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MB0050

Research methodology 4 Credits Assignment set 1

Q .1) Why should a manager know about the research when the job entails managing people, products , events , enviornment and the likes? ans 1The manager, while managing people, products, events, and environments will invariably face problems, big and small, and will have to seek ways to find long lasting effective solutions. This can be achieved only through knowledge of research even if consultants are engaged to solve problems.The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence

The research room at the New York Public Library, an example of secondary research in progress. Research can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research Secondary research

In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research Quantitative research

Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results.

Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers. Unfortunately, research and development are very difficult to manage, since the defining feature of research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result. As a result, higher R&D spending does not guarantee "more creativity, higher profit or a greater market share. Q.2) (a) How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Ans 2 (a) Research design in case of exploratory research studies Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly defined initially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies, which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. Generally, the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about:

1. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis have not yet been formulated, his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Besides, the bibliographical survey of studies, already made in ones area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher.

2. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a survey, people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of experience. The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. But the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. Generally, the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours. Hence, it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that, at the time of interview, they may be able to contribute effectively. Thus, an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis. This, survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research.

3. Analyses of insight-stimulating examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. For this purpose the existing records, if nay, may be examined, the unstructured interviewing may take place, or some other approach may be adopted. Attitude of the investigator, the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. Now, what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer to it. Experience indicates that for particular problems certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. One can mention few examples of insight-stimulating cases such as the reactions of strangers, the reactions of marginal individuals, the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another, the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. In general, cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation. Thus, in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis, whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted, the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise

and come to the notice of the researcher. Q.2) (b) Briefly explain independent dependent and extraneous variables in research designs. Ans 2(b). A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called non-continuous variables. In statistical term, they are also known as discrete variable. For example, age is a continuous variable; where as the number of children is a noncontinuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute.

2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between childrens school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental error. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables Q.3 (a) Differentiate between Census survey and Sample survey . ans 3-- A part of the population is known as sample. The method consisting of the selecting for study, a portion of the universe with a view to draw conclusions about the universe or population is known as sampling. A statistical sample ideally

purports to be a miniature model or replica of the collectivity or the population constituted of all the items that the study should principally encompass, that is, the items which potentially hold promise of affording information relevant to the purpose of a given research. Sampling helps in time and cost saving. It also helps in checking their accuracy. But on the other hand it demands exercise of great care caution; otherwise the results obtained may be incorrect or misleading.

Sampling is opted when the amount of money budgeted is smaller than the anticipated cost of census survey.

The decision regarding census or sampling depends upon the budget of the study. Sampling is opted when the amount of money budgeted is smaller than the anticipated cost of census survey. The extent of facilities available staff, access to computer facility and accessibility to population elements - is another factor to be considered in deciding to sample or not. In the case of a homogenous population, even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. If the population is heterogeneous, stratified random sampling is appropriate Q.3)(b) Analyze multi-stage and sequential sampling. Ans 3 (b) Multi-stage sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage.
Sequential sampling: Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a preselected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection, it is then, called multi-phase sampling. This is also known as sequential sampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. The statistics based on the sample of n can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entirepopulation of N elements. Instead, information is obtained from a largerpreliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n.

Q.4) List down various measures of central tendency and explain the differences between them. ans 4--A measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data. As such, measures of central tendency are sometimes called measures of central location. They are also classed as summary statistics. The mean (often called the average) is most likely the measure of central tendency that you are most familiar with, but there

are others, such as, the median and the mode. The mean, median and mode are all valid measures of central tendency but, under different conditions, some measures of central tendency become more appropriate to use than others. In the following sections we will look at the mean, mode and median and learn how to calculate them and under what conditions they are most appropriate to be used. Mean (Arithmetic) The mean (or average) is the most popular and well known measure of central tendency. It can be used with both discrete and continuous data, although its use is most often with continuous data (see our Types of Variable guide for data types). The mean is equal to the sum of all the values in the data set divided by the number of values in the data set. So, if we have n values in a data set and they have values x1, x2, ..., xn, then the sample mean, usually denoted by (pronounced x bar), is:

This formula is usually written in a slightly different manner using the Greek capitol letter, , pronounced "sigma", which means "sum of...":

You may have noticed that the above formula refers to the sample mean. So, why call have we called it a sample mean? This is because, in statistics, samples and populations have very different meanings and these differences are very important, even if, in the case of the mean, they are calculated in the same way. To acknowledge that we are calculating the population mean and not the sample mean, we use the Greek lower case letter "mu", denoted as :

The mean is essentially a model of your data set. It is the value that is most common. You will notice, however, that the mean is not often one of the actual values that you have observed in your data set. However, one of its important properties is that it minimises error in the prediction of any one value in your data set. That is, it is the value that produces the lowest amount of error from all other values in the data set. An important property of the mean is that it includes every value in your data set as part of the calculation. In addition, the mean is the only measure of central tendency where the sum of the deviations of each value from the mean is always zero. When not to use the mean The mean has one main disadvantage: it is particularly susceptible to the influence of outliers. These are values that are unusual compared to the rest of the data set by being especially small or large in numerical value. For example, consider the wages of

