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PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PROF.DR.

HAMKA

MID SEMESTER

Nama NIM Mata Kuliah Tahun Akademik Program Studi Semester / Angkatan Dosen

: Teguh Eko Setio : 1108066041 : Philosophy of Muhammadiyah : 2011/2012 : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris :I/X : Dr. H. Abdul Mukti

1. DEFINITION OF RELIGIUS
Muhammadiyah considers that the current era of life in an atmosphere full of paradox; therefore, advances in science and technology is remarkable along with such adverse effects of environmental polluted (pollution) and suffered a massive uncontrolled exploitation. The development of reason of an instrument, it makes weak natural human instinct, generating further secularity causing loss of human life balance; that is religious. The progress of modern life that gave birth to post-modern anti-thesis that making all-free trend free life, all show the value of life than make more open systematic anti-religious

and anti-God. The modern era states that religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. It is worse that some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths. One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings, and thus religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to nonWestern cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct. The main Abrahamic religions are Christianity, Islam, Judaism. These religions are monotheistic faiths,that recognize a belief that originated in the middle east and identifies with Abraham. These religions are derived from an Islamic term Millat Ibrahim and in the Muslim context, it is thought only Islam reflects the Faith of Abraham. Arab Muslims, have a relationship to Abraham through his son Ismail, which is extended to include Muhammad. Definition in Manhaj Muhammadiyah isnt directly mentioned, but implicitly placed on the enclosure of Quran in the surah Asy-Syuura 43:13

He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, (Muhammad), and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus - to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate others with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back (to Him).

Asy-Syuura 43:13 explains directly about religion from Allah are revealed to Abraham/ Ibrahim,an Moses/Musa, and Isa; therefore we can say the religion here; Judas as the religion name of Moses/ musa Prophet. Abraham the older sequence if we try to compare with Moses/ Musa is going to be the same. Christian as the Yesus religion but here we talk about Isa because today Christian is more popular with Yesus, but here we are going to get on Isa as the Prophet. Genesis and the Quran, as it mention the Great Flood and the story of Noah/Nuh, that was also mentioned in the Old Testament. Semitic origins as Judaism and Christianity, found their origins in the Jewish populations. Islam was revealed to the Arabs in Mecca in the 7th century. The faiths all have a basis in divine revelation, rather than in philosophical speculation or custom. Abrahamic religions all have an ethical orientation. They speak of a mans choice between good and evil, which

is either obedience or disobedience to a single God and to Divine Law. That life follows a concept of beginning and end. It began with the creation and will end with a Ressurection of the dead and final judgement. All propheta from Adam to Muhammad were sent with the same message: man's total submission to Allah. In Arabic, this submission is called "Islam," which also means peace, peace between the Creator and His creatures. Unlike the names Judaism and Christianity, the name Islam was given by Allah Himself, as

mentioned in Quran Al- Maidah (5:3) Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah , and (those animals) killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you (are able to) slaughter (before its death), and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and (prohibited is) that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have

despaired of (defeating) your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Jesus never claimed to establish Christianity and never called himself a Christian. The word "Christian" is mentioned only three times in the New Testament and first by pagans and Jews in Antioch about 43 A.D., long after Jesus had left this earth. Read in Acts 11:26: "And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch. The first Muslim on earth was not Muhammad but Abraham, who submitted totally to Allah. But Islam as a faith had been revealed to other prophets prior to Abraham, such as Adam and Noah. Then Islam follows as the faith for all humanity. Muhammadiyah Muslim believes in all scriptures and revelations of Allah. They were the guiding light which the Messengers received to show their respected peoples the Right Path of Allah. In the Quran a special reference is made to the books of Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus. But long before the revelations has been lost or corrupted. The only authentic and complete book of Allah in existence in the Al-Quran.

2. DEFINITION OF ISLAM Muhammadiyah Formal thoughts underline for about Islam as a set of values and norms which based on the Al Quran and Sunnah as the main resources of life Muslim main principle. Qur'an comprehends the complete code for the Muslims to live a good, chaste, abundant and rewarding life in obedience to the commandments of Allah, in this life and to gain salvation in the next. It is the "chart of life" for every Muslim, and it is the "constitution" of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The Qur'an is the eternal contemporary of the Muslims. Each generation of Muslims has found new sources of strength, courage and inspiration in it. It is also, for them, a "compass" in the turbulent voyage of life, as it has explained itself in the following verses Al-Maidah (15,16) :

People of the Scripture, there has come to you Our Messenger making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allah a light and a clear Book. By which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace and brings them out from darknesses into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path.

