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Digital Microwave Communication Principles www.huawei.com
Digital Microwave
Communication Principles
www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Microwave Communication Principles www.huawei.com Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foreword This course is developed to meet the requirement of Huawei Optical Network RTN microwave

Foreword

This course is developed to meet the requirement of Huawei Optical Network RTN microwave products.

This course informs engineers of the basics on digital microwave communications, which will pave the way for learning the RTN series microwave products later.

Learning Guide

Microwave communication is developed on the basis of the electromagnetic field theory. Therefore, before learning this course, you are supposed to have mastered the following knowledge:

Network communications technology basics

Electromagnetic field basic theory

Objectives Objectives After this course, you will be able to explain: Concept and characteristics of

ObjectivesObjectives

After this course, you will be able to explain:

Concept and characteristics of digital microwave communications

Functions and principles of each component of digital microwave equipment

Common networking modes and application scenarios of digital microwave equipment

Propagation principles of digital microwave communication and various types of fading

Anti-fading technologies

Procedure and key points in designing microwave transmission link

Contents 1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview 2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment 3.

Contents

1.

Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2.

Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3.

Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4.

Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5.

Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Transmission Methods in Current Communications Networks

Microwave TE Coaxial cable communication Optical fiber communication MUX/DEMUX MUX/DEMUX Microwave communication
Microwave TE
Coaxial cable communication
Optical fiber communication
MUX/DEMUX
MUX/DEMUX
Microwave
communication
Microwave TE
Satellite communication

Microwave Communication vs. Optical Fiber Communication

MicrowaveMicrowave CommunicationCommunication

Powerful space cross ability, little land occupied, not limited by land privatization
Powerful space cross ability, little land
occupied, not limited by land privatization
Small investment, short construction period, easy maintenance
Small investment, short construction
period, easy maintenance
Strong protection ability against natural disaster and easy to be recover
Strong protection ability against natural
disaster and easy to be recover
Limited frequency resources (frequency license required)
Limited frequency resources (frequency
license required)
Transmission quality greatly affected by climate and landform
Transmission quality greatly affected by
climate and landform
Limited transmission capacity
Limited transmission capacity

OpticalOptical FiberFiber CommunicationCommunication

Optical Optical Fiber Fiber Communication Communication Optical fiber burying and land occupation required Large
Optical fiber burying and land occupation required
Optical fiber burying and land
occupation required
Large investment ,long construction period
Large investment ,long construction period
required Large investment ,long construction period Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required and hard to
required Large investment ,long construction period Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required and hard to
required Large investment ,long construction period Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required and hard to
required Large investment ,long construction period Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required and hard to
Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required and hard to recover from natural disaster
Outdoor optical fiber maintenance required
and hard to recover from natural disaster
Not limited by frequency, license not required
Not limited by frequency, license not
required
Stable and reliable transmission quality and not affected by external factors
Stable and reliable transmission quality
and not affected by external factors
Large transmission capacity
Large transmission capacity

Definition of Microwave

Microwave

Microwave is a kind of electromagnetic wave. In a broad sense, the microwave frequency range is from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. But In microwave communication, the frequency range is generally from 3 GHz to 30 GHz.

According to the characteristics of microwave propagation, microwave can be considered as plane wave.

The plane wave has no electric field and magnetic field longitudinal components along the propagation direction. The electric field and magnetic field components are vertical to the propagation direction. Therefore, it is called transverse electromagnetic wave and TEM wave for short.

Development of Microwave Communication

Transmission capacity 155M bit/s/ch) SDH digital microwave communication system 34/140M PDH digital microwave
Transmission
capacity
155M
bit/s/ch)
SDH digital microwave
communication
system
34/140M
PDH digital microwave
communication
system
2/4/6/8M
Small and medium
capacity digital microwave
communication system
Late 1990s to now
480 voice
channels
Analog microwave
communication system
1980s
1970s

1950s

Note:

Small capacity: < 10M

Medium capacity: 10M to 100M

Large capacity: > 100M

Concept of Digital Microwave Communication

Digital microwave communication is a way of transmitting digital information in atmosphere through microwave or radio frequency (RF).

Microwave communication refers to the communication that use microwave as carrier .

Digital microwave communication refers to the microwave communication that adopts the digital modulation.

The baseband signal is modulated to intermediate frequency (IF) first . Then the intermediate frequency is converted into the microwave frequency.

The baseband signal can also be modulated directly to microwave frequency, but only phase shift keying (PSK) modulation method is applicable.

The electromagnetic field theory is the basis on which the microwave communication theory is developed.

Microwave Frequency Band Selection and RF Channel Configuration (1)

Generally-used frequency bands in digital microwave transmission:

7G/8G/11G/13G/15G/18G/23G/26G/32G/38G (defined by ITU-R Recommendations)

1.5 GHz 2.5 GHz Regional network Long haul trunk network 11 GHz 3.3 GHz 2/8/34
1.5 GHz
2.5 GHz
Regional network
Long haul
trunk network
11 GHz
3.3 GHz
2/8/34
Regional network, local network,
and boundary network
Mbit/s
34/140/155 Mbit/s
2/8/34/140/155 Mbit/s
GHz
1
2
3
4
5
8
10
20
30
40
50

Microwave Frequency Band Selection and RF Channel Configuration (2)

In each frequency band, subband frequency ranges, transmitting/receiving spacing (T/R spacing), and channel spacing are defined.

Frequency range f 0 (center frequency) Low frequency band High frequency band T/R spacing Protection
Frequency range
f 0 (center frequency)
Low frequency band
High frequency band
T/R spacing
Protection
T/R spacing
spacing
Channel
Channel
spacing
Adjacent channel
T/R spacing
spacing
f 2
f 1
f n
f n
f 1 ’
f 2 ’

Microwave Frequency Band Selection and RF Channel Configuration (3)

Frequency range (7425M–7725M) f 0 (7575M) T/R spacing: 154M 28M
Frequency range (7425M–7725M)
f 0 (7575M)
T/R spacing: 154M
28M

f

1 =7442

f

2 =7470

f 5

f 1 =7596

f 2

f 5

7G Frequency Range F0 (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) Channel Spacing (MHz) Primary and Non- primary
7G Frequency
Range
F0 (MHz)
T/R Spacing
(MHz)
Channel Spacing
(MHz)
Primary and Non-
primary Stations
Fn=f0-161+28n,
7425–7725
7575
154
28
Fn’=f0- 7+28n,
(n: 1–5)
7575
161
7
7110–7750
7275
196
28
7597
196
28
7250–7550
7400
161
3.5
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 1313

Baseband signal rate

Channel bandwidth

Digital Microwave Communication Modulation (1)

Digital baseband signal is the unmodulated digital signal. The baseband signal cannot

be directly transmitted over microwave radio channels and must be converted into carrier signal for microwave transmission.

converted into carrier signal for microwave transmission. Modulation Digital baseband signal Service signal
converted into carrier signal for microwave transmission. Modulation Digital baseband signal Service signal
Modulation
Modulation
Digital baseband signal Service signal transmitted
Digital baseband signal
Service signal
transmitted

IF signal

Digital Microwave Communication Modulation (2)

The following formula indicates a digital baseband signal being converted into a digital frequency band signal.

