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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Project report on

CAR SAFETY SYSTEM


Submitted by

AMIT KISHOR POL MANOJ SURESH SHINDE


DHANKAWADI, PUNE 411043 2011-2012

T-3445 T-3450

PUNE INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PUNE INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY DHANKAWADI, PUNE 411043 2011-2012

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled

CAR SAFETY SYSTEM


Submitted by

AMIT KISHOR POL MANOJ SURESH SHINDE

T-3445 T-3450

Is a bonafide work carried out by them under the supervision of and it is approved for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of ESD & MP Third Year of Engineering University of Pune.

Internal Guide (Prof. S.S. Dudam)


Place: Pune Date:

H.O.D,E&TC Dept. (Prof.Y.Ravinder)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our heartfelt gratitude to all the people who, in some way or the other have lent us a helping hand in the successful completion of the project. Their contribution to the project has made our task much simpler.

We thank our internal guide, Prof. S.S. Dudam for his guidance and assistance in times of need. Without their inspiration, the mammoth task of the completion of the project was impossible.

We extend a token of thanks to all our friends who have helped us to make this project a success. Last, but not the least, we thank the laboratory staff for providing us all the books we needed to refer.

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NUMBER Fig 1 Fig 2

DESCRIPTION Block Diagram Circuit Diagram of gas and IR sensor

PAGE NUMBER 8 10

Fig 3

Circuit Diagram of grip sensor

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Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9

IR obstacle section IR sensor circuit Gas interface section Grip sensor Power supply Implementation of circuit on Bread board

12 13 14 15 17 21

Fig 10

Schematic of PCB of IR and Gas Sensor

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Fig 11

Schematic of PCB of Grip Sensor

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Fig 12

PCB Design

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Introduction7 1.1Aim &Project definition....7 1.2Brief History.7 1.3Recent trends and developments in field....7

2 Block Diagram......8 2.1 Block Diagram....8 2.2 Block Diagram description.9

3 System Design .10 3.1 Understanding the system.11 3.2IR obstacle section...12 3.3 Gas interface.......14 3.4 Grip sensor.15

3.5Power Supply17

4 Circuit Operation.....20

5 Implementation,Testing And Debugging...21

5.1 First Phase.21 5.2 Second Phase.....21 5.3 Third Phase...22 5.6 Final Phase....23

6 List of Components..24 7 Results and conclusion...25

8 Future enhancements....26

9 Applications....27

10 References....28

11 Datasheets...29

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 AIM & PROJECT DEFINITON:

The project is aimed to provide a circuit for gas leakage alert, grip sensor alert ,parking sensor alert for which the input will be given to sensors. It will give more safety to car which will be useful for all those low priced vehicles which do not come fitted with gas leakage alert and grip control alert system. This circuit with some slight modification can give more services in low cost.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY: Speed has been an important and dangerous issue in vehicles. Over the years, most of the accident and life lost are due to losing a control on steering-wheel of vehicles. On highways, while having a long drive, the driver will come to sleep, so he will loosen the grip on steering-wheel. Which will leads to mishap. For low cost vehicles such system wont be there to alert driver from sleep. Also now a days as most of the vehicles are coming on LPG, CNG .To detect the gas leakage from such vehicle will avoids hazardous accidents. So there is need for equipment which can alert the driver well in advance audio indication for losing a control on vehicle.

1.3 RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN FIELD: High end vehicles are equipped with much more advanced hardware in which Distributed Sensor for Steering Wheel Grip Force Measurement in Driver Fatigue Detection automatically alert driver. There are cameras which implanted on back of vehicle a through image processing technique driver will be able to park vehicle without seeing back. Also gas leakage sensors were implemented in vehicle, which avoids accidents But such equipment cost more and cant be fitted in low cost vehicles. Considering the safety issue these low cost vehicles should be provided with low cost without altering the parts of the vehicle. 7

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM

GAS SENSOR OP-AMP COMPARATOR

IR SENSOR

BUZZER

GRIP SENSOR LOGIC CIRCUIT

Fig. 1 Block Diagram

2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:

The block diagram shows operation of our system which we will be implementing. As shown in block diagram when the IR led will detect the obstacle and gas sensor will detect gas ,then output of both sensor will be compare using op-amp comparator .Then buzzer will get on in sink mode.

For grip sensor ,when all switches will be off then the buzzer will get on

SENSORS USED:Gas : MQ6

Obstacle

: IR sensor

Grip

: ON/OFF s/w

3. SYSTEM DESIGN

Fig 2circuit dig of Gas and IR sensor

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VCC 5V
VCC

U1A
1

U1B

R3 100
4

R1 100
3

R2 100

74LS02N

74LS02N
5 6

U2

U1C

BUZZER 200 Hz

J1A Key = A

J1B Key = B

J1C Key = C

74LS02N

Fig 3 circuit dig of Grip sensor

3.1 UNDERSTANDING THE SYSTEM:

Buzzer is in sink mode so Buzzer = ON when comparator output is 0 Buzzer = OFF when comparator output is 1

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3.2 IR Obstacle section:

Fig 4 IR sensor interface

As shown in the circuit diagram the IR sensor is at 5v when there is no obstacle. The IR sensor is connected to the non inverting terminal of OPAMP the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2.5v.

