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FLUID MECHANICS I

Solution Manual 5

Question 1: Problem P3.12

D = 75 cm
CV

H=1 m
H0 =30 cm

1 2

V1 = 2.5 m/s d = 12 cm V2 = 1.9 m/s

Conservation of mass for a CV:


Z Z
∂ρ ~ . n̂) dA = 0
dV ol + ρ(V
CV ∂t CS

Assumptions:
• ρ is constant (true for liquid).
• 1D flow at 1 and 2.
• Steady flow at 1 and 2.

Z
∂ρ πd2 πd2
dV ol − ρV1 + ρV2 =0
CV ∂t 4 4

ρ V ol(t) − ρ V ol(t = 0) πd2


=ρ (V1 − V2 )
t 4
2 2 2
ρπD /4 H − ρπD /4 H0 πd
=ρ (V1 − V2 )
t 4
(H − H0 )D2
t= = 45.6 s
(V1 − V2 )d2

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Question 2: Problem P3.17

w: width out of page


Z0
dz

U2 (z) = a z(z0 - z)

1 2 x
CV
U1 (z) = U0

Conservation of mass for a CV:


Z Z
∂ρ ~ . n̂) dA = 0
dV ol + ρ(V
CV ∂t CS

Z z=z0
0 − ρ w z0 U0 + ρ w U2 (z) = 0
z=0
· ¸z
zo z 2 z3 0
0 = +ρ w z0 U0 − ρ a w −
2 3 0
z03
0 = +ρ w z0 U0 − ρ a w
6

6U0
⇒ a=
z02

z z
U2 (z) = 6U0 (1 − )
z0 z0

z0 1 1
Umax = U2 ( ) = 6U0 (1 − )
2 2 2
6U0
Umax = = 12cm/s
4
Notice that Umax is independent of z0 and fluid properties; this is generally true
for fully-developed incompressible flow.

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Question 3: Problem P3.20

D = 10 cm

h = 2 mm

2 2
D1 = 3 mm
1

Ẇ1 = 250 N/h


Assumptions:
• steady flow
• steady state
• incompressible
• 1D flow
Conservation of mass:
Z Z
∂ρ ~ . n̂) dA = 0
dV ol + ρ(V
CV ∂t CS

0 − ṁ1 + ṁ2 = 0
ṁ1 = ṁ2

Ẇ1
Ẇ1 = ṁ1 g ⇒ ṁ1 = = 25.5kg/h
g

ṁ2 = ρoil Q̇2


where Q̇2 is the volume flow rate and ρoil = 0.89ρwater = 890kg/m3 .
ṁ2
Q̇2 = = 0.0286 m3 /h = 7.9510−6 m3 /s
ρoil
⇒ Q̇2 = 7.95 mL/s

Q̇2 = U2 πDh
Q̇2
U2 = = 0.0127m/s = 1.27cm/s
πDh
U2 is the average outlet velocity.

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Question 4: Problem P3.26

h y2
u(y) =U0 ( 2y
h − h2 )

θ
x
w = width into page = 1ft
h = 0.5 in = 0.0417 ft
Q̇ : volume flow rate/unit width
Q̇= 1.25 gal/min= 0.167 f t3 /min = 0.0028 f t3 /s
Volume flow rate
Z y=h Z h
2y y2
Q̇ = u(y) w dy = U0 w ( − 2 ) dy
y=0 0 h h
· 2 3
¸h
y y 2
Q̇ = U0 w − 2 = U0 w h
h 3h 0 3
3 Q̇
⇒ U0 = = 0.1ft/s
2w h

Question 5: Problem P3.35

T = 1500 K De = 18 cm
p = 950 kPa pe = 90 kPa
Te = 750 K
Ve = 1150 m/s
e
CV

Assumptions:
• steady exit flow
• 1D exit flow

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Conservation of mass:
Z Z
∂ρ ~ . n̂) dA = 0
dV ol + ρ(V
CV ∂t CS

· ¸
dm
+ ṁe = 0
dt CV

where ṁe is the mass flow across exit section.

πDe2
ṁe = ρe Ve
4
Using the gas law,
Mw pe
ρe = = 0.404 kg/m3
RTe
where Mw = 28 g/mol and R = 8.314 J/(mol.K).

ṁe = 11.8 kg/s

dm
|CV = −11.8kg/s
dt
dm
where dt |CV is the propellant loss rate.