A*COS(Wc*t+φ)

into a digital frequency band signal. A*COS(Wc*t+ φ ) Amplitude Frequency Phase PSK and QAM are

Amplitude

Frequency

Phase

PSK and QAM are most frequently used in digital microwave.
PSK and QAM are
most frequently used
in digital microwave.

ASK: Amplitude Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier amplitude (A). Wc and φ remain unchanged. FSK: Frequency Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier frequency (Wc). A and φ remain unchanged. PSK: Phase Shift Keying. Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier phase (φ). Wc and A remain unchanged. QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. ). Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier phase (φ) and amplitude (A). Wc remains unchanged.

). Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier phase ( φ ) and amplitude
). Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier phase ( φ ) and amplitude
). Use the digital baseband signal to change the carrier phase ( φ ) and amplitude

Microwave Frame Structure (1)

RFCOH

171.072 Mbit/s 15.552 Mbit/s STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s RFCOH SOH Payload
171.072 Mbit/s
15.552 Mbit/s
STM-1
155.52 Mbit/s
RFCOH
SOH
Payload
15.552 Mbit/s STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s RFCOH SOH Payload MLCM DMY XPIC ATPC WS RSC INI ID

MLCM

DMY

XPIC

ATPC

WS

RSC

INI

ID

FA

11.84 Mbit/s

64 kbit/s

16 kbit/s

64 kbit/s

2.24 Mbit/s

864 kbit/s

144 kbit/s

32 kbit/s

288 kbit/s

RFCOH: Radio Frame Complementary Overhead RSC: Radio Service Channel MLCM: Multi-Level Coding Modulation INI: N:1 switching command DMY: Dummy ID: Identifier XPIC: Cross-polarization Interference Cancellation FA: Frame Alignment ATPC: Automatic Transmit Power Control WS: Wayside Service

Microwave Frame Structure (2)

RFCOH is multiplexed into the STM-1 data and a block multiframe is formed. Each multiframe has six rows and each row has 3564 bits. One multiframe is composed of two basic frames. Each basic frame has 1776 bits. The remaining 12 bits are used for frame alignment.

Multiframe 3564 bits

FS FS 6 bits Basic frame 1 1776 bits(148 words) 6 bits Basic frame 2
FS
FS
6 bits
Basic frame 1
1776 bits(148 words)
6 bits
Basic frame 2
1776 bits (148 words)
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
b
I
I
C2
I I
I
I
I I
a
I
b
I I
C2
I
I
C1
I
I
C1
I I
C1
I
I
C1
I I
C1
I
I C1
I
I
C1
I I
C1

12 bits (the 1st word)

12 bits (the 148th word)

6 bits

I: STM-1 information bit C1/C2: Two-level correction coding monitoring bits FS: Frame synchronization a/b: Other complementary overheads

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 1717
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 1717
Questions What is microwave? What is digital microwave communication? What are the frequently used di

Questions

What is microwave?

What is digital microwave communication?

What are the frequently used digital microwave frequency bands?

What concepts are involved in microwave frequency setting?

What are the frequently used modulation schemes? Which are the most frequently used modulation schemes?

Contents 1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview 2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment 3.

Contents

1.

Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2.

Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3.

Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4.

Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5.

Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Microwave Equipment Category

System

MUX/DEMUX Mode Capacity
MUX/DEMUX
Mode
Capacity
Structure
Structure
Digital microwave PDH SDH
Digital microwave
PDH
SDH
Small and medium capacity (2–16E1, 34M)
Small and medium
capacity (2–16E1, 34M)
Large capacity (STM-0, STM-1, 2xSTM-1)
Large capacity
(STM-0, STM-1, 2xSTM-1)
Trunk radio
Trunk radio
Split-mount radio
Split-mount radio
All outdoor radio
All outdoor radio
Analog microwave
Analog microwave
(Discontinued)
(Discontinued)

Trunk Microwave Equipment

• High cost, large transmission capacity, more stable performance, applicable to long haul and trunk transmission

• RF, IF, signal processing, and MUX/DEMUX units are all indoor. Only the antenna system is outdoor.

…… P M1 M2
……
P
M1
M2
Only the antenna system is outdoor. …… P M1 M2 SDH microwave equipment BRU: Branch RF
Only the antenna system is outdoor. …… P M1 M2 SDH microwave equipment BRU: Branch RF
Only the antenna system is outdoor. …… P M1 M2 SDH microwave equipment BRU: Branch RF
Only the antenna system is outdoor. …… P M1 M2 SDH microwave equipment BRU: Branch RF

SDH microwave equipment

BRU: Branch RF Unit

MSTU: Main Signal Transmission Unit (transceiver, modem, SDH electrical interface, hitless switching)

SCSU: Supervision, Control and Switching Unit

BBIU: Baseband Interface Unit (option) (STM-1 optical interface, C4 PDH interface)

All Outdoor Microwave Equipment

• All the units are outdoor.

• Installation is easy.

• The equipment room can be saved.

Installation is easy. • The equipment room can be saved. RF processing unit IF cable IF
Installation is easy. • The equipment room can be saved. RF processing unit IF cable IF

RF processing unit

• The equipment room can be saved. RF processing unit IF cable IF and baseband processing

IF cable

IF and baseband processing unit

Service and power cable

All outdoor microwave equipment

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment (1)

The RF unit is an outdoor unit (ODU). The IF, signal processing, and MUX/DEMUX units are integrated in the indoor unit (IDU). The ODU and IDU are connected through an IF cable.

The ODU can either be directly mounted onto the antenna or connected to the antenna through a short soft waveguide.

