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1. Diff. category of experts in facility planning? Ans.

Facility planning deals with several multidimensional issues in the design and management of hospitality facilities. The design is an integrated process bringing together the skills and experience of owners ,operation managers, architect, builders, service consultants, landscape architect etc to conceive and construct a building that meets a variety of business and travel objectives.

Facility planning is an integrated approach towards building a facility, ie a hotel, a commercial mall, a commercial complex, a residential apartment etc. In our scope we shall focus only facility planning of a hotel building. These planning, designing and execution or construction exercises involve three category of experts namely: CATEGORY A EXPERTS: PLANNERS 1. Owner- who is a business man who desires to invest his money for return on investment. 1. The Corporate management committee consisting of President, VP Project, GM Operations, VP Finance and VP Development etc 2. The Legal Consultant who advises on all legal aspects of the project 3. Builder & Developer of the facility. The objective of the investment has to be defined by the owner of the facility. The Corporate management committee carries out a feasibility study which deals with the financial viability of the project . This is a study is carried out by a marketing agency well in advance before the beginning of the project. CATEGORY B EXPERTS: DESIGNERS The second category of experts consists of 1. Architect: An expert in designing and conceiving a building, its floor plans layout for smooth operation of the hotel etc 2. Interior Designer: An expert in designing internal furnitures, fixtures and finishes etc 3. MEP Consultant(MEP means Mechanical Electrical Plumbing) for planning and designing all engineering services, like HVAC, electrical, plumbing, fire fighting, elevators,boilers, water supply systems, cctv, telephones, etc 4. Landscape Consultant: An expert who designs the external hard and soft landscape, lawns,gardens, and greenery around the building. CATEGORY C EXPERTS: EXECUTIONERS The third category of experts consists of: 1. Civil contracting company: who construct the hotel building

2. Interior contracting company: who do the furniture fixture and interior finishings works 3. HVAC Contracting Company who constructs the Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning systems 4. Plumbing Contracting Company who constructs all plumbing water supply, drainage and waste water treatment systems 5. Fire Fighting Contracting Company who constructs all fire fighting & fire protection systems 6. Electrical Contracting Company who install all electrical distribution systems i.e transformers, HT & LT panels, switch gears, cables, wiring , telephone wirings, data cabling ets.
Elevator Company who install all mechanical vertical transportation systems, like elevators, escalators, dumb waiters etc 2 & 3. Various types of maintenance programs? Ans. Maintenance in a hotel falls into five categories: 1. Preventive Maintenance Programs Rooms & Public Areas 2. Preventive Maintenance Programs Plant & Machinery 3. Routine repairs based on Work Request System 4. Non - Routine repairs based on Work Order System 5. Emergencies Repairs/ Breakdown Repairs. 1. Preventive Maintenance Programs Rooms & Public Areas Guest room preventive maintenance is very straight forward and there are a multitude of check lists like KENFIXIT , PA CHECK LIST etc available. The place to start is not by being delayed coming up with the ideal checklist, but rather by coming up with a work cart for the maintenance staff. The cart can be an old maid's cart cleaned up and painted or something developed from a two wheel dolly with tool kits bolted to it and some shelves built for common spare parts. In a KENFIX IT program , entire hotel room should undergo a general check up once a quarter. In this program a general check list is made and each item is thoroughly checked. Maybe the maintenance person likes to fix lamps and light fixtures so s/he starts there and checks all the fixtures in the room by tightening switches, adjusting harps, checking the security of the plugs and outlets (while down there) and making notes of any that need new shades. Next the maintenance person might cheek for dripping in the bathroom and replace or clean faucet aerators, and tighten knobs. While in the bathroom, tighten the toilet seat and shower rod. Look for grouting that needs repair and make a note so that several rooms can have their grouting and

