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4pphedEnergl 12 (1982) 221 228

AERODYNAMIC

DESIGN OF TURBINES

OPTIMUM

WIND

A. M. DE PAOR

Department of Electrical Engineering, University College, Dublin 2, Ireland

SUMMARY

Based on perJormance envelopes derived by Wilson et al. 6 at Oregon State University, and on a new aerodynamic theory recently proposed by the author, a design procedure is presented and illustratedjbr one-, two- or three-bladed horizontal axis, constant chord wind turbines of optimum perJbrmance. Following specification of the number of blades, B, the lift coefficient, L, and the lift-to-drag ratio, L/D, at the design point, algorithms are developed for finding: ( i ) the tip-speed ratio, X, at which the optimum power coefficient is developed, ( ii) the ratio of blade chord to radius and (iii) the manner in which each blade should be twisted along its axis. Programs are given for implementing the calculations iteratively on a programmable calculator.

INTRODUCTION

A wind turbine which sweeps an area, A, normal to an airstream moving with flee speed, V, is conventionally characterised by its power coefficient: P
Cv - J p A V 3 ( [)

where P is the power delivered at the axis. The most famous result in the theory is that of Betz ' which states that, for an idealised horizontal axis turbine (the actuator disc) having an infinite number of infinitely thin drag-free blades, C v cannot exceed the value ~5. Extensions of the basic theory, however, as reviewed in recent years by 16 Wilson and Lissaman 2 and Hunt, 3 show that, when rotation of the wake is taken into account, the upper bound on C v becomes a function of the 'tip-speed ratio':
X = ---

Rf2 V 221

(2)

Applied Energy 0306-2619/82/0012-0221/$02-75 ~ Applied Science Publishers Ltd, England, 1982


Printed in Great Britain

222

A . M . DE PAOR

where R is the radius of the turbine and ~ its angular velocity. The first explicit formula for a version of this function was derived recently by the author: 4'5

=j2

Equation (3) and the other treatments mentioned apply to the actuator disc. A real wind turbine has a finite number, B, of thick blades which are acted on not only by lift but also by drag forces. Wilson et al. 6 have used advanced aerodynamic theory to produce performance envelopes for this case, parameterised by B and by the lift-to-drag ratio, L/D, of the aerofoils comprising the blades. The implication of using L/D as a parameter is that the blades are twisted so as to maintain a constant angle of attack to the local relative wind velocity vector along their length, at the value of Xconsidered. Wilson 7 has discovered that these performance envelopes can be summarised to a high degree of accuracy (e.g. Cv within _+0-005) for B = 1,2 or 3, 4 < X < 20 and LID > 25, by the empirical formula: X g 2 1"32+[(X-8)/20] 2 - 0 ' 5 7 ( 1) Cv---2-7 X + B LID X + - ~ 16 (4)

In reference 2 the author showed that eqn. (4) provides the key for an extension of actuator disc theory to encompass real wind turbines. More than that, however, it has been realised that eqn. (4) and the extended theory can be recast to yield constructive and easily applied design algorithms for optimum wind turbines. These are presented below. The only quantities which need to be specified are the number of blades, B( = 1,2, or 3), the lift-to-drag ratio, LID ( > 25) and the lift coefficient, L, at the design point. The last two quantities follow from selecting an aerofoil and an angle of attack. Equation (4) is then used to derive the tip-speed ratio, X, on which the design should be based in order to achieve the maximum possible power coefficient. Trustworthy solutions for X are, of course, constxained to lie within the range 4 < X < 20. Appropriate equations from the author's theory are then used to calculate the required ratio of constant blade chord to radius, and the prescription for blade twist as a function of radius. Where possible, design calculations are formulated as simple iterative algorithms which have been implemented successfully on the Texas Instruments TI59 programmable calculator.
CALCULATION OF TIP-SPEED RATIO

Once B and L/D are assigned, eqn. (4) may be used to calculate the optimum value of X, by exploring the condition ~Cv/~X = 0. After some algebraic manipulation, this leads to a sixth degree polynomial equation in X:

N(X) + KM(X) = 0

(5)

A E R O D Y N A M I C DESIGN OF OPTIMUM W I N D TURBINES

223

with"

( ' ) (X 2 + ( 4 0 0 B 2 / 3 - 1 6 ) X + 5 9 2 ) 2 (,) 2 M(X)= X+~


N(X)=X X + ~
(X2 - 592)

and:

K= ~

L .B2/3. (400)(16) (27)(0-57)

(6)

Figure 1 shows a sketch of the root locus of eqn. (5), i.e. the set of directed branches along which the roots move as K is varied in the range 0 to ~ . The six branches start on the roots of N(X), which are referred to as the poles of the locus:

ImX

.-;J tS,

=
2R

'~9"z

ReX

F i g 1.

