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Synopsis New Trends in Wireless Communications The Journey of G from 1 to 5 th Generation

Until the controversial spectrum scams were brought up in the lime light many were ignorant of what 1G, 2G or 3G stood for and all of a sudden a hike was found out amongst laymen so as to be knowledgeable about it. Still a number of people are unaware of 1G or 2G when the world has moved on to 4G. The telecommunication service in World had a great leap within a last few year.6 billion people own a mobile phones so we are going to analyze the various generations of cellular systems as studied in the evolution of mobile communications from 1st generation to 5th generation .Now almost all the service providers as well as the customers seek for availing these 3G and 4G services. We can analyze that this could be due to increase in the telecoms customers day by day. In the present time, there are four generations in the mobile industry. These are respectively 1G the first generation, 2G the second generation, 3G the third generation, and then the 4G the fourth generation. Ericson a Swedish company is launching this high tech featured mobile into the market. It is being first introduced in the Swedish Capital city, Stockholm. 4G In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to the 3G and 2G families of standards. In 2009, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 Mbit/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility communication 4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by further development of existing 3G applications like mobile broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, but also new services like HDTV. 4G may allow roaming with wireless local area networks, and may interact with digital video broadcasting systems 1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. 1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k modem(56kbit/s),[3] meaning actual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s. Principal technologies

Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows: o MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO o Frequency-domain-equalization, for example multi-carrier modulation (OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink:
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Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing,Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to different users based on the channel conditions Channel-dependent scheduling: To utilize the time-varying channel Link adaptation: Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes

Advantages Of 4G 4G is described as MAGIC: mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, global mobility support, integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service Some key features (primarily from users' points of view) of 4G mobile networks are.

High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost Personalization Integrated services

Disadvantages Of 3G
3G was relatively slow to be adopted globally. In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies.

Another significant advantage of 4G over 3G is QoS support. QoS (Quality of Service) is a technology that is used by land-based data networks. Basically, QoS makes it possible to vary priority levels for different data streams. Disadvantages Of 2G

In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through. While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise, the lossy compression used by the codecs takes a toll; the range of sound that they convey is reduced. You will hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cellphone, but you will hear it more clearly.

Disadvantages Of 1G Although both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G is only modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. the radio signals that 1G networks use are Analog. while 2G networks are digital.
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Submitted to: Er. Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Submitted By: Akhilesh Beri Roll No: 883267

Training: Electronics Niketan, New Delhi

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