tile worked on at once. The key to guest room preventive maintenance is in actually getting some things in the room fixed or adjusted, not in making big lists and certainly not in undertaking on a big project. If just six rooms are done a week all the rooms in an 80 room motel will be done in 14 weeks. The second time around will go faster and more things will get done. The best guest room preventive maintenance checklist for your hotel may be the one the maintenance person develops after going to 20 rooms. It can be improved on the second time around, along with the KENFIX IT cart. Public spaces such as lobbies, halls, stairwells, restaurants and meeting rooms need continuous attention. Chairs, tables, doors, carpet and wall coverings all get heavy use and abuse. Without regular attention these items can cause a hotel to start looking shabby and unkempt. More importantly, some items become a safety hazard. 2. Preventive Maintenance Programs Plant & Machinery Start with simple but important things, like keeping the machinery and equipment clean followed by servicing anything and all the equipments with moving parts. Get back to the machinery every two or three months or according to the manufacturers directions, if they are located. Some equipment needs more frequent servicing. A good example are older circulating pumps for domestic hot water. Some used to need their bearings oiled weekly. Modern equipment needs less and less servicing, but anything with air circulating through it needs filters and coils cleaned just as much as they ever did. Failing to do so causes them to overheat and breakdown prematurely.

5.

Routine repairs based on Work Request System

Routine repairs based tickets known as Work Request System are a great tool for examining where preventive maintenance is failing by looking at the frequency, location or type of items that appear on the work orders. Except for damage caused by a guest or employee, many work orders are a result of poor preventive maintenance. Many maintenance people do not organize their work request orders. Organizing them might include batching work orders together by location, similar projects requiring the same tools and supplies, etc. It is also appropriate to put low priority work orders off until s/he is going to that location for an additional reason. Time is money and time spent walking to and from different jobs, getting supplies and tools and just checking things out is wasted money. Work Request System consists of tickets in two part. This leaves a permanent record of the work order for later reference. The maintenance staff simply stops by the reception desk to note

completed work orders on the permanent copy. Problem work orders are discussed at staff meetings or with the appropriate department head. Most hotels use a three part slip where one comes back to the originator when the repair is completed. 4.. Routine repairs based on Work Orders System: These are routine repairs works of slightly bigger nature where the repairing cost involves is high. Like AMCs, annual overhauling of plant and machineries,rewinding of motors, full guest floor room paintings, etc For this we have a R&M Budget which is approximately 5% of the net revenue of the hotel. 5.. Emergencies Repairs/ Breakdown Repairs. Clearly everything stops for emergencies. A burst hot water pipe on an upper floor or a dead washer when occupancy is high will get everyone's attention. No one but a neighboring guest seems to care about squeaky hinges on guest room doors. How to keep all this balanced is a challenge to managers and owners alike. 4. Various fire fighting & protection system in hotel? Ans. FIRE FIGHTING & PROTECTION SYSTEM IN A HOTEL

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

SAND BUCKETS PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM- ELECTRICAL JOCKEY PUMP- 1 No FIRE HYDRANT ELECTRICAL PUMP 1 No. FIRE HYDRANT DIESEL ENGINE PUMP -1 No FIRE HYDRANT STATIONS . FIRE MERGENCY RUBBER HOSE REEL. SPRINKLER FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM FIRE ALARM SYSTEM PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM .

5. Energy conservation opportunities in a hotel & role of each dept? Ans. ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES IN HOTELS The air conditioning consumes approx. 50 % of total electricity in a hotel, lighting accounts for 30% of total energy consumption in the hotel. There is a tremendous scope to conserve energy by adopting simple measures. These tips offers easy, practical solutions for saving energy in Appliances. The following department wise ideas save energy & money and ultimately help conserve our natural resources.

GUIDELINES FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION. DUTIES OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL

Make Optimal use of A/C, boilers, DG Sets at minimum use of fuel and power, keeping in mind guest comport. Switch off HVAC equipment in unoccupied areas. Prevent leakages of air from air conditions area, i.e., keeping the doors closed. Carry out preventive maintenance as prescribed by manufacturer periodically. Keep FCU and AHU filters clean. Check insulation of chilled water, hot water and steam lines. Use heat recovery system whenever possible. Maintain power factor above 0.95. Check electrical distribution system for phase balancing. Clean light fitting cover / bulbs / shades periodically. Standardize wattage of bulbs for all areas and stick to it. Keep check on maximum demand by staggering timing of electrical equipments operation. Switch off light of areas no in use. Maintain chilled water temperature between 90 C to 110C as per ambient temperature conditions. Maintain hot water temperature of mixing tank between 450C and 500C. Know your daily / shift wise energy budgets strictly follow them.

