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# BIOLOGY COURSEWORK PRACTICAL INVESTIGATION DATA ANALYSIS

## BY Selima Appiah Mensah

CONTENTS
INTERPRETATION

Graphical presentation of data............. Summary of evidence........................... Explanations suggested......................... EVALUATION Evaluation of procedures..................... Reliability of evidence.......................... Reliability of conclusion.......................

SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE
The table drawn, shows the results gotten from the experiment. The experiment that took place in class. The results found at the table where used further on to be able to be drawn into graphical result ilustrations. In the first graph, found in page 2 ilustrates the "average time taken for the milk to go clear in (seconds)". In the graph the horizontal axis, shows the variable of degrees in centigrades of temperature, and the vertical axis, shows the interlude of the variable in seconds (sec) of time. The graph is showing the time (sec) taken for the milk to go clear over temperature. The plotted points in the graph, represent the average time of the reaction as it is listed at the right -hand column of the table. The short lines on top and bottom of each plotted point, represent the highest and lowest times taken in each test proven at the table. This graph have several points as fell's and rose's. And it is clearly pointed out; as an example look at the first plotted point in the graph, the dramatically changed is due to the room temperature, gently dropping. This graph can be also described as undulated change looking at the four points how they slightly go in zig-zagg. The trend found in the graph, starts in a stable position and then plugged in 1minute;26 seconds or so (86 time sec). From point 60 time(sec) reaches a plateau of about (86 time sec) and then flatten out at the same level point. The graph, also represent something clearly shown, is that as the temperature increases the enzymes reaction is more efficient in activity. Meaning that they are more active when the temperature goes up.

In the second graph, found in page 3 ilustrates the "the rate of reaction (sec-1) x10000". In the graph the horizontal axis, shows the variable of degrees in centigrades of temperature, and the vertical axis, shows the interlude of the variable in seconds (sec) of time. The graph is showing the rate of reaction taken from the concentration over temperature. The plotted points in the graph represent the rate of reaction x10000 which is the converting of the actual rate of reaction (sec-1) number, clearly shown at the right-hand in the table. This graph shows a hyperbolic relationship, because is an non-linear data. The graph's trend is a positive correlation due to the rose of the line.

Explanations suggested
Finally, the conclusion of the information given in the data are accurate results. Every test from this experiment is taken in differents temperatures 21 to 60 degrees and all are room temperatures. The science background for this data analysis is reflected in the fact that enzymes can work propely and to their best performance in an optimum temperature and that they are biological catalyst that help speed up reactions. If the temperature is too cold the enzyme molecules will not have kinetic energy. This means that they will not react. Another side for this matter is if the temperature is too hot, the active side of the enzyme will change shape. A important fact about enzymes, is that they do not break down living cells. Every enzyme has an especificity, they only break down expecific molecular structures. To explain it much further the lock and key theory is found.

The substrate is the key to the lock which is the enzyme. The substrate is in charge of getting fit into and enzyme, if is not like that this substrate will keep on rebounding till it finds the right enzyme to hit. The active site is where the area which is found in the substrate is broken down. So in simple words (if this is relevant to be added in the scientific background)when a low enzyme concentration is found the results shall be greater for the active site and rate of reaction to go low. If the case where to be that the enzyme concentration was to increase then more active sites and rate of reaction will be faster.

Evaluations of Procedures
This data was putting all together by the average time and rate of reaction (x10000) collected and taken from the table. As safety equipments, googles were used to protect the eyes from fumes coming out from the reactions, lab coat was also putted on to protect the skin from any liquid. And a safety coverup about the experiment was talked through by the teacher to make known what to do in companion of a intructions sheet given by the teacher. Action was taken step by step with the help of the sheet's procedure. Due to human error some bits or step on the sheet might be slightly different: Such as slightly errors like the pouring of the necessary amount of enzymes in each test tube, another error could also have been the drawing of the "X" on each test tube or the stop watches which were in a slightly bad condicions and stoped maybe earlier or later. The experiment could have been improved by several ways such as;

the experiment could have been repeated for each temperature more times instead of just 3 in each room temperature. each solution could have been put on in a better equipment than a test tube due that in a test tube you have to first measure it and pour it in the test tube. This could have been improved by using measuring cylinders intead.

Reliability of evidence
The data was accurate because: 1.Volumen of enzymes was controlled. 2.Enzymes and powered milk solution were kept seperate. 3.Anomalies were not found in my experiment since a wide suitable range was given. (INSUFICIENT EVIDENCE)

Reliability of conclusion
The conclusion found for the this data are quite accurate because of the graphs shown. The correct techniques were used to come up with this results. One weakness in the data is that the range could have been espreaded much more by repetition of test results. This could have made the graph looked better and given more points to plot on the graph making the graph more accurate.