It is clear that Islam place Al-Quran and Sunnah as the main principles of life, the moslem of Muhammadiyah should hold the verses above as one of the main absolute reference for life. The strength of Muhammadiyah principle for the people still has some bases inside as the Base and Resouece (Landasan dan Sumber) : Base and Source of Life Islam Compass for Muhammadiyah People are Al-Quran and As sunnah of the Muhammad Prophet which is the development and enrichment from the formal thought in muhammaddiyah such as: a. Editorial Conviction, and Life Aspiring (Muhammadiyah Matan Keyakinan, and Cita-Cita Hidup Muhammadiyah) Explained the devout of God is Allah decision rule only. Have saints of God, prayer and fidelity of Allah is the only obligation of human; next, life in human community is Sunnah (qudrat iradat) Allah of the entire human in the world. Prosperous people, save, live in peace, can be acquired based on justice, honesty, brotherhood living in friendly society with only the rule of Allah, without the influence of Satan and diem passion. Here, clear about God as the absolute authority of the world and human being as the implementer of natural tendency for their life. Islam is religion of Allah that brought by whole prophets, from Adam until Muhammad Saw, and it is thought to each people to get happy life in the world and life after. Absolutely state about Islam started from the first of human until Muhammad Saw period the only Islam that the real religion in this world only up to now.

b. Anggaran Dasar Muhammadiyah

Started by Afatihah at the Muqadimah

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. (All) praise is (due) to Allah, Lord of the worlds - The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. It is you were worship and You we ask for help. Guide us to the straight path - The path of those upon whom you have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.

A surah is an Islamic word for chapter, and an ayah is an Islamic word for "verse". In English, the title Al Fatihah is often translating to "The Opening" or the "Exordium". Surah Al Fatihah is the first surah (chapter) in the Qu'ran, and it consists of seven ayahs (verses) that form a prayer for Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala's mercy and guidance, and express the believer's dependence on the lordship and mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala. The first term of Anggaran Dasar Muhammadiyah put Al-Fatihah it means that every single thing in Muhammadiyah based on Al-Quran and Hadist. It is a description for the human to get more understand about Islam itself. There are various

ways to know God "ALLAH'' and there are many things to tell about him. The great wonders and impressive marvels of the world are like open books in which we can read about God. Besides, God Himself comes to our aid through the many Messengers and revelations He has sent down to man. These Messengers and revelations tell us everything we need to know about God. The next about Islam that we can find inside is on the Membership of Muhammadiyah at the chapter four verse number eight member right and obligation; Muhammadiyah member consist of: 1. Ordinary member is Indonesian Muslim citizen. 2. Extra ordinary member is overseas Muslim. 3. Honorary member is a Muslim who has commendable to Muhammadiyah or because the power authority or skill available to help Muhammadiyah.

From that membership Muhammadiyah put Muslim as the absolute criteria; whatever the person who get inside. Islam here put as the main authority of Muhammadiyah.

c. Khitah Muhammadiyah 1956-1959 Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan established Muhammadiyah November 18 th 1912, coincide time with Egypt Makah revival with sign slogan back to Al-Quran and Sunnah to get real Islam. This is not only similar time but the concept has been started before. The Muslim effort about that has been tried by some Indonesianto acquire Islam power roll over in colonial era. Muhammadiyah takes it with Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan. Muhammadiyah perspective about Islam is mention in the Ideologi, Khittah, and Langkah, all those elements indirectly list Muhammadiyah puts Islam absolutely as the

main foundation; thus on Manhaj Gerakan Muhammadiyah placed Islam based on AlQuran and Sunnah, so Islam consist fundamental article of faith in Islam as the true faithful Muslim believes in the following Principal articles of faith : He believes in One God 'Allah', Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. He believes in all Messengers of God without any discrimination among them. Every known nation had a warner or Messenger from God. They were chosen by God to teach mankind and deliver His divine message. The Quran mentions the name of twenty five of them. Among them Mohammad stands as the last Messenger and the crowning glory of the foundation of Prophethood. The true Muslim believes in the Angels of Allah. They are purely spiritual and splendid beings whose nature requires on food, drink or sleep. They spend their days and nights in the worship of God. Muslim believes in the last Day of Judgement. This world will come to an end someday, and the dead will rise to stand for their final and fair trial. People with good records will be generously, rewarded and warmly welcomed to the Heaven of Allah, and those with bad records will be punished and cast into Hell. Muslim believes in the timeless knowledge of God and His power to plan and execute His planes and nothing could happen in His Kingdom against His will. His knowledge and power are in action at all times and command over His creation. He is wise and merciful, and whatever He does must have