DUTIES OF HOUSEKEEPING DEPARTMENT AND BELL DESK PERSONNEL Switch off lights in unoccupied / vacant rooms. Keep thermostat setting at low speed and 250 C in vacant rooms. Make use of natural light when making up the guest rooms.

Ensure bathroom door is kept closed in guest rooms. Ensure windows are sealed and curtains drawn in all rooms. Ensure standardization of bulb wattage is maintained in guest rooms and public area. Keep all lamp shades and lamps clean. Switch off light of service areas when not in use. Switch off TV and music in vacant / unoccupied rooms. Report all plumbing defect, leakages to engineering. Do no waster water while cleaning. DUTIES OF F & B SERVICE DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL When renting Banquet Halls, try to make a match of the space to the size of function. For Example, holding a 30 pax function in a 300 pax Hall wastes energy from lighting and A/C. Switch on A/C and lights only half an hour before start of Function / Restaurant and Switch off as soon as it is over. Use minimum lighting for setting up. Switch off lights, A/C, Amplifiers, Fountains, while areas are unoccupied. Use of mobile gas ranges / Tandoors etc., inside halls adversely affect A/C, minimize their use. Report all plumbing, Gas leakage to engineering. Do not encourage extensive use of Arc Lamps etc., for Video Coverage. DUTIES OF COOKING / KITCHEN STEWARDING DEPARTMENTS PERSONNEL Switch on equipment only when required. Set Thermostats of equipment like Salamander/Toaster/Oven only at desired temperature setting. Higher setting causes waste of energy and does not speed up cooking. Do not keep cold Store Deep Freezer/ Fridge/Oven doors open longer then necessary of loading and unloading. Clean all heating coils and surfaces periodically. Air cool hot foods before loading them into cold stores/Deep Freezers/ Fridge. Do not store items in front of Diffusers. Ensure all gas ranges have pilot burners. Switch off gas ranges immediately after use.

Ensure there are no leakages in Gas Lines/Connections. Ensure all cooking utensils / vessels are properly cleaned. Keep ranges, Hoods and Hood filters clean. DUTIES OF SECURITY DEPARTMENT PERSONNEL Strictly maintain of monitor switching On/Off schedules. Check on pilferage of water / power by contractors. Report all leakages / other wastages noticed during rounds to concerned department. Stop wastage of Water / Energy. DUTIES OF CAFETERIA PERSONNEL Switch of ventilation and lights during non operating hours. Use minimum hot water for cleaning. Report all hot and cold water tap leakages to engineering. Ensure all gas ranges have pilot burner. Switch off Gas ranges immediately after use. Ensure all vessel bases are clean before cooking. SAVE ENERGY SAVE MONEY DUTIES OF FRONT OFFICE / FINANCE / PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT PEOPLE

Switch off Lights, A/C in offices when not occupied Use natural light while working whenever possible. Report all cold / hot water leakages to engineering. Stop wastage of water / energy 7. Short notes on- eco-friendly practices in hotels, afforestation, paper conservation, air

and water management? Eco-friendly practicesInstallation of energy efficient Screw Chiller A/C Plants to conserve electricity Dual Fuel operational Steam boiler to be installed (LPG / LDO) Rain water Harvesting System to be in place open wells and pond are used forfor ground water recharge, used for roof top catchment. Rain Water Harvesting system to be upgraded by creating recharge pits. Empty computer cartridges are returned to the supplier for refilling and reuse Old Acid Batteries are returned to the supplier

Use of Plastic & Polythene bags have been Banned - Cloth Bags made from discarded / Old Upholstry are distributed to staff from time to time All compost based on Neem products & tobacco leaf extract are used as fertilizers. (80% usage is covered by bio fertilizers) Wood ash is used as biological pest control for plants Cow dung and worm compost is used as manure Old Linen from guest rooms are donated to Orphanage & Shishu Bhawan, Left over flood from Buffets and Restaurant operations are donated to Mother Teresas orphanage. Magazines are donated to Local School Libraries and Mother Teresas Orphanage. Regular training conducted as per the Environment Management Programme and quarterly records are maintained.