Although the capacity is smaller than the trunk, due to the easy installation and maintenance, fast network construction, it’s the most widely used microwave equipment.

m i c r o w a v e e q u i p m e

Antenna

c r o w a v e e q u i p m e n t
c r o w a v e e q u i p m e n t
c r o w a v e e q u i p m e n t

ODU (Outdoor Unit)

e q u i p m e n t . Antenna ODU (Outdoor Unit) Split-mount microwave

Split-mount microwave equipment

IF cable

IDU (Indoor Unit)

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment (2)

Unit Functions

Antenna: Focuses the RF signals transmitted by ODUs and increases the signal gain.

ODU: RF processing, conversion of IF/RF signals.

IF cable: Transmitting of IF signal, management signal and power supply of ODU.

IDU: Performs access, dispatch, multiplex/demultiplex, and modulation/demodulation for services.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – Installation

Separate Mount

IF cable
IF cable
Separate Mount IF cable antenna (separate mount) Soft waveguide ODU 中频口 IDU IF port

antenna (separate mount)

Soft waveguide

ODU

中频口
中频口

IDU

IF port

Direct Mount

Direct Mount antenna (direct mount) ODU IF cable IDU IF port

antenna

(direct mount)

Direct Mount antenna (direct mount) ODU IF cable IDU IF port
Direct Mount antenna (direct mount) ODU IF cable IDU IF port

ODU

Direct Mount antenna (direct mount) ODU IF cable IDU IF port

IF cable

Direct Mount antenna (direct mount) ODU IF cable IDU IF port

IDU

IF port

Microwave Antenna (1)

Microwave Antenna (1) Parabolic antenna Cassegrainian antenna Antennas are used to send and receive microwave signals.

Parabolic antenna

Microwave Antenna (1) Parabolic antenna Cassegrainian antenna Antennas are used to send and receive microwave signals.

Cassegrainian antenna

Antennas are used to send and receive microwave signals. Parabolic antennas and cassegrainian antennas are two common types of microwave antennas.

Microwave antenna diameters includes: 0.3m, 0.6m, 1.2m, 1.8m,2.0m, 2.4m, 3.0m, 3.2metc.

Microwave Antenna (2)

Different frequency channels in same frequency band can share one antenna.

Channel Channel 1 1 Tx 1 1 Rx n n Tx n n Rx
Channel
Channel
1
1
Tx
1
1
Rx
n
n
Tx
n
n
Rx

Antenna Adjustment (1)

Antenna Adjustment (1) Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail

Side lobe

Half-power angle Main lobe
Half-power angle
Main lobe

Side lobe

Half-power angle Main lobe
Half-power angle
Main lobe
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail
angle Main lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail

Tail lobe

lobe Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright

Side view

Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©
Side lobe Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe Side view Top view Tail lobe Copyright ©

Top view

Tail lobe

Antenna Adjustment (2)

During antenna adjustment, change the direction vertically or horizontally. Meanwhile, use a multimeter to test the RSSI at the receiving end. Usually, the voltage wave will be displayed as shown in the lower right corner. The peak point of the voltage wave indicates the main lobe position in the vertical or horizontal direction. Large-scope adjustment is unnecessary. Perform fine adjustment on the antenna to the peak voltage point.

When antennas are poorly aligned, a small voltage may be detected in one direction. In this case, perform coarse adjustment on the antennas at both ends, so that the antennas are roughly aligned.

The antennas at both ends that are well aligned face a little bit upward. Though 1–2 dB is lost, reflection interference will be avoided.

dB is lo st, reflection in terference will be avoided. AGC Voltage detection point VAGC Angle
AGC Voltage detection point
AGC
Voltage
detection point

VAGC

will be avoided. AGC Voltage detection point VAGC Angle Side lobe position Main lobe position Copyright

Angle

Side lobe position Main lobe position

Antenna Adjustment (3)

During antenna adjustment, the two wrong adjustment cases are show here. One antenna is aligned to another antenna through the side lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements.

lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W
lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W
lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W
lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W
lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W
lobe. As a result, the RSSI cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W

Wrong

Wrong

cannot meet the requirements. W r o n g W r o n g Correct Copyright

Correct

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – Antenna (1)

Antenna gain

Definition: Ratio of the input power of an isotropic antenna Pio to the input power of a parabolic antenna Pi when the electric field at a point is the same for the isotropic antenna and the parabolic antenna.

Calculating formula of antenna gain:

P io P i

P io

P i

= ⎜

π

λ

D ⎞ ⎟

2

G =

η

Half-power angle

Usually, the given antenna specifications contain the gain in the largest radiation (main lobe) direction, denoted by dBi. The half-power point, or the –3 dB point is the point which is deviated from the central line of the main lobe and where the power is decreased by half. The angle between the two half-power points is called the half-power angle.

λ 0 0 Calculating formula of half-power angle: θ = (65 ~ 70 ) 0.5
λ
0
0
Calculating formula of half-power angle:
θ
=
(65
~ 70
)
0.5
D
Half-power angle
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 3131

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – Antenna (2)

Cross polarization discrimination

Suppression ratio of the antenna receiving heteropolarizing waves, usually, larger than 30 dB.

XdB10lgPo/Px

Po: Receiving power of normal polarized wave

Px: Receiving power of abnormal polarized wave

Antenna protection ratio

Attenuation degree of the receiving capability in a direction of an antenna compared with that in the main lobe direction. An antenna protection ratio of 180° is called front-to-back ratio.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (1)

ODU system architecture Uplink IF/RF conversion IF Frequency Sideband Power RF amplificat mixing filtering
ODU system architecture
Uplink IF/RF conversion
IF
Frequency
Sideband
Power
RF
amplificat
mixing
filtering
amplification
attenuation
ion
Local
Power
oscillation
ATPC
detection
(Tx)
Local
oscillation
RF loop
(Rx)
IF
Frequency
Low-noise
Bandpass
Filtering
amplification
mixing
amplification
filtering
Supervi
sion and
control
Downlink RF/IF conversion
signal
Alarm and control

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (2)

Specifications of Transmitter

Working frequency band

Generally, trunk radios use 6, 7, and 8 GHz frequency bands. 11, 13 GHz and

higher frequency bands are used in the access layer (e.g. BTS access).

Output power

The power at the output port of a transmitter. Generally, the output power is 15 to

30 dBm.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (3)

Local frequency stability If the working frequency of the transmitter is unstable, the demodulated effectived signal ratio will be decreased and the bit error ratio will be increased. The value range of the local frequency stability is 3 to 10 ppm.

