2 & NO 3 ) and (anoxic or) aerobic conditions

COD as volatile fatty acids (acetic acid)

heterotrophic organisms

VFA + PO 4 + NH 4 + O 2 (+NO 3 ) --> C 5 H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O + Poly-P (+ N 2 )

relatively high yield (0.3 g biomass-COD/g COD)

can perform nitrogen, phosphate and COD removal !

complex process

(0 .3 g biomass-COD/g COD) • can perform nitrogen, phosphate and COD removal ! • complex
(0 .3 g biomass-COD/g COD) • can perform nitrogen, phosphate and COD removal ! • complex

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Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion • consortium of anaerobic organisms (acidogens, methanogens) • slow

Treatment Processes (5)

Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion • consortium of anaerobic organisms (acidogens, methanogens) • slow

Anaerobic Digestion

consortium of anaerobic organisms (acidogens, methanogens)

slow growers

delicate balance H 2 is an inhibitory intermediate

C 18 H 19 O 9 N + NH 4

intermediate • C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9 N + NH 4 C 5
intermediate • C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9 N + NH 4 C 5

C 5 H 7 O 2 N + CO 2 + H 2 O + CH 4

Biogas

C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9 N + NH 4 C 5 H 7
C 1 8 H 1 9 O 9 N + NH 4 C 5 H 7

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Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step www.mbr-network.eu

Treatment Processes (5)

Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step www.mbr-network.eu

Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step

Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step www.mbr-network.eu
Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step www.mbr-network.eu
Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: acidification step www.mbr-network.eu

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Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step www.mbr-network.eu

Treatment Processes (5)

Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step www.mbr-network.eu

Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step

Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step www.mbr-network.eu
Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step www.mbr-network.eu
Treatment Processes (5) Anaerobic Digestion: methanation step www.mbr-network.eu

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Typical activated sludge configurations Only aerobic reactors aerobic COD removal nitrification (if biomass retention

Typical activated sludge configurations

Only aerobic reactors

aerobic COD removal nitrification (if biomass retention is sufficiently long)

aerobic reactors aerobic COD removal nitrification (if biomass retention is sufficiently long) www.mbr-network.eu
aerobic reactors aerobic COD removal nitrification (if biomass retention is sufficiently long) www.mbr-network.eu

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Typical layout of N/P-removal ASP Aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic reactors aerobic COD removal N removal

Typical layout of N/P-removal ASP

Typical layout of N/P-removal ASP Aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic reactors aerobic COD removal N removal (nitrification

Aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic reactors

aerobic COD removal N removal (nitrification and denitrification) Bio-P removal

reactors aerobic COD removal N removal (nitrification and denitrification) Bio-P removal www.mbr-network.eu

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Biofilm reactors An increasingly popular alternative for ASP www.mbr-network.eu

Biofilm reactors

Biofilm reactors An increasingly popular alternative for ASP www.mbr-network.eu
Biofilm reactors An increasingly popular alternative for ASP www.mbr-network.eu

An increasingly popular alternative for ASP

Biofilm reactors An increasingly popular alternative for ASP www.mbr-network.eu

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Why growth in flocs / biofilms ? If the residence time of organisms in the

Why growth in flocs / biofilms ?

If the residence time of organisms in the process < inverse of their growth rate
If the residence time of organisms in the process
<
inverse of their growth rate
in the process < inverse of their growth rate By growing in WASH OUT • flocs

By growing in

WASH OUT

flocs that settle in the clarifier

biofilms that attach to surfaces

they can stay sufficiently long in the system

in the clarifier • biofilms that attach to surfaces they can stay sufficiently long in the

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Trickling Filters Simple, reasonably performing, old technology www.mbr-network.eu

Trickling Filters

Trickling Filters Simple, reasonably performing, old technology www.mbr-network.eu

Simple, reasonably performing, old technology

Trickling Filters Simple, reasonably performing, old technology www.mbr-network.eu

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Trickling Filters Disadvantages: Clogging + flies Advantages: Cheap aeration www.mbr-network.eu

Trickling Filters

Trickling Filters Disadvantages: Clogging + flies Advantages: Cheap aeration www.mbr-network.eu

Disadvantages: Clogging + flies Advantages: Cheap aeration

Trickling Filters Disadvantages: Clogging + flies Advantages: Cheap aeration www.mbr-network.eu

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Biofilm processes Conversion + DIFFUSION Principle: Bulk liquid S 0 Biofilm L J S J+dJ/dz*dz

Biofilm processes

Biofilm processes Conversion + DIFFUSION Principle: Bulk liquid S 0 Biofilm L J S J+dJ/dz*dz z

Conversion + DIFFUSION Principle:

Bulk liquid

S 0

Conversion + DIFFUSION Principle: Bulk liquid S 0 Biofilm L J S J+dJ/dz*dz z dz Substratum
Biofilm L J S J+dJ/dz*dz z dz
Biofilm
L
J
S
J+dJ/dz*dz
z
dz

Substratum

Conversion + DIFFUSION Principle: Bulk liquid S 0 Biofilm L J S J+dJ/dz*dz z dz Substratum

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Active fraction concept Biofilm processes S O Bulk liquid S S 0 0 Substrate Conc.