Training provided to the hotel staff on specific water conservation measures / waste minimization
and waste management measures / water conservation / Operating Control Procedures etc.

AfforestationIMPACT ANALYSIS & MANAGEMENT : As you all are aware, HOTELS use considerable quantities of WOOD during CONSTRUCTION - and later, during OPERATION, continue to use a variety of Wood Products, such as : (a) Paper (b) Packaging Material (c) Ply-wood etc. Hence, it is important that we not only Track / Review our consumptions periodically - but also look out for possible saving opportunities - to add to our Bottom Lines. In order to manage the adverse Environmental Impact SUCCESSFULLY, all hotels shall essentially need to work on the theme of : "COMPULSORY AFFORESTATION", wherein each unit shall undertake regular / periodic 'Tree Plantation' as a mandatory exercise to counter and manage the adverse Environmental Impact and sustain the business model. Plantation is to be done : (a) Within the hotel premises, (b) Outside Perimeter, (c) Road to the Airport, (d) Neighbourhood e) Prominent City Areas, (f) Traffic Islands, (g) Schools & Colleges, (h) Civil Hospitals etc. -- as per availability of Land / space. System for regular Care, Watering, Security ( of sapling, viz : Tree Guard etc.) should be in place for minimum mortality. Supply of Seedlings / Saplings to Employees, neighboring Communities ( Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, RWA's etc.) -- on request or on specific occasions : e.g. Staff Day , World Environment Day celebrations. Large Hotels - with adequate space - should develop their own "Saplings Bank" - an in house mini nursery

MONITORING AND REPORTING : (1) Maintain accurate records of Sapling's Plantation / Plant Inventory etc. (2) Develop Photographic Record of Plantation - during various stages of growth. (3) Tree plantation report to be collated Qtrly. and consolidated Annually - as per budget. Paper conservationWASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM: o Paper - News Paper, packing cartons etc controlled & disposed for recycling o Stationary monitored and used papers are being reused for the purpose of Photocopying & internal mail recycled o Paper less office communication (E-Mail) o Plastic bags replaced with cloth and paper bags in Laundry & other areas o Magazines given to School Libraries & orphanage Air and water management1.AIR EMISSION MANAGEMENT: The air is essential for our survival, hence it has to be kept pollution free to the best of our ability through careful operation of our plant and machinery BOILERS: Boilers consumes diesel fuel to generate steam or hot water. After the combustion process, exhaust gases are produced from the boilers which is vented out through a chimney to the top the building, this smoke pollute the surrounding air. Hence it is important to control the smoke by maintaining the boiler properly or have an exhaust gas scrubber installed before the smoke is allowed to escape to the atmosphere. DIESEL GENERATORS: Diesel Generators also consumes diesel fuel to produce electricity and after the combustion the exhaust gases has to be vented out through a chimney. to the top the building so it also pollute the surrounding air. Hence it is important to control the smoke by maintaining the generator properly or have an exhaust gas scrubber installed before the smoke is allowed to escape to the atmosphere. 2. WATER MANAGEMENT: Water is the most precious natural resource which is depleting at a very fast rate, therefore, in order to keep a check on the usage and control its consumption, its consumption trend in a hotel should be analyzed to evaluate the performance. CONSERVATION MEASURES: o Leak monitoring & corrective measures should be taken on a daily basis. o Water reducers / aerators should be installed in all guest rooms, o Auto ON/OFFF tap system installed for taps / flushes/ urinals o Waste water (Kitchen / Laundry / Guest rooms) characteristics are maintained as per compliance of Pollution Control Board Standards o Sewage Treatment Plant should be installed and recycled water is used for gardening. o Monitoring of water consumption on a daily basis and sharing the information for awareness with all users departments.