Transmit Frequency Spectrum Frame The frequency spectrum of the transmitted signal must meet specified requirements, to avoid occupying too much bandwidth and thus causing too much interference to adjacent channels. The limitations to frequency spectrum is called transmit frequency spectrum frame.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (4)

Specifications of Receiver

Working frequency band Receivers work together with transmitters. The receiving frequency on the local station is the transmitting frequency of the same channel on the opposite station.

Local frequency stability The same as that of transmitters: 3 to 10 ppm

Noise figure The noise figure of digital microwave receivers is 2.5 dB to 5 dB.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (5)

Passband To effectively suppress interference and achieve the best transmission quality, the passband and amplitude frequency characteristics should be properly chosen. The receiver passband characteristics depend on the IF filter.

Selectivity Ability of receivers of suppressing the various interferences outside the passband, especially the interference from adjacent channels, image interference and the interference between transmitted and received signals.

Automatic gain control (AGC) range Automatic control of receiver gain. With this function, input RF signals change within a certain range and the IF signal level remains unchanges.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – ODU (6)

Frequency range (7425M–7725M) f 0 (7575M) T/R spacing: 154M Subband A Subband B Subband C
Frequency range (7425M–7725M)
f 0 (7575M)
T/R spacing: 154M
Subband A
Subband B
Subband C
Subband A
Subband B
Subband C
7442 7498

Non-primary station

ODU specifications are related to radio frequencies. As one ODU cannot cover an entire frequency band, usually, a frequency band will be divided into several subbands and each subband corresponds to one ODU. Different T/R spacing corresponds to different ODUs. Primary and non-primary stations have different ODUs.

Primary station

non-primary st ations have different ODUs. Primary station ODUs are of rich types and small volume.
ODUs are of rich types and small volume. Usually, ODUs are produced by small manufacturers
ODUs are of rich
types and small
volume. Usually,
ODUs are produced
by small
manufacturers and
integrated by big
manufacturers.
Types of ODUs = Number of frequency bands x Number of T/R spacing x Number
Types of ODUs = Number of
frequency bands x Number of
T/R spacing x Number of
subbands x 2
(ODUs of some manufacturers
are also classified by capacity.

Split-Mount Microwave Equipment – IDU

Service

channel

IF unit IF
IF unit
IF
Microwave Tx Modulat frame ion multiplexing Microwave Rx frame Demodu demultiplexing lation
Microwave
Tx
Modulat
frame
ion
multiplexing
Microwave
Rx
frame
Demodu
demultiplexing
lation
IF
IF

Service

channel

Rx frame Demodu demultiplexing lation IF Service channel Tributary unit Line unit O&M interface Cross- connec
Tributary unit Line unit
Tributary
unit
Line unit

O&M

interface

Cross-

connec

tion

unit Line unit O&M interface Cross- connec tion Cable interface From/to ODU Supervision and control DC/DC
Cable interface From/to ODU
Cable interface
From/to ODU

Supervision and control

DC/DC conversion

From/to ODU Supervision and control DC/DC conversion Power interface Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.,

Power

interface

ODU Supervision and control DC/DC conversion Power interface Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
ODU Supervision and control DC/DC conversion Power interface Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
ODU Supervision and control DC/DC conversion Power interface Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All
Questions What types are microwave eq uipment classified into? What units do the split-mount micr

Questions

What types are microwave equipment classified into?

What units do the split-mount microwave equipment have? And what are their functions??

How to adjust antennas?

What are the key specifications of antennas?

What are the key specifications of ODU transmitters and receivers?

Can you describe the entire signal flow of microwave transmission?

Summary Classification of digital microwave equipment Components of split-mount microwave equipment and their

Summary

Classification of digital microwave equipment

Components of split-mount microwave equipment and their functions

Antenna installation and key specifications of antennas

Functional modules and key performance indexes of ODU

Functional modules of IDU

Signal flow of microwave transmission

Contents 1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview 2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment 3.

Contents

1.

Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2.

Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3.

Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4.

Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5.

Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Common Networking Modes of Digital Microwave

Ring network
Ring network
Chain network
Chain network
Modes of Digital Microwave Ring network Chain network Add/Drop network Hub network Copyright © 2006 Huawei
Add/Drop network
Add/Drop
network
Microwave Ring network Chain network Add/Drop network Hub network Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Microwave Ring network Chain network Add/Drop network Hub network Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Hub network
Hub network

Types of Digital Microwave Stations

• Digital microwave stations are classified into Pivotal stations, add/drop relay stations, relay stations and terminal stations.

Add/Drop Relay relay station station Pivotal station station
Add/Drop
Relay
relay station
station
Pivotal station
station
Relay relay station station Pivotal station station Terminal Terminal station Terminal station Copyright © 2006

Terminal

Terminal station

Terminal

station

Types of Relay Stations

• Back-to-back antenna • Plane reflector
• Back-to-back antenna
• Plane reflector
Passive Active
Passive
Active

Relay station

• Regenerative repeater • IF repeater • RF repeater
• Regenerative repeater
• IF repeater
• RF repeater

Active Relay Station

Radio Frequency relay station An active, bi-directional radio repeater system without frequency shift. The RF relay station directly amplifies the signal over radio frequency.

Regenerator relay station A high-frequency repeater of high performance. The regenerator relay station is used to extend the transmission distance of microwave communication systems, or to deflect the transmission direction of the signal to avoid obstructions and ensure the signal quality is not degraded. After complete regeneration and amplification, the received signal is forwarded.

and amplification, the received signal is forwarded. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 4646
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Passive Relay Station

Parabolic reflector passive relay station The parabolic reflector passive relay station is composed of two parabolic antennas connected by a soft waveguide back to back. The two-parabolic passive relay station often uses large-diameter antennas. Meters are necessary to adjust antennas, which is time consuming. The near end is less than 5 km away.

is time consuming. The near end is less than 5 km away. Copyright © 2006 Huawei

Plane Reflector Passive Relay Station

Plane reflector passive relay station: A metal board which has smooth surface, proper effective area, proper angle and distance with the two communication points. It is also a passive relay microwave station.

Full-distance free space loss:

L

s

=+1421 20

.

log

dd

1

2

d 1 (km) ϕ (km) d 2
d 1 (km)
ϕ
(km)
d 2

20

log

a

1421 20 . log dd 1 2 d 1 (km) ϕ (km) d 2 − 20

A cos ϕ 2

a =

“a” is the effective area (m 2 ) of the flat reflector.