R o o t locus of eqn. (5). The d o u b l e poles are r o o t s of (X 2 + (400B 2/3 - 16)X + 592) 2.

four terminate on the roots of M(X), which are the finite zeros of the locus and the remaining two go off to infinity, converging on asymptotic lines. Construction rules for root loci are explained in m a n y introductory textbooks on control systems. 8 The main point to which attention is drawn here is that there is only one positive real root for X, which migrates from 0 to 5 x ~ = 24.33 as L/D, and thus K, goes from 0 to ~ . This root clearly results in the peak value of Cp for a chosen pair of values of B and

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A . M . DE PAOR

L/D. It is a very simple matter to establish that the ranges of values of L/D which cause the positive real root of eqn. (5) to lie in the range 4 < X < 20 are as follows:
.19<L~<941 -D 25<L<1410 -D L 30 < ~ _< 1805 for B = I

for B = 2

for B = 3

(7)

The upper limits here are hardly likely to have practical significance. An iterative algorithm is now presented for calculating the value of X which maximises Cp once B and L/D are specified. This is based on rearranging eqn. (5) as:

R(x) + R(x)K4(x)
with:

(8)

M(X) = (X 2 - 592)

and:
K
~ ' ( X ) - ( X 2 "F ( 4 0 0 8 2 / 3 -

1 6 ) X + 592) 2

(9)

If K(X) could be regarded as an independent positive parameter, eqn. (8) would be a quadratic in X, which would (as can be readily shown by means of a further root locus analysis) have a positive real root in the same range (namely 0 < X < 5,,/5~) as eqn. (5). This suggests that if X k is the result of the kth iteration on X, the (k + l)th iterate be taken as the positive real root of the quadratic/~'(X) + K(Xk). ffl(X) = O. Explicit solution of eqn. (8), followed by some algebraic manipulation, gives the scheme in the form:

Z k = 2B(1 + K(Xk) )
and:

XR' = Z~ { x / l + 592Zk(Zk -- 2B) -- 1}

(10)

with [(Xk) defined by eqns (6) and (9). This has been found to converge reliably and quite rapidly for all values of L/D in the ranges given by eqn. (7) with the initial guess X o in the range 0 < X o < 5x//~. A program written for the TI59 is given in the Appendix.

AERODYNAMICDESIGN OF OPTIMUM WIND TURBINES

225

As an indication of how the algorithm works, the sequence of values displayed for
B = 3, L / D = 50 is given below, starting with the inaccurate initial guess X 0 = 10.

X 1 = 5496 895 788


X2

=5.311 13984

X 3 = 5.296 493 724 X 4 = 5.295 296 868 X s = 5.295 198 782 X 6 = 5.295 190741 X 7 =5.295 190082 After four iterations the result has stabilised to three decimal places, and even that is unjustified precision: one would design this turbine for X = 5-3.

C A L C U L A T I O N OF R A T I O OF B L A D E C H O R D TO R A D I U S

Having specified L / D , the implication is that an aerofoil has been selected and also the angle of attack at which the local relative wind velocity vector is to impinge upon it under the design value of X. The next problem to be tackled is that of calculating the ratio of blade chord, c, to radius, R. There are several ways to proceed here, as revealed by different points of contact between the author's theory and the work of Wilson et al. ~ The path followed below appears to be the most direct. We adopt the assumption made in reference 4--which led to excellent agreement with eqn. (4) .... that the local wind is normal to the plane swept by the blades, with speed:
V,=~V

(11)

The author's theory gives:


_ X I + X2

2(1 - ~)

(12)

where the auxiliary variable, r/, is the positive real root of the cubic (r/-- 1) 3 +

3x2/,(B)
2

(r/ - - J 2 ( B ) ) = 0

(13)

Values of the functions./l(B) and J2(B) are given in Table I. The entries under B = oo correspond to the actuator disc. A Table of solutions of eqn. (13) is given in reference 4. For use in design work,

226

A. M. DE PAOR TABLE l eqn. (4) ft(B) 0'009 0'017 0"0243

F U N C T I O N VALUES USED IN

FOR EVALUATING ?/

B I 2 3

f2(B) 0'5165 0"4845 0"466

oo

however, a simple iterative scheme has been devised, again based on root locus considerations:

K(k) rlk+ I =

3X2J~(B)

2(q k - 1)2

1 +J2(B). K(k) 1 + K(k)

(14)

A TI59 p r o g r a m to implement eqn. (14) is given in the Appendix. T o illustrate its performance, a sequence of values c o r r e s p o n d i n g to B = 3, X = 5.3 is given below, continuing the design example begun in the previous section. These resulted f r o m the initial guess qo = 0 . 5 . (It should be noted that the desired root lies in the range f2(B) < q < 1 ). ql = 0 " 5 7 0 7 9 7 8 9 9 712 = 0 " 5 4 7 4 2 6 144 ?/3 = 0 ' 5 5 5 0 1 7 0 2 0 2 q4 = 0 " 5 5 2 5 3 5 8 0 1 6 q5 = 0"553 345 246 5 q6 = 0 " 5 5 3 0 8 1 0 1 q-/= 0"553 167 249 5 R e g r o u p i n g various equations from reference 4 leads to the expression c 2~(1 - y/). ~/X
:

(15)

BLX

12+L.X

I1

where 11 and I 2 are integrals evaluated explicitly as follows:

,, ~ {j, + (~)~ + (~;,n [~ (, + J, + (~))11


and: (16)

AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF OPTIMUM W I N D TURBINES

227

Taking r/= r/7 in the example gives e / X = 0-144 758 533 9, 11 = 0.532 778 294 1, 13 = 0.342 854408 9 and eqn. (15) then yields, corrected to two decimal places c R 0.074 L

The influence of the lift coefficient is noteworthy here' for a given lift-to-drag ratio, more slender blades result as the lift coefficient increases.