So Initially Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v So, at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer

As soon as the obstacle is detected, the voltage of non inverting drops to 0v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 0v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5So, at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer

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Fig 5 IR sensor

Here we are connecting a IR based obstacle sensor. The 50 ohm resistor is for current limiting. The current through the LED is 5v / 50 ohm = 100mamp, which is high for an LED. But to increase the range of the obstacle sensor we are using a lower range resistor (50 ohm).

On the receiver side we have connected the IR receiver in reverse bias. So as soon as the light falls in the IR receiver, the anode voltage increases and when the anode voltage is more than the cathode voltage then the LED is in forward bias mode and start conducting. So when obstacle is:

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3.3 Gas interface section:

Fig 6 gas sensor interface

The gas sensor is connected to the inverting terminal of OPAMP the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2.5v via pot. As shown in the circuit diagram the GAS sensor is at 0v when there is no GAS So Initially, Inverting terminal has a voltage = 0v Non Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v So, at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer

As soon as the GAS is detected, the voltage of inverting goes to 5v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v So, at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer

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3.4 Grip sensor


VCC 5V
VCC

U1A
1

U1B

R3 100
4

R1 100
3

R2 100

74LS02N

74LS02N
5 6

U2

U1C

BUZZER 200 Hz

J1A Key = A

J1B Key = B

J1C Key = C

74LS02N

Fig 7 grip sensor design

As shown in the circuit diagram all the 3 switches are at 5v which is connected to the non inverting terminal of opamp the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2.5v.

So Initially Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v So, at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer As soon as the key is pressed, the voltage of non inverting drops to 0v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = ov Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v So, at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer Here we are using three switches as an input to circuit; the switches will be work as grip sensors. 15

Initially all the switches will be on as driver will hold the grip that is input to logic circuit will be logical 1 so output is 0.as buzzer is used in normal mode, buzzer will off Even if one of the switch will be ON that is driver will drive using one hand output of logic circuit will be 0 hence buzzer will remains off. When driver loses his grip, then all the switches will be off that is input to logic circuit will be 0. Hence output will be logic 1, so buzzer will get ON. So above all the conditions will be understood by given logic table.

Logic Table:

INPUT FROM SWITCH 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

OUTPUT 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Therefore, when all inputs are zero then and then only buzzer will get on. For all other cases buzzer will off.

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POWER SUPPLY
The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that system. The steps involved in the designing of the power supply are as follows,

1) Determine the total current that the system sinks from the supply. 2) Determine the voltage rating required for the different components.

Fig 8.power supply design

The bridge rectifier and capacitor i/p filter produce an unregulated DC voltage which is applied at the I/P of 7805.As the minimum dropout voltage is 2v for IC 7805, the voltage applied at the input terminal should be at least 7 volts .C1 (1000 f / 65v)is the filter capacitor and C2 and C3 (0.1 pf) is to be connected across the regulator to improve the transient response of the regulator. Assuming the drop out voltage to be 2 volts, the minimum DV voltage across the capacitor C1 should be equal to 7volts (atleast). 17

Power supply design of the Project :


The average voltage at the output of a bridge rectifier capacitor filter combination is given by Vin(DC) = Vm Idc / 4 f C1 Where, Vm=2 Vs and Vs = rms secondary voltage

Assuming Idc to be equal to max. Load current, say 100mA

C = 1000 Gf / 65v, f=50hHz

19 = Vm 0.1 / 4*50*1000*106 19= Vm 0.1 / 0.2

Vm=19.5 volts

Hence the RMS secondary Voltage Vrms = vm / 2

= 19.5 / 2 =19,5 / 1.4421 =13.5 volts


So we can select a 15v secondary Voltage 18

In our system most of the components used require 5 V as operating voltage such as micro controller, MAX 232, MCT2E etc. The total current, which our circuit Sinks from the power supply, is not more than 100 mA. We have used Regulator IC 7805 that gives output voltage of 5V.The minimum input voltage required for the 7805 is near about 7 v. Therefore we have used the transformer with the voltage rating 230v-10v and current rating 500 mA. The output of the transformer is 12 V AC. This Ac voltage is converted into 12 V DC by Bridge rectifier circuit.

The reasons for choosing the bridge rectifier are:

The TUF is increased to 0.812 as compared the full wave rectifier. The PIV across each diode is the peak voltage across the load =Vm, not 2Vm as in the two diode rectifier Output of the bridge rectifier is not pure DC and contains some AC some AC ripples in it. To remove these ripples we have used capacitive filter, which smoothens the rippled out put that we apply to 7805 regulators IC that gives 5V DC. We preferred to choose capacitor filters since it is cost effective, readily available and not too bulky.