Passive Relay Station (Photos)

Passive Relay Station (Photos) Passive relay station (plane reflector) Passive relay station (parabolic reflectors)

Passive relay station (plane reflector)

Station (Photos) Passive relay station (plane reflector) Passive relay station (parabolic reflectors) Copyright ©

Passive relay station (parabolic reflectors)

Application of Digital Microwave

Complementary networks to optical networks (access the services from the last 1 km) BTS backhaul
Complementary
networks to optical
networks (access the
services from the last 1
km)
BTS backhaul
transmission
Special transmission
conditions (rivers, lakes,
islands, etc.)
MicrowaveMicrowave
applicationapplication
Redundancy backup
of important links
Emergency
communications
(conventions, activities,
danger elimination,
disaster relief, etc.)
VIP customer access
Questions What are the networking modes frequently used for digital microwave? What are the types

Questions

What are the networking modes frequently used for digital microwave?

What are the types of digital microwave stations?

What are the types of relay stations?

What is the major application of digital microwave?

Contents 1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview 2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment 3.

Contents

1.

Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2.

Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3.

Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4.

Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5.

Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Contents 4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies 4.1 Factors Affecting Elec tric Wave Propagation 4.2

Contents

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation

4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave

Key Parameters in Microwave Propagation (1)

Fresnel Zone and Fresnel Zone Radius

Fresnel zone: The sum of the distance from P to T and the distance from P to R complies with the formula, TP+PR-TR= nλ/2 (n=1,2,3, …). The elliptical region encircled by the trail of P is called the Fresnel zone.

d1 d2
d1
d2

Fresnel zone radius: The vertical distance from P to the TR line in the Fresnel zone. The first Fresnel zone radius is represented by F1 (n=1).

Key Parameters in Microwave Propagation (2)

Formula of the first Fresnel zone radius:

F 1 = 17.32

 

(

d km

1

)

×

(

d km

2

)

( f GHz ) × ( d km )

(

f GHz

)

×

(

d km

)

( d km 2 ) ( f GHz ) × ( d km ) The first

The first Fresnel zone is the region where the microwave transmission energy is the

most concentrated. The obstruction in the Fresnel zone should be as little as possible. With the increase of the Fresnel zone serial numbers, the field strength of the receiving point reduces as per arithmetic series.

Key Parameters in Microwave Propagation (3)

Clearance

2Key Parameters in Microwave Propagation (3) Clearance Along the microwave propagation trail, the obstru ction from

Along the microwave propagation trail, the obstruction from buildings, trees, and mountain peaks is sometimes inevitable. If the height of the obstacle enters the first Fresnel zone, additional loss might be caused. As a result, the received level is decreased and the transmission quality is affected. Clearance is used to avoid the case described previously.

The vertical distance from the obstacle to AB line segment is called the clearance of the obstacle on the trail. For convenience, the vertical distance hc from the obstacle to the ground surface is used to represent the clearance. In practice, the error is not big because the line segment AB is approximately parallel to the ground surface. If the first Fresnel zone radius of the obstacle is F 1 , then hc/ F 1 is the relative clearance.

Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation – Terrain

The reflected wave from the ground surface is the major factor that affects the received level.

Straight line Straight line Reflection Reflection
Straight line
Straight line
Reflection
Reflection

Smooth ground or water surface can reflect the part of the signal energy transmitted by the antenna to the receiving antenna and cause interference to the main wave (direct wave). The vector sum of the reflected wave and main wave increases or decreases the composite wave. As a result, the transmission becomes unstable. Therefore, when doing microwave link design, avoid reflected waves as much as possible. If reflection is inevitable, make use of the terrain ups and downs to block the reflected waves.

Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation – Terrain

Different reflection conditions of different terrains have different effects on electric wave propagation. Terrains are classified into the following four types:

Type A: mountains (or cities with dense buildings) Type B: hills (gently wavy ground surface) Type C: plain Type D: large-area water surface

citi es with dense buildings) Type B: hills (gently wavy ground surface) Type C: plain Type
citi es with dense buildings) Type B: hills (gently wavy ground surface) Type C: plain Type
citi es with dense buildings) Type B: hills (gently wavy ground surface) Type C: plain Type

The reflection coefficient of mountains is the smallest, and thus the mountain terrain is most suitable for microwave transmission. The hill terrain is less suitable. When designing circuits, try to avoid smooth plane such as water surface.

Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation – Atmosphere

Troposphere indicates the low altitude atmosphere within 10 km from the ground. Microwave antennas will not be higher than troposphere, so the electric wave propagation in aerosphere can be narrowed down to that in troposphere. Main effects of troposphere on electric wave propagation are listed below:

Absorption caused by gas resonance. This type of absorption can affect the microwave at 12 GHz or higher.

Absorption and scattering caused by rain, fog, and snow. This type of absorption can affect the microwave at 10 GHz or higher.

Refraction, absorption, reflection and scattering caused by inhomogeneity of atmosphere. Refraction is the most significant impact to the microwave propagation.

Contents 4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies 4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation 4.2

Contents

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation

4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave

Scintillation

Rain fading

fading

Fading in Microwave Propagation

Fading: Random variation of the received level. The variation is irregular and the

reasons for this are various.

variation is irregular and the reasons for this are various. Fading time Received level Fast fading

Fading time

Received level
Received
level
reasons for this are various. Fading time Received level Fast fading Slow fading Up fading Down

Fast fading

Slow fading

various. Fading time Received level Fast fading Slow fading Up fading Down fading Fading mechanism Influence

Up fading

Down fading

Fading

mechanism

Influence of fading on signal

fading Fading mechanism Influence of fading on signal Flat fading Frequency selective fading Absorption fading

Flat fading

Frequency selective fading

of fading on signal Flat fading Frequency selective fading Absorption fading K-type fading Free space propagation

Absorption fading

K-type fading

Free space propagation fading

Duct type fading

Free Space Transmission Loss

Free space loss: A = 92.4 + 20 log dd + 20 log ff (d:d: km, f: GHz). If d or f is doubled, the loss will increase by 6 dB.

d

If d or f is double d, the loss will increase by 6 dB. d P

P TX = Transmit power

GTX GRX P RX = Receive power G = Antenna gain f Power level A0
GTX
GRX
P RX = Receive power
G
= Antenna gain
f
Power level
A0 = Free space loss
M
= Fading margin
G
A
P
0
TX
P
RX
G
M
Receiving threshold
Distance

Absorption Fading

Molecules of all substances are composed of charged particles. These particles have their own electromagnetic resonant frequencies. When the microwave frequencies of these substances are close to their resonance frequencies, resonance absorption occurs to the microwave.