C A L C U L A T I O N OF BLADE TWIST AND RADIUS

At any station, r, out from the axis, the local relative wind velocity vector is compounded of eV perpendicular to the plane of the turbine and rf~ in the plane. Thus, if ct is the angle of attack, it is readily seen that the angle between the blade chord and the plane of the mill is given by: fl = arctan \ r ~ ] = arctan ( - ~ . R ) - c~ (17)

For the figures carried through in the example, eqn. (17) gives fl = 8.237 o _ :~ at the tip and fl = 55.363 - e at r = 0" 1R. The design is completed by calculating R. If P, is the rated power, to be obtained at windspeed, V,, the radius is given by the relation: Pr = Cp. lp~zR2. V 3 The value of Cp is given by eqn. (4). For B = 3, L / D = 50, X = 5.3 as used above, and Cp has the value 0-47.

CONCLUSIONS

A systematic procedure has been outlined for the aerodynamic design of a horizontal axis wind turbine of o p t i m u m power coefficient, having one, two or three blades. Several points need to be emphasised. In the first place, the author has not yet been afforded the opportunity to build and test a machine designed in accordance with this method. The theory underlying it, however, has given an excellent fit 4 to the performance envelopes of Wilson et al. 6 and this encourages its recasting as a design tool. In the second place, it must be emphasised that the theory, since it is based on performance envelopes, specifies only one point on the Cp versus X characteristic of an individual turbine. What is claimed is that the turbine so

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A . M . DE PAOR

designed will achieve a peak power coefficient at the value of Xcalculated and that peak will be the calculated value Cp. The turbine characteristic is tangential, at the design point, to the appropriate envelope. The theory as developed so far sheds no light on the performance of a wind turbine when operated away from its optimum tip-speed ratio.
APPENDIX

The first TI59 program implements the algorithm given in eqn. (10), with ~;(Xk) defined by eqns (6) and (9). Memory locations are assigned as follows: L/D to 01 ; X k to 02; 2B to 03; 1/2 B to 04; B 2/3 to 05 ; 400B 2/3 - 16 to 06; [(400)(16)]/[(27)(0.57)] = 415.854450 9 to 07; 592 to 08. Location 09 is used to store Z k during computation. The two 2nd Pause instructions were inserted to hold the display long enough to observe each successive iteration on X. They may be replaced by an R/S instruction if desired. In that case computation will cease after each iteration, and R/S must be pressed to perform the next cycle. LRN RCL 01 RCL 05 RCL 07 (RCL 02 + RCL 04) x 2 - (RCL 02 x 2 + ( R C L 06 RCL 02) + RCL08) x z + 1 = RCL 03 = S T O 09 RCL 08 x RCL 09 x (RCL 0 9 - RCL 03) + 1 = x / x 2nd Pause 2nd Pause STO 02 RST LRN The second TI59 program implements eqn. (14). Memory locations are assigned as follows: r/k to 01 ; X 2 to 02 ;fl (B) to 03 ;f2(B) to 04. Location 05 is used to store K(k) during computation. As before, the 2nd Pause instructions may be replaced by R/S: LRN 3 x R C L 0 2 x R C L 0 3 - 2 + ( R C L 0 1 - 1 ) x STO 01 RST LRN
REFERENCES 1. A. BETZ, Windenergie und ihre ausnutzung durch windmuhlen, Wanderhoeck und Ruprecht, Gottingen, 1926. 2. R. E. WILSON and P. B. S. LISSAMAN,Applied aerodynamics of windpower machines, Oregon State University, 1974. 3. V. D. HUNT, Windpower: A handbook of wind energy conversion systems, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981 (Chapter 5 is based on reference 2). 4. A. M. DE PAOR, Teoiric fir don teascghnlomhrrir agus don mhuileann gaoithe. (A new theory for the actuator disc and the windmill). (In Irish.) Technology Ireland (1980) (July/August), pp. 35-8. 5. A. M. DE PAOR, Inversion of a new equation for the optimum actuator disc in windmill theory, Appl. Math. Modelling, 4 (i 980) pp. 489-90. 6. R. E. WILSON, P. B. S. LXSSAMAN and S. N. WALKER, Aerodynamic performance of wind turbines, Oregon State University, 1976. 7. R. E. WILSOr~ (Private communication). 8. H. M. POWER and R. J. SIMPSON, Introduction to dynamics and control, McGraw-Hill, 1978.

1 = - RCL 09 =

2=STO05

(1 + ( R C L 04 RCL 05)) +(1 + RCL 05) = 2 n d Pause 2nd Pause