8. Vapor compression system, diagram and explain the necessity of refrigeration? Ans. Types of Refrigeration System
Two principle types of refrigeration plants found in industrial use are: Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR). VCR uses mechanical energy as the driving force for refrigeration, while VAR uses thermal energy as the driving force for refrigeration. Most commonly used system is Vapour Compression Refrigeration

Heat flows naturally from a hot to a colder body. In refrigeration system the opposite must occur i.e. heat flows from a cold to a hotter body. This is achieved by using a substance called a refrigerant which absorbs heat and hence boils or evaporates at a low pressure to form a gas. This gas is then compressed to a higher pressure, such that it transfers the heat it has gained to ambient air or water and turns back (condenses) into a liquid. In this way heat is absorbed, or removed, from a low temperature source and transferred to a higher temperature source. The refrigeration cycle can be broken down into the following stages (see Figure below): 1 2 Low pressure liquid refrigerant in the evaporator absorbs heat from its surroundings, usually air, water or some other process liquid. During this process it changes its state from a liquid to a gas, and at the evaporator exit is slightly superheated. 2 3 The superheated vapor enters the compressor where its pressure is raised. There will also be a big increase in temperature, because a proportion of the energy input into the compression process is transferred to the refrigerant. 3 4 The high pressure superheated gas passes from the compressor into the condenser. The initial part of the cooling process (3 - 3a) de superheats the gas before it is then turned back into liquid (3a - 3b). The cooling for this process is usually achieved by using air or water. A further reduction in temperature happens in the pipe work and liquid receiver (3b - 4), so that the refrigerant liquid is sub-cooled as it enters the expansion device. 4 1 The high-pressure sub-cooled liquid passes through the expansion device, which both reduces its pressure and controls the flow into the evaporator. 9. Diff types of air conditionings which are commonly adopted in hotel building? Ans. Types of air conditioning system in a hotel: Basic Air conditioning and refrigeration VAPOR COMPRESSION cycle schematic diagram is given below, The key important machinery elements of air conditioning or refrigeration system consists of the followings::

6. Compressor 7. Condenser 8. Expansion Valve 9. Evaporator 10. Copper piping connecting all the above in closed loop

1. Window type air conditioning units: Window type units are small and compact designed or a small room of 10 ft x 10 ft, it ranges from 1 to 2 Ton as shown in fig 1 . Here the units cooling coil or evaporator is inside the building and the heat rejection coil or the condenser is outside the building

2. Split / cassette type air conditioning units: Split type units are medium and compact designed or a large room of 10 ftx 20 ft, it ranges from 1 to 5 Ton as shown in fig 2. Here the units cooling coil or evaporator is inside the building and the heat rejection coil or the condenser is outside the building far away 3. Ductable air conditioning units: These type units are designed for medium area, it ranges from 5 to 20 Ton as shown in fig 3 . Here the units cooling coil or evaporator is inside the building and the heat rejection coil or the condenser is outside the building, the conditioned air is distributed through a galvanized sheet metal enclosure know as duct to the desired area. 4. Central air conditioning system These type units are designed for medium to large building or providing central air conditioning, the plant ranges from 50 Tons and above. Here the plant is located centrally in the basement, where chilled water is produced by a chiller machine and then circulated throughout the building to respective area for air conditioning through large air handling units, which consists of centrifugal fan, filter, cooling coil etc. The air is distributed through ducting system within the area. The heat rejection from the chiller plant is done in the cooling towers located on top of the building.

10. What is elevators? Diff types of elevators? Explain the function of any one with the help of diagram?

Ans. Modern elevators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work dozens of stories above ground. High-rise cities like New York absolutely depend on elevators. Even in smaller multi-story buildings, elevators are essential for making offices and apartments accessible to handicapped people. In this article, we'll find out how these ubiquitous machines move you from floor to floor. We'll also look at the control systems that decide where the elevator goes and the safety systems that prevent catastrophes. Hydraulic Elevators
The concept of an elevator is incredibly simple -- it's just a compartment attached to a lifting system. Tie a piece of rope to a box, and you've got a basic elevator.