staff at a factory below: Staff 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Salary 15k 18k 16k 14k 15k 15k 12k 17k 90k 95k The mean salary for these ten staff is $30.7k. However, inspecting the raw data suggests that this mean value might not be the best way to accurately reflect the typical salary of a worker, as most workers have salaries in the $12k to 18k range. The mean is being skewed by the two large salaries. Therefore, in this situation we would like to have a better measure of central tendency. As we will find out later, taking the median would be a better measure of central tendency in this situation. Another time when we usually prefer the median over the mean (or mode) is when our data is skewed (i.e. the frequency distribution for our data is skewed). If we consider the normal distribution - as this is the most frequently assessed in statistics when the data is perfectly normal then the mean, median and mode are identical. Moreover, they all represent the most typical value in the data set. However, as the data becomes skewed the mean loses its ability to provide the best central location for the data as the skewed data is dragging it away from the typical value. However, the median best retains this position and is not as strongly influenced by the skewed values. This is explained in more detail in the skewed distribution section later in this guide. Median The median is the middle score for a set of data that has been arranged in order of magnitude. The median is less affected by outliers and skewed data. In order to calculate the median, suppose we have the data below: 65 55 89 56 35 14 56 55 87 45 92 We first need to rearrange that data into order of magnitude (smallest first): 14 35 45 55 55 56 56 65 87 89 92 Our median mark is the middle mark - in this case 56 (highlighted in bold). It is the middle mark because there are 5 scores before it and 5 scores after it. This works fine when you have an odd number of scores but what happens when you have an even number of scores? What if you had only 10 scores? Well, you simply have to take the middle two scores and average the result. So, if we look at the example below: 65 55 89 56 35 14 56 55 87 45 We again rearrange that data into order of magnitude (smallest first): 14 35 45 55 55 56 56 65 87 89 92

Only now we have to take the 5th and 6th score in our data set and average them to get a median of 55.5. Mode The mode is the most frequent score in our data set. On a histogram it represents the highest bar in a bar chart or histogram. You can, therefore, sometimes consider the mode as being the most popular option. An example of a mode is presented below:

Normally, the mode is used for categorical data where we wish to know which is the most common category as illustrated below:

We can see above that the most common form of transport, in this particular data set, is the bus. However, one of the problems with the mode is that it is not unique, so it leaves us with problems when we have two or more values that share the highest frequency, such as below:

We are now stuck as to which mode best describes the central tendency of the data. This is particularly problematic when we have continuous data, as we are more likely not to have any one value that is more frequent than the other. For example, consider measuring 30 peoples' weight (to the nearest 0.1 kg). How likely is it that we will find two or more people with exactly the same weight, e.g. 67.4 kg? The answer, is probably very unlikely - many people might be close but with such a small sample (30 people) and a large range of possible weights you are unlikely to find two people with exactly the same weight, that is, to the nearest 0.1 kg. This is why the mode is very rarely used with continuous data. Another problem with the mode is that it will not provide us with a very good measure of central tendency when the most common mark is far away from the rest of the data in the data set, as depicted in the diagram below:

In the above diagram the mode has a value of 2. We can clearly see, however, that the mode is not representative of the data, which is mostly concentrated around the 20 to 30 value range. To use the mode to describe the central tendency of this data set would be misleading. Skewed Distributions and the Mean and Median We often test whether our data is normally distributed as this is a common assumption underlying many statistical tests. An example of a normally distributed

set of data is presented below:

When you have a normally distributed sample you can legitimately use both the mean or the median as your measure of central tendency. In fact, in any symmetrical distribution the mean, median and mode are equal. However, in this situation, the mean is widely preferred as the best measure of central tendency as it is the measure that includes all the values in the data set for its calculation, and any change in any of the scores will affect the value of the mean. This is not the case with the median or mode. However, when our data is skewed, for example, as with the right-skewed data set below:

we find that the mean is being dragged in the direct of the skew. In these situations, the median is generally considered to be the best representative of the central location of the data. The more skewed the distribution the greater the difference between the median and mean, and the greater emphasis should be placed on using the median as opposed to the mean. A classic example of the above right-skewed distribution is income (salary), where higher-earners provide a false representation of the typical income if expressed as a mean and not a median. If dealing with a normal distribution, and tests of normality show that the data is nonnormal, then it is customary to use the median instead of the mean. This is more a rule of thumb than a strict guideline however. Sometimes, researchers wish to report the mean of a skewed distribution if the median and mean are not appreciably different (a subjective assessment) and if it allows easier comparisons to previous research to be made. Summary of when to use the mean, median and mode Please use the following summary table to know what the best measure of central tendency is with respect to the different types of variable. Type of Variable Best measure of central tendency Nominal Mode Ordinal Median Interval/Ratio (not skewed) Mean Interval/Ratio (skewed) Median Q.5) Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both

secondary and primary source to gather the required information. ans 5 --- For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household lifestyle etc.2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies The sources of data may be classified into: a. Primary sources b. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data

Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc. Advantage of Primary Data: It is original source of data it is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Extensive research study is based on primary data

Disadvantage of Primary Data: Primary data is expensive to obtain It is time consuming It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. It is difficult to administer Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A Method is different from a Tool while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) Observation, (b) Interviewing, (c) Mail survey, (d) Experimentation, (e) Simulation and (f) Projective technique.

Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for

another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO,WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc. Q.6) (a) Explain the role of Graphs and diagrams. ans 6Role of Graphs and Diagrams: Role of Graphs: Because graphs provide a compact, rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings, recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields, both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology. Role of Diagrams: Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and, to enable effective communication, insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. The pervasive, everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can, and do, play. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams, sketches and other visualizations in communication, computation, cognition, creative thought, and problem solving. These concerns have triggered surge of interest in the study of diagrams. The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields, placing the conference as a major international event in the area. Q.6)(b) What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data? ans 6 --- b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data:

Graphical representation is done of the data available. This is very important step of statistical analysis. We will be discussing the organization of data. The word Data is plural for datum; datum means facts. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height, weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests. Graphs and diagram leave a lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data. The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: 1) Bar graph 2) Pie graph 3) Line graph 4) Scatter plot 5) Histogram