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Communication is the process of transferring information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated

information is understood by both sender and receiver. It is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Telecommunications is a general term for a vast array of technologies that send information over distances. Mobile phones, land lines, satellite phones and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) are all telephony technologies -- just one field of telecommunications. Radio, television and networks are a few more examples of telecommunication.

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminals, links and nodes which connect to enable telecommunication between users of the terminals

All telecommunication networks are made up of five basic components that are present in each network environment regardless of type or use. These basic components include terminals, telecommunications processors, telecommunications channels, computers, and telecommunications control software.

Terminals are the starting and stopping points in any telecommunication network environment. Any input or output device that is used to transmit or receive data can be classified as a terminal component.[1] Telecommunications processors support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers by providing a variety of control and support functions. (i.e. convert data from digital to analog and back) [1] Telecommunications channels are the way by which data is transmitted and received. Telecommunication channels are created through a variety of media of which the most popular include copper wires and coaxial cables (structured cabling). Fiber-optic cables are increasingly used to bring faster and more robust connections to businesses and homes.[1] In a telecommunication environment computers are connected through media to perform their communication assignments.[1] Telecommunications control software is present on all networked computers and is responsible for controlling network activities and functionality.[1]

Early networks were built without computers, but late in the 20th century their switching centers were computerized or the networks replaced with computer networks.

Two different telecommunication Networks


The two dominant telecommunication networks are actually the telephone network and the IP-network or Internet.

Comparison of telephone network and Internet

The principal difference between the telephone network and the Internet is that Internet has no organisation dedicated to the global optimisation of the network. There are standards and protocols that are recommended and the actors have to trust that all other actors apply the protocols. Otherwise all trust is local.

An AS trusts the other ASs to which he connects, to forward his traffic and hope that all packages will
reach their destinations. If a failure occurs, it must be detected by one of the parties and the packages must be retransmitted. In the telephone network international agreements assure the connectivity to the end users. In this way technical, economic, legal and error handling trust is established between all parties.
Within the Internet, an Autonomous System (AS) is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.[1]

computer security
The objective of computer security includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users. The term computer system security means the collective processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication, tampering or collapse by unauthorized activities or untrustworthy individuals and unplanned events respectively.

COMSEC. Communications security includes: cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of communications security materials and information. a. cryptosecurity--The component of communications security that results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. b. transmission security--The component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis. c. emission security--The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and

telecommunications systems. d. physical security--The component of communications security that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons.

The telecommunication and network security

The telecommunication and network security domain deals with the security of voice and data communications through local area, wide area, and remote access networking.