Of course, modern passenger and freight elevators are a lot more elaborate than this. They need advanced mechanical systems to handle the substantial weight of the elevator car and its cargo. Additionally, they need control mechanisms so passengers can operate the elevator, and they need safety devices to keep everything running smoothly. There are two major elevator designs in common use today: 11. Hydraulic elevators 12. Roped elevators. Hydraulic elevator systems lift a car using a hydraulic ram, a fluid-driven piston mounted inside a cylinder. You can see how this system works in the diagram below.

The Roped or Cable Elevator Design gets around both of these problems. In the next section, we'll see how this system works. The Cable System
The most popular elevator design is the roped elevator. In roped elevators, the car is raised and lowered by traction steel ropes rather than pushed from below.

The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave (3). A sheave is just a pulley with a grooves around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes, so when you rotate the sheave, the ropes move too.

The sheave is connected to an electric motor (2). When the motor turns one way, the sheave raises the elevator; when the motor turns the other way, the sheave lowers the elevator. In gearless elevators, the motor rotates the sheaves directly. In geared elevators, the motor turns a gear train that rotates the sheave. Typically, the sheave, the motor and the control system (1) are all housed in a machine room above the elevator shaft. The ropes that lift the car are also connected to a counterweight (4), which hangs on the other side of the sheave. The counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity. In other words, when the car is 40 percent full (an average amount), the counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced. The purpose of this balance is to conserve energy. With equal loads on each side of the sheave, it only takes a little bit of force to tip the balance one way or the other. Basically, the motor only has to overcome friction -- the weight on the other side does most of the work. To put it another way, the balance maintains a near constant potential energy

level in the system as a whole. Using up the potential energy in the elevator car (letting it descend to the ground) builds up the potential energy in the weight (the weight rises to the top of the shaft).

Escalators: These are automatic staircase

11. Fire extinguisher system in a building?

Ans. CLASS OF FIRES & FIRE EXTINGUISHERS TO USE: A CLASS: Fire which occurs in ordinary Solid materials like paper, cloth, wood, etc USE Co2 or DCP type fire extinguisher B CLASS: Fire which occurs in ordinary Liquid substances like petrol, diesel, cooking oil etc USE Mechanical Foam type fire extinguisher C CLASS: Fire which occurs in ordinary Gases like LPG, Propane, Butane etc USE Co2 or DCP type fire extinguisher
D CLASS: Fire which occurs in ordinary Metals like sodium, potassium etc USE Co2 or DCP type fire extinguisher

12. Short notes on (a) Fuses:(b) Swimming Pool:- Sectional sketch of Swimming pool water system.

1. (C) Capital Budget:- This type of budget includes the amount likely to be spent on replacement of equipments of capital nature in a hotel, these includes A.C plant, kitchen equipment, Laundry equipments, water supply pumps, electrical equipments, elevators, office equipments & other plant and machinery.

2. HLP Budget: The term is defined as Heat Light & Power. This type of budget includes the quantities of, fuel to operate the boilers, generators etc, electricity units to operate the A.C plant, kitchen equipment, Laundry equipments, water supply pumps & other plant and machinery, and the bulbs, tubes, chokes cost etc. 3.R&M Budget: This type of budget includes the amount likely to be spent on repairs & maintenance of each type of machinery in a hotel, these includes AMCs, etc. of A.C plant, kitchen equipment, Laundry equipments, water supply pumps, electrical equipments, elevators, office equipments & other plant and machinery. 13. Briefly explain diff types of fire fighting & protection system in a hotel and also mention merits & demerits of each? Ans. Same as 2nd and 3rd. 14. Process of water treatment for drinking purpose which is normally carried out in water treatment plant?