a meaningful purpose. If this is established in our mind and hearts, we should accept with good faith all that He does, although we may fail to understand it fully, or think it is bad.

3. ASPECT OF ISLAM Aspects of Islam are derived from the Qur'an, the Sunnah (the sayings and living habits of Muhammad), Muslim history, and elements of political movements outside Islam. Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by successors to the Prophet known as Caliphs; the importance of following Islamic law or Syariah; the duty of rulers to

seek consultation from their subjects; and the importance of rebuking unjust rulers but not encouraging rebellion against them as in Introduction of Muhammadiyah Charter put AlAnbiya : (21:25) And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.

Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the very word of God Almighty: a complete record of the exact words revealed by God through the Archangel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of God be upon him). The Qur'an was memorized by Prophet Muhammad and his followers, dictated to his companions, and written down by scribes, who cross-checked it during the Prophet's lifetime. Not one word of its 114 surahs (chapters) has been changed over the centuries. The Qur'an is in every detail the same unique and miraculous text that was revealed to Muhammad over fourteen centuries ago. The Qur'an is the principle source of every Muslim's faith and practice. It deals with all subjects that concern us as human beings, including

wisdom, doctrine, worship and law; but its basic theme is the relationship between God and His creatures. At the same time, the Qur'an provides guidelines for a just society, proper human conduct and equitable economic principles. "He (God) has sent down to you the Book (the Qur'an) with truth, confirming what was revealed before; And He sent down the Torah (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this as a guide in humankind; and He sent down the Criterion (the Qur'an)." Ali Imron (3:3-4)

Before, as guidance for the people. And He revealed the Qur'an. Indeed, those who disbelieve in the verses of Allah will have a severe punishment, and Allah is exalted in Might, the Owner of Retribution.

The Qur'an comprehends the complete code for the Muslims to live a good, chaste, abundant and rewarding life in obedience to the commandments of Allah, in this life and to gain salvation in the next. It is the "chart of life" for every Muslim, and it is the "constitution" of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. t has created an all but new phase of human thought and a fresh type of character. It deserves the highest praise for its conceptions of Divine nature in reference to the attributes of Power, Knowledge, and Universal Providence and Unity that its belief and trust is one God, creator of Heaven and Earth is deep and fervent, and that it embodies much of a noble and moral earnestness.

The sunnah of Muhammad includes his specific words, habits, practices, and silent approvals, it is significant because it addresses ways of life dealing with friends, family and government. Recording sunnah was an Arabian tradition and, once people converted to Islam, they brought this custom to their religion. The sunnah is consulted after referring to the Qur'an, if the issue is not addressed there. Sunnah can be used as evidence in Syariah, and that Allah (swt) has ordered us to follow the Sunnah and avoid anything it has prohibited for us. In other words, this means that it is obligatory on every Muslim to believe in what the Sunnah tells us, and to act according to the Sunnah in all aspects of our life and ensure that we do not commit any actions that contradict the Sunnah.

4. SOURCE OF ISLAM Muhammaddiyah Life Orientation is a set of Islamic norm values that has resources from Al-Quran and Sunnah for pattern of Muhammadiyahin their daily life, so it becomes muslim personal configuration to make the real muslim. Islam is the guidance which was first inspired by the Almighty in human nature and after that it was given by Him with all details to mankind through His prophets. Muhammad is the last of these prophets. Consequently, it is now he alone who in this world is the sole source of this religion. It is only through him that man can receive divine guidance and it is only he who, through his words, deeds or tacit approvals, has the authority to regard something as part of Islam until the Day of Judgement. It is this shariah (law) and this hikmah (wisdom) which is termed as Islam. The source of this religion is the Prophet Muhammad from whom it has been given to the umat through the consensus of his Companions and through their perpetual practice and perpetual recitation in two forms: 1. The Quran 2. The Sunnah

1. The Quran Every Muslim knows that the Quran was revealed by Allah to Muhammad the last of the prophets and it has since then remained with the umat with the unanimous verdict from the umat itself that it is this very book which was revealed to the Prophet (sws), and which his Companions, through their consensus and through their perpetual recitation, delivered to the world without the slightest alteration.