Active fraction concept

Biofilm processes

S O

Bulk

liquid

S S

0

0

concept Biofilm processes S O Bulk liquid S S 0 0 Substrate Conc. L z So
Substrate Conc. L
Substrate Conc.
L
processes S O Bulk liquid S S 0 0 Substrate Conc. L z So L r

z So

L r O , r S penetr. depth b So = active fraction f inactive
L
r O , r S
penetr. depth b So =
active fraction f
inactive
z
So
fraction
Conc. L z So L r O , r S penetr. depth b So = active

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Biofilm processes The active fraction concept leads to the interpretation of biofilms as systems in

Biofilm processes

The active fraction concept leads to the interpretation of biofilms as systems in which layers exist with different conversion processes taking place

The layers change in size as the process conditions change

conversion processes taking place The layers change in size as the process conditions change www.mbr-network.eu
conversion processes taking place The layers change in size as the process conditions change www.mbr-network.eu

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Sludge treatment www.mbr-network.eu

Sludge treatment

Sludge treatment www.mbr-network.eu

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Conversion process modelling “The” starting point: Henze M., Gujer W., Mino T. and van Loosdrecht

Conversion process modelling “The” starting point:

Conversion process modelling “The” starting point: Henze M., Gujer W., Mino T. and van Loosdrecht M.

Henze M., Gujer W., Mino T. and van Loosdrecht M. (2000)

Activated Sludge Models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2D & ASM3

Scientific and Technical Report No. 9

IWA Publishing, London.

Models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2D & ASM3 Scientific and Technical Report No. 9 IWA Publishing, London. www.mbr-network.eu

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The Gujer matrix presentation Compact presentation of a biokinetic model (ASM0) www.mbr-network.eu

The Gujer matrix presentation

Compact presentation of a biokinetic model (ASM0)

The Gujer matrix presentation Compact presentation of a biokinetic model (ASM0) www.mbr-network.eu

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The Gujer matrix presentation Compact presentation of a biokinetic model (ASM0) www.mbr-network.eu
Mass balancing Vertical summation of Stoichiometry term * Kinetics terms gives total conversion r(S i

Mass balancing

Mass balancing Vertical summation of Stoichiometry term * Kinetics terms gives total conversion r(S i )

Vertical summation of Stoichiometry term * Kinetics terms gives total conversion

r(S i ) = Σ j sign(ji) v ji .ρ j

Add the transport terms the mass balance !

r(S i ) = Σ j sign(ji) v j i . ρ j Add the transport
r(S i ) = Σ j sign(ji) v j i . ρ j Add the transport

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The Gujer matrix presentation « Standard models » in use today Model Year WWTP #

The Gujer matrix presentation « Standard models » in use today

Model

Year

WWTP #

Processes

Components

Parameters*

‘ASM0’

1987

C

2

3

4

ASM1

1987

C,N

9

13

19

ASM2

1994

C,N,P

20

19

65

ASM2d

1999

C,N,P

22

19

67

ASM3

1999

C,N

13

13

36

ASM3P

2001

C,N,P

24

17

71

ADM1

2002

X

28

36

96

ASDM

2007

C,N,P,X

51

62

470

# C= COD-removal, N= N-removal, P= P-removal, X = Sludge digestion *Parameters: stoichiometric, kinetic & composition parameters

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The Gujer matrix presentation ASDM’s model matrix www.mbr-network.eu

The Gujer matrix presentation

The Gujer matrix presentation ASDM’s model matrix www.mbr-network.eu

ASDM’s model matrix

The Gujer matrix presentation ASDM’s model matrix www.mbr-network.eu

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Gujer’s law Model complexity measure: C o m p l e x i t y

Gujer’s law

Gujer’s law Model complexity measure: C o m p l e x i t y =

Model complexity measure:

Complexity = # components x # processes x # compartments

10 10 Transistors per square inch 10 8 Moore‘s law Slope 0.35 yr -1 10
10
10
Transistors per square inch
10
8
Moore‘s law
Slope 0.35 yr -1
10
6
Relative model complexity C
10
4
100
ASM Simulation
Slope 0.35 yr -1
1
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010

Year

complexity C 10 4 100 ASM Simulation Slope 0.35 yr -1 1 1960 1970 1980 1990

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Activated Sludge Model No 1 Henze et al. (1987) Innovations: • Nomenclature: Solubles: symbol S

Activated Sludge Model No 1

Henze et al. (1987)Activated Sludge Model No 1 Innovations: • Nomenclature: Solubles: symbol S Particulates: symbol X • Focus

Innovations:Activated Sludge Model No 1 Henze et al. (1987) • Nomenclature: Solubles: symbol S Particulates: symbol

Nomenclature: Solubles: symbol S Particulates: symbol X

Focus on:

- Sludge production

- Oxygen consumption

- Nitrogen removal

COD based modelling Mass balancing

Petersen matrix

- Oxygen consumption - Nitrogen removal • COD based modelling Mass balancing • Petersen matrix www.mbr-network.eu
- Oxygen consumption - Nitrogen removal • COD based modelling Mass balancing • Petersen matrix www.mbr-network.eu

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ASM1: COD-components Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD

ASM1: COD-components

Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total

Total

COD

COD

Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD
Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs
Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg.

Nonbiodeg.

COD

COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Nonbiodeg. COD
Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable

Biodegradable

COD

COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Biodegradable COD
Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs
Total COD Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass

Active mass

COD

COD

Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Active mass COD
Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs X B,H
Nonbiodeg. COD Biodegradable COD Active mass COD Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs X B,H

Soluble

S S

Particulate

X s

Heterotrophs

X B,H

Autotrophs

X B,A

Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs X B,H Autotrophs X B,A Soluble S I Particulate

Soluble

S I

Soluble S S Particulate X s Heterotrophs X B,H Autotrophs X B,A Soluble S I Particulate

Particulate X I & X P

Heterotrophs X B,H Autotrophs X B,A Soluble S I Particulate X I & X P www.mbr-network.eu
Heterotrophs X B,H Autotrophs X B,A Soluble S I Particulate X I & X P www.mbr-network.eu

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ASM1: N-components Nitrate/nitrite N S NO Total Kjeldahl N TKN Organically bound N Free &

ASM1: N-components

Nitrate/nitrite N

S NO

Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN

Total Kjeldahl N TKN

Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Total Kjeldahl N TKN
Nitrate/nitrite N S NO Total Kjeldahl N TKN Organically bound N Free & saline ammonia S
Nitrate/nitrite N S NO Total Kjeldahl N TKN Organically bound N Free & saline ammonia S
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically

Organically

bound N

bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
Organically bound N
N S NO Total Kjeldahl N TKN Organically bound N Free & saline ammonia S N

Free & saline ammonia S NH

Active mass N

X NB

N Free & saline ammonia S N H Active mass N X NB Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble

Soluble

organic N

organic N

Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
Soluble organic N
ammonia S N H Active mass N X NB Soluble organic N Particulate organic N Nonbiodeg.
ammonia S N H Active mass N X NB Soluble organic N Particulate organic N Nonbiodeg.
ammonia S N H Active mass N X NB Soluble organic N Particulate organic N Nonbiodeg.
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate

Particulate

organic N

organic N

Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
Particulate organic N
N X NB Soluble organic N Particulate organic N Nonbiodeg. N S NI Biodeg. N S
N X NB Soluble organic N Particulate organic N Nonbiodeg. N S NI Biodeg. N S

Nonbiodeg. N

S NI

Biodeg. N

S ND

Biodeg. N

X ND

Nonbiodeg. N

X NI & X NP

Nonbiodeg. N S NI Biodeg. N S ND Biodeg. N X ND Nonbiodeg. N X NI
Nonbiodeg. N S NI Biodeg. N S ND Biodeg. N X ND Nonbiodeg. N X NI

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ASM1: Processes 1) Growth of biomass • heterotrophs - aerobic - anoxic • autotrophs (nitrification)

ASM1: Processes

1) Growth of biomass

heterotrophs

- aerobic

- anoxic

autotrophs (nitrification)

2) Decay of biomass

heterotrophs

autotrophs

3) Ammonification of organic nitrogen 4) Hydrolysis of particulate organic matter

• autotrophs 3) Ammonification of organic nitrogen 4) Hydrolysis of particulate organic matter www.mbr-network.eu
• autotrophs 3) Ammonification of organic nitrogen 4) Hydrolysis of particulate organic matter www.mbr-network.eu