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1. CIRCUIT OPERATION

Grip Sensor:

When all switches of the grip sensor are off then the output of first NOR gate will be 1, it is inverted by NOT gate and given to input of second NOR gate. Then the output of second NOR gate will be 1 and Buzzer will get on.

Gas Sensor:

Initially output of comparator is high. Because threshold voltage is greater than the output voltage of the gas sensor .When gas or alcohol is sensed by MQ6 Gas sensor, the coil inside the gas sensor will get heated and the output voltage of gas sensor will increase. It is compared by threshold voltage of comparator and if it is more than that output of comparator will be zero and Buzzer will get on in sink mode.

IR Sensor:

Initially output of comparator is high. Because threshold voltage is greater than the output voltage of the gas sensor .When obstacle is detected by IR sensor, the output voltage of IR sensor will increase. It is compared by threshold voltage of comparator and if it is more than that output of comparator will be zero and Buzzer will get on in sink mode.

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2. IMPLEMENTATION , TESTING AND DEBUGGING


5.1 FIRST PHASE: First we implemented the 1st phase of our circuit in which we tested each sensor individually to know actual working of the sensors. We also implemented circuit on MULTISIM and we get desired outputs. So we decided to move on Bread Board to check the response of circuit. 5.2 SECOND PHASE:

In this phase of our project we purchased the components and implemented it on Bread Board and check the output with the help of Buzzer. The way we implemented is as shown below:

Fig. 9 Implementation of circuit on Bread board

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5.3 THIRD PHASE: After confirming the necessary result we decided to move on PCB designing. We started to build schematic of the circuit on Protel 2004, the software which we used to create PCB layout. Our PCB schematic layout looked like this:
VCC

R1 Res JP1 3 2 1 Gas Sensor 4.7K 2 3

U?A LM358N 1

VCC

LS1

VCC

R2 RPot 10K 6

Buzzer

JP2 3 2 1 IR Sensor

U?B LM358N 7

Fig 10 Schematic of PCB of IR and Gas Sensor

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VCC

R1 Res1 100 JP1 3 2 1 2 1 Header 2 switch1 JP2 3 2 1 switch2

R2 Res1 100

R3 Res1 100 U1B 5 4 6 3 DM7402N DM7402N U1C 8 10 9 DM7402N Buzzer

U1A 2 1

JP6

LS2

JP3 3 2 1 switch3

JP4 1 2 LED

Fig. 11 Schematic of PCB of Grip Sensor

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5.4 FINAL PHASE:


Here we designed the PCB layout with the help of above schematic

Fig 12 PCB Design

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3. LIST OF COMPONENTS
R1, R2, R3__________________________________________________ 100 1/4W Resistors R4______________________________________________________50 1/4W R5______________________________________________________10K 1/4W R11 ____________________________________________________4.7K POT R22_____________________________________________________10K POT R8______________________________________________________50K 1/2W IC1___________________________________________________________LM358 Opamp IC IC2______________________________________________________74LS02 IC IC3______________________________________________________ Regulator7805

SW1,SW2, SW3___________________________________________ S/W GAS Sensor _______________________________________________ MQ6 Buzzer_____________________________________________________J211 IR led_____________________________________________________MXB79D D5,D6,D7 D8 diode___________________________________________________1N4007 Heat sink_______________________________________________________ To220 C5_____________________________________________________________1000uf` C6______________________________________________________________0.1uf

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4. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

The system we have designed and implemented which can be used in any of the car without using pressure sensors, it can be implemented by simple logic circuit without using controller. Both alcohol and gas can be detected using MQ6 effectively. IR sensor can be used as a parking sensor to some extent in very low cost.

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5. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

We can use a controller to add a delay in output of grip sensor, so it will work effectively.

With microcontroller interface we can start or stop the engine of the vehicle if driver is drunk or gas is leaked.

We can also use an ultrasonic sensor to increase a range of obstacle detector and control speed accordingly with the help of microcontroller.

We can use a gsm to send the messages to the remote locations in case of emergency. We can also use a radar system to increase the range.

We are also exploring and thinking for any other future scope and any suggestion will be appreciated too.

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6. APPLICATIONS

Main advantage of our project is that we can implement it with very less cost. In its current form our project can be use in low budget cars. We can use IR sensor as parking sensor. Now a days many of cars are on LPG or CNG so we can use gas sensor in it to detect leakage of the gas. It can also be used in commercial cars to check whether driver is drunk or not. We can use Grip sensor on steering of the car to alert the driver from drowsiness.

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7. REFERENCES

BOOKS:

1. Analog Integrated circuits and design by U A Bakshi and A P Godse 2. Op-amps and linear integrated circuits Ramakant A Gaikwad 3. Circuits A Bruce Carlson 4. Electronic circuit analysis and designDonald Neamen 5. Integrated electronicsJacob milliman,Christos C Halkias

MAGZINES: 1. Electronics for you5th edition

INTERNET:

1.

Google

2. http://www.alldatasheets.com

3. http://www.discovercircuits.com

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APPENDIX 1

30 APPENDIX 2

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