2. The Sunnah By Sunnah is meant that tradition of Prophet Abrahams religion which the Prophet Muhammad instituted among his followers as religion after reviving and reforming it and after making certain additions.

5. THE MEANING OF MUHAMMADIYAH AS AN ISLAMIC MOVEMENT The Muhammadiyah we see today is not the same as the Muhammadiyah at the first. It is less interested in ideological struggles. Muhammadiyah has become a populist and socially oriented organization. This observation by one of the surviving founders of the movement summarises the major transformations that the movement has undergone during the first five decades of its existence. The preceding discussion has explained how four key processes ensured the formalisation, expansion and popularisation of the Muhammadiyah and the ways in which social, political and ideational developments shaped the evolution of the movement and its impact upon the Singaporean Muslim community. While the symbiotic relationship between the leaders and the rank and file ensured that links with other religious bodies could be forged, the maintenance of a close rapport among the members of the Muhammadiyah enabled the movement to withstand the threat of ideological fissures. Through a continuous r eformulation of the movement's ideology, the Muhammadiyah adapted to the changing conditions on the ground. The movement also secured its place as a legitimate body in the eyes of political brokers, while obtaining much-needed backing from international donors through the exploitation of the relevant political opportunities that were open to them. The effective utilisation of different types of infrastructure provided avenues for recruitment and funding for activities, while the ideology of the Muhammadiyah was propagated through less obvious means. Actually Muhammadiyah has twelve steps of movement, it is based on the AlQuran Q.s Al-Ankabut:69)

And those who strive for Us - We will surely guide them to Our ways. And indeed, Allah is with the doers of good.

In making efforts, as the Muhammadiyah Islamic movement that carry out the mission of dakwah and tajdid always based on and guided by the teachings of Islam which, among other things, asked to perform good deeds and leave the bad, and apply the message of God, and crusades in His way as he states in the Qur'an. Realization of Muhammadiyah done to achieve the goal through a program formulated in every congress, as a plan of action that must be done in every step. This step can be medium term (5-year period) or long-term fit with the vision and mission development is determined by the organization. In conducting the program, as the Muhammadiyah Islamic organization is nothing short of the conditions and context of the existence of Islamic movements in various environments. Conditions faced by the Muhammadiyah influence the dynamics of movement, especially in conducting a program to achieve its main objectives, namely to create a true Islamic society. If we seee Muhammadiyan in social religious, it is a social religious that built by K.H Ahmad Dahlan as the anti-thesis of the unprosperous and undevelop of education thus in religion as the most focus of K.H Ahmad Dahlang thinking of the progression of the Stuck of the muslim. In historical concept Muhammadiyah start to progress in colonial era. Inside of Muhammadiyah movement there are some aims to make the progression of the muslim and indirect revolution for escape the colonial of the Dutch.

K.H Ahmad Dahlan didnt put it in the military and politic to against the colonialism. Social organization, education development and social economic empowerment are used. Furthermore, we can look at the political context of Muhammadiyah in Indonesia at the contemporary culture and politics of universal religion. In essence the political culture and the politics of religion want to create a society that idealized a society that is harmonious and balanced. To achieve all this, the value of tolerance, respect and value is a price that is worthy of consideration amid diversity. From these theories let's move on reality. This is the fact Muhammadiyah difficult to accept that took place in Indonesia today. Muhammadiyah Though not alone in this republic, there are others besides Muhammadiyah in this republic. There Nahdatul 'Ulama (NU) Unity Tarbiyah Islamiyah (PTI) and many others. They were all too base all ajaranya to Al-Quran and Al-Hadith. Although according to Persyarikatan and Muhammadiyah members have been deviations of the experience Islam such as the occurrence of heresy, superstition and superstition. To achieve all this, the value of tolerance, respect and value is a price that is worthy of consideration in the middle of diversities of the umat. Cultural factors and customs get a share of its own in the religion of Islam, although not all cultures and peoples can be accepted Islam. The process of internalization of the fact that culture and custom is one that affects human life.