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Flow of COD in ASM1 Hydrolysis S O S NH Growth X A S NO

Flow of COD in ASM1

Hydrolysis

S O S NH Growth X A S NO Decay X X I I Decay
S O
S NH
Growth
X A
S NO
Decay
X
X
I I
Decay
X S
S S
X H

S O

Growth

in ASM1 Hydrolysis S O S NH Growth X A S NO Decay X X I

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Continuity check Horizontal summation of stoichiometric coefficients should equal 0 ! Σ i v j

Continuity check

Continuity check Horizontal summation of stoichiometric coefficients should equal 0 ! Σ i v j i

Horizontal summation of stoichiometric coefficients should equal 0 !

Σ i v ji .i ci = 0

Provided: - consistent units have been used - all substrates/products are included

This can be done for COD, N, P, Charge, Mass

Example: ASM3 !

- all substrates/products are included This can be done for COD, N, P, Charge, Mass Example:
- all substrates/products are included This can be done for COD, N, P, Charge, Mass Example:

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12   13 S

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

 

13

S

O

S

I

S

S

S

NH

S

N2

S

NO

S

HCO

X I

X S

X H

X

STO

X A

X

TS

O

2

COD

COD

N

N

N

Mole

COD

COD

COD

COD

COD

TSS

 

f SI

1-f SI

y

1

   

z

1

 

-1

       

-i

XS

x

2

-1

y

2

z

2

Y

STO

t

2

x

4

-1

y

y

3

4

-x

3

x

3

z

z

3

4

1

Y

STO

-1/Y H

t

t

3

4

 

-i NBM

-x

5

x

5

z

5

1

-1/Y H

t

5

-(1-f I )

-1

y

y

6

6

-x

7

x

7

z

z

6

7

f

I

f

I

-1

-1

-1

t

t

6

7

-0.60

 

-x

9

x

9

z

9

-1

-0.60

x

8

y

10

1/Y A

z

10

1

i

TSBM

-(1-f I )

 

y

11

z

11

f

I

-1

t

11

 

y

12

-y 12

y 12

z

12

f

I

-1

t

12

Component i >

j

1

Process

expressed as >

Hydrolysis

Heterotrophic organisms, denitrification

2

Aerobic storage of COD

3

Anoxic storage of COD

4

Aerobic growth

5

Anoxic growth (denitrification)

6

Aerobic endog. respiration

7

Anoxic endog. respiration

8

Aerobic respiration of PHA

9

Anoxic respiration of PHA

Autotrophic organisms, nitrification

10 Nitrification

11 Aerobic endog. respiration

12 Anoxic endog. respiration

Composition matrix ι k,I

k Conservatives 1 COD g COD -1 1 1 -1.71 -4.57 1 1 1 1
k
Conservatives
1
COD
g COD
-1
1
1
-1.71
-4.57
1
1
1
1
1
2
Nitrogen
g N
i
i
111
i
i
i
i
NSI
NSS
NXI
NXS
NBM
NBM
3
Ionic charge
Mole +
1/14
-1/14
-1
Observables
4
TSS
g TSS
i
i
i
0.60
i
TSXI
TSXS
TSBM
TSBM
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Consistency Check ASM3 Conservation eq.: ∑ i ν , ji ⋅ ι ki , =

Consistency Check ASM3

Conservation eq.:

i

ν

,

ji

⋅ ι

ki

,

= 0

for

i

=

1 to 12

for k = COD, N and ionic charge yields j × k = 36 equations which allow to easily predict all x j , y j , z j

TSS Composition eq.:

predict all x j , y j , z j TSS Composition eq.: t j ν

t j

ν

==

j TSS

,

j i

νι

TSS i

,,

i

for i

=

8 to 12

yields j = 12 equations which allow to easily predict all t j

i νι ⋅ TSS i ,, i for i = 8 to 12 yields j =

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Overall modelling principle: Mass balancing Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC (

Overall modelling principle: Mass balancing

Mass Balance for compound:

principle: Mass balancing Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC ( ) dt t

dM

dt

=

d VC

(

)

dt

Mass Balance for compound: dM dt = d VC ( ) dt t r a n

transport

conversion

with

M:

Mass of compound in system (g)

C:

Concentration of compound (g/m 3 )

V:

Volume of system (m 3 )

Q:

Flow rate (m 3 /h)

r:

Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3 .h)

system (m 3 ) Q: Flow rate (m 3 /h) r: Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3
system (m 3 ) Q: Flow rate (m 3 /h) r: Volumetric conversion rate (g/m 3

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