Ans. DOMESTIC WATER TREATMENT :

SCHEMATIC DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS IN HOTELS

WATER FROM MUNICIPAL SUPPLY OR BOREWELLS OR TANKERS

RAW

PRESSURE

FILTERED

WATER STORAGE TANK

SAND FILTERS PROCESS

WATER STORAGE TANK

ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS PROCESS

CHLORINE

TREATED

HYDROPNEUMATIC DIRECT WATER SUPPLY TO HOTEL TO WATER SOFTENING PLANT FOR INDUSTRIAL USE

DOZING FOR DISINFECTION

WATER STORAGE TANK

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

ULTRA VOILET PURIFIER FOR

REVERSE

PURIFIED

DRINKING

OSMOSIS PROCESS FOR

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

WATER STORAGE TANK

STERLIZATION

DIMINERALIZATION

In a hotel the source of water is either Municipal, Borewell or Tanker water. This is received and stored in a Raw water tank, from here the water is pumped into a MGPSF(Multi Grade Pressure Sand Filter) which filters fine suspended impurities.It is then stored into a Filter Water Tank.

This water is then passed through an Activated Carbon Filter to remove odor and dissolved gaseous, after this liquid chlorine dozer adds a little quantity of chlorine solution called sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of water. The water is stored in Filter water Tank and is ready to be pumped to the hotel for all purposes, except for drinking. For drinking purpose the water is passed through a Ultra Violet purifier for sterilization then to Reverse Osmosis process which removes excess minerals, salt etc. For industrial purpose the filtered water is passed through a Softening process so that hard scales are not formed in the boilers and air conditioning plant system and laundry use.
15. Working of Central air conditioning? Ans. Central air conditioning system These type units are designed for medium to large building or providing central air conditioning, the plant ranges from 50 Tons and above. Here the plant is located centrally in the basement, where chilled water is produced by a chiller machine and then circulated throughout the building to respective area for air conditioning through large air handling units, which consists of centrifugal fan, filter, cooling coil etc. The air is distributed through ducting system within the area. The heat rejection from the chiller plant is done in the cooling towers located on top of the building. 16. What is vertical transport system? Explain the working of an elevator with the help of diagram? Ans. Same as 10. 27. Solid waste management system? Ans. SOLID WASTE & HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

ALL SOLID WASTE OF DIFFERENT DEPATMENTS IS SEGREGATED AT SOURCE IN COLOR BINS, SO THAT THE SAME IS RECOVERED AND RECYCLED. WET WASTE IS PRESENTLY SEGREGATED AND SENT OUT FOR DISPOSAL AT DESIGNATED MUNICIPAL SITES. SEGREGATION, RECOVERY & DISPOSAL Follow three Rprinciple Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Solid Waste : Saleable waste, news paper, magazine, packing, can, flowers, polythene bag, bottle, tins, left over food, furniture, carpet etc.

SOLID WASTE

(SEGREGATION AT SOURCE)

BIO DEGRADABLE

NONBIODEGRADABLE RECYCLABLE

NON BIODEGRADABLE NON RECYCLABLE

* FLOWER WASTE * KITCHEN FOOD WASTE * LEFT-OVER FOOD FROM BUFFET

* * * *

PAPER / CARD BOARD SCRAP WOOD / FURNITURE PLASTICS METAL / M/c SCRAP

* * * *

GLASS BROKEN CROCKERY DEF. TUBE LIGHTS / BULBS OTHER MISC.

WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM: o o o o o o o o Paper - News Paper, packing cartons etc controlled & disposed for recycling Stationary monitored and used papers are being reused for the purpose of Photocopying & internal mail recycled Paper less office communication (E-Mail) Plastic bags replaced with cloth and paper bags in Laundry & other areas Magazines given to School Libraries & orphanage Left over food from Buffets are given to orphanage Waste food from kitchen operation sold to piggery Flowers / leaves waste are collected for composting and used as manure for gardening.

Hazardous Waste Materials : All Cleaning / disinfection chemicals, laundry chemicals, plant maintenance chemical, pesticides, agricultural chemical usage, should be control and storage and safety measures to be in place.