Statistic shows that absorption to the microwave frequency lower than 12 GHz is smaller than 0.1 dB/km. Compared with free space loss, the absorption loss can be ignored.

10dB

1dB

0.1dB

0.01dB

the absorption loss can be ignored. 10dB 1dB 0.1dB 0.01dB 60GHz 23GHz 12GHz 7.5GHz 1GHz Atmosphere
the absorption loss can be ignored. 10dB 1dB 0.1dB 0.01dB 60GHz 23GHz 12GHz 7.5GHz 1GHz Atmosphere
the absorption loss can be ignored. 10dB 1dB 0.1dB 0.01dB 60GHz 23GHz 12GHz 7.5GHz 1GHz Atmosphere

60GHz

23GHz

12GHz

7.5GHz

1GHz

Atmosphere absorption curve (dB/km)

Rain Fading

For frequencies lower than 10 GHz, rain loss can be ignored. Only a few db may be added to a relay section.

For frequencies higher than 10 GHz, repeater spacing is mainly affected by rain loss. For example, for the 13 GHz frequency or higher, 100 mm/h rainfall causes a loss of 5 dB/km. Hence, for the 13 GHz and 15 GHz frequencies, the maximum relay distance is about 10 km. For the 20 GHz frequency and higher, the relay distance is limited in few kilometres due to rain loss.

High frequency bands can be used for user-level transmission. The higher the frequency band is, the more severe the rain fading.

K-Type Fading (1)

Atmosphere refraction

As a result of atmosphere refraction, the microwave propagation trail is bent. It is considered that the electromagnetic wave is propagated along a straight line above the

, The average measured K value is about 4/3. However, the K value of a specific section is related to the meteorological phenomena of the section. The K value may change within a comparatively large range. This can affect line-of-sight propagation.

earth with an equivalent earth radius of

R

e

R

= KR (R: actual earth radius.)

e

R e R
R e
R

K-Type Fading (2)

Microwave propagation

k > 1: Positive refraction

k = 1: No refraction k < 1: Negative refraction
k = 1: No refraction
k < 1: Negative refraction
k = 1: No refraction k < 1: Negative refraction Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.,

K-Type Fading (3)

Equivalent earth radius

In temperate zones, the refraction when the K value is 4/3 is regarded as the standard refraction, where the atmosphere is the standard atmosphere and R e which is 4R/3 is the standard equivalent earth radius.

k =

4/3 1 2/3 Ground surface
4/3
1
2/3
Ground surface

Actual earth radius (r)

2/3 Ground surface 1 4/3 k = ∞
2/3
Ground surface
1
4/3
k = ∞

Equivalent earth radius (r·k)

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 6767
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 6767

Multipath Fading (1)

Multipath fading: Due to multipath propagation of refracted waves, reflected waves, and scattered waves, multiple electric waves are received at the receiving end. The composition of these electric waves will result in severe interference fading.

Reasons for multipath fading: reflections due to non-uniform atmosphere, water surface and smooth ground surface.

Down fading: fading where the composite wave level is lower than the free space received level. Up fading: fading where the composite wave level is higher than the free space received level.

Ground surface
Ground surface

Non-uniform atmosphere

Water surface

Smooth ground surface.

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 6868
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Multipath Fading (2)

Multipath fading is a type of interference fading caused by multipath transmission. Multipath fading is caused by mutual interference between the direct wave and reflected wave (or diffracted wave on some conditions) with different phases.

Multipath fading grows more severe when the wave passes water surface or smooth ground surface. Therefore, when designing the route, try to avoid smooth water and ground surface. When these terrains are inevitable, use the high and low antenna technologies to bring the reflection point closer to one end so as to reduce the impact of the reflected wave, or use the high and low antennas and space diversity technologies or the antennas that are against reflected waves to overcome multipath fading.

Multipath Fading – Frequency Selective Fading

Flat Selective fading Normal Received power (dBm)
Flat
Selective fading
Normal
Received power (dBm)

Frequency (MHz)

Multipath Fading – Flat Fading

Up fading

Multipath Fading – Flat Fading Up fading 1h Signal interruption Received level in free space Threshold
1h
1h

Signal

interruption

Received level in free space

Threshold level (-30 dB)

Duct Type Fading

Due to the effects of the meteorological conditions such as ground cooling in the night, burnt warm by the sun in the morning, smooth sea surface, and anticyclone, a non- uniform structure is formed in atmosphere. This phenomenon is called atmospheric duct.

If microwave beams pass through the atmospheric duct while the receiving point is outside the duct layer, the field strength at the receiving point is from not only the direct wave and ground reflected wave, but also the reflected wave from the edge of the duct layer. As a result, severe interference fading occurs and causes interruption to the communications.

occurs and causes interruption to the communications. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights
occurs and causes interruption to the communications. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights

Scintillation Fading

When the dielectric constant of local atmosphere is different from the ambient due to the particle clusters formed under different pressure, temperature, and humidity conditions, scattering occurs to the electric wave. This is called scintillation fading. The amplitude and phase of different scattered waves vary with the atmosphere. As a result, the composite field strength at the receiving point changes randomly.

Scintillation fading is a type of fast fading which lasts a short time. The level changes little and the main wave is barely affected. Scintillation fading will not cause communications interruption.

Scintillation fading 闪烁衰落示意图
Scintillation fading
闪烁衰落示意图
Summary The higher the frequency is and the longer the hop distance is, the more

Summary

The higher the frequency is and the longer the hop distance is, the more severe the fading is. Fading is more severe at night than in the daylight, in summer than in winter. In the daylight, sunshine is good for air convection. In summer, weather changes frequently. In sunny days without wind, atmosphere is non-uniform and atmosphere subdivision easily forms and hardly clears. Multipath transmission often occurs in such conditions. Fading is more severe along water route than land route, because both the reflection coefficient of water surface and the atmosphere refraction coefficient above water surface are bigger. Fading is more severe along plain route than mountain route, because atmosphere subdivision often occurs over plain and the ground reflection factor of the plain is bigger. Rain and fog weather causes much influence on high-frequency microwave.

Contents 4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies 4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation 4.2

Contents

4. Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

4.1 Factors Affecting Electric Wave Propagation

4.2 Various Fading in Microwave Propagation

4.3 Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (1)

 

Category

Effect

 

Adaptive equalization

Waveform distortion

Equipment level countermeasure

Automatic transmit power control (ATPC)

Power reduction

Forward error correction (FEC)

Power reduction

System level countermeasure

Diversity receiving technology

Power reduction and waveform distortion

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (2)

Frequency domain equalization

Signal frequency spectrum

(2) Frequency domain equalization Signal frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after
(2) Frequency domain equalization Signal frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after
(2) Frequency domain equalization Signal frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after

Multipath fading

Slope equalization

frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after equalization The frequency domain
frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after equalization The frequency domain
frequency spectrum Multipath fading Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after equalization The frequency domain

Frequency spectrum after equalization

Slope equalization Frequency spectrum after equalization The frequency domain equalization only eq ualizes the

The frequency domain equalization only equalizes the amplitude frequency response characteristics of the signal instead of the phase frequency spectrum characteristics. The circuit is simple.

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (3)

Time domain equalization

Time domain equalization directly counteracts the intersymbol interference.

T … T … T C-n C0 Cn After Before -2Ts -Ts Ts -2Ts -Ts
T
T
T
C-n
C0
Cn
After
Before
-2Ts
-Ts
Ts
-2Ts
-Ts
Ts

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (4)

Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) Under normal propagation conditions, the output power of the transmitter is always at a lower level, for example, 10 to 15 dB lower than the normal level. When propagation fading occurs and the receiver detects that the propagation fading is lower than the minimum received level specified by ATPC, the RFCOH is used to let the transmitter to raise the transmit power.

Working principle of ATPC

ModulatorModulator
ModulatorModulator

TransmitterTransmitter

ReceiverReceiver DemodulatorDemodulator ATPCATPC TransmitterTransmitter ModulatorModulator
ReceiverReceiver
DemodulatorDemodulator
ATPCATPC
TransmitterTransmitter
ModulatorModulator
ATPCATPC DemodulatorDemodulator ReceiverReceiver
ATPCATPC
DemodulatorDemodulator
ReceiverReceiver

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (5)

ATPC: The output power of the transmitter automatically traces and changes with the received level of the receiver within the control range of ATPC.

The time rate of severe propagation fading is usually small (<1%). After ATPC is configured, the transmitter works at a power 10 to 15 dB lower than the nominal power for over 99% of the time. In this way, adjacent channel interference and power consumption can be reduced.

Effects of ATPC:

Reduces the interference to adjacent systems and over-reach interference

Reduces DC power consumption

Reduces up fading

Improves residual BER

Transmitter output level (dBm)

Received level (dBm)

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (6)

ATPC adjustment process (gradual change)

-25

-35

-45

-55

-72

High level Low level ATPC dynamic range 45 75 85 102
High level
Low level
ATPC dynamic range
45
75
85
102

Link loss (dB)

31

21

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (7)

Cross-polarization interference cancellation (XPIC)

In microwave transmission, XPIC is

used to transmit two different signals

over one frequency. The utilization ratio

of the frequency spectrum is doubled. To

avoid severe interference between two

different polarized signals, the

interference compensation technology

must be used.

Horizontal polarization Electric field direction Vertical polarization Shape of waveguide interface
Horizontal polarization
Electric field direction
Vertical polarization
Shape of waveguide interface
680MHz 30MHz 340 MHz 80MHz 60MHz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1’
680MHz
30MHz
340 MHz
80MHz
60MHz
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1’
2’
3’
4’
5’
6’
7’
8’
V
(H)
H
(V)
680 MHz 340MHz 30MHz 80MHz 60MHz 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’ 6’ 7’ 8’ 1
680 MHz
340MHz
30MHz
80MHz
60MHz
1’
2’
3’
4’
5’
6’
7’
8’
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
V
(H)
H
(V)
1X
2X
3X
4X
5X
6X
7X
8X
1X’
2X’
3X'
4X’
5X’ 6X’
7X’
8X’

Frequency configuration of U6 GHz frequency band (ITU-R F.384-5)

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (8)

Diversity technologies

For diversity, two or multiple transmission paths are used to transmit the same information and the receiver output signals are selected or composed, to reduce the effect of fading.

Diversity has the following types, space diversity, frequency diversity, polarization diversity, and angle diversity.

Space diversity and frequency diversity are more frequently used. Space diversity is economical and has a good effect. Frequency diversity is often applied to multi-channel systems as it requires a wide bandwidth. Usually, the system that has one standby channel is configured with frequency diversity.

H
H

Space diversity (SD)

f1f1 f2f2
f1f1
f2f2

Frequency diversity (FD)

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (9)

Frequency diversity Signals at different frequencies have different fading characteristics. Accordingly, two or more microwave frequencies with certain frequency spacing to transmit and receive the same information which is then selected or composed, to reduce the influence of fading. This work mode is called frequency diversity. Advantages: The effect is obvious. Only one antenna is required. Disadvantages: The utilization ratio of frequency bands is low.

f1 f2
f1
f2

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (10)

Space diversity

Signals have different multipath effect over different paths and thus have different fading characteristics. Accordingly, two or more suites of antennas at different altitude levels to receive the signals at the same frequency which are composed or selected. This work mode is called space diversity. If there are n pairs of antennas, it is called n-fold diversity.

Advantages: The frequency resources are saved.

Disadvantages: The equipment is complicated, as two or more suites of antennas are required.

Antenna distance: As per experience, the distance between the diversity antennas is 100 to 200 times the wavelength in frequently used frequency bands.

f1 f1
f1
f1
the wavelength in fr equently used frequency bands. f1 f1 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.,
the wavelength in fr equently used frequency bands. f1 f1 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.,
the wavelength in fr equently used frequency bands. f1 f1 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.,
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 8585
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 8585

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (11)

Rx Dh calculation in space diversity Tx Dh h 1 d nl+l/2
Rx
Dh calculation in space diversity
Tx
Dh
h 1
d
nl+l/2

Approximately, Dh can be calculated according to this formula:

(nll/2)d

2h

1

Dh =

l: wavelength d: path distance h1: height of the antenna at the transmit end

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. PagePage 8686
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
PagePage 8686

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (12)

Apart from the anti-fading technologies introduced previously, here are two frequently used tips:

Method I: Make use of some terrain and ground objects to block reflected waves.

some terrain and ground objects to block reflected waves. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Anti-fading Technologies for Digital Microwave System (13)

Method II: high and low antennas

Microwave System (13) Method II: high and low antennas Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Microwave System (13) Method II: high and low antennas Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Microwave System (13) Method II: high and low antennas Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Microwave System (13) Method II: high and low antennas Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1)

Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1) Hybrid coupler With one hybrid coupler added between two
Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1) Hybrid coupler With one hybrid coupler added between two
Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1) Hybrid coupler With one hybrid coupler added between two
Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1) Hybrid coupler With one hybrid coupler added between two
Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (1) Hybrid coupler With one hybrid coupler added between two

Hybrid coupler

With one hybrid coupler added between two ODUs and the antenna, the 1+1 HSB can be realized in the configuration of one antenna. Moreover, the FD technology can also be adopted.

antenna. Moreover, the FD technology can also be adopted. The 1+1 HSB can also be realized

The 1+1 HSB can also be realized in the configuration of two antennas. In this case, the FD and SD technologies can both be adopted, which improves the system availability.

Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (2)

N+1 (N3, 7, 11) Protection

In the following figure, M n stands for the active channel and P stands for the standby channel. The active channel and the standby channel have their independent modulation/demodulation unit and signal transmitting /receiving unit.

When the fault or fading occurs in the active channel, the signal is switched to the standby channel. The channel backup is an inter-frequency backup. This protection mode (FD) is mainly used in the all indoor microwave equipment.

Products of different vendors support different specifications.

chch 11

chch 22

chch 33

chch PP

MM MM 11 11 MM MM 22 22 MM MM 33 33 PP PP Switching
MM
MM
11
11
MM
MM
22
22
MM
MM
33
33
PP
PP
Switching
Switching
control unit
control unit
RFSOH

chch 11

chch 22

chch 33

chch PP

Protection Modes of Digital Microwave Equipment (3)

Configuration

Protection Mode

Remarks

Application

1+0

NP

Non-protection

 

Terminal of the network

1+1

FD

Channel protection

Inter-

 

frequency

Select the proper mode depending on the geographical condition and requirements of the customer

1+1

SD

Equipment protection and channel protection

Intra-

frequency

1+1

FD+SD

Equipment protection and channel protection

Inter-

 

frequency

N+1

FD

Equipment protection and channel protection

Inter-

Large-capacity backbone network

frequency

Questions What factors can affect th e microwave propagation? What types of fading exists in

Questions

What factors can affect the microwave propagation?

What types of fading exists in the microwave propagation?

What are the two categories is the anti-fading technology?

What protection modes are available for the microwave?

Summary Importance parameters affecting microwave propagation Various factors affecting microwave propagation

Summary

Importance parameters affecting microwave propagation

Various factors affecting microwave propagation

Various fading types in the microwave propagation (free space propagation fading, atmospheric absorption fading, rain or fog scattering fading, K type fading, multipath fading, duct type fading, and scintillation type fading)

Anti-fading technologies

Anti-fading measures adopted on the equipment: adaptive equalization, ATPC, and XPIC

Anti-fading measures adopted in the system: FD and SD

Protection modes of the microwave equipment

Contents 1. Digital Microwave Communication Overview 2. Digital Microwave Communication Equipment 3.

Contents

1.

Digital Microwave Communication Overview

2.

Digital Microwave Communication Equipment

3.

Digital Microwave Networking and Application

4.

Microwave Propagation and Anti-fading Technologies

5.

Designing Microwave Transmission Links

Contents 5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links 5.1 Basis of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line 5.2

Contents

5. Designing Microwave Transmission Links

5.1 Basis of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line 5.2 Procedures for Designing a Microwave Transmission Line

5.1 Basis of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line 5.2 Procedures for Designing a Microwave Transmission Line

Basis of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line

Requirement on the point-to-point line-of-sight communication

Objective of designing a microwave transmission line

Transmission clearance

Meanings of K value in the microwave transmission planning

Requirement on a Microwave Transmission Line

Because the microwave is a short wave and has weak ability of diffraction, the normal

communication can be realized in the line-of-sight transmission without obstacles.

Irradiated wave Line propagation Antenna D
Irradiated wave
Line propagation
Antenna
D

Requirement on a Microwave Transmission Line

In the microwave transmission, the transmit power is very small, only the antenna in the accurate direction can realize the communication. For the communication of long distance, use the antenna of greater diameter or increase the transmit power.

Direction demonstration of the microwave antenna

power. Direction demonstration of the microwave antenna Half power angle of the microwave antenna 3 dB

Half power angle of the microwave antenna

3 dB

Microwave antenna

Objective of Designing a Microwave Transmission Line

In common geographical conditions, it is recommended that there be no obstacles within the first Fresnel zone if K is equal to 4/3.

When the microwave transmission line passes the water surface or the desert area, it is recommended that there are no obstacles within the first Fresnel zone if K is equal to 1.

The first Fresnel zone k = 4/3
The
first
Fresnel zone
k = 4/3

Transmission Clearance (1)

The knife-edged obstacle blocks partial of the Fresnel zone. This also causes the diffraction of the microwave. Influenced by the two reasons, the level at the actual receive point must be lower than the free space level. The loss caused by the knife- edged obstacle is called additional loss.

by the knife- edged obstacle is called additional loss. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Transmission Clearance (2)

When the peak of the obstacle is in the line connecting the transmit end and the receive end, that is, the HC is equal to 0, the additional loss is equal to 6 dB. When the peak of the obstacle is above the line connecting the transmit end and the receive end, the additional loss is increased greatly. When the peak of the obstacle is below the line connecting the transmit end the receive end, the additional loss fluctuates around 0 dB. The transmission loss in the path and the signal receiving level approach the values in the free space transmission.

8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 -20
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
-26
-28
-2.5 -2.0-1.5-1.0-0.5 0
0.51.0 1.5
2.0 2.5
HC/F1
Additional loss (dB)

Transmission Clearance (3)

Clearance calculation

Calculation formula for path clearance

h =

c

1

2

+

2

1

 

d

h d

h d

h

b

The value of clearance is required greater than that of the first Fresnel Zone’s radius.

hb

stands for the projecting

height of the earth.

h b

= 0.0785

d d

1

2

K

h

s

h 1

h c h 2 h s h b d 2 d 1 d
h c
h 2
h s
h b
d 2
d 1
d

K stands for the atmosphere refraction factor.

Transmission Clearance (4)

To present the influence of various factors on microwave transmission, the field strength fading factor V is introduced. The field strength fading factor V is defined as the ratio of the combined field strength when the irradiated wave and the reflected wave arrive at the receive point to the field strength when the irradiated wave arrives at the receive point in the